APPROVALS 7 July XXI (1986)


Kingdom of An Tir

Arianne Farnsworth of Falconmoors. Name and device. Sable, mullety, an increscent Or.

Arin Sturrock of Appin. Name and device. Bendy of six argent and azure, a calygreyhound rampant guardant Or.

Arthur de Montague. Name and device. Argent, a crane in its vigilance to sinister reguardant, wings elevated and addorsed gules, between in chief two quatrefoils and in base two chevronels braced sable.

Bianca Allegra da Vicenza. Name only.

Caoimhghin O'Dalaigh. Device. Per fess azure and argent, a fess wavy vert between in chief three equal­armed Celtic crosses Or and in base a natural fountain azure.

DISCUSSION: I'm a little uncomfortable at calling this a natural fountain ­ I associate the term "natural" more with flora and fauna than masonry ­ but it makes sense. Brooke­Little's Heraldic Alphabet states that "If a natural fountain is intended it must be made clear in the blazon." Another possible blazon, along the lines of the arms of Brunner, would be "a fountain playing azure.".

Christina d'Islay. Name change (from Christina of Islay).

Edward Ian Anderson. Badge. An arrow palewise surmounted by two swords in saltire inverted and overall a helmet argent.

Eric the Kendtmand. Name and device. Sable, a compass­star argent between in saltire four crows volant, heads to center, Or.

NOTE: The name is a tad shaky, but legal; Eric is English as well as Norse, so the article the is not completely out of place. This could be improved by using the Norse form of the byname. Crescent posits Eric Kendtmanden: "In both Swedish and Norwegian, the definite article is a suffix added to the noun; for the masculine singular, the suffix is ­en." He cites von Ostermann's Manual of Foreign Languages as his source.

Frederick of Zwickau. Name only.

Julian Edward Farnsworth of Falconmoors. Name and device. Gules, an arrow bendwise Or between two bendlets argent, between in chief a tower and in base a cross couped Or.

Julian Edward Farnsworth of Falconmoors. Badge. Gules, an arrow bendwise Or between two bendlets argent.

Kaj Hvalsgaard. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

NOTE: We have corrected the byname, on the advice of Batonvert, to Hvalsaard: literally, "whale's place.".

Karl Bakken. Badge. Quarterly gules and argent, an oxtongue spear bendwise sinister throughout sable.

Merewyn de Courcy of Tavistock. Device. Per pale Or and argent, on a pale vert between a lion and a bear combattant gules a fleur­de­lis argent.

Montengarde, Barony of. Badge. Argent, a bull's head erased affronty sable, armed and gorged of a chain Or, between four wild roses proper. (Rosa acicularis)

DISCUSSION: As I noted on their device (9 Mar 86, pp. 3­4), the term minotaur's head is ambiguous. The emblazon shows a bull's head, so this is what we have blazoned.

Muriella of Lion's Gate (submitted as Muriella di Sicilia). Name and device. Argent, a chevron sable between two adonis flowers and an escarbuncle gules, all within a double tressure sable.

NOTE: Muriella, wife of Tancred de Hauteville, turns out to have been Queen of Sicily, so the name conflicts with its own example. (Sigh ... ) The addition of a distinguishing byname would be sufficient. We have used a holding name in order to register the device.

Peadair Aindrea MacLaine. Name only.

Ragnar the Bold. Device. Quarterly sable and Or, a Thor's hammer argent within a bordure counterchanged.

Raven Fraser. Name and device. Gules, ermined, a fess argent between three ravens close sable.

Richard Fitzgerald of Broadmeadow. Name only.

Roberta Rowan (submitted as Roberta of Rowan). Name only (see RETURNS for device).

NOTE: A rowan is a type of tree ­ not, to the best of our knowledge, a place so the preposition of is incorrect. This could be either "Roberta Rowan" (an English surname: Bardsley 656) or "of the Rowan" (a simple descriptive). We have used the former; she may change this, if she wishes.

Roderick MacLucas. Device. Per bend sinister vert and sable, a sword inverted bendwise sinister throughout proper between a mullet of six points pierced Or and another argent.

DISCUSSION: The secondary charges were submitted as spur­rowels. The term appears to be common in mundane armory, but the references disagree over the number of points (five or six). My personal feeling is that this shouldn't matter one ought not to count the number of points on a star ­ but SCA heraldic tradition regards this as significant, and will even allow it to contribute some degree of difference. I found only one previous instance in the Society: Harrold of Warrington, registered at the Conclave, has eight (5­pointed) spur­towels on a border. Without a traditional default, I am reluctant to use the term spur­rowel except when the number of points couldn't possible matter, such as in a semy or on a bordure. I have therefore blazoned the charges explicitly, as mullets (of six points) pierced.

Kingdom of Atenveldt

AElfric Bernson of Westbrook. Change of device. Vert, a pale and a base Or, overall a brock statant affronty argent marked sable.

NOTE: His old device is released.

Aengus MacColl. Name change (from Aengus MacEdwyn).

Alix Alven. Name only.

Anrothan of Loch Suibhne. Name and device. Or, two lions rampant addorsed between in chief three mullets of eight points azure and in base two swords in chevron inverted sable.

Brendan mac Artuir ap Alan. Device. Per bend gules and sable, a sinister hand fesswise couped proper, holding a sun, all within a bordure Or.

Carol of Stargate. Name and device. Vert, a wyvern erect regardant close, tail cowed and knotted about its neck, argent, in base a sprig of lilies­of­the­valley Or.

DISCUSSION: Carol is her mundane name.

Daniel de la Trompette d'Or. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Daphne of Ered Isen. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Draca Mor, Shire of. Device. Ermine, within a serpent­headed torc opening to chief vert surmounted by a sword sable, a laurel wreath vert.

NOTE: This could be improved considerably by allowing the sword to overlie both the torc and the sword: Ermine, a laurel wreath within a serpent­headed torc opening to chief vert, overall a sword sable. Would they be willing to consider it? The Laurel office will even waive the fee for the change and the requirement for a new emblazon; two seconds with a black Magic Marker will fix the one we've got. Deal?

