Abigail MacLachlan. Name.

Algar de Devonshire. Device. Azure, a cross crosslet fitchy within a bordure wavy argent.

Nice armory!

Andrei Donatovich Medvednikov. Name and device. Quarterly sable and argent, four dragons segreant counterchanged on a chief gules three mullets of eight points argent.

Corvaria, Shire of. Device. Per pale Or and argent, a raven rising to sinister wings elevated and addorsed azure sustaining in its talons a laurel wreath bendwise sinister proper.

Gwalchwyn ap Gryffyn. Device. Per bend sinister azure and vert, a griffin segreant to sinister reguardant within a bordure embattled Or.

Pretty armory!

Isabella Lucrezia Veneziano Martini. Name.

Some support for the construction with two given names and two surnames is provided by Ensign's period example of Giovan Francesco Palladio degli Olivi; the construction is different, but we are giving it the benefit of the doubt.

Ivarr Ulfvarinsson. Name.

Jhone MacLachlan. Name.

Most of those who addressed the issue agreed that the modern jazz musician John McLaughlin was neither well enough known nor important enough to be protected. (He was cited from a dictionary of music, not one of the standard references in Appendix E of the Administrative Handbook. Such specialized reference works typically include many figures whose achievements do not merit inclusion in the more general works whose coverage determines our standard of protection.)

Macrina of Smyrna. Name and device. Per bend sinister sable and Or, a portative organ and a recorder bendwise sinister counterchanged.

Mredyth y Linx Gwyn. Name change from holding name Sheron of Three Mountains.

Mredyth is an unusual but documented Anglicized spelling of Maredudd; the name as a whole combines a number of documentable but relatively uncommon practices.

Stromgard, Shire of. Device. Argent, a sea-horse bendwise gules issuant from a base engrailed barry engrailed azure and argent, in chief three laurel wreaths vert.

Tamar the Serene. Name and device. Argent, a ladybug gules marked sable on a chief purpure two open books argent.

The byname is very improbable and verges on the pretentious. The first citation in the OED in the sense `calm, untroubled' is from about 1635; in period citations the word is used as an honorific epithet for a reigning prince or other member of a royal house. Given `Grey Area' citations showing the modern usage, however, we must give it the benefit of the doubt. A period byname with approximately the same meaning is the Mild.

Vincenzo Crovetto Genovese. Name.

Waldemar Kendric Tavenor. Device. Or, a wyvern passant vert bellied and wings displayed, on a chief embattled gules three crescents Or.


Atlantia, Kingdom of. Release of device for the Prince. Per pale argent and azure, on a fess wavy cotised counterchanged, a crown vallary Or.

Atlantia, Kingdom of. Release of device for the Princess. Per pale azure and argent, on a fess wavy cotised counterchanged, an escallop erminois.

Ayisha bint `Ata'. Name and device. Per bend gules and vert, on a bend wavy Or three standing balances palewise sable.

We have changed 'Ata' to `Ata' to match the documentation.

Berenger Nachtwulf von Mainz der Spieler. Device. Vairy in point argent and sable, on a bend sinister azure between two chess rooks a stag's attire Or.

Black Kane O'Shannon. Badge. Quarterly wavy sable and Or, a claymore and a tower sable.

Boroghul Khara. Name and device. Quarterly embattled argent and azure fretty Or, in bend two bows sable.

Frederich von Teufen. Name and device. Quarterly sable and Or, an eagle displayed facing sinister gules between three ermine spots counterchanged.

Grainne the Wanderer. Name.

Since we treat the Wanderer as if it were an attested period English byname, this name is registerable by virtue of the lingua anglica allowance.

Gregor Arnulf der Wanderer. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Wyndelere 1353 is an attested German byname with the desired meaning.

Gruffudd ap Cadfael. Name and device. Gules, a cross crosslet fitchy Or between flaunches each flaunch charged with a griffin gules.

Johannes Piper. Name and device. Argent, three seeblätter in pale between flaunches azure.

Nice armory!

Mac Con mac Rodáin. Name and device. Per pall sable, azure and argent, three pawprints Or.

The patronymic was submitted as mac Rodán; we have corrected the grammar by putting the patronym into the genitive case. Note that Mac Con is a single given name; to avoid confusion he might consider writing it MacCon.

Michael von Fulda. Name and device. Azure, on a pale argent between two lightning bolts Or a dexter gauntlet clenched sable.

Patrick Bentwood. Name.

Pawlyn ap Griffydd. Name and device. Or, a griffin segreant, on a chief sable three bowed psalteries Or.

Peter Engelke. Device. Gules, on a cross moline quadrate argent between four annulets Or, a raven maintaining in its beak an annulet sable.

This same device was registered to him in May 1995, though the maintained annulet was not blazoned then.

Sieglinde Achtermann. Device. Azure, a dragon passant to sinister argent, a chief indented argent ermined azure.


Sylvanus Perrin. Name and device. Per saltire argent and gules, a ruined tower between three tree stumps snagged sable.

Torquil MacTaggart the Steadfast. Device. Vert, two golf clubs crossed in saltire, on a chief rayonny argent three pellets.

The submitter has provided quite sufficient documentation for both the form and existence in period of the golf clubs (the earliest drawing dated from the late 14th Century!).


Adelina die Bogenschützin. Name.

This was submitted as Adelina die Bogenschutze on the LoI and as Adelina die Bogenschütze on her form; `the archer' in German is der Bogenschütze, but since she appears to want a feminine form of the byname, we have instead corrected it to die Bogenschützin `the female archer'.

Ælfflæd of Wodehalle. Name.

The name was submitted as AElflaed of Wodehalle on the LoI, but her form has Ælfflæd. Ælfflæd would have been a very conservative spelling by the time the place-name would have been Wodehalle; Alfled or Elfled would be more likely.

Ælric Ravenshaw. Name.

The name was submitted as AElric Ravenshaw on the LoI, but his form has Ælric. Ælric is a substantially older spelling than Ravenshaw; Alric Ravenshage would have been a consistent 12th century form of the name.

Ailill Ó Mórda. Name.

The patronymic appeared as O Mordha on the LoI and as Ô Mordha on his form; the modern spelling is Ó Mórdha, which we have replaced with the earlier Ó Mórda to match the early spelling of the given name.

Alasdair James Lyon. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Alexander Mieszkowicz. Name and device. Or, a horse rampant and on a chief rayonny purpure a plate.

The surname was submitted as Miezskovich, said to be a patronymic from Miezsko. No one could support this spelling, and those commenters most familiar with Slavic names all found it very odd. There were no photocopies, but several other sources give the same ruler's name as the Polish name Mieszko, and Pelican found documentation for a period Polish surname Mieszkowic(z), so we have changed the surname accordingly.

