Antoinette Louise de la Forêt de Compiègne. Name and device. Per pale argent and sable, in saltire an artist's brush, bristles to base, and a quill counterchanged.

Arenvald Kief av Kierstad. Device. Gules, an armored sinister cubit arm bendwise sinister grasping a mallet bendwise, all within a bordure urdy Or.

Caíreach ni Rúadhágan. Name and device. Argent, on a fret vert a rose gules, barbed and seeded Or.

Caitrin O'Sullivan of Killarney Lake. Name only.

Caroline de Loreygne. Name only. Her mundane name is Caroline.

Kendra Catriona Kerr. Name and device. Per chevron azure and argent, two butterflies displayed in chevron argent and a fleur-de-lys gules.

Mirra Duran. Name and device. Per bend engrailed argent and azure, a wolf's head cabossed sable and a mullet of four points argent. Mirra is her mundane given name.

Orric Longtooth. Name only.

Vashti of the Flaming Tresses. Device. Purpure, an estoile within an orle of tongues of flame Or. She has permission to conflict with Esmirelda Dancingstar ("Purpure, a shooting star bendwise sinister Or.").


Sophia de la Mer. Badge. Gules, a seahorse within a bordure argent. This submission was pended from the July meeting.


Adelric of Saxony. Name and device. Argent, a bend sinister embattled vert between an eagle displayed and in saltire a battleaxe and a carpenter's hammer sable. The name was submitted as Adelaric of Saxony, with the documentation indicating that the suffix "-ric" was added to the name "Adelar" documented in Yonge. As several commentors noted, "Adelar" is itself a dithematic name to which the suffix would not normally be added. However, the form "Adelric" is actually documented from eleventh-century English sources (von Feilitzen, The Pre-Conquest Personal Names of Domesday Book, p. 186). Note that Society practise follows Elvin and other late sources in depicting the bend and bend sinister, like the fess, as embattled only on the upper edge unless it is specified as counter-embattled or bretessed.

Adria Jarmyne. Name and device. Per chevron gules and sable, in chief a tilting lance palewise between two horses combattant, and in base a tower, all Or. Her mundane given name is Adria.

Aelfraed Hawkmoon. Badge for Hawkmoon House. Per pale wavy azure and argent, a hawk striking to sinister and an increscent moon counterchanged.

Alessandra Raffaela di Luciano. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Anna Comyn. Name only.

Bethoc Higgins. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Gyronny Or and gules, in fess a dove volant to sinister, wings elevated and addorsed, argent and a serpent glissant erect sable. The submission was made under the name of Bethoc of Atholl. While the use of the serpent and dove does contain a more than passing reference to the Robertsons of Struan whose use of these as supporters derives from their claim to be of the kindred of St. Columba, based on their continuous descent from King Duncan, son of Crinan and Bethoc, there was general agreement that the submission was not actually presumptuous.

Britta Jonasdotter. Device. Azure, six lace bobbins in chevron inverted Or, threaded argent, the threads issuant from a bezant in chief. Note that lace bobbins have been used in Society armoury previously, most notably in the device and badge of Elene de Bruges, both registered in February, 1984.

Ciann of Sentinel's Keep. Name and device. Azure a lute bendwise sinister Or between two moons in their complement argent.

Connor MacAulay. Device. Per chevron gules and vert, a chevron between two round buckles Or and a spearhead inverted argent, all within a bordure Or. The spearhead was blazoned as a pheon on the letter of intent, but the charge actually depicted on the emblazon sheet was a spearhead.

Edward Drakenfeld. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Fiama Donata Cosima Frankenhalter. Name and device. Per fess chequy sable and argent and gules, in pale a demi-eagle, displayed, wings inverted, head to sinister gules and three bezants, two and one. The name was submitted as Fiama Donatella Imperia Cosima von Frankenhalter. Donatella is the diminutive form of the given name Donata. Imperia was documented only from a listing in a particular edition of the Catholic Bible: a number of such saint listings include many names which were not actually in period use as given names, the creation of a celebration not being any real evidence of the individual's historical existence. Given its close association with the Latin "imperium" and the period usage to denote imperial power, this documentation was not adequate to demonstrate its use in period as a given name as required by NR13. "Frankenhalter" is an acceptable German occupational name and, as such, would not use the preposition.

Gabriel Michael MacFarlane. Name only.

Galen Shadowhawk. Name and device. Per bend sinister sable and vert, a red-tailed hawk displayed guardant proper between two bezants in bend (Buteo jamaicensis). The name was submitted as Gaelan Shadowhawk. As we have still had no evidence to support this as a linguistically valid variant form of "Galen", we have substituted the radical form of the given name.

Geoffrey the Procrastinator. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Laura Ellen du Brandevin. Name and device. Quarterly sable and vert, on a saltire conjoined to a cross flory throughout argent, a garden rose blossom affronty gules. The name was submitted as Laura Ellen de Brandevin. As "brandevin" is the word for brandy, we have modified the preposition accordingly to add the contracted form of "de le".

Luisa of the Willows. Name and device. Per chevron sable and gules, in chief a sword between two eagles combattant, in base a harp, all Or.

Merewynn Greenwood of Epping. Name only.

Otto Langhorn von Baden. Name and device. Gyronny sable and argent, a dragon's jambe issuant from base azure, grasping a drinking horn fesswise Or. The name appeared on the letter of intent as Otto Langenhorn von Bäden. As requested by Aten, we have corrected the grammar and spelling. Note that the horn was originally blazoned as an "earhorn". Note that the submittor's own documentation casts serious doubt on the use of the earhorn prior to the seventeenth century and shows such a variety of forms that no one single form could reasonably be deduced. Since it was identical in form to the Society drinking horn, we have reblazoned the horn to assure that the submittor gets the form he wishes.

Patrick Shannon of Newhall. Device. Per fess embowed counter-embowed sable and purpure, a fess embowed counter-embowed between a mullet of four points and a crab tergiant inverted argent.

Peter Sebastian Wyrhta. Name and device. Azure, a wooden-hilted sword inverted surmounted by a wooden-handled drawknife proper, all within a bordure dovetailed argent.

Raibeart of Sundragon. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Sable, a three-headed wolf rampant Or, in the dexter paw maintaining a sword palewise proper, in chief three roses argent, barbed and seeded proper. The submission was made under the name of Raibeart mac Donnachaidh.

Sillán the Fair. Name and device. Purpure, a chevron and a chevron inverted braced and in pale three Bowen knots crosswise argent. The name was submitted as Sheelin the Fair. As this is the name of an Irish lake and there is no evidence that geographic names were used as personal names in period, we have modified this to the almost identically pronounced Irish given name "Sillán". The submittor should be warned, however, that this is normally a masculine name. Note that, though there are a number of geographic entities in Ireland that bear names which were used in period as given names, either for humans or non-human figures of legend, in every case that we have been able to find, the geographic name is derived from the individual not the reverse.