Elric of Moray. Device. Sable, a chevron couped enhanced, overall a wavy­bladed sword (flamberge) inverted argent hilted sable all within a bordure argent.

Fiona MacNab MacAlpine. Name change (from Fiona MacNab).

Glenda MacChlurain. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Hagar Helmsplitter. Name and device. Counter­ermine, in saltire a sword inverted proper and an axe argent cleaving a Viking Spangenhelm Or.

NOTE: Please advise the submitter that, notwithstanding the evidence of the comics page, Hagar is a woman's name: "Handmaid of Abraham's wife Sarah and mother of his eldest son, Ishmael ... Gen. 16; 21.9­21." (NCE 1172).

Ian Wallace of Llawhaden. Device. Per fess vert and argent, a tree eradicated counterchanged, overall a Celtic harp gules.

Ioseph of Locksley, the Rhymer. Badge. Per pale vert and argent, an eagle's wing displayed and conjoined in base with an eagle's claw grasping a sword palewise, within a bordure all counterchanged.

Laurentina of Atenveldt. Name and device. Per bend sinister wavy azure and argent, a mask of comedy and a mask of tragedy all within a bordure invected all counterchanged.

Leonie de Civronnay. Device. Per saltire vert and Or, a mockingbird displayed head to sinister proper perched on an ocotillo branch fesswise vert, flowered gules. (Mimus ployglottis).

DISCUSSION: The mockingbird is white and grey, with black feathers at the wingtips and center of its tail. The coloration should have been mentioned in the letter of intent.

Lyonina Fairhair. Name change (from Lyonina Scynefaex).

Mary Courtenay de Womwell. Name change (from Dorothy de Womwell).

Myghal mab Siarl an Gernow (submitted as Mihail le Rau de Pest; see RETURNS for name change). Badge for Raymond Carder the Sea Rover. Or, a rhinoceros statant gules.

Orin the Late. Name and device. Per fess azure and sable, an hourglass fesswise per fess argent and Or and an annulet argent.

NOTE: Orin may be out of period as a given name. Dunkling and Gosling (pp. 325­326) cite no instances prior to Eugene O'Neill's Mourning Becomes Electra. and P.H. Reaney (OES 206, n. 2) notes the surname Orren, Orrin, from a woman's name Oreyna. I am permitting it here in light of the Irish saint's name Odhran, anglicized as Oran. (Woulfe, Irish Names for Children, p. 30) The two probably come from different sources, but they are pronounced alike, and I cannot see disallowing one while permitting the other.

Raylene of the Whispering Woods. Device. Per bend vert and argent, a bend engrailed between a hare salient and two frogs sejant, a bordure engrailed, all counterchanged.

Rhywallon the Greycatt. Name and device. Per bend sinister vert and sable, a catamount rampant, in sinister chief a compass­star elongated to base all within a bordure argent.

Richard of Annesley. Name and device. Argent, on a lozenge throughout gules, a brock's head cabossed argent marked sable, a bordure potenty sable.

Samal Kaan Uxmalil. Badge. Argent, an iris within a bordure engrailed purpure.

Sayf al Qamar Tarik ibn Abdul. Badge. Argent, an Arabic pen­box fesswise sable.

Shoshana bas Josce. Name and device. Argent, a vireo statant to sinister vert, on a chief azure three bells argent.

Thomas de Bohun. Name and device. Per bend sinister wavy argent and sable, a clenched sinister gauntlet counterchanged, a bordure embattled gules.

Kingdom of Atlantia

Calgaigch MacPhee. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Cathal Mac Art. Name change (from Cahal Mac Art) and device. Quarterly sable and argent, a tower and in chief a martlet Or, a bordure counterchanged.

NOTE: Very nice!

Coleen Griswald. Badge. Sable, crusily formy argent, a bagwyn couchant Or.

Etienne le Forgeron (submitted as Etienne du Forgeron). Name and device. Per chevron purpure and Or, two double­bitted axes and a bunch of grapes slipped counterchanged.

NOTE: We have corrected the grammar of the name from de "of Blacksmith" to le "the Blacksmith."

DISCUSSION: "De" and "du" do not, as so many people seem to think, mean "the" in French. De is a preposition ­ "a word placed usually before a noun or its equivalent to mark some relation." (Chambers 1015) It is usually translated as "of", although it can also mean "at, for, by, with, from, in", and a number of other things, depending on how it is used. Du is shorthand for de plus the masculine definite article le. It means "of­the." "John of the Raven" would be "Jean du Corbeau." "Peter of Paris" is "Pierre de Paris.' And "Stephen the Smith" is "Etienne le Forgeron."

Hilary Fairehaven. Device. Quarterly vert and erminois, a key bendwise sinister wards in base purpure.

Janek Shiron. Name and device. Azure, a harp reversed between two flaunches argent each charged with a quill azure.

NOTE: We have used the spelling from Yonge (cited), which is Janek, not Jhanek.

Joseph of Clairidge. Device. Checky Or and azure, on a pale gules a lion rampant Or.

Kerry of Clairidge. Name and device. Azure, three dolphins haurient one and two, in chief three bars engrailed to chief and invected to base, all within a bordure Or.

Lost Cavern of the Amber Mount, Canton of the. Device. Per chevron sable and Or, a three­peaked mountain couped environed of a laurel wreath counterchanged.

Mavi of Misthaven. Name and device. Per chevron argent and vert, a bear statant erect counterchanged, collared argent, between in fess two crescents vert.

Morgan Wolfsinger. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Raoul de la Grenouille. Name only.

Tamara Colette of Misthaven. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Twila of Wulfshaven. Name and device. Or, a bend and in sinister chief a butterfly azure, a bordure dovetailed gules.

DISCUSSION: Twila is her mundane name. Dunkling and Gosling (p. 424) consider it a modern invention.