Alicia Langland. Badge. [Fieldless] Two gillyflowers gules slipped and leaved vert the slips crossed in saltire.

Ambrosius MacDaibhidh. Device. Or, a pale azure and on a chief sable three plates, all within a bordure gules.

Though as noted by many of the commenters this submission had a complexity count of nine, with five tinctures and four types of charges, it is nonetheless well-balanced, relatively simple overall, and certainly well within the spirit of the rule of thumb limits for complexity of RfS VIII.1.a. (It must also be kept in mind that the rule of thumb contained in RfS VIII.1.a. is just that, a rule of thumb and not a hard and fast limit.)

Additionally, while, as Parker notes, the usual form is for a chief to overlie a bordure, sufficient period examples of the contrary were presented to support the bordure overlying the chief here.

Angus MacBain. Name.

Anita of Pleucadeuc. Name.

Anne Elaina of River's Bend. Device. Argent, an eagle displayed azure and a ford proper all within a bordure azure.

Anne Elaina of River's Bend. Badge. [Fieldless] A reremouse sable standing atop a lemon Or.

Anne Greye. Device. Barry argent and vert, a sun Or and on a chief vert three crescents inverted Or.

Annys Ruth O'Carney. Name and device. Erminois, a Latin cross flory gules surmounted by a rose azure.

Anwen ferch Morgraunt. Name.

Ardal of Antioch. Device. Azure, a phoenix within a bordure embattled argent.

Ariane of Greylyn. Badge. Azure, a bordure fleury argent.

Armand Martel. Name and device. Sable, two hammers in saltire argent within a bordure argent semy de lys purpure.

Irreverent comment (): We hope that he's prepared for bad jokes about baking soda.

Arslan ibn Da'ud. Name.

[Laurel notes that if the number of "ibn Da'ud" and "bint Da'ud" submissions keeps up at the current rate, in another two to three years he will have as many "descendants" in the SCA as he does in real life. ]

Arthur the Mouse. Badge. [Fieldless] A mouse rampant to sinister azure.

Atai Tetsuko. Badge. [Fieldless] An eagle displayed bendwise sable.

Laurel is at a loss to understand the comments of those who would have us refuse to grant a CD for orientation of a charge simply because it is registered without a field. The Rules for Submission were designed to have us apply a single standard to all armory; to do otherwise would be to return to a level of complexity in the Rules that we were trying to get away from when the current Rules were implemented. The Rules grant difference for the orientation of a charge: palewise is different from bendwise is different from fesswise, regardless of the shape of the field or even the presence of a field.

Baldon Merme. Name.

Baldrich Waldemar. Name.

Barbara of Stelton Wald. Holding name and device. Purpure, a shepherd's crook reversed between in fess a decrescent and an increscent argent.

Submitted with the name Barbara of Canterbury.

Beautrice de Hameldone. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Biota Merme. Name.

The given name was submitted as Biotta, said to be given by Dauzat as a feminine form of Biot. In fact Dauzat gives only the latter, as a locative surname. Fortunately, in Nicolaa de Bracton of Leicester's article A Statistical Survey of Given Names in Essex Co., England, 1182-1272 in the 1995 Middle Kingdom Heraldic Proceedings Pelican found the feminine name Byota. On the basis of this evidence we have registered the name as Biota; the i/y interchange is standard, but the distinction between single and double consonants is usually significant.

Brianna of Sylverwode. Name and device. Purpure, a birch tree eradicated and on a chief argent two wolves dormant respectant sable.

Latinized forms of Continental Germanic masculine names were not uncommonly feminized by change of ending (e.g., Amalrada from Amalradus), but the process does not appear to have operated on Irish masculine names; despite early Latinization of Brian to Brianus, the feminine Brian(n)a is modern. The name has been registered so often, however, that we are unwillingly obliged to declare it `SCA-compatible'; please see the Cover Letter for more details.

Carolina of Milan. Name and device. Argent semy of icicles, a daffodil plant vert with two blossoms Or.

The given name was submitted as Caroline, which does not appear to be a period name (see for example the 4/95 return of Karolyne Wanderer (Caid)). However, De Felice notes Carola as a mediæval form, and Harpy provided period Venetian examples of diminutives in -ina from independent given names (e.g., Pasqualina); this is enough support to justify Carolina as a possible period Italian given name. The name could be made entirely Italian as Carolina da Milano.

"When the goutte is reversed [the SCA uses the term inverted to mean the same thing - something turned upside down] the term icicle is used by heraldic writers." (Parker, p. 292).

Catrina MacKinnon. Name.

The given name was submitted as Catriona, which cannot be justified as an English spelling, while the surname can only be English. Since the two spelling systems do not seem to have been combined in period, we have substituted the English spelling Catrina (pronounced almost identically). A completely Gaelic form would be Catriona Nic Fhionghuin.

Cedric of Armorica. Badge. [Fieldless] On a tankard azure, three billets Or.

Christopher Troweselagh. Badge. [Fieldless] A winged fish volant bendwise embowed argent.

Connor Bowsplitter of Clan MacFarlane. Device. Azure, a wyvern erect Or within a bordure embattled Or semy of pheons inverted gules.

Connor Strongheart. Name and device. Vert, on a heart argent a tower sable.

Constance Waite. Name and device. Vert, an hourglass and on a chief argent, three quills of yarn sable threaded vert.

The quills of yarn here, while not matching the ones in the Pictorial Dictionary, are very similar to the ones shown in Parker, p. 226.

Corisande of Griffinsgate. Name and device. Purpure, on a bend sinister between six lozenges argent three griffins passant contourny vert.

A hypothetical Continental Germanic Cur(i)sendis could have produced an Anglo-Norman Corisant; and since the form Corisande has been documented from period literature (though not actual use), we are giving it the benefit of the doubt. Griffinsgate is a constructed Middle English place-name, `gate of a man named Griffin'.

Cormacc mac Conáin. Name and device. Argent, a cat sejant affronty, on a chief sable a plate.

The name was submitted as Cormac mac Conan on the LoI and as Cormacc Mac Conán on his form; we have restored his older spelling of the given name and followed the dictates of Irish grammar by putting the patronym into the genitive case.

Cynon Mac an Choill. Device. Per saltire sable and argent, a fret counterchanged.

Versus Adler des Berges, Per saltire sable and argent, a Bowen cross counterchanged, a visual comparison of the emblazons demonstrated that X.2. is reasonably applied between a fret and a Bowen cross here.

Dael mac Daill of Dunadd. Name change from Dall mac Daill of Dalriada and device. Gules, an owl affronty argent maintaining an arrow fesswise reversed Or, on a chief argent an arrow reversed gules.

The given name was submitted as Daell on the LoI, but his form has Dael, which matches his documentation. A wholly early Irish version would be Dael mac Daill Duin Att.