Signy Jensdottir of Hedeby. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Silver Keep, Shire of. Name and device. Per bend sinister azure and sable, a tower within a laurel wreath, all within a bordure embattled argent.

Sweyn Halvhand Arnssfnn. Name only.

Taliesin of the Clan Furlong. Name only (see RETURNS for device). The name appeared as Taliesin of Clan Furlong, but the forms included the article.

Teleri ferch Lludd. Name only. The given name is documented by a reference to Teleri duaghter of Peul, who appears in a list of leading ladies of Arthur's court. The submittor's documentation alluded only to the Mabinogion where Lludd appears only as the legendary king into whom the original Celtic god metamorphosed in Christian times (the same process was applied to Llyr). However, Brachet has discovered at least two references to "Lludd", which appear to refer to a human rather than to Lludd ap Beli.

Ursula Aeshwine. Name only.

Viryaven ca Tusnim. Badge. Sable, a boar rampant Or.

William Beornsson. Name and device. Argent, a blacksmith's anvil and a chief wavy sable. The name was submitted as William Bjornsson. The correct Old Norse genitive would have been "Bjarnarson". As the given name was English, we felt that it was proper to use the Old English form of the patronymic which is closer in sound to the form submitted.

William Flanagan. Name only. The name was submitted as William Cydd Flanagan. Some commentors mentioned Billy the Kid; even more striking was the echo of the (in)famous Captain Kidd ("My name was William Kidd, as I sailed. . ."). We have therefore dropped the middle name to register the whole.

Serena Draconis. Name only. The name was submitted as Zerena Draconis. The given name was stated to be a deliberate misspelling of the given name "Serena". We could not find the evidence to support this as a reasonable orthographic variant in either Latin or any of the other languages in which "Serena" was used as a given name.


Amisia Markham. Change of name from Amisia Malcolm and device. Per chevron azure and gules, a chevron cotised between three coneys statant to sinister Or.

Beatrice MacKelli. Name and device. Azure, a sea elephant Or between four decrescents in cross argent.

Coinneach Kyllyr of Killernan. Device. Gules, semy of thistles, slipped and leaved, a lion rampant to sinister, brandishing a sword fesswise and a shield, its sinister hindpaw resting on a sinister facing helm, all within a bordure embattled Or.

Donwenna Beast Healer of Hawksheye. Change of name from Donwenna Beast Healer of Hawkshaven.

Dreiburgen, Barony of. Order of the Long Rangers of Dreiburgen. While the commentors cringed a bit at the assonance, the consensus seemed to be that the name would be acceptable provided that no armoury was submitted with allusions to the Lone Ranger (e.g., masks, billets argent, etc.).

Eadric Hararand. Name only. On the basis of documented Old English compounds such as "harasteorra" (the Saxons referred to it as the "hare star", not the "dogstar"), the byname seems reasonably formed, although there was some discussion amongst the Laurel staff as to precisely what a "hare shield" would be (a shield made of rabbit skin, protector of rabbits, etc.?).

Ivon of Darkforest. Device. Vert, three pairs of dulcimer hammers in saltire within a bordure embattled Or.

Lavinia Bridget of Glastonbury. Name only.

Morgaine na Méara Eirgead. Device. Lozengy argent and gules, a dexter gauntlet palewise and on a chief rayonny sable, a sword reversed proper.

Ottar Seareaver. Name only.

Robert Buffle of Hawksheye. Change of name from Robert Buffle of Hawkhaven.

Robert of the Angels. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Azure, on a bend cotised between two flasks argent, a recorder bell to chief sable. The submission was made under the name Robert of Maitland.

Stephen of Nordwache. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Gyronny sable and gules, a fret couped within a bordure Or. The submission was made under the name Stephen Pembroke Trahern.


Algirdas Wolthus. Name only.

Cormac MacKenna. Name only.

Duncan Mac na Ceardadh. Device. Sable, three lymphads and a chief engrailed Or.

Elena Norrys. Name and device. Per pale azure and Or, a flame counterchanged.

Fionnghuala Faradach. Name and device. Azure, a chevron engrailed paly sable and argent between three eagle's heads erased argent. The name was submitted as Fionnghuala Farraideach. No provenance was given for the page from a listing of English names which gave this spelling for the Irish given name and we could not find it elsewhere. We have therefore substituted the solidly documented spelling from O Corrain and Maguire (Gaelic Personal Names, p. 96).

Friedrich Tomasson av Knusslig Hamn. Release of badge. Or, on a delf barry of ten argent and azure, a sun Or.

Friedrich Tomasson av Knusslig Hamn. Release of badge. Pean, a griffin segreant to sinister argent, gorged and chained cowardly gules, on a chief argent three estoiles azure.

Gerald of Northumberland. Name and device. Argent, three lions rampant in fess gules and on a chief vert in pale a bow and arrow fesswise Or.

Gregor Heiseler. Name and device. Azure, a lion passant reguardant Or and on a chief embattled argent three increscents azure. The name was submitted as Gregor von Heiseler. Brigantia adduced a nineteenth-century instance of the name in this form with earlier documentation for the radical form. Some time ago the debate on the use of "von" in personal names elicited considerable documentation for the (almost random) addition of "von" to surnames which would would not have had them in period, most notably occupational surnames and adjectival surnames of origin, many ending in the suffix "-er". This is clearly such a form.

Guenevere of Saint Kilda. Device. Vert, a sheep statant guardant argent, masked and limbed sable, within a bordure chequy azure and argent. Since the default lamb is passant and is not guardant, this is clear of Lambert ("Vert, a lamb argent."), cited on the letter of intent.

Gwynllian ferch Dafydd. Name and device. Per saltire argent, fretty vert, and vert, in fess a swallow volant bedwise sinister and another volant bendwise respectant argent.

Hartshorn-dale, Shire of. Device. Or, a stag's attire and on a chief azure three laurel wreaths Or.

Hartshorn-dale, Shire of. Badge. Azure, an unstrung bugle horn bendwise sinister Or.

Horic Grarvargr Caithnes. Change of badge. Argent, a hound passant coward within an orle of chain azure. This changes the tincture of the chain on the previously registered badge (yes, he is a knight. . .).

Ive Annor M'Quhairr of Sighty Crag. Device. Per fess azure and vert, in chief three bobbins in fess sable and in base a plate charged with a drop spindel threaded sable. As Brachet noted, the line of division on the emblazon sheet was drawn rather far up the shield. Please advise the submittor of the correct placement of the line of division.

János Veres. Name and device. Ermine, a brock's head couped affronty sable, marked argent, and on a chief dovetailed sable three moons in their complement argent. The submittor has provided documentation to support the parallel use of name forms in period which have the surname precede and follow the given name in Hungarian from the volume The Hungarian Language edited by Benko and Imre and from Domokos Varga's Hungary in Greatness and Decline. In particular, he cites the common usage of Hungarian epithets following given names of foreign derivation, e.g. Máté Csák, Felicián Zách, János Hunyadi, János Vitéz, László Hunyadi, Mihály Szilágyi. On the letter of intent the moons were blazoned as "increscent moons in their complement": there is no such thing. It is a matter of artistic license how the "man in the moon" is depicted: here it is as an increscent face superimposed on the round form of the moon.