Kingdom of the East

Adelinde Katla. Name only.

Ah Kum of the Ger­Igren. Name only.

Alwyn Stewart. Name and device. Gyronny azure and argent, a sea­griffin erect Or within a bordure counterchanged.

Arianwen ferch Gawaine. Name only.

Augest the Traveller. Name only.

Berthelm Bradhurst. Name and device. Per bend sinister argent and vert, an oak tree proper and a double­bitted axe bendwise sinister Or.

Brian de Northwode. Device. Per bend azure and sable, a bend bretessed and in sinister chief an oak tree argent.

Celine of Barons Cross. Name only.

David Trueheart. Device. Sable, a chevron inverted enhanced and in base a cross couped rayonnant argent, all within a bordure ermine.

NOTE: The chevron should not intersect the corners of the chief.

Debra of Cyprus. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Domnall MacDaniell. Name only.

East Kingdom. Title for Seadrake Pursuivant.

DISCUSSION: While I (Baldwin) feel personally that titled pursuivancies are a perquisite that should be reserved for branches above what Corpora defines as the subsidiary level, I (Laurel) believe officially that this is the sort of decision that can, and should, be left to kingdom custom.

Eoin O'Keevan de Curci Blake. Name and badge. Argent, a cross formy fitched vert within a bordure gules.

NOTE: Please draw the cross more boldly, with prominent splaying of the arms.

Eric Bentbow. Device. Azure, a sagittarius rampant Or, within a bordure Or semy of arrowheads inverted azure.

DISCUSSION: These are not elf­bolts, as a couple of the commentators suggested. An elf­bolt is "a leaf­shaped flint arrowhead with a long tang", found in the arms of Styrbjorg Ulfethnar, and these seem to be generic metal arrowheads.

Francis the Barrister. Name only.

Giles de Macei. Name only.

Greenewoode Mountains, Shire of. Name only.

Ian Colga MacAedha. Name only.

Iohannes von Weisswald. Name only.

James Burnside. Badge. An ermine spot sable and overall a boar's head couped close argent.

Juraj z Bratislavi. Name and device. Per chevron azure and gules, a chevron Or between two mugs and a cross patriarchal argent.

DISCUSSION: Virgule commented at length on the "distinction" (such as it is) between a cross patriarchal and a cross of Lorraine. The two differ only by the position of the second and longer traverse, which is nearer the foot on the cross of Lorraine; Baron Alfgar's quotes indicate that the two are often confused. I can see recognizing the distinction in blazon, but allowing no heraldic difference. This is how we presently treat the cross crosslet and the cross bottony, and the pile and the pile throughout. It would be interesting to know more of the mundane history of the charge, preferably from more reliable sources than the heraldic writers.

Justinian of Rakovec. Device. Azure, a pall between three chipmunks rampant, all within a bordure argent.

Katharina Kietrick von Villach. Name change (from Katrina von Halsstern).

Katherine d'Argentigny. Name and device. Gules, two bars dancetty braced Or, between three fleurs­de­lys and a rabbit statant argent.

Landolf Witkowski. Name and device. Per fess vert and argent, a sprig of oak bendwise fructed Or, and a hunting horn with bell to sinister sable, garnished Or and stringed gules.

Loric Bravehand of Spire's Keep. Name only.

Lucilla Theresa de Courtenay. Name and device. Purpure, a lark volant and in chief four mullets in fess argent.

Lyanna of Kerneough. Badge. A keg palewise potent.*

NOTE: This was submitted as a badge for the alternate persona of Anyka Foxhair the Outrageous. "Although the Rules for Submissions do not prohibit the registration of a fieldless badge for an alternate persona, neither do they specifically allow it ... After some reflection, I have concluded that this is inconsistent with established practice, and that it would not be desirable for us to permit it." (BoE, 24 Nov 84, p. 1) We have omitted the alternate persona name in order to register the badge.

* We were sorely tempted to reblazon the keg as a puncheon, for the sake of alliteration. Blazon the badge three times quickly, then sample it. Repeat until you canst.

Raadgjer Katla. Name and device. Pean, a double­bitted axe, its handle surmounted by a scimitar fesswise reversed with blade to base argent, all within a dragon passant in annulo Or.

Rathulfr the Least. Name change (from Stephan Schmidt).

Rebecca Chadderton. Name only.

Sara Charmaine of Falkensee. Name only.

Seashire. Badge. Argent, a sea­dragon erect gules, maintaining an escutcheon sable within a bordure wavy azure.

Stefan the Black. Device. Argent, two chevronels between a dexter and a sinister wing sable and a roundel, all within a bordure gules.

Tegan ferch Llewellyn. Name only.

Thorstein fra Agnefit. Badge for Torayamg Shiro. Argent, a turtle tergiant palewise purpure within a Japanese gate (torii) vert.

Tibor of Rock Valley. Badge. Or, on a bend azure between two script letters "T" sable, three bezants.

Vera z Czezecze. Device. Gyronny azure and erminois, a bordure counterchanged.

NOTE: Wonderful!

Kingdom of the Middle

Adela de Warren. Device. Per chevron checky azure and argent, in base a mullet azure.

Aileen MacAlpin. Name and device. Vert, a stag trippant Or and on a chief argent two swans naiant respectant azure.

Alain de Bastien. Name and device. Per bend Or and argent, a bend azure between a natural panther couchant and a wolf passant sable.

Aldric of the Northmark. Name correction (from Aldric of Northmark) and device correction. Per fess engrailed gules and azure, a demi­sun issuant from the line of division Or, surmounted by a sword bendwise sinister inverted proper, in dexter chief an estoile of eight rays argent.

DISCUSSION: There is no face on the sun (no room for one ... ), so it cannot be "in glory"; and there is no fess in the arms, so the sun is issuant from the line of partition.

Andelcrag, Barony of. Device. Sable, on a pile inverted throughout argent between two lightning bolts in chevron inverted Or a laurel wreath vert.