Damyana Luisa Jacinta Abril. Name.

Although the documentation in the LoI was almost wholly erroneous, the name itself seems to be just possible for late-period Spain. The submitter's own documentation is from the Latter Day Saints International Genealogical Index, which dates Damyana and Luisa as baptismal names to 1546 and 1548, respectively, offers several 16th century citations for the surname Abril, and notes the 1626 birth of Antonia Jacinta Gonzales to Marcos Manuel Jacintha and Maria Gonzales. Data from this source are not uniformly reliable, but in this case the fact that each element of the name is documentable (at least in masculine form) to a much earlier period in the Romance language area lends sufficient credence to the entries.

Dani of the Debatable Lands. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Azure, on a bordure Or seven fountains.

Submitted with the name Dani of the Seven Wells.

Daniel Moorsholm. Name and device. Vert, three arrows inverted within a bordure Or.

The existing place-name Moorsholm is actually a modern form: the second element of the surname was originally husum, the dative plural of Old English or Old Norse `house', and the place-name itself was originally `[at the] moor-houses'. Moorsholm, which is apparently the result of folk etymology and analogy, is of unknown date, but we see no reason to deny it the benefit of the doubt. In any case it is a reasonable late form of a hypothetical Old Norse place-name referring to an island in a marsh.

Dante Morelio. Name.

The surname was submitted as Merlio on the LoI, apparently a typo for the submitter's Morelio. This exact form is not documented, but De Felice (Dizionario dei Nomi Italiani, s.n. Mauro) notes Maurilio, a learned or semi-learned name from Late Latin Maurilius; normal Italian phonetic developments would yield Morelio as the popular form.

Eibhlín ní Chaoimh. Name.

The name appeared on the LoI without the accents, but her form had ; for consistency we've added the matching fada to the given name.

Eibhlín ní Ghallchobair. Name.

The accents were omitted on the LoI but present on her form.

Ekaterina Volkova. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

She originally submitted Volchetsa, which for want of adequate documentation was changed at kingdom to Volchieva. According to Shield (Paul Wickenden of Thanet) the case for Volchieva is also quite weak; in consultation with Keystone he suggested several documentable names with similar sounds and recommended Volkova for the sense apparently desired by the submitter (`wolven; of the wolves'). We have followed Keystone's recommendation and registered this last.

Elisa of Thescorre. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Vert, on a bend sinister argent between two open books Or a rapier sable.

Submitted with the name AEsilief inn Harlogi.

Elizabeth Hawkwood of Northumberland. Device. Lozengy azure and argent, a horse rampant contourny gules.

Pretty armory!

Everhardt the Bald. Name and device. Gules, a chevron paly Or and azure between three griffin's heads erased Or.

The spelling Everhardt is unlikely: the v is Low German, but the h and the final -dt seem to be more characteristic of High German spellings. However, the surname of Laurenz Elverfeldt 1566 contains the name of the town of Elberfeld, which is in the Low German dialect region (Brechenmacher, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen, I:402); since it includes both the Low German v for b and the final -dt, we are giving Everhardt the benefit of the doubt. The usual Low German form is Everard; the usual High German form, Eberhard. Calekop `bald-head' is an attested Low German byname with the desired meaning.

Harpy asked whether the -dt ending is period; it is, though almost all of the available examples are from the 16th century. For the record, here are a few of them: Nickel Herfardt 1484, Barthol. Gernhardt 1525, Oswald Gottwaldt 1541, and Andr. Gotthardt 1548, all from vol. I of Brechenmacher.

Feliciano Grimaldi. Device. Per pale azure and argent, in fess a two reversed and a ship both under sail counterchanged.

Finn the Wanderer. Name and device. Quarterly gules and sable, an elephant salient Or.

An approximate Old Norse version of the byname is inn viförli `the far-travelled'.

Francois Belgraunde. Name and device. Argent, two otters salient addorsed reguardant proper, a bordure per pale azure and purpure.

The given name appeared as Francis on the LoI, perpetuating an error that (as noted in the accompanying documentation!) has dogged this submission from the beginning. Keystone verifies that the submitter actually wants Francois. Belgraunde appears to be an acceptable Anglo-Norman variant of French Beaugrand, Belgrand.

Fukuzawa Mitaka Koyata Sukemitsu. Badge. Argent, a tricune inverted azure.

Geoffrey FitzDavid. Name.

The surname appeared as fitz David on the LoI; we have restored the version on his form.

Georges Henri Dupont. Name and device. Sable, on a pile indented between two rapiers argent, a hummingbird rising wings elevated and addorsed gules.

Giulietta da Venezia. Name and device. Per saltire purpure and sable, a Russian firebird volant bendwise argent.

The byname was submitted as di Venezia, with the preposition used in patronymics; we have substituted the locative preposition da.

Gregor Gregors. Name.

The name was submitted as Gregor von Gregor, but no one could find any evidence that von was used to form patronymic surnames or that Gregor was a place-name. He intends the name to mean `Gregor son of Gregor', so we have substituted a common German construction with that meaning. Other acceptable constructions are Gregor Gregor, Gregor Gregors sone (rare), and even Gregors Gregor.

Grettir the Slow. Name and device. Sable, a double horned anvil and on a chief argent three Thor's hammers inverted sable.

The byname is acceptable by virtue of the lingua anglica allowance: it could be a period English translation of an attested Old Norse byname like tóki `simpleton, moron' or dragi `slow-poke'.

Guinemar d'Anglade. Name.

Gunnarr the Smith. Device. Sable, a Thor's hammer and on a chief Or three anvils sable.

Hachille de Remiercourt. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

The byname was submitted as du Remiercourt; we have corrected du `of the' to simple de `of'.

Harold von Auerbach. Badge. [Fieldless] A unicornate boar's head erased Or.

The motif is grandfathered to the submitter.

Honnoria of Thescorre. Name and device. Argent, in pale a fish naiant gules and two more azure.

Thescorre is the name of an SCA branch.

Hrolfr Lombungr. Name and device. Argent, a pair of batwings conjoined sable, in chief a goutte de sang.

Ignatius Calvin. Name and device. Per chevron throughout argent and azure, two owls respectant azure and a flanged mace inverted argent headed Or.

The name Ignatius was confined to Spain during our period, diffusing abroad only after the death of St. Ignatius Loyola in 1598, so the surname would be more plausible as Calvino.

Jennet the Gentle. Name.

Please let her know that the byname means `high-born, noble'; if she wants to be `the mild, gentle', la Milde, the Mild(e), or Mildemay `mild maiden' would be better choices.

Johan Gregor the Wanderer. Name and device. Per pale gules and purpure, two rams combattant argent.

Contrary to the assertion in the LoI, the Wanderer is not a standard English byname; it is a standard SCA byname for which no period citation has yet been found.