Juraj z Bratislavi. Badge. Per fess wavy azure and Or, a mug counterchanged.

Kiera Lann Haden. Device. Purpure, a seahorse erect reguardant argent and in chief two crosses pointed, voided and interlaced Or.

Lions End, Canton of. Name only. Although the analogue with Land's End made on the letter of intent is not really accurate, the name is acceptable.

Lothar von Schwarzwald. Name and device. Or, a panther rampant sable, incensed proper, in chief three pine trees eradicated sable. This is clear of conflict with Hrothebert van Dyke ("Or, a panther rampant gardant sable, armed and incensed gules, and on a base embattled azure, two bars wavy Or."), cited by Brachet: there is a minor for the difference in posture derived from rampant as opposed to rampant guardant in addition to the cumulative differences derived from the change in type, tincture, number and position of the secondaries and the addition of the tertiary on Hrothebert's device.

Mathilde des Pyrenees. Name only.

Michal of the Water. Name and device. Quarterly argent and azure, a demi-dragon erased passant Or and in sinister chief a compass star argent, all within a bordure Or.

Morag MacPharlain. Name only.

Morgan Arianblaidd. Device. Argent, three chevronels braced and on a chief embattled vert three wolf's heads cabossed argent.

Octavia Rosa di Bari. Name and device. Per pale azure and argent, a rose within a bordure semy of roundels counterchanged.

Phillip of the Golden Stag. Device. Bendy gules and argent, a stag rampant erminois.

Regan Chimaera. Name only.

Rhys Vaughan Gowers. Name only. Note that "Vaughan" is a somewhat anglicised form of the Welsh adjective that is more or equivalent to "the Younger" or "Junior" (Morgan and Morgan, Welsh Surnames, pp. 58­59).

Rocco d'Argento. Name only.

Roxanne of Hidden River. Device. Or, on a pile purpure surmounted by two chevronels counterchanged, in chief a fleur-de-lys Or.

Serric der Grimmige. Name and device. Per fess argent and azure, a boar's head cabossed per fess sable and argent within a torc formed of two serpents embowed, tails nowed in base, counterchanged.

Tamsin Averill. Device. Argent, fretty vert, a griffin couchant, wings elevated and addorsed, sable.

Tassilo d'Auxerre. Name and device. Per saltire argent and gules, an arrow fesswise, barb to dexter, Or between three roundels, one and two, counterchanged.

Tiernan Redwolf. Name and device. Purpure, on a pall inverted argent six pawprints gules.


Adrian de Bretigny du Cabochon. Change of name from Adrian de Bosquologne de la Cabouchier (see PENDING for device). The name was submitted as Adrian de Bretigny de la Cabachon. The French noun "Cabochon" was spelled correctly on the forms, but it is a masculine noun so that, even as the name of an estate, it would be "le Cabochon". This contracts to "du" after the preposition "de".

An Dun Theine, Shire of. Device. Argent, on a flame proper between a chief embattled pean and a laurel wreath vert, a castle sable. Please ask them to draw the flames proper in the correct manner, i.e., gules with an Or center on which the castle is placed, not as flames Or, fimbriated gules. Also ask them to draw the laurel wreath in a more identifiable manner, such as that seen on the Society arms. We have taken the group at its word and as the laurel wreath has been placed, i.e., below the flame. If they wish to have the wreath around to flame to unify the whole, they will have to resubmit the device.

Christophe de Dunglas. Name and device. Sable, a griffin-headed wyvern displayed argent within a bordure gyronny Or and sable. The name was submitted as Christophé de Dunglas, but there is no evidence whatsoever to support the accented "e" in this position. As Black and other sources support period name forms in which "Du-" becomes "Dun-" (e.g., Dungallson for Dougallson), this seems a reasonable variant of the documented surname "de Duglas" (i.e., Douglas).

Dairine nic Nuadhat. Name only.

Dara Armand. Name only. Dara was the name of one of the sons of Zelah in the Bible.

Emily of Briarthorn. Name and device. Argent, a snail guardant and a chief sable. By the precedent set with the passage of the device of Jaelle of Armida in 1984, snails can be guardant.

Francesca di Firenze. Name only.

Guillermo Berenguer de los Almogávares. Name and device. Vert, a coney courant guardant to sinister, on a chief argent five fusils conjoined in fess vert. Although the Almogávares were part of the Catalan Grand Company whose defeat of Walter of Brienne at the Battle of the Cephissus River led to the foundation of the Aragonese Duchy of Athens, this name does not seem to conflict with William, Duke of Athens, who never was a member of that mercenary band. Informational note for those of a canting turn of mind: his mundane name is William Hopper and his nickname is "Hoppy". [A "some day project" for the Laurel staff is to track down precisely the number of names and armorial devices derived from the famous Society filk song "The Catalan Vengeance". . .]

Jane Falada of Englewood. Name only (see PENDING for device).

Marion of Winterchase. Name and device. Per chevron sable and argent, a chevron gules between two mullets and a horse's head erased, all counterchanged.

Meghan Oriana Lauder. Name only.

Osric Modrof. Name only. The byname was documented through a reference to Brook's The Anglo-Saxon and Norman Kings, although no photocopy was included. We were unable to find that name in our edition of the work, but Hall's Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (p. 240) gives "modrof" as an Old English adjective with the meaning "valiant", which appears to be what the submittor desires.

Richenda de Lis. Name and device. Per bend rayonny azure and sable, a mullet and a fleur-de-lys argent.

Sine ni Shranacháin. Name only.

Sven Klar. Name only (see RETURNS for device).


Bridget Edan. Name only.

Caitlin Innes. Name only (see RETURNS for device). The name was submitted as Caytlin a Innes. No evidence could be found to support the use of "y" in this position in the given name so we have used the documented form. The "a" did not make grammatical sense here and was unnecessary for name formation so it has been dropped.

Edmund of Hertford. Name and device. Lozengy sable and argent, a male griffin segreant guardant purpure, armed and beaked, maintaining in both forefeet a cross bottonny Or.

Eirik Dweorgeax. Badge for House Staraxe. Azure, eight single-bitted axes in cross, set in pairs, addorsed and hafts to center, argent.

Fionnghuala of Hill Haven. Device. Per chevron Or and azure, in chief two thistles in chevron , slipped and leaved, gules and in base a harp Or.

Goswin Sterrenkijker van Sint Gillis Waas. Badge. Quarterly sable and argent, a pile inverted throughout counterchanged.

Kathryn of Carraig Ban. Name and device. Per chevron argent and sable, a catamount passant guardant and a horse rampant counterchanged.

Lynnette de Tours. Name and device. Or, three unicorns rampant vert.