DISCUSSION: According to current nomenclature, these are lightning bolts (embattled lines with barbs), not lightning flashes (which are proscribed).

Andrew Greencloak Hethilsson. Name and device. Per chevron argent and vert, in base a mullet of four points argent. DISCUSSION: The name does not infringe upon the title of GREENCLOAK HERALD, any more than DRAGON HERALD reserves the word "dragon" in names.

Artorius MacLachlan of Northumbria. Name and device. Quarterly sable and argent, a cross between in bend two lions salient respectant counterchanged, overall a walking staff bendwise sinister vert.

Aurelius Forgan. Badge. Per fess embowed to base argent and sable, issuant from base a tree blasted within a bordure counterchanged.

Balian de Brionne. Device. Azure, a tyger passant between in chief an arch of five mullets of eight points and in base a clarion argent.

Balian de Brionne. Badge. Azure, a clarion between five mullets of eight points argent.

Brenainn O'Murchadha de Ros Comain. Name and device. Or, in pale three arrows with points to sinister fracted chevronwise proper, flighted azure.

DISCUSSION: Arrows are said to be flighted (or feathered) when the color of their fletching is specified. See Parker, Brooke­Little, Woodward, etc.

Bronwen Meredith Kirk. Device. Sable, a melusine affronty grasping a tail in each hand, and on a chief wavy argent two keys in saltire sable.

DISCUSSION: I share the former Gold Falcon's opinion that this is "a rather indelicate position", but this appears to be the traditional position of the melusine in art. See the example on page 46 of von Volborth's Heraldry: Customs, Rules and Styles. The reference in Woodward alluded to by Dragon is unhelpful; it merely says that "the mermaids ... are drawn so as to indicate a division of the tail into two.".

Catharine Tancred. Device. Ermine, two artist's brushes in saltire surmounted by another palewise azure.

NOTE: Nice and simple.

Christopher Troweselagh. Name and device. Per bend purpure and vert, a bend between a cross formy and a spur rowel argent. DISCUSSION: See the cover letter for a discussion of crosses paty, patonce, and formy.

Claude de la Beche. Device. Vairy argent and gules, on a bend azure between two stag's heads cabossed, another palewise Or.

Claude de la Beche. Badge. Vairy argent and gules, a stag's head cabossed Or.

Damianós Arrianus Alexius Nicosiaios. Device. Gules, a Gorgon's head cabossed argent between in fess two swords inverted proper.

DISCUSSION: This is the second instance of a Gorgon's head in SCA armory. The first was registered in December 1984, to Manfred von Halsstern. I noted at the time that "Cabossed is a perfectly reasonable default for a Gorgon's head ­ it is the obvious and most recognizable aspect ­ but given the proliferation of ad hoc defaults in SCA heraldry, it is probably better to err on the side of explicitness.".

Dathi Thorfinnsson. Name and device. Pean, two dice in pale argent spotted sable.

DISCUSSION: Dice are period heraldic charges; see Brault's Early Blazon, pages 97 (fig. 254) and 164 (s.v. de).

David of the Hungarian Marches. Name and device. Per chevron azure and Or, two horses combattant argent and a triskelion of three wings sable.

Dermot McGregory de Cashel. Name and device. Azure, a chevron inverted argent between a scorpion tergiant inverted and three Irish harps two and one Or.

Elizabeth of Laceby. Badge. Per pale Or and argent, a tower azure within a bordure sable.

NOTE: The Household of the Dark Device is, I am told, the title of "a slim volume by Edward Gorey." Please choose another household name.

Etaoin O'Fearghail. Name and device. Azure, two piles wavy bendwise inverted throughout and in sinister chief a mullet argent.

Felix le Claver of Northwold. Name and device. Per chevron vert and argent, three broad arrowheads inverted counterchanged.

NOTE: Classic heraldry.

Gilbert of Darkwood. Device. Sable, on a cross argent a sword between in fess two crosses couped gules, and on a chief Or three escallops sable.

Gustavus Seevogel. Device. Gyronny Or and purpure, a duck close argent between four quatrefoils, one on each purpure gyron, Or.

Hugh of Ravenwood. Name and device. Azure, on a bend sinister between two fleams argent, three gouttes palewise gules.

Iain Canmore. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Jendriska Bellasez. Name and device. Sable, a dexter hand apaumy couped argent between three bezants one and two and a base wavy Or.

Karl Aerdigwidder von Zauberberg. Device. Or, a mountain sable, tip enflamed gules, within a bordure embattled sable charged with bezants.

Keara Calder. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Lann an Glasean. Name and device. Erminois, a popinjay displayed gardant and in chief a sword fesswise reversed vert.

NOTE: Please make the budgie tracks ermine spots more prominent.

Llewellyn o'r Glyn. Name only (see RETURNS for device and badge).

NOTE: Welsh glyn "valley, glen" has only one n in it. (Evans 236) We have amended the spelling accordingly.

Madeleine Daeges Eage of York. Device. Azure, a daisy argent seeded within a bordure Or.

NOTE: Very nice.

Meadhbh ni Bhriain. Badge. Purpure, a dolmen between in cross four crescents Or.

Rohais of Wolfhill. Name and device. Argent, a wolf rampant to sinister sable atop a mount vert, in chief a rose gules barbed and seeded proper.

Septentria, Barony of. Badge. Gules, a bear passant argent.

Septentria, Barony of. Name for Order of the Bear's Claw.

NOTE: The letter of intent states that the emblem of the order is a bear's claw, but that this is "non restrictive." This presumably means that it is a physical token (rather than an heraldic depiction thereof), and that they do not seek to use or to attempt to reserve the armorial representation.

Seth Magnus Tavistock. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Signy Dimmridaela. Badge. Per pale Or and argent, a swan naiant to sinister azure.

Stephen Bruce of Aberdeen. Name and device. Vert, a pall vair between a closed book and two swords Or.

Thomas Dolan Arbalister of Caerleon. Name and device. Per pall vert, gules, and sable, a crossbow argent.