Joseph d'Aremand. Name.

The name was submitted as Joseff d'Aremand. Armand is the usual modern reflex of Continental Germanic Harimannus, but attested intermediate forms offer enough justification to give Aremand the benefit of the doubt as a possible variant; d'Aremand is then a patronymic of a distinctively French type. Lacking documentation for the unusual spelling of the forename in this context, we have substituted the standard form.

Kai Saerpren. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Katerina Vignera da Salerno. Name and device. Purpure, two chalices and a mortar and pestle and on a bordure argent a grapevine fructed proper.

The locative was submitted as de Salerni; we have corrected the grammar.

Kenneth of Carillion. Holding name and device. Argent, a saltire sable overall a dog's head erased gules.

Submitted with the name Rory Matadin O'Donnell.

Lettice Peyton of Ashdown. Name and device. Vert, on a cross nowy quadrate argent a rabbit sejant proper maintaining a quill pen sable.

Matthew Beare. Name.

Matthew of Nithgaard. Holding name and device. Purpure, two axes in saltire and on a chief triangular argent, a rose purpure barbed and seeded proper.

Submitted with the name Cathal Gavin Douglas O'Connor.

Miriam Meggett. Device. Argent ermined azure, flaunches azure each charged with a chalice Or.

Please tell her that flaunches should issue from the corners of the chief.

Moses von dem Falken. Device. Argent, a standing seraph azure broken chains pendant from wrists and ankles sable within a bordure rayonny sable goutty d'eau.

Prospero de San Giuseppe Iato. Name and device. Azure, in saltire a goblet between four scorpions tails to center Or.

The spelling Guiseppe on the LoI was a typo.

Ragnar of Silverlake. Name and device. Azure, a bear statant erect affronty argent maintaining in its dexter paw a hammer Or between two lightning bolts palewise argent.

The place-name was submitted as Silver Lake; we have followed normal period practice in fusing the elements.

Richard deLacy. Device. Argent, three bendlets enhanced and a cross moline fitchy azure.

Rowena del Baylly. Badge. [Fieldless] A lion's jambe fesswise erased purpure sustaining two keys in saltire wards to sinister Or.

Saint Swithin's Bog, Shire of. Badge. Gules maily Or, on a roundel per pale Or and argent a raven displayed wings inverted head facing sinister sable.

Thomas de Castellan. Name change from Tomás de Castellón de la Plana.

The name Castellan generally derives from the name of the office, more familiar in the SCA in its modern French feminine form châtelaine; the locatives mentioned in the LoI are based on the place-name Castellion and consistently have o or u in the last syllable. Fortunately, there is a French place-name Castellane (Dauzat & Rostaing, Noms de Lieu, p. 154) which could easily serve as the basis for the submitted spelling.

Vaunda of Hunter's Home. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Per pale sable and argent, a mullet of eight points and in chief two lions queue-forchy combattant counterchanged.

Submitted with the name Eleri y Gwibddyn Dyrys.

William Malcolm. Name.


Alexandre de Vouvrey. Device. Per pale purpure and Or, two fleurs-de-lys and a sea-lion counterchanged.

Baldric von Adlerberg. Badge. [Fieldless] A bow fesswise inverted, overall a sheaf of arrows inverted sable.

Buqa Naran. Device. Or, an ox's head caboshed sable, in chief a torteau, a bordure sable.

Callie O'Reilly. Device. Argent semy of shamrocks vert, an enfield rampant contourny sable.

Catherine Lacy de la Roche. Device. Counter-ermine, an eagle's talon couped bendwise sinister Or, on a chief ermine three hearts gules.

Catríona nic Theàrlaigh. Device. Vert, an increscent between three mullets Or.

Catríona nic Theàrlaigh. Badge. [Fieldless] A winged lion sejant erect coward Or sustaining an increscent argent.

Celestine de Chatham. Name.

We have corrected du `of the' to de `of'.

Elfwyn of Osprey. Name.

Her branch is the Shire of the Osprey. The byname would have a much more mediæval flavor as atte Ospray `at [the sign of] the Osprey'.

Elspeth the Shy. Name and device. Barry engrailed azure and argent, on a pile inverted pean, a unicorn's head couped argent.

Shy is a 17th century spelling; attested 14th and 15th century forms are schey and shey respectively.

The engrailing of the field was better on the full-size emblazon than it was on the mini in the LoI.

Griffin O'Swerde. Device. Or, a griffin segreant sable, a bordure vert increscenty Or.

Jacqueline de Lyons. Badge. [Fieldless] A lion rampant contourny within and conjoined to an annulet gules.

Jehanne du May. Device. Purpure, a bend gules fimbriated Or overall a swan rising wings elevated and addorsed argent maintaining in it's beak a mullet of eight points Or.

John the Pursuwer. Device. Quarterly azure and counter-ermine, three double-headed eagles displayed Or, a chief ermine.

Jon Tristram. Name.

Kathryne Larke of Blackwater. Name.

The name was submitted as Kateryn Larke Blackwater on the LoI, changed at kingdom from Kathryn Larkke of Blackwater in order to match the available documentation. We have partly restored the submitter's form on the basis of more extensive evidence.

Marcus Devon Sterling. Name.

Period English use of a locative byname and a nickname or patronymic byname in that order has not been demonstrated; this would have been much more characteristic of period practice in the form Marcus Sterling of Devon.

Meridies, Kingdom of. Name for Order of the Chalice.

Peter Alexander Donovich. Name.

Phillip of An Dun Theine. Device. Azure, a chevron enhanced gules fimbriated Or, in base on a bezant a cross formy fitchy sable, a bordure rayonny Or.

This would be ever so much better if both the chevron and the roundel were a little lower on the field.

Regan of Neath. Name.

Regan is a possible English spelling of the Irish man's name Riagán. (As a feminine name, Regan was in period apparently just a literary invention. Shakespeare seems to have got the story of King Lear from Geoffrey of Monmouth, who gives the second daughter's name as Regau; but this name, which would be indistinguishable from Regan in many mediæval scripts, is otherwise unattested.)

Ronane Blackwell. Name and device. Sable, a triquetra between three swords in pall pommels to center Or.

The given name was submitted as Ronayne, which appears to be an Anglicization of Irish Ronáin, the genitive case of the name Ronán; we have substituted an Anglicization of the nominative case, pronounced `ro-nahn'.

Susannah Makejoy. Name.

The given name was submitted as Shushannah; this is a transliteration of the Hebrew name, not a form used in period English naming, so we have substituted the closest documented form.

Sheamus Corrigan. Device. Or semy of shamrocks vert, a falcon striking sable.

Troy of Seleone. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Sable, in pall inverted three unicorn's heads necks to center argent armed and crined Or between three mullets argent.