Reginald of the Horns. Device. Vert, in pale two spiral hunting horns inverted, bells to sinister, Or. This is indeed close to the German Post Office insignia of "Vert, a posthorn Or.", but the extra difference added by the rotation of the horns from their normal position with bells to dexter chief carries this clear.

Richard Morgan of Cumberland. Device. Vairy Or and gules, a psaltery purpure.

Takya Mereleone. Badge. Azure, two otters courant widdershins in annulo Or, gorged of county coronets sable.

Tiernán of Carn. Name only. The name was submitted as Tirian of Carn. As no documentation could be found to support "Tirian" as a given name in period, we have substituted the Irish given name which the letter of intent suggested he found acceptable.


Caitlin of Carlsbad. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Azure, a natural leopard's head, couped and sinister facing, Or within a bordure erminois. The submission was made under the name of Caitlin Anne Caimbeul. As no group name was provided on her forms, we had recourse to the (reasonably period) mundane name of her town to form the holding name.

Drogo de Lac du Bourget. Device. Pean, an estoile between two gussets argent.

Elaine the Lonely of Valynwoode. Name and device. Pean, a lion's head, erased and sinister facing, gules.

Elinor du Pont. Name and device. Per chevron sable and vert, a goblet within a bordure argent.

Erasimierz Waspanieski. Device. Or, a gurges sable. White Stag has persuaded us that his depiction of the gurges is a reasonable Continental variant. However, we do fear that the "Rule of Toyota" may apply here, with his receiving many scrolls and armorial gifts which depict the more usual Anglo-French gurges shown in Brault and other sources. If that prove to be so, we would certainly entertain a motion for reblazon.

Gizela Balbina Teucer. Name only. The name was submitted as Gizela Balbina Teuceri. We have dropped the final genitive form to make the name a more probable late period German humanist name, this being the only context in which you would be likely to find the German given name (the form is German, not Italian) conjoined to a Latin declined adjective and a classical Greek (not Latin) personal name used as a surname.

Keridwen Gwennmarch. Change of name from Keridwen Gwenmarch and change of device. Sable, a horse's head cabossed argent, crined, between three escallops inverted Or. The unmutated form of the byname was, in our opinion, "grandfathered", but it might be kind of White Stag to tell the submittor that the period Welsh form would almost certainly have mutated to "Gwennfarch".

Martha de Blenkensop. Name only.

Otagiri Tatsuzo. Change of device. Sable, three ken and three dragon scales conjoined in annulo, points outwards, within a bordure embattled, all argent.

Outlands, Crown Prince of the. Device. Vert, a stag salient argent, attired, unguled and gorged with a Saxon crown, all within a bordure embattled Or, overall a label argent.

Outlands, Crown Princess of. Device. Vert, a hind salient argent, unguled and gorged with a Saxon crown Or, between three doves rising, wings elevated and addorsed, argent, beaked and membered, within an orle embattled on the inner edge Or.

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Badge for use as ensign. Vert, a stag salient argent, attired and unguled, within a bordure embattled Or.

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Device. Vert, a stag argent, attired and unguled, salient from between the boughs of a laurel wreath, in chief a Saxon crown, all within a bordure embattled Or.

Outlands, Queen of the. Device. Vert, a hind salient, unguled and in chief a Saxon crown, all within a wreath of roses, lying as on a bordure, Or.

Signy von Velden. Change of name from holding name of Jocelyn von Velden. The name was submitted as Signe von Velden. We could find no documentation for this version in period so have substituted the well-documented period Norse feminine name "Signy".

Tully of Tehri. Change of name from Morgan of Landour and change of device. Or, a cattail, slipped and leaved, bendwise sinister proper between two gouttes de larmes. The name was submitted as Tule of Tehri. As Crescent noted, the name was not documented in this precise form and, as it was also a common noun for a cattail, it would have to be modified. As his forms indicated he wished the sound of his name ("toolee"), but allowed changes, we have substituted the anglicised form of the Irish given name "Tuathal" (O Corrain and Maguire, Gaelic Personal Names, p. 173).


Aine of the Hounds. Name only.

Alicianne de Montfort of Sprucewood. Badge. Per bend sinister purpure and argent, two dice counterchanged. Note that these dice are depicted in the manner that seems to have been the standard in period heraldry (where dice are used). Although these are technically in trian aspect, the "perspective" is kept to a minimum by making the near side of the cube almost a square so that the die is not really seen directly edge on.

Allyshia, Barony of. Order of the Fern. Name only.

Alyssia of Cameo Keype. Name only.

Annora de la Forêt Noire. Name only.

Anton the Fair. Change of device. Vert, two bendlets wavy between two suns Or. His old device ("Azure, two bendlets wavy between two suns Or.") becomes a badge.

Anton the Fair. Badge. Gyronny Or and vert, each gyron Or charged with a pomme.

Beaconsgate, Riding of. Device. Azure, a beacon within a laurel wreath Or.

Ceallan mac Cúanachtaigh ó Conraoi. Change of name from Ceallan ó Conraoi.

David of Lockerbie. Name only.

Diane de la Croix. Name only.

Dorthea the Impatient. Name and device. Purpure, on a bend wavy Or between two escallops argent, a rose, slipped and leaved, proper.

Douglas of Dunbar. Name and device. Argent, chapé sable, a rhinoceros' head erased purpure. His mundane given name is Douglas.

Dubhghlas Mac Ailean. Change of name from Douglas FitzAlan. Although we are by no means convinced of the plausibility of "Dubhghlas" as a Gaelic given name in period, it seemed unreasonable to allow the submittor to register the translation of an already registered Society name.

Eleanore of West Riding. Name and device. Azure, a chevron wavy between three Maltese crosses argent.

Fergus Mac Thomais. Name only.

Frederik Xavier. Name and device. Or, a red fox sejant proper within an orle indented purpure charged with a tressure Or. The fox is proper because it has the normal fox markings and is not entirely gules.

Galen of Greybough. Change of device. Argent, on a bend sinister azure between two crosses formy gules, three crescents Or.

Gillian Guildford. Name only.

Gregorio Antonio Cobianchi di Piacenza. Device. Per pale gules and sable, a dragon statant guardant, tail coward, and on a chief enarched argent, three tuns palewise sable.

Guenever of Ravenscroft. Device. Argent, two Great Danes combattant sable within a bordure invected vert.

Ian Mac Tavish. Name and device. Sable, a trident bendwise Or.

Isobel of Silvermere. Name and device. Azure, on a pale argent, two gouttes vert, on a chief argent, three gouttes vert.

Jean Paul de Rheims. Blazon correction. Per chevron inverted azure and gules, a chevron inverted between a castle triple-towered argent and three plates. When the device was registered in July, 1988, the "inverted" dropped out of the field division.

Konrad Tregetor der Taschenspieler. Device. Vert, a bearded collie passant to sinister and on a chief argent, three tri-bladed windmills azure.