Torhthelm Eadmunding. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Tsivia bas Tamara of Amberview. Badge for House Amberview. Azure, a doe lodged chained and collared Or carrying in its mouth a slip of laurel vert.

Ulric Grimmheld. Badge. Sable, a dragon rampant guardant, wings addorsed, clutching a sledge­hammer Or.

Will the Ironsmith. Name and device. Gules, a pall cotticed between three martlets Or.

NOTE: Beautiful!

Kingdom of the Outlands

Elenore du Pont. Name only.

NOTE: The French word for "bridge" is pont, not ponte, which is a sports term (meaning "punt", as in football). We have corrected the spelling accordingly.

Hrothgar se AEthel. Name correction (from Hrothgar se Aethele) and device. Argent, a basilisk displayed, tail wrapped about its legs, vert, winged and bellied, within an orle of lozenges gules.

DISCUSSION: Brooke­Little (Heraldic Alphabet, p. 45) indicates that the tail terminating in a dragon's head is what distinguishes a basilisk from a cockatrice, so we should be safe in simply calling this a basilisk. I haven't pursued the question further in the files.

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Name change (from Outlands, Principality of the) and change of device. Vert, a stag argent leaping from between the boughs of a laurel wreath, in chief a crown, all within a bordure embattled Or.

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Release of badge for the Princess.

NOTE: These should actually have been recorded as arms, but ...

Outlands, Queen of the. Device. Vert, a hind salient argent, in sinister chief a Saxon crown, all within a wreath of roses lying as on a bordure Or.

Shayla from Zyra. Name and device. Per saltire gules and azure, a unicorn's head couped Or horned argent within an orle of mullets in annulo Or.

NOTE: Shayla is a modern form of Sheila. (Dunkling & Gosling, p. 388) Celia, Cecelia, or the Irish form Sile would be preferable.

Kingdom of the West

Aaron von dem Drachen (submitted as Aaron von Drache). Name and device. Argent, a pestle in a mortar and a chief sable.

NOTE: The submitter indicated on his forms that he wished the "correct Germanic form of Aaron of the Dragon" (which fact was not mentioned in the LoI). Drache is the German word for "dragon". "The dragon" would be "der Drache"; which following von declines to the dative case, to become "dem Drachen". In normal speech, von dem would be contracted to vom; in names, I am told, the uncontracted form is used.

Arron Reynard. Name and device. Gules, three foxes passant to sinister regardant and a decrescent, two, one and one, argent, a bordure embattled Or.

NOTE: The forms give the spelling of the byname as Repaard. I assume the change to Reynard (the French word for "fox") was intentional.

Cassandra ni Shéaimus (submitted as Cassandra FitzSeumas). Name and device. Per bend urdy purpure and Or, a bend between two mullets, all counterchanged.

NOTE: The heralds commenting on the name felt that the combination of the Norman patronymic particle fitz with the Irish form of the given name James was unlikely, and probably incorrect. We have substituted the Irish feminine patronymic, courtesy of Master Wilhelm.

Cuby of Elmhurst. Badge. A double­bitted axe surmounted by a winged arming cap sable.

David Delannoy. Device. Gules, a saltire triple­parted and fretted Or between four compass stars argent.

Denis of Maplewood. Name and device. Erminois, three maple leaves, one and two, within an annulet gules.

Eric of Windstar. Name and device. Quarterly sable and gules, a cross formy argent between four compass stars Or.

NOTE: The cross should be drawn much more boldly, with prominent splaying of the limbs. Please correct the emblazon. (See the cover letter for a discussion of crosses paty, patonce, and formy.).

Harvey the Blind. Device. Argent, a winged lion passant guardant, wings displayed, sable, maintaining in its dexter forepaw a human skull argent, between two bars gemel vert.

NOTE: The skull will need to be held against the lion's wing in order to show up.

Hiroshi Shizukana. Name only.

Jordan Prinster of Stanton. Name and device. Counter­ermine, a chevron Or and in base a plate.

Kareah Talvi Tytär. Name and device. Azure, vêtu, a long­haired domestic cat dormant argent.

Miyoshi Suisei­ko. Name only.

Peter fra Marstal. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Pia Dragonsaver (submitted as Piasa Dragonsaver). Name and device. Azure, on a two­handled mug per pale Or and argent, a dragon segreant vert bearing a sword sable.*

NOTE: The closest anyone could find to piasa was the Italian piázza "plaza", which is a surname. We have substituted her second choice, the given name Pia.

DISCUSSION: (A few minutes later.) I thought Piasa rang a bell. In the June 30, 1980 LoI from Atenveldt, I submitted one Piasa Buteo Nitidus. "She says Piasa comes from Sounds of a Distant Drum, by Bill Martin, Jr. 'The Piasa is a mythical beast according to the Illonia Indian tribe of Northern Illinois. They thought it was a dragon and an eagle mixed together."' This would suggest that Piasa is the name of a thing, not a person, which would make it unacceptable. The submission was returned because of a problem in the byname.).

* Not the flagon with the dragon?

Roger de Peregrine. Device. Purpure, a falcon's head erased Or between three swords proper.

Victoria of Elmhurst Hollow. Name and device. Azure, an elm branch bendwise throughout between two butterflies argent.

Waleran Mungo MacMungo. Name change (from Eric of Talwaithe).


Kingdom of An Tir

Arlyss o Gordon. Name and device. Sable, on a pile throughout Or between two goblets argent, two maple leaves stems crossed in saltire vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: Reaney (DBS 11) gives Arliss as a surname. Kolatch (the source cited in the LoI) is notoriously unreliable; can you find a better reference? The Irish preposition o seems out of place in a primarily English name; the more usual form would be to use de or of, or to drop the particle entirely.

The device conflicts with GREY NICHE, BARONY OF: Sable, on a pile Or between in base two estoiles argent, a laurel wreath vert. (SCA).