Though from the mini emblazon several commenters believed that the heads were conjoined, it was quite clear on the large emblazon that they are not, the area between them plaintly showing the field.

Submitted with the name Tobias, son of Emerich.


Angharad Rhos Tewdwr of Pembroke. Name and device. Or, on a chevron dovetailed counter-dovetailed between three roundels azure three trident heads Or.

Brennisteinvatn, Shire of. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

This is an exemplary branch name.

Ealdormere, Principality of. Designator change from Crown Principality of Ealdormere.

According to the Administrative Handbook, Registerable Items, B.1 (Branch Name), `[b]ranch designations included in the Branch Name are determined by the current status of the branch, not by the designation used when the Branch Name is registered'. Requests to change the designation in the SCA Armorial are not name changes and should not be included in Letters of Intent; they should be addressed directly to Laurel and Morsulus.

Elaina of Oaklawn. Device change. Or, mullety of six points azure, in canton a coronet embattled sable.

Her currently registered device, Or, mullety of six points, a bordure embattled azure, is retained as a badge.

Erick of Longacres. Name and device. Per pale gules and sable, a sun and on a chief embattled argent, five suns sable.

The name Eric in any spelling is hardly known in England in the Middle Ages. As most commenters noted, Longacre `long field' is somewhat likelier for the place-name.

Felicity Penne. Name change from Felicity the Gentle (see RETURNS for badge).

Gemma Taylor. Name and device. Sable, a sheaf of needles argent.

Gillian Hunter. Name.

Grainne MacAvery. Device. Gules, a chevron ployé Or between three ostrich plumes argent, a bordure Or.

Grimkell Vikarson of Brattahlid. Device. Per pale vert and azure, a drakkar reversed and on a chief Or a saltire gules.

Gwenifer of Taylorsmeadow. Name.

The name was submitted as Guinevere of Taylor's Meadow on the LoI, the given name having been changed at kingdom from the undocumented Gwenniffer. We cannot justify Gwenniffer, but given Welsh Gwenover and Gwinevere 1538, Gwenhivar temp. James I (Morgan & Morgan, Welsh Surnames, p. 110), and Cornish Jenefer 1554 (Bardsley, Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames, p. 429), Gwenifer is probably within the range of period orthographic practice. We have slightly modified the punctuation of the locative to conform to period practice. The locative itself is unlikely: meadow is very rare, the usual form being mead. Taylorsmead would be a modern spelling of a possible minor period place-name.

Jean Guy de Bayeux. Name and device. Or, a dance sable between three spur rowels gules all within a bordure sable.

Jean Guy de Bayeux. Badge. Or, three drums within a bordure sable.

Joanna of Northumberland. Name and device. Purpure, a saltire between four holly sprigs of three leaves fructed stems to center argent.

Magdalen Fairchilde of Corbie Glen. Name.

Margrég Érennach. Name.

The accents were omitted on the LoI but present on her form.

Matthew of Skraeling Althing. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Per fess rayonny vert and argent, in chief a crescent inverted Or and in base three Latin crosses bottony gules.

Submitted with the name Mathieu Bohemond.

Michaela della Isola. Name and device. Vert, a dance Or between three daisies proper.

The byname was submitted as del Isole with a request that it be made correct Italian for `of the Island'; we have done so. It is not clear from the documentation whether Michaela is a period feminization, so we are giving it the benefit of the doubt.

A daisy proper is argent seeded Or.

Nina Mirovna Korsakova. Name and device. Vert, a fox passant contourny and in chief a compass star elongated to base argent.

Rolf de Chablis. Device. Per pale Or and sable, a chevron counterchanged overall a wyvern displayed gules.

Seamus ua Murchada. Name and device. Gules, a cubit sustaining a hunting horn reversed within a bordure Or.

Stephen Katzenberger. Device. Per fess gules and Or, three catamounts rampant guardant counterchanged.


Aonghus Lochlainn of Loch Fyne. Device. Pily bendy sinister argent and vert, a rose sable barbed and seeded Or.

Versus Cealmhain Realt Dubh, Argent, a garden rosebud fesswise slipped and leaved sable, reblazoned in the accompanying Errata Letter, there are CDs for the field and for the type of charge.

Elizabeth de Valence. Name and device. Quarterly argent and purpure, an ankh counterchanged.

The name was submitted as Elizabeth Beaufort de Valence on the LoI, the surname having been added at kingdom to avoid conflict with Isabeau de Valence, registered 3/94. However, under RfS V.1.i (Given Names) the given names Elizabeth and Isabeau do not conflict: they differ significantly in sound and appearance, and neither is a diminutive of the other. (It is true that Isabel/Isabeau began as a form of Elizabeth, but the two were differentiated quite early, just as Margery was from Margaret.) We have therefore registered the submitter's original preference.

Justin de Leon. Name and device. Gules, a winged lion segreant within an orle of suns Or.

Marie Solange Chantal de Sainte Geneviève. Name and badge (see RETURNS for device). [Fieldless] a caltrap argent ermined azure.

Contrary to the submitter's belief, the surname Chantal is generally locative, referring to stone or rocky rubble; it has nothing to do with the verb chanter `to sing'.

Robert Edward Stewart. Name and device. Per pale dovetailed azure and argent, a Celtic cross argent and in pale three acorns proper.

Sekimura no Minamoto Akiranaga. Name.

The name appeared without the no on the LoI, but it was present on his form. This particle is never written out in Chinese characters, though it is spoken and may be included when the name is written in Roman characters.

Sone Minamoto no Gentarou Takashige. Name.

The particle no is never written out in Chinese characters, though it is spoken and may be included when the name is written in Roman characters.

Valentine Michael de la Fère. Device. Azure, on a chevron Or three hearts palewise gules, issuant from base a demi-sun Or.


Alaric of Wyvernwood. Device. Argent, a ram's head cabossed gules transfixed by a sword inverted sable pommeled gules.

An Crosaire, Barony of. Name for Order of the Serpents Gem.

Caterina de' Verdeschi. Name change from Caterina de' Conigli.

This was submitted as Caterina Verdeschi on the LoI, the de' having been dropped at kingdom for lack of documentation. However, it appears that Verdeschi is interpretable as a plural or collective surname; de' Verdeschi `of the [family] Verdeschi' is then analogous to de' Medici. We have therefore restored the submitter's original form.

Ceara de Bhéir. Name.

The name was submitted as Ceara de Vere, which mixes Irish and English spelling codes. Late-period Anglicizations of surnames of the form Mac Cear... and Ó Cear... show that in an English context the given name would probably have been written Car(r)a, Kar(r)a, or perhaps Kera. (Kera would not have represented a different pronunciation; at that time er (clerk) was pronounced ar (clark). But Ceara would have represented a pronunciation rather like modern `care a'.) Cara de Vere would be acceptable as an entirely English form of the name. We have preferred to make the name wholly Irish on the chance that the submitter rhymes her name with lira; the pronunciation of the surname is almost identical despite the considerable change in appearance.