Lasairfhíona Muireann of Amberwynne. Change of name from Aislinn de Cheviots and change of device. Purpure, on a chevron between two bunches of grapes and a goblet argent, a grapevine fructed proper.

Magnus Blackthorne. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Margaret Anne of Somerset. Name only.

Marie da Serra da Estrela. Name only. The name appeared on the letter of intent as Marie da Serra da Estrella. The submittor's documentation supports the form in one "l" and, from the typed material on her forms, appears to be the spelling she desires.

Martin de Bayeux. Name and device. Gyronny vert and Or, a pheon gules within a bordure indented sable.

Meghan of Laurel Wood. Change of name from Bridget of Ashbury.

Oksana Vladislavovna Soroka. Change of name from Oksana Vladislavovna of Sherbrooke.

Penelope O Súileabháin. Name and device. Vert, on a cross, each arm nowy of a lozenge, argent, four quartrefoils slipped vert.

Peter the Sinister. Name only.

Politarchopolis, Shire of. Name only (see RETURNS for device). Vesper's letter of intent indicated that the folk of this shire desired a name as close as possible to the returned name of "Politikopolis". The submittor's suggestion, lovingly and carefully worked out and documented (Laurel's thanks to the submittors for using the "big" Liddell and Scott which saved the Laurel staff much time!) was "Polu Tikou Polis", which unfortunately made very little sense by classical or mediaeval geographic naming practice. Happily, we were able to come up with something even closer which has a meaning perhaps closer to the submittor's intent than the form originally submitted: "Politarchopolis". The "politarches" are documented from classical and Hellenistic Greek inscriptional material as the primary civic magistrates in several Greek city states. Literally, the term means "one who governs the state" and thus "Politarchopolis" is the "City of the men who govern the state", an excellent description for Canberra!

Sebastien Mabille. Device. Erminois, on a mullet of eight points azure, a goblet Or, within a bordure embattled azure.

Siobhan ni Seaghda. Change of name from Aileen Siobhan ni Seaghda.

Stanislaw Chybiak. Name only. The name was submitted as Stanislaw Chybky. Thanks to White Stag, we were able to provide the submittor with the proper locative form.

Stephen Lazar. Name and device. Quarterly argent and sable, a sword inverted gules surmounted by a pegasus courant reguardant, wings elevated and addorsed, Or.

Susi de la Terre. Blazon correction. Azure, a pegasus couchant, wings elevated and addorsed, and on a chief argent, three mullets inverted vert. When the device was registered in July, 1988, the precise orientation of the mullets was omitted.

Timo Auliksenpoika. Name only. The name is Finnish and includes the submittor's mundane given name.

Torvald of Jämtland. Change of name from Bjorngeirr Brygarreson and badge. A pike naiant to sinister counter-compony argent and sable. The name was spelled on the letter of intent as Torvald of Jämptland, but this seems to have been a typographical error as the forms have the correct spelling of the place name.

Ulrik Hrutcarl. Name and device. Sable, in pale a ram's head cabossed and an arrow fesswise, barb to dexter, Or.

Vanora Gyldanheart. Name and device. Or, on a dexter gore azure, a heart Or, in sinister chief a parrot rising to sinister proper.

William Percival. Name only.



Marsali Fox. Change of device. Per chevron throughout gules and sable, a fox couchant reguardant, tail coward, argent. Conflict with Finn Silverfox ("Vert, chaussé chequy argent and sable, a fox dormant argent.").

Tadhg Liath of Duncairn. Device. Lozengy pean and vert, ermined Or. There are two problems with this submission: as ermined fields are categorized by their background colour in the Society, this violates the limitations on fields divided solely of colours in AR2 and, in addition, it conflicts with the mundane arms of Crofts ("Lozengy argent and pean."", as cited in Papworth, p. 972).


Alessandra Raffaela di Luciano. Device. Azure, a swan naiant, wings elevated and addorsed, argent within a bordure Or, semy of escallops inverted azure. Conflict with Sheryl of Thespis, cited on the letter of intent: "Azure, a swan naiant argent, crowned Or." Sheryl's device has the swan in precisely the same posture and the echo is particularly striking.

Bethoc of Atholl. Name only. The name conflicts with that of Bethoc, daughter of Malcolm mac Madadh, Earl of Atholl, ancestress of the members of Clan Chattan in Badenoch (Moncreiffe, The Highland Clans, p. 61 and inside back cover).

Edward Drakenfeld. Device. Per bend azure and gules, in bend sinister a blond mermaid erect proper, tailed vert, maintaining a trident bendwise argent, and three dolphin fish in bend naiant fesswise to sinister Or (Coryphaena hippurus). We were compelled to agree with Brachet that the tail here had so little contrast that the charge's identity was in question. Making the tail of the mermaid Or or argent would resolve the difficulty.

Geoffrey the Procrastinator. Device. Argent, a wyvern erect to sinister gules within a bordure sable. Conflict with Celenion Ffranges verch Cinnan ("Argent, a wyvern rampant to sinister, tail nowed, gules, between its claws a mullet sable, all wihin a bordure chequy sable and argent.") and Cirilo Zmajdrugada ("Argent, a dragon segreant to sinister, tail coward, vert, winged within a bordure sable.").

Kveldulfr av Ulfsgaard. Name and device. Argent, a wolf-headed eagle displayed and sinister facing, gorged of a county coronet Or and grasping in its talons two battleaxes crossed in saltire sable. As Vesper notes, "Kveld-Ulfr" may well be a unique name like "Skalla-Grimr": the adjective "kveld" was added to the given name "Ulfr" for the grandfather of Egil Skallagrimsson, a famous berserker. He was apparently given the name because he only came alive in the evenings and possibly because he was considered b some to be a werewolf in actuality. (Some superstitious folk considered that the berserkers actually became their totemic animals in the heat of battle and Geirr Bassi lists "Kveld-Ulfr" only in his section on bynames, giving that meaning (p. 24). Conflict with Anne of Bohemia, wife of Richard II of England ("Argent, an eagle displayed sable.") and the royal arms of Prussia ("Argent, an eagle displayed sable, crowned and with klee-stengeln Or, armed gules, holding within its dexter claw the Royal Sceptre and in the sinister the Royal Orb.").

Otherhill, Shire of. Badge for the Unicorn Guard. Gules, a unicorn's head erased to sinister argent, collared sable. Conflict with Katrina of the Neverlands ("Gules, a unicorn's head erased reversed, in canton a decrescent and in sinister chief in bend two mullets palewise argent.").

Raibeart mac Donnachaidh. Name only. The gentle's mundane name is Robert Duncan and he desired a natural Gaelic translation. Unfortunately, a different gentle, also mundanely known as Robert Duncan, had the same idea first: the name Raibeart Donnachaidh was registered in 1984.