Kaj Hvalsgaard. Device. Argent, five pairs of bendlets sinister azure, overall a narwhal embowed proper. (Monodon monoceros)

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with KENNETH THE UNKNOWN: Argent, three pallets couped gules, overall a narwhal embowed proper. (SCA) The only changes are in the underlying secondaries, which are worth at most a major + a minor point of difference.

DISCUSSION: I have opted here for the blazon "five pairs of bendlets sinister" as being a little clearer than the alternative "five bendlets sinister gemels", although the latter is correct, and would be equally acceptable.

Roberta Rowan (submitted as Roberta of Rowan). Device. Azure, a unicorn statant to sinister argent and in chief three mullets Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with LEANNE OF MAYWOOD: Azure, a unicorn trippant to sinister argent, armed, crined, pizzled and cullioned Or. (SCA) There is a point of difference for the addition of the secondary charges, but the differences between the unicorns are not sufficient to add up to a full second point.

Kingdom of Atenveldt

Aethelleon of Darkwood. Name and device. Azure, on a bend sinister concave between two lioness' heads caboshed Or, two escallops azure.

REASON FOR RETURN: The given name does not appear to be correctly formed. ­leon is not a name element. The treatment of the bend is not heraldic. Please use a standard line of division, or choose another charge.

DISCUSSION: Anglo­Saxon given names are dithematic: they are formed of a first element called the protheme, and a second element called the deuterotheme. These elements, or themes, are drawn from a pool of words used for the purpose of forming names. Although many themes possess some kind of meaning, they are not "words" per se; you will not find them by picking a noun and an adjective at random from an Anglo­Saxon dictionary. AEthel­ is a common protheme. The closest deuterothemes I can find to ­leon are ­leof and ­leofu. (Searle 326) I would suggest one of these.

Albern Bran. Device. Sable, a mullet of four points dismembered elongated to base throughout gules fimbriated argent, within a bordure counter­compony gules and argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: We no longer allow complex voiding or fimbriation. This applies to most of the "abstract throughout" charges, such as bordures and chiefs, and to flora and fauna, as well as to interior lines, such as the technique of voiding known in mundane armory as umbration and in earlier SCA blazonry as chasing. Please redesign.

Daniel de la Trompette d'Or. Device. Argent, on three piles in point throughout azure a straight trumpet between a natural trumpet and a natural trumpet reversed Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device conflicts with BRYAN: Argent, three piles azure. (Papworth) There is a single point of difference, for the addition of the group of trumpets. As Roger F. Pye has demonstrated, "piles in point" is the modern term for the way piles were always drawn in period, and medieval piles were also always "throughout." See the discussion for RANDAL OF KINGS HAMMER, 18 May 1986, p. 14.

NOTE: This should be drawn with the outer piles issuing from the chief, not from the corners. It could also be improved (in terms of classical heraldic style) by using only one type of trumpet.

Daphne of Ered Isen. Device. Sable, a sword inverted surmounted by a retort fesswise, in chief a label, all gules fimbriated Or, distilling from the retort a goutte d'Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: Under present standards, this device contains too many instances of complex fimbriation. It is my opinion that the Grandfather Clause would permit her to use her father's arms differenced by an unfimbriated label (in Or or argent), or to incorporate elements from her father's device (the fimbriated sword and retort) into an otherwise acceptable new design, but that this combination is excessive. Please see the discussion on the submission of RENA THORBJORNSDOTRIR (18 May 1986, pp. 18­20), from which this ruling is derived.

Glenda MacChlurain. Device. Per bend gules and argent, a bend counter­ermine between a wing and a demi­sun issuant from dexter counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: The wing is not in a defined position, and in this orientation is confusing to the eye. Please choose another orientation.

Garth the Wanderer. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: Garth is a surname, "enclosed ground, garden." (Reaney DBS 141) May we suggest the Arthurian given name Gareth?.

Gwyn myrgh Myghal. Badge for Renée Carder. Two wool­cards fesswise, the dexter reversed and the sinister inverted, teeth meshed, argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: "Although the Rules for Submissions do not prohibit the registration of a fieldless badge for an alternate persona, neither do they specifically allow it ... After some reflection, I have concluded that this is inconsistent with established practice, and that it would not be desirable for us to permit it." (BoE, 24 Nov 84, p. 1) The charges here are drawn very much in perspective, which is not heraldic. Please select tinctures for the field and charges (or drop the secondary name), and choose another way of representing the charges.

Mihail le Rau de Pest. Name change (from Myghal mab Siarl an Gernow).

REASON FOR RETURN: According to Star, the correct Roumanian for the name is Mihail Räutäciós din Pest; he cites Grigore Nadris's Colloquial Rumanian, "an excellent work on Rumanian grammar," as his source. Silver Trumpet Crescent has also noted that rau is not merely "bad" or "naughty": the word means "evil, vile, wicked ... double­plus­ungood". If he wants something milder, that would be Sburdäul, "the Mischevious, the Wanton, the Wag", or possible Sceleratul, "the Rascal, the Unprincipled One." (Except that the word also needs to be rendered into the adjectival form.) He cites Axelrad's Roumanian­English Dictionary, with attached grammar.

The submitter has disallowed any changes or corrections to his name.

Sakura Kita Maikeru. Device. Sable, in dexter base a wave of three crests and in sinister chief an increscent conjoined in annulo, in bend a triple­flowered branch of cherry blossoms, all argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: The design is busy, and difficult to blazon in conventional heraldic terms. Please choose a simpler design.

DISCUSSION: The documentation provided with the submission (taken primarily from Mon: The Japanese Family Crest) seems to indicate that this design is at least to some degree consistent with Japanese mon. There are instances of waves conjoined "in annulo" with other charges, of charges within such enclosures, and of bendwise sinister crescents. It would appear, therefore, that one of the reasons given for the return of his previous device ­ that it was "not proper Japanese style" ­­ was incorrect.