Darkwater, Barony of. Badge. [Fieldless] Two dolphins haurient respectant Or sustaining a trident gules.

Daimhín Cinncaidhe. Name and device. Argent, three chevronels braced azure, on a chief vert three quill pens bendwise Or.

The name was submitted as Daimhín Kincade, but this combination of Gaelic and English phonetics is counter to documented period practice. At the submitter's request we have made the whole name Gaelic, using one of the possible Gaelic sources of Kincade.

Elizabeth Stafford Parr Pembrooke. Badge. Barry argent and sable, a martlet volant azure.

Llwelyn ap Gwyn of Anglesey. Device. Argent, three dragon's heads couped within a bordure embattled gules.

Meaghan ferch Rhys. Device. Per bend vert and sable, on a plate a horse's head contourny couped sable.

Michael of Alwington. Name and device. Per bend ermine and Or, an hourglass azure.

Oriel y Cwn. Name and device. Per chevron purpure and vert, a chevron between two dog's heads erased and an oak leaf argent.

Tómas Skotakollr. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

The given name was submitted as Tomás; we have corrected the misplaced accent to match the documentation. (We commend the submitter's ingenuity: the epithet skotakollr is `Scot-hill', and his modern name is Scott Hill!)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Arc d'Or. Azure, a bow fesswise Or between three triskeles one and two argent.

Vladimir haba. Name and device. Per fess argent and gules, a fess embattled counter-embattled counterchanged, in chief a reremouse sable.

The byname was submitted as Zaba; we have corrected the spelling to match the documentation.


Deborah FitzWilliam. Name and device. Azure, a winged lioness passant contourny reguardant within an annulet Or.

Desert Garden, Shire of. Device. Argent, a mountain of three peaks couped gules within a laurel wreath vert.

Fiammetta di Antonio di Donato Adimari. Device change. Per bend rayonny Or and gules, two mullets of eight points counterchanged.

Her currently registered device, Per bend rayonny Or and gules, two estoiles counterchanged, is released.

Flidais ní Eitigen. Name and device. Argent, three cinquefoils and on a chief purpure a needle Or.

Flidais and Eitigeán are rare early names, and Eitigen is a mediæval form, while is late; the name would be more consistent as Flidais ingen Eitigen or Flidais ingen Uí Eitigen.

Garrett Logan Todhunter. Name change from Garrett Logan Toddhunter and device. Per pale azure and gules, a ram's head couped affronty and a chief Or.

Helena d'Évreux. Name.

Kraé Glas, Canton of. Device. Or, on a bend azure, three laurel wreaths palewise Or.

Excellent group arms!

Mathilda die Knochenrichterin. Name and device. Per pale argent and sable, a raven, in chief a bone fesswise counterchanged.

The byname was submitted as die Knochenrichter, deduced from the verb phrase Knochen (ein)richten `to set a bone'; we have feminized it to match the article.

Scott of Golden Rivers. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Per bend rayonny argent and sable, two unicorn's heads erased contourny counterchanged.

Submitted with the name Balin Fear-Dàna.

Seth MacAlpine. Name and device. Argent, a griffin sejant sable, on a chief gules a crescent Or.

Signý Jólinnardóttir. Device. Per fess wavy sable and barry wavy argent and azure, in chief three increscents argent.

Sorcha ingen Fhiaich. Name and device. Gules, a horse rampant argent, a bordure argent semy of compass stars sable.

The name was submitted as Sorcha Ó Fiach on the LoI, but the submitter had the correct masculine patronymic Ó Fiaich. After Sorcha this must either be Anglicized (e.g., to O Fey) or put into the feminine form; and since she wants an Irish Gaelic name and asks for an `ancient spelling', we have used ingen Fhiaich rather than the later ní Fhiaich. She also asks for information on pronunciation. The early pronunciation seems to have been something like `ing-yen EE-ich', the Fh being silent; the ch had about the same sound as in modern German ich.

Tangwystl Tyriau Gleision. Device. Per chevron argent and sable, two towers and a horse rampant counterchanged.

Clear of Brann Morgan Dunmore of Galloway, Argent, upon a pile inverted throughout between two ravens sable a tower argent, because the type of each charge in the group has been substantially changed, even though each group contains a tower. RfS X.2. states that: "Simple armory does not conflict with other simple armory if the type of every primary charge is substantially changed." Laurel takes this to mean that the type of each charge must be substantially changed from its corresponding charge in the armory being compared, not that the type of every charge must be substantially changed from the type of every charge in the other armory. (There is no CD for the field, since we treat per chevron and a pile inverted as equivalent for purposes of difference.)

William MacNaught. Name.






Atlantia, Kingdom of. Device change for the Consort. Per pale argent and azure, on a fess wavy cotised counterchanged, an escallop erminois, overall a wreath of roses proper.

Though the LoI stated that a letter signed by the kingdom seneschal and all royalty was being forwarded to Laurel, no such letter was received.

Additionally, as was pointed out by one of the commenters, were this device change registered and a woman win the crown in her own right, she would not as sovereign have arms, since she could not legitimately bear the arms of the King of Atlantia, and neither could she bear the arms of the Consort, as she would be neither King nor Consort, but Queen. The kingdom may wish to consider this possibility further before resubmitting this change.

Gregor Arnulf der Wanderer. Device. Per chevron argent and azure, a chevron between two eagles sable and a wolf's head couped contourny argent.

Though there appeared to be no problems with the device, as no forms were included in the Laurel packet, we are forced to return this.


AEsilief inn Harlogi. Name.

(Her form correctly gave the given name as Æsileif.) The byname, given as inn Hárlogi on her form, is incorrectly constructed for the desired meaning of `the Flame-hair', which in any case does not appear to be compatible with the literal nature of Old Norse bynaming. (The only period language in which a byname with this meaning has been found is Greek; synonymous constructions in other languages have consistently been returned, most recently Fiona Flamehair (5/93 LoAR, An Tir).) The actual meaning of the byname seems to be no more suitable. Since the only change allowed by the submitter is the substitution of Hárbrandr, which has exactly the same problems as Hárlogi, we must return the name.

Hárlogi, from hár `hair' and logi `[a] flame', isn't analogous to the attested hárfagri `fair-hair', since fagri `fair' is an adjective. Such noun-noun compounds are possible in Old Norse, but as in similar English compounds (e.g., sunrise) the first noun modifies the second. The construction hárlogi would therefore mean something like `hair-like flame, filamentous flame'; log(a)hár would be `hair of flame', but probably only in an unfortunately literal sense. Similarly, hárbrandr would mean `hair-like firebrand'. Two attested Old Norse words with meanings close to the desired sense are hárbjartr `bright-haired' (which probably refers to a very blond person) and rauhárr `red-haired'; as feminine adjectival bynames with the definite article these would become in hárbjarta and in rauhára, respectively.