Signy Jensdottir of Hedeby. Device. Vert, in pale a horse passant to sinister argent and a three-strand Sennet braid in fess Or. Unfortunately, it was our feeling that this fess of braid must fall under the long-standing ban on knotwork. As the intertwining of the strands is so important an element of the overall design, it is not really reasonable to blazon the charge as a fess invected and to consider the interior markings as elaborate diapering. Note that too that there was a considerable amount of difference among the commentors as to how a Sennet braid would actually be drawn, were one permissible. Several of the macrame mavens amongst the members of the College noted that a normal Sennet would be tightened so that the large gaps showing the field would not be present.

Taliesin of Clan Furlong. Device. Argent, a chevron azure between two dragons passant respectant gules maintaining between them a sword sable and a fret gules. Conflict with Thomas of the Pines ("Argent, a chevron azure between three pine trees sable.") and Eadmund of Pendlesweald ("Argent, a chevron azure between three oak trees eradicated sable, fructed argent."), as well as the mundane arms of Burghepe ("Argent, a chevron azure.", as cited in Papworth, p. 372).


Robert of Maitland. Name only. As Habicht noted, Robert Maitland was one of the noble hostages for James I in 1424 (Black, Surnames of Scotland, p. 575).

Stephen Pembroke Trahern. Name only. In its current form the name conflicted with Stefan of Pembroke, registered in September, 1988. As the submittor allowed no changes to the name save for formation of a holding name, we could not drop the Pembroke to avoid the conflict.


Alastar MacCrummin the Scot. Name and device. Argent, vetu ployé azure, a triangular trivet azure, enflamed proper, in chief two pheons inverted argent. After much discussion, we decided that the use of the epithet "the Scot" was inadvisable with the given name of three of the most famous kings of Scotland. As he did not allow any changes to his name, we could not drop the offending epithet. This device seemed to display too many anomalies to be considered consonant with period style: charging a chapé or vetu is extremely bad practise in itself and limiting the charges to the upper portion of the shield disturbs the balance of the device, the trivet is such that it cannot be clearly identified without depicting it in trian aspect and the flaming of only the legs and upper portion of the outer edge of the trivet is peculiar to say the least. (This is without considering the fact that the submittor's concept of flames proper are "Or, fimbriated gules", even on the argent field: that could be corrected by correct depiction of the flames.)

Brid Ce ile De. Name only. There are several problems with this name. Bríd is indeed documented by O Corrain and Maguire as an Irish form for Bridget (Gaelic Personal Names, p. 36). However, neither the documentation provided by the submittor nor a considerable amount of research in modern and Old Irish sources could support the form of the byname. The Old Irish form from which the modern English term "Culdee" is ultimately derived would have been "céle Dé". This term was applied to Irish anchorites and some other monastic followers in early Ireland and literally means "companion of God". This certainly is an epithet that applies to St. Brigid who, whether or not she was originally a Celtic goddess, from the early days of Irish Christianity to the present day was considered second only to Patrick in the extensive Irish hierarchy of saints. Just to make the situation worse, Brigid is often referred to as Brigid of Kildare and that place name is very similarly pronounced in Old Irish ("cille dara" or "church of the oak").

Cassiopea of Stonemarche. Name and device. Chequy argent and gules, a talbot sejant sable. Withdrawn at the request of the Brigantia Principal Herald.

Darius of Hidden River. Device. Argent, on a bend sinister cotised gules, a leopard's head cabossed argent, marked sable. Conflict with Kathryn Dhil Lorriel ("Argent, on a bend sinister gules, cotised sable, a Lady Banks rose, slipped and leaved, proper.").

David MacDougalls. Change of name from David MacDougall. Per fess azure and gules, a demi-plate conjoined to a base demi-sun Or, the whole charged with a hawk striking sable. The submittor was appealing the dropping of the terminal "s" from his name when it was registered in August, 1987. The letter of intent indicated that the submittor contended that this was a valid variant form, but neither the letter of intent nor the submittor's paperwork gave any documentation supporting this statement. In this case, the weight of argument is very strong to indicate that the "mac" prefix and the "s" suffix are alternate methods of indicating a patronymic and are not used together. Intensive examination of Scots surnames in Black, particularly the entries for MacDougall, failed to show a single instance of the two patronymic indicators occurring together. The submittor was also appealing a return of the device at Kingdom level by Brigantia's predecessor, Dawyd z Gury. The consensus of commentary was to applaud Dawyd's conclusion that this device was not period style. Morover, it technically conflicts with the device of Stefan of Seawood, cited on the letter of intent ("Azure, on a sun Or, an eagle displayed sable.").

Gaidhealach Dorchadh, Shire of. Name and device. Vert, a cinquefoil within a laurel wreath Or and on a chief indented argent, three hurts. The letter of intent indicated that the submittors wished the meaning of "Misty Highland". Unfortunately, not only is this name not syntactically correct, it also carries almost nothing of the desired meaning. "Gaidhealach" is an adjective not a noun and means "Gaelic" (it is the source of the English linguistic term "Goidelic"). Although the dictionary the submittors used gives it as an adjective meaning "Highland", there is definitely a capital "h" involved there and refers specifically to the area of Scotland in which Gaelic was spoken, i.e., the Highlands. This is made clear by the following citation from the documentation provided which offers "Gaidhealtachd" as the noun form with the translation "Highlands of Scotland". The more general term would be either (very literally) "ard-thir" (or more appropriately for the West Virginia countryside in question) "garbhchriochan" the latter being a plural noun form which means "rough country" and is used commonly in Gaelic to denote the Highlands of Scotland, when not speaking in an ethnic mode. "Dorchadh" on the other hand is a participle form meaning "getting dark or obscure" or "mystifying". In the sense of "misty" or "foggy" as we mean it the proper Gaelic adjective would appear to be "ceòthanach" (not surprisingly, the Scots have quite a few different ways of describing this particular weather condition!). As the changes necessary to the name would be so radical, we felt it necessary to refer it back to the group for consideration. Equally, unfortunately, the device had to be returned since no holding name can be formed for groups.

Loriwynn Lindsdottir of Skye. Name only. This was an appeal over an original return by Brigantia which was sent on by Brigantia with support. Unfortunately, while the other elements of the name are perfectly acceptable, the documentation for the given is not compelling. The submittor found "Lore" as a given name in French prose romances based on the Arthurian legend, but a French given name cannot simply be merged with an Old English or Welsh suffix without further ado. Even the merging of Old Norse with Old English, which would be culturally, if not necessarily linguistically, more persuasive, cannot be supported and we were unable to locate the form "Lorí" mentioned by Brigantia without any citation of a specific source.

Trevyn Avery. Name only. The letter of intent documented the name "Trevyn" as a given name from a modern fantasy novel by Nancy Springer, The Sable Moon. Unfortunately, it is not a given name but a Cornish place name (the prefix "Tre" is sympotomatic).


Felicia of the True Layne. Badge. A lion's head cabossed Or, jessant of a tower gules. Conflict with Jehanne de Lyonesse ("Vert, a lion's head affronty Or, orbed vert."), the badge of the Poet Laureate of Meridies ("Vair ancient, a lion's head cabossed Or, orbed and langued gules."), etc.