I would be happier, personally, if the charges in the device were more discretely recognizable. I don't think it's absolutely necessary that it be obvious to the Western eye what a charge is supposed to represent (although this would certainly be nice), but I would like to be able to tell how many charges there are.

Kingdom of Atlantia

Calgaigch MacPhee. Device. Per pale vert and argent, a goose migrant to chief counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with STEFAN DEN STRASSENRAUBER: Per pale vert and Or, a double[­headed] eagle counterchanged. (SCA) We count at best a major plus a strong minor point of difference. In altering the device, beware of DAVID WESTERVILLE: Per pale sable and argent, a crane displayed legless Or. (SCA).

Morgan Wolfsinger. Device. Sable, a wolf sejant ululant to sinister within a bordure argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with the badge of PATRI DE CHAT GRIS: Sable, a domestic cat sejant to sinister within a bordure argent. (SCA) There is a point for the type of charge, but the difference in elevation of the head is minimal, and the visual similarity makes us uncomfortable.

Tamara Colette of Misthaven. Device. Or, a pall vert between a ferret statant and two lozenges sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with FREDERICK THURSTON: Or, a shakefork vert between three longships reversed sable. (SCA) There is at best a major and a minor point for a group of secondaries, and the difference between a pall and a shakefork is not sufficient to bring this up to two full points. This also infringes upon BEORNSTAN HUNIGBIN: Or, on a pall vert a mullet of three greater and three lesser points Or. (SCA).

Kingdom of the East

Debra of Cyprus. Device. Pean, a sea­horse erect Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device conflicts with that of JANA SEASGAIR: Per fess wavy Or and sable, a sea­horse haurient counterchanged. (SCA) There is a point of difference for the tincture of the field, and a derivative tincture change (which is demoted to a minor point) to the sea­horse.

DISCUSSION: Visually, there is a difference in the tails of the two sea­beasts (Debra's is looped back on itself, while Jana's is annodated*), but I have been unable to establish that this is a definite difference, and not artistic variation. Haurient isn't a very good choice of terms; it's a fish­word (meaning "erect with head upwards") being used in place of the usual sea­monster word ("erect").

* annodated: bowed embowed, or bent in the form of the letter S. (Parker 11).

Edouard d'Ath. Badge. A demi­griffin Or maintaining between its talons a thistle, slipped and leaved, proper.

REASON FOR RETURN: Brooke­Little states that crests are hereditary devices, and conferred by grant, which leads me to conclude (RFS V.1) that, under the present rules, we must treat crests as mundane badges. This submission therefore conflicts with the crest of AKAYS: A demi­griffin Or. (Fairbairn) Sigh ...

Willow of the Wood. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: Submission withdrawn by Principal Herald.

Kingdom of the Middle

Elysabet de Warren. Device. Vert, on a pile throughout between two snowflakes argent, a rod sable entwined of a vine vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: The staff with the vine about it is too reminiscent of a rod of Aesculapius, a charge we reserve to people with suitable medical credentials. This problem was pointed out on her previous submission.

I find the submission clear of the cited conflicts.

Iain Canmore. Device. Gules, in annulo three plates one and two and three harps two and one Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with IRELAND: Gules, three harps Or, stringed argent. (Papworth 908) The composition of the device is poor, and not really amenable to non­"creative" blazonry. Please redesign.

Keara Calder. Device. Vert, a bend sinister between an Irish harp and a lymphad argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with TAV­ALANDIL: Vert, a bend sinister argent between a hawk close and a lightning bolt both Or. (SCA) A single group of secondary charges can contribute at most a major and a minor point of difference.

Llewellyn o'r Glyn. Device. Per pale gules and sable, in bend two battle axes bendwise sinister argent hafted Or, the one in base inverted, the blade of each overlying the haft of the other, and in base a crescent Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is axequisitely drawn (sorry), but the blazon is tortuous, and I find the combination difficult to recognize. Please revise this so the axes do not overlap each other in this fashion; they deserve to be seen by all.

Llewellyn o'r Glyn. Badge. In bend two battle axes bendwise sinister argent hafted Or, the one in base inverted, the blade of each overlying the haft of the other.

REASON FOR RETURN: See comment on the device, above.

Meyer Wolfram of the Black Forest. Name and device. Quarterly sable and ermine, two double­bitted battle­axes in saltire counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: Meyer is a surname. Please provide documentation for its use as a given name. The device conflicts with SKON: Quarterly gules and ermine, two axes in saltire counterchanged.

Mynydd Coron, Shire of. Device. Argent, on a fess wavy between in chief two turtles tergiant and in base a laurel wreath vert, a snowflake argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: We did not receive any forms for this submission.

Ralph Randulfus of Rye. Device. Ermine, a wolf on its back azure balancing a tun proper on its paws.

REASON FOR RETURN: The wolf is in a non­heraldic position, and its tincture was omitted from the letter of intent.

Septentria, Barony of. Device change. Gules, three chevronels braced argent surmounted by a laurel wreath vert, and in chief a bear passant argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: We did not receive an emblazon for this submission.

Seth Magnus Tavistock. Device. Sable, a chief triangular gules, overall a cubit arm in armor aversant, fist clenched, argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: The chief gules on the sable field violates the rule of tincture, and we question having a charge on the field that overlaps the chief. If this is redrawn as a field division (per chevron inverted gules and sable), it will infringe on the badge of the Queen's Order of Courtesy of the East Kingdom: On a dexter glove aversent argent* a rose azure charged with another Or. (SCA).

Torhthelm Eadmunding. Device. Azure, a dolphin hauriant and on a chief embattled argent three mullets sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: A truly lovely design, but the tinctures of the dolphin and the chief were incorrectly specified on the letter of intent, so the College has not had an opportunity to check it for conflict.