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Elisa of Thescorre.

Aine Morgan na Dhiarmaid. Name.

(The second element was Morgwen on her form.) Irish usage does not appear to allow double given names, and the definite article na is completely out of place here. She appears to have understood na Dhiarmaid to mean `of the tribe or family of Diarmaid'; approximately this meaning is already expressed by the modern Ní Dhiarmaid, and for an earlier period something like ingen Uí Diarmata `daughter of Ua Diarmata' seems to be compatible with documented practice. Aine ní Dhiarmaid or Dhiarmada would be an acceptable late-period form, and Aine ingen Uí Diarmata seems to be a corresponding early form; but since she allows no changes, we must return the name. If she wishes to keep something similar to each of the three major elements of the name, she might try Aine ingen Morggáin Uí Diarmata `Aine daughter of Morggán of the line of Diarmait'; Morggán is found at p. 702 of M.A. O'Brien, Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniæ.

Alasdair James Lyon. Device. Quarterly ermine and azure, a winged man-tyger sejant guardant maintaining a sword Or.

Conflict with Leonessa des Belles Fleures, Azure, a winged lion sejant Or, beneath the forepaws two garden roses argent stalked and leaved proper. There is a CD for the field, but a visual comparison of the emblazons demonstrated that the only real difference is in the facial features and the maintained charge, neither of which is sufficient for a CD.

Barbara of Canterbury. Name.

There seems to be no problem with the name, but unfortunately there was no name form in the packet.

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Barbara of Stelton Wald.

Beautrice de Hameldone. Device. Vert, alternately in annulo five ermine spots argent and five oak leaves stems to center Or.

Blazoned on the LoI as Vert, ermined argent, five oak leaves in annulo stems to center Or, the above blazon more accurately describes the emblazon, which did not have the ermine spots strewn over the entire field, but had only five spots in the spaces between the leaves. This arrangement, however, does not appear to follow any period style of which we are aware.

Brendan Brisbone. Badge. [Fieldless] Three candles conjoined at the bases in pall flammant argent.

Conflict with Francis Owen Roderick Keith, A shakefork argent. While there is clearly a CD for fieldlessness, a comparison of the emblazons demonstrated their remarkable (and overwhelming) visual similarity.

Cathal Gavin Douglas O'Connor. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

In returning Catherine Elizabeth Holly Winthrop of Lincolnshire (7/92 LoAR, Caid) Laurel said: `English names with four elements are so rare in period that I would consider the usage a "weirdness", costing a submitter the benefit of the doubt'. (In fact no examples seem to have been found.) Both the use of multiple given names and the use of Douglas as a given name mark this name as late 16th century. By then the th in Cathal was pronounced h, as in the contemporary Anglicization of Ó Cathail as O Cahill, so Cathal cannot be a phonetic Anglicization; moreover, Ó Corráin & Maguire note that the name was invariably Anglicized Charles. We certainly cannot change Cathal to Charles. We might perhaps venture to guess at a phonetic Anglicization (Cahall?) despite the statement by Ó Corráin & Maguire, but it would be a second `weirdness', and the name would have to be returned for multiple anomalies. (Since the result would very likely not represent the submitter's pronunciation, we would in any case hesitate to make such a change, especially to a given name.)

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Matthew of Nithgaard.

Creador Twinedragon. Name.

Creador was justified in the LoI as a variant spelling of Creature, but the OED offers no support for the d; and while his form more precisely identifies it as Welsh, Y Geiriadur Mawr gives the Welsh word as creadur. In England premature babies who were not expected to live were in fact sometimes named Creature, and Bardsley even has an example of one who survived long enough to take out a marriage license in 1579; but no evidence has been presented that in Wales a Welsh translation of the word was used, or even that the practice extended to Wales. As several commenters noted, the first element of the byname is from Old English twîn `thread, string', and `string-dragon' does not seem to be a reasonable byname in any language. All in all, the name seems to be too anomalous to register.

Dani of the Seven Wells. Name.

The locative bears little resemblance to period practice, as may be seen from the history of modern Seawell: it is in record in Old English as Seofenwyllas `Sevenwells' and in 1220 as Seuowell (the u representing modern v). Modern Sewell and Showell have the same origin and appear respectively as Seuewell 1192 and as Sivewell in Domesday Book. Finally, another location called on syfen wyllan appears in an Old English charter of 938. (All citations can be found in Ekwall's The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place- Names; the last is found at Sevenhampton.) Apart from the fact that Dani is his modern name, Dani of Seofenwyllum would be a standard Old English form of the name, and Dani on syfen wyllan is clearly just as acceptable. Dani of Sevewell would be a comparable Middle English form. Though the final n of seven is lost in all of these place-names, it is preserved in some with other second elements; this may be enough to justify Dani of Sevenwell. In these forms Seve(n)well is the name of a place; if the seven wells are merely a topographical feature, atte Seven Welles is the normal Middle English construction, with other relational prepositions occasionally replacing at. Unfortunately, he allows no changes, so we must return the name.

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Dani of the Debatable Lands.

Dur al Jabal abu Neefa min al-Machfi Jabal Bey al-Ferrangi. Name change from Dur of the Hidden Mountain and badge. Argent, a cross within and conjoined to a mascle sable.

His form gives the name as Durr al-Jabal abu Neefa min al-Machfi Jabal Bey al-Ferengi, said to mean `Pearl of the Mountain (father of Neefa) from Hidden Mountain Baron of the Franks'. There are several problems with the name. (1) The order of name elements is wrong: the kunya (honorific) abu Neefa should come before the ism (personal name). (2) No one could document Neefa as a personal name, even in modern Muslim name books, or find a masculine name Neef of which it might be a feminization. (3) Durr is `pearls', not `pearl'; the singular is durra. More important, it isn't an ism, though it may occur as part of a laqab (cognomen or epithet). (4) The preposition min `from, out of' is not used in Arabic names. (5) No one was able to support machfi, apparently intended to mean `hidden', though Laurel found mikhbaye and mah'ba glossed as `hiding place'. Moreover, we have no documentation for the construction of the phrase al-Machfi Jabal, which does not appear to match that of attested locative bynames. (6) Bey al- Ferengi is a claim to honors that the submitter does not have, in violation of RfS I.3.b (Presumptuous Claims): he may be a Baron in the SCA, but he is not a `Baron of the Franks'; and even if he were, we would not allow him to register the title, for titles in the SCA apply only to honors granted within the SCA. (7) Bey is on the Alternate Titles List as a Turkish equivalent for baron; its use as part of a name violates RfS VI.1 (Names Claiming Rank).