Jörg Kratz. Badge. Argent, a bend counter-compony azure and gules between two dragons passant counter-passant vert, bellied Or. Unfortunately, by the strict reading of AR2, charges may not be counter-compony of two colours, just as fields may not be chequy of two colours.

Kalanina bint Rahman. Name and device. Per bend argent and pean, in sinister chief a butterfly bendwise azure. The documentation indicated that the given name was compounded from a Hindu adjective "black" and the Spanish noun "niña" meaning "girl". Society usage does not permit such cross- linguistic amalgams (unless there is specific documentation to support the form) and in this case it is particularly unlikely given the naming practises of the two linguistic groups. It should also be noted that intensive research on the part of the commentors could not reveal any instance where the simple adjective/substantive "Rahman" was applied to anyone but Allah himself. Indeed, so closely is the epithet tied to Allah that it can be used in such forms as "Abd al-Rahman" to indicate a "servant of Allah". As she allowed no changes to her name, the submission as a whole had to be returned.

Llawrwydden Faucon. Name only. As "llawrwydden" is a common noun meaning "laurel", we need to have documentation that it was used as an actual given name in period in Wales. The documentation provided does not provide that, since the seventeenth-century Latin-Welsh dictionary used, gives this as the form for "laurea", the Latin feminine noun for the laurel tree. Note that the fact that a form may be used as a given name in one language does not guarantee that it is also valid as a given name in another unrelated language: the existence of Laura as a period given name in Italy does not mean that the translation of Laura will appear as a given name in Wales. The situation is quite the contrary, in fact, since the period forms of the name documented in Wales are derived from the Romance forms, e.g. "Lowri" the name of a sixteenth-century Welsh bishop.

Odoacer of the Wastes. Name only. By the submittor's own documentation, Odoacer was the name of the Germanic military officer who supplanted the last Roman Emperor at Rome. He was put in place by his men specifically because they wished land in Italy. A.H.M.Jones (Decline of the Ancient World, p. 92) notes that Odoacer himself was a Scirian. While their position immediately before the fall of Rome is not clear, the Scirii derived from an area northeast of the Vistula River which, even in a much later period, would be widely considered wasteland.

Reynard de Gournay. Name and device. Or, a pale azure, overall an antelope rampant counterchanged. Conflict with Sladden ("Or, a pale azure."). It should be noted that the counterchange here significantly diminishes the identifiability of the already unusual animate charge and is therefore highly inadvisable.

Sven Klar. Device. Argent, on a cross patty throughout sable, a sun eclipsed Or. Conflict with Woodgouse ("Argent, a cross patty fixed (i.e., throughout) sable.", as cited in Papworth, p. 607), Dorothea of Caer Myrddin ("Argent, a cross patty sable."), Craig of the Chambers ("Argent, on a cross nowy patty throughout sable, a plate thereon a corbie displayed sable."). Additionally, as Green Anchor properly noted, it is also necessary to consider the badge of the Teutonic Order (a cross formy sable) which appears as the basis of a number of pieces German civic heraldry.

Ulfin Einhard. Device. Argent, a winged natural panther rampant to sinister sable, maintaining a rose gules, slipped and leaved vert, all within a bordure rayonny gules. There really is a visual conflict here with Peregrine Darkhawk, cited on the letter of intent ("Argent, a falcon rising to sinister sable, grasping in one talon a finger ring gules, gemmed azure, all within a bordure rayonny gules."). We did not feel complete difference of charge could reasonably apply here since you have two winged creatures in essentially the same posture (allowing for the differences in the bodies of the two beasts). The items being held in both cases are so small that they cannot contribute materially to the visual difference between the two.

William Burroughs. Name only. Unfortunately, this conflicts directly with the well-known modern novelist William Burroughs, author of, among other things, Naked Lunch.


Caitlin Innes. Device. Argent, ermined, a rose azure, barbed vert, within a bordure invected azure. Unfortunately, Crescent is correct when he states that this lovely device technically conflicts with the badge of Angharad of the Blue Rose ("A rose within a triangle azure.").

Grey Gargoyles, College of the. Change of device. Azure, a winged horned gargoyle sejant erect, maintaining a sword, argent and on a chief Or, an open book argent, fimbriated sable, between two laurel wreaths vert. Not only is the fimbriation of the book on the chief excessive, but the device also technically conflicts with the device of Amil Sorcha Duileach, cited on the letter of intent ("Azure, a rat sejant erect, tail coward, argent and on a chief Or three swans naiant gules.").

Mirielda Grey. Device. Gules, a bend cotised Or, overall on a rose argent, a heart gules. Note that, though the blazon on the letter of intent, indicated that the rose was barbed vert, the barbs appear as argent on the emblazon sheet. Technically, the heart here adds a fourth layer. It is extremely unfortunate that this submission differences the mundane arms of Arsacke ("Gules, a bend between two cotises Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 206) by adding the Luther Rose. Although von Volborth shows a shield with the Luther rose as "Azure, a rose argent, seeded with a heart gules, charged with a cross sable." (Heraldry, Customs, Rules and Styles, p. 49), it is quite generally used in Lutheran religious banners and other insignia as simply the rose with the heart and (often) a nearly invisible cross. This emblem was in fact used by Luther himself who called it the badge of his theology (von Volborth notes that Prince John Frederick of Coburg had a signet ring made for Luther with this rose, ibid.).


Caitlin Anne Caimbeul. Name only. Unfortunately, the name conflicts with that of Katharine Campbell, registered in March, 1988.

Joella of Blue Lion's Keep. Badge for Claw Legion. A hurt, surmounted by four talons in cross gules, armed Or. After much consideration, we have decided that this badge cannot really be considered period style. It is notable that virtually nobody in the College could determine what the charges were surmounting the hurt without looking at the blazon (several heralds in different kingdoms blazoned them first as four icecream cones in cross!). Laurel staff comment also centered on the fact that this submission only makes sense if you imagine the (invisible) four-toed lion's jambe behind the hurt, making it by definition in trian aspect. If she wishes to retain the cant, she might do better to use a jambe. There was some strong negative comment on the "fantasy novel" tone of the household name, but it is, strictly speaking, legal if no conflicts exist.

Nicole de Saint Clair. Badge. A rose gules, seeded and barbed of five crosses crosslet fitchy Or. Elaborate as the barbing is here, it was our feeling that it could not carry this clear of the conflict with the Lancastrian red rose, not to mention the arms of the Princes of Lippe ("Argent, a rose gules, barbed and seeded proper.").