Vasili iz Naitemneshoi Dollina. Device (appeal). Gules, three seraph's heads argent, winged Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with MAYDESTONE: Gules, three women's heads couped at the shoulder argent, hair disheveled Or. (Papworth 936)

SYNOPSIS: Lord Vasili has had a rather hard time of it. Gules, a seraph's head Or proved to be identical to a coat in Rietstap. Gules a seraph's head argent was returned for the same conflict. Gules, three seraph's heads argent was held to infringe upon Gules, three savage's heads affronty [erased] argent. I noted at this time that "He needs an additional minor point. A partial change in tincture (such as making the wings Or) would be sufficient." Unfortunately, Gules, three seraph's heads argent, winged Or turned out to be too close to Gules, three women's heads couped at the shoulder argent, hair disheveled Or. Dragon has appealed this most recent return, noting that "Lord Vasili and the Middle, acting in good faith, accepted Lord Laurel's direction. Lord Laurel, now it seems, calls conflict with his own suggestion." He has also noted that seraph's heads are by default affronty, while the default position for human heads is in profile.

DISCUSSION: In order to make more efficient use of time and space, I have to resort to a certain amount of shorthand in writing the LoARs, picking and choosing what I will repeat, or what I will spell out to the Nth degree.

Despite the attempts that have been made to impute this particular characteristic to me, I will not undercut the role of the College of Arms in commenting on submissions, particularly in matters of conflict, by offering guarantees I am not in a position to fulfill. I do not have access to Renesse (the ordinary to Rietstap), or to the first volume of the Lyon ordinary; nor, for that matter, do I even have the time to pursue such questions in Papworth, Woodward's, or the half­dozen other references to which I do have access. (Note the frequency with which I return or "pend" a submission because it was misblazoned in the letter of intent, and so could not be properly researched.) I rely on the commenting members of the College of Arms to provide this necessary function.

When I offer advice in matters of conflict, it is usually to pass on a suggestion made in one of the letters of comment, generally qualified with a phrase like "you might try" or "barring other conflicts." (I cannot, for example, guarantee that an SCA submission won't be registered in the interim upon which the suggested coat would infringe.) Alternatively, I may indicate how I would choose to interpret the rules of difference in a certain case. This kind of advice I do consider binding, and it was the kind of statement I was trying to offer. "Your submission needs an additional minor point of difference. The amount of weight that may be accorded a minor point varies. I would consider a partial change in tincture to contribute sufficient visual weight to bring you clear of the present mundane conflict."

Because I was addressing a commenting member of the College of Arms, rather than "one of the lieges," I did not proceed to qualify my statement further. "Please bear in mind that this advice applies only to the discussion at hand. You and your kingdom herald are, as always, responsible for ensuring that any changes you make do not subject you to other possible conflicts." I assumed that, in this case, my audience was sufficiently experienced to be aware of the caveats. I appear to have been mistaken. Please accept my apologies for any confusion my lack of explicitness may have caused.

My December 1985 letter actually gave two reasons for returning the modified coat. The first­named, and primary reason, was that no blazon was given in the letter of intent. Without an accurate blazon, the commenting heralds could not be expected to do the conflict research; and even with the original return in front of them, they couldn't be completely certain they had it right, since I suggested a class of change (with a specific example), not an exact blazon.

On the question of the default position of maiden's heads, Parker (p. 313) says that they "are drawn as the head and shoulders of a woman ' affronty, couped below the breasts, her hair dishevelled, and usually wreathed with a garland of roses." He notes MAYDENSTUN among his examples.*

* I am indebted to Treblerose for bringing this to my attention. It was new to me, and it just goes to show, as J. P. Brooke­Little remarks in his preface to the Robson Books edition of An Heraldic Alphabet, that

You can study heraldry until you are azure ... in the face but inevitably discover, from time to time, that you really are quite vert ... I have found this over and over again but, never forget, herein lies the fun and if heraldry ever ceases to be fun [meaning, among other things, when you cease to discover just how green you are] ­­ chuck it.

Personally, I do not feel that three seraph's heads should conflict with three man's heads, even if the tinctures are the same. There is a clear major difference between the coats ­ they belong to two different people ­ and when the coats aren't cluttered with the life history of their owners, this should be sufficient. This is not, however, how our system of difference works. However much I may dislike this ­ (and my staff can tell you how much I balked at returning the earlier coat in January 1985) ­­ I cannot offer a replacement system of difference, and it would be irresponsible of me to try to substitute "it's clear because I think it should be" for our present system of difference, no matter how flawed that system may be. Personal discretion only goes so far. It is incumbent upon me to treat this as a conflict.

Lord Vasili, I would suggest that you look into either a change in the number of the charges or a parted field. This would, I think, improve your chances of finding a design comparable in simplicity (although not, perhaps, as elegant) that does not infringe on an existing coat.

Kingdom of the West

Peter fra Marstal. Device. Per pale gules and argent, a fess counterchanged, in dexter chief a patriarchal cross Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with OTMARSCHALK: Barry­counter­barry of three pieces gules and argent. (Rietstap) I count a minor point of difference, for the cross in dexter chief.

SYNOPSIS: This submission was originally returned in February 1986, for conflict with BAN= ­ Per pale argent and gules, a fess counterchanged. Vesper has appealed this decision, arguing that we should allow a major point for the addition of the cross (as a significant secondary charge), or else treat it as a strong minor, and allow it, in conjunction with the strong minor point for the field, to constitute sufficient difference from the cited coat.

DISCUSSION: I can see allowing a strong minor point of difference for the addition of the cross, but not a major point. The Rules imply (XII.3), but do not state, that a major point is the most you can get by adding two minor points. This is the interpretation I was applying at the time of my earlier ruling. In the course of a discussion at TYC, however, I learned that Master Wilhelm felt one could sometimes add two strong minor points to obtain sufficient difference from mundane arms. (See the cover letter for a digression on the mysteries of minor­point arithmetic.)

At this point, it becomes a judgement call as to whether there is enough visual difference to warrant this much technical difference. Opinion in the letters of comment tended to support the original conflict call, and in the absence of other considerations, I would be inclined to defer to this joint opinion; but Virgule has found an even closer conflict, which renders this particular question academic.

Nicely put.