In short, the name is incorrectly constructed, inadequately documented, and presumptuous (as presumption is defined in the Rules for Submissions); since he permits no changes, each of these problems would by itself be sufficient grounds for return. Any future submission along these lines should be accompanied by adequate documentation for all of the elements and for the grammatical constructions used and should not incorporate titles of rank.

The badge conflicts with the badge of Kameyama Kengoro, Argent, the kanji shu within a Japanese well-frame sable, and the badge of Myfanwy ferch Rhiannon, Argent, two irises in fess within a mascle fesswise sable Even though in each case the charges within the mascles are blazoned first, the mascle is visually the primary charge, and a visual comparison of the emblazons demonstrated clearly that X.2. could not apply here, nor could the otherwise necessary two CDs be found to clear the conflicts. In each case there is only one CD, for the change to the framed charge.

Egill the Dane. Device. Azure, a mullet of eight points gyronny Or and gules, a bordure invected argent.

The mullet here is not gyronny, which is the equivalent of quarterly and per saltire; the divisions here have been rotated roughly 22 degrees from the vertical, leaving the effect of a quilt pattern. While two commenters discussed the possibility of blazoning the motif as gyronny in cross, only two examples were cited, both of fields divided this way rather than charges. We would prefer to have more examples of such fields and/or period examples of charges being divided this way. There was additionally some concern about the reproducibility of the blazon gyronny in cross given its rarity and hence obscurity in armory. For all these reasons we are compelled to return this.

Ekaterina Volkova. Device. Vert, two swords inverted in saltire, overall a wolf's head cabossed argent.

While the sable markings on the wolf's head in the emblazon help to give it identifiability, the "shading" on the swords made them half sable, counterchanged along their long axes. As such, they really cannot be considered "argent", nor were they divided in a way that could be readily blazoned (at first I thought per saltire, but then noticed that such blazon only worked for the upper and lower compartments of the "saltire", and not for the dexter and sinister ones). Nor have "long, skinny objects" (such as swords) been allowed to be counterchanged along their long axis for quite some time because of identifiability problems. As a consequence, this must be returned for redrawing.

Eleri y Gwibddyn Dyrys. Name.

According to Harpy, y Gwibddyn Dyrys `the wild vagabond' is a correctly constructed Welsh phrase that resembles period Welsh bynames as little as the Melancholy Procrastinator resembles their English counterparts. The latter was returned last month (Judith the Melancholy Procrastinator, Middle) for failure to follow period models, and we do not think that the inability of most SCA folk to understand Welsh is sufficient reason to treat the present submission more leniently. Please compliment her, however, on using a period Welsh-English dictionary to document the elements of the phrase.

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Vaunda of Hunter's Home.

Giovanni di Giacomettino. Badge. [Fieldless] Atop a tower proper, a hedgehog affronty gules.

The hedgehog is not identifiable in this posture, from almost any distance looking like nothing more than flames gules. It was suggested that he consider using the more standard design Issuant from a tower proper a demi-urchin rampant gules.

Hachille de Remiercourt. Device. Gules, on a lozenge argent a red-tail hawk volant contourny wings elevated and addorsed proper maintaining a sinister gauntlet sable.

Though under the new precedent for animals proper, we could have registered this had it been emblazoned as brown or even, presumably, brown with red tail feathers, the bird on the submission forms was quite clearly drawn as a red-tailed hawk in light phase proper. (According to the sources we checked, the red- tailed hawk also has a "dark phase".) This is exactly the type of "Linnaean heraldry" that has been banned for some time now, for the reason that one would have to consult a specialized non-heraldic source (in this case, a book on North American birds) to adequately reproduce the emblazon from a blazon. RfS VIII.4.c. notes that "[Proper] is not allowed if many people would have to look up the correct coloration, or if the Linnaean genus and species (or some other elaborate description) would be required to get it right." Such is the case here.

Kai Saerpren. Device. Per fess gules and vert, a double-bitted axe between an oak tree riven to base Or.

There are several problems here, some with the blazon and some with the emblazon. A better blazon, perhaps, than having the axe "between a tree riven to base" would be between the halves of a tree cleft palewise to the roots or cleft palewise to the base of the stock, since the submitted blazon could be easily interpreted as placing the tree in the base of the shield, as well as having the unusual grammar of having something "between" a single something else.

The identifiability of the tree on the emblazon is problematical. Several commenters mentioned it, and those attending the Laurel meeting had difficulty identifying the charge as a tree before hearing the blazon. RfS VII.7.a. requires that elements be recognizable solely from their appearance. Such does not appear to be the case here.

Rory Matadin O'Donnell. Name.

Since the Irish do not seem to have used double given names, this name could only be justified either as a late-period English name or as an Anglicization of an Irish name of the form <given name> <nickname> <patronymic>. Both possibilities depend on the nature of the element Matadin, which is documented only from Ronan Coghlan's occasionally questionable chapter on given names in the Book of Irish Names.

It probably did exist, though no direct evidence has been presented. It appears to be a diminutive of early Irish matad `a common dog, a cur', also used contemptuously of persons. The more usual diminutive would be Matadán, later Madadhán, which appears in O'Brien's Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniæ (as Matudán) and in the surname Ó Madadháin. However, the popular variant Ó Madaidhín, which is apparently old (P. Woulfe, Irish Names and Surnames, p. 593), supports the existence of an early Matadín(e). The late-period pronunciation of the name is reasonably accurately represented by the contemporary Anglicization O Maddine; thus, even if madaidhín or madadhán `little cur' is a possible late- period Irish nickname, it would have been Anglicized similarly, to maddine, madden, or the like. Rory Madden O'Donnell would be registerable as an Anglicization of Irish Ruaidhrí madadhán Ó Domhnaill `Rory "little cur" O'Donnell'; but since he allows no changes, we must return the name.

He might prefer to consider a rather different name altogether. According to his form, he wants the name to mean `Red Dog of the Donnell Sept'. The name Cuán is a diminutive of `hound, wolf', and rúadh `red' is a common nickname, so Cuán rúadh Ó Domhnaill is very close to what he wants. It could be Anglicized to Cuan (or Quan) Rowe O'Donnell.

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Kenneth of Carillion.

Roxanne Blackfeather. Name change from Ruaidhri Blackfeather.

(Her form has Roxane.) This was a very difficult decision. The issue is the scope of the Grandfather Clause. The basic principle is that an item once registered remains so even if for some reason it ceases to be registerable. As is explained in the 22 February 1993 Cover Letter, we have extended the principle in two ways. First, we allow the original submitter to register further instances of the problematic element provided that they introduce no new violations of the rules; and secondly, we extend the