Olaf Bjornson. Change of name from Olaf Bjarnarson. White Stag asked on his letter of intent "Is there a profound linguistic reason to deny this spelling of the name?". Well, actually, yes, failing period documentation for this form. . .[Linguistic Complexity Warning: Laurel is about to (re)lapse into linguistic analysis mode: if terms like "morphology" and "syntactic modification" tend to drive you up the wall, you may wish to proceed to the next item. . .] In the Scandinavian languages, as in the Romance languages and the other Germanic languages, there was a progressive simplification of the grammatical structure as the mediaeval period progressed. In the period which preceded the Old Norse that we are familiar with, much of a very elaborate Indo-European syntactic system seems to have been retained, with a case system analogous to that which is familiar to linguists from Sanskrit, Greek and Latin. In particular, interrelationships between nouns were denoted by morphological changes in the nouns themselves, rather than by prepositional phrases, as is common in modern English and most modern European languages. Differing relationships were indicated by different cases, with the cases in Old Norse including a morphologically distinct nominative, genitive, dative and accusative. Each of these cases had its own varying suffixes which could in some cases affect the internal vowel quality of a noun when they were added to the root element of the noun, producing differing declensions of the noun. (This is a process that should be familiar to those who have studied German and found that some nouns add an umlaut to an interior vowel in forming the plural.) Specifically, in Old Scandinavian languages, the best attested of which is Old Norse/Old Icelandic, sometimes referred to as Western Scandinavian, the case which indicated possession or origin, the Indo-European genitive, was indicated by two suffixes: "-s" and "-ar". (Actually, these were originally both the same suffix, "s" and "r" being phonemically interchangeable at one point in the earlier development of the languages, but that is too complex to get into here.) Between the Old Scandinavian period, for which there is excellent documentation, and the modern period there was a constant development which produced the modern Scandinavian languages. In many areas, this development seems to have proceded at a slower rate than it did to the South in Germany and in England, so that processes that were more or less complete at the end of our period in the South were still continuing in Scandinavia. Indeed, thanks in part to the political and ethnic developments of the late mediaeval and modern period in some areas, most notably in Norway, the process did not become complete until well into the nineteenth century. (There are in fact some Scandinavian scholars who assert the process is not yet complete and that the advent of radio and television in the north is about to complete the simplification of the language.) One of the most striking features of this process of development (in English and German as well as in the Scandinavian languages) was the drastic simplification of the case structure. The variety of noun forms which were available in Old Scandinavian (which is generally considered to exist through about 1350) gradually narrowed over several hundred years with most of the cases being supplanted by the use of prepositions or word order, as was the case with English, and most of the varying declensions falling together, losing many of the internal modifications of Old Norse, such as are seen in "Bjarnar", the genitive of "Bjorn". The key issue here is precisely when these changes occurred. For each of the Scandinavian languages, a lengthy "Middle Scandinavian" period followed the Old Scandinavian period, running in most cases through the end of our period. Thus there is a Middle Swedish that, like Middle English, differs strikingly from the modern forms, although the process of collapse of the syntactic and morphological distinctions of Old Norse are already underway. It is clear from the modern languages, in which the genitive is the strongest of the remaining cases (in some instances the only remaining oblique case) that the genitive was the last to collapse and probably the last to lose the variety of forms which had typified it in Old Scandinavian. In the modern languages, virtually all genitives are formed by the simple addition of "-s" to the stem or the modified stem so that the submittor can point to a string of modern patronymics formed from Bjorn in the form "Bjornsson", but it is decidedly dicey whether this would have been the case in period. (There is the related question of whether the stem of the name itself would have been immune from the morphological modifications, but that is a separate issue. . .) If you are interested in a relatively convenient paperback summary of the historical morphology and syntax of the Scandinavian languages, see Haugen, Scandinavian Language Structures: A Comparative Historical Survey (University of Minnesota Press, 1982). We would dearly like to see some clear period documentation for the genitive form of "Bjorns", but have not thus far been presented with any. Note as well that the proposed patronymic would normally appear in the modern language as "Bjornsson" since the "s" of the genitive and the initial "s" of the noun are both retained.

Tod Coyle. Name and device. Per pale sable and azure, three foxes' heads cabossed counterchanged argent and Or. Unfortunately, reference to the citations mentioned on the letter of intent only confirms that the name "Tod" in this form does not appear to be documented from period as a given name. Its use as a surname appears most probably to be derived from the fox as an occupational or descriptive byname. As it is a common noun, unless he can give firmer docuemntation for its use as a given name in period, we would suggest that he use a documented name such as Toti or Tuda. Note that he prohibited any changes to the name whatsoever and so we have had to return the submission as a whole (in this case, it is so closely related to the offending portion of the name that this is the most logical course. . .).


Algrin the Dark. Device. Per bend sinister sable and Or, a tree eradicated counterchanged. Unfortunately, Seraph is correct in citing the badge of the Barony of Madrone as a technical conflict ("A madrone tree eradicated proper.").

Eleanor Mabile. Device. Sable, a cup Or within a heart voided argent and a bordure Or. Despite its simplicity, the voided heart must be considered "thin line heraldry" (yes, we know we registered one this summer: that was a mistake due to what Vesper so accurately calls "advanced rigor mortus of the brain".

Magnus Blackthorne. Device. Per bend gules and sable, a swan naiant to sinister argent. Conflict with Amber Dorigen of Limerick ("Sable, in pale a swant naiant to sinister argent between two chrysanthemums, the upper inverted, Or, slipped and leaved vert.").

Politarchopolis, Shire of. Device. Argent, two chevronels gules between two griffins combattant and a laurel wreath azure. There was a considerable amount of sentiment at the meeting for "forgetting the rules" and passing this submission although it conflicts, as Vesper noted, with the mundane arms of Chetwyn ("Argent, two chevronels gules."). Unfortunately, as Crescent explained, the "hardship rule" can hardly apply as the delays in submission here do not derive from heraldic non-feasance, as Vesper's own chronology indicates. The "Grace Period" too is not really applicable, whether one counts from the issuance of Master Baldwin's rules or the tenure of the current Laurel, who has been (we hope) been consistent from the first in applying the difference that can be derived from adding a group of charges.

Simeon ben Jacob. Name and device. Or, on a bend between two stars of David azure, a sword Or. There was strong feeling in the College that the name did conflict with the eponymous founder of the Tribe of Simeon, mentioned on the letter of intent. The device unfortunately is in technical conflict with Diane de Lyon ("Or, on a bend between a lion rampant and a scorpion passant to sinister azure, three crescents Or.").

Torvald of Jämtland. Badge. Paly bendy bendy sinister argent and purpure. Technically this is a conflict with the mundane arms of Eve ("Barry of ten argent and purpure.").



Adrian de Bretigny du Cabochon. Change of device. Per chevron Or and gules, in chief three crescents, one and two, gules and in base a sun eclipsed Or. The tincture of the crescents was omitted from the letter of intent. While a number of commentors caught the problem, many were not able to check properly for conflicts. The submission is therefore pended to the January meeting.

Jane Falada of Englewood. Device. Argent, a chevron vert, platy, in chief three English ivy leaves conjoined in pall inverted, slips to center, vert. As the blazon on the letter of intent did not match the emblazon and the tincture of the ivy was omitted, this submission is pended until the January meeting to allow for further discussion.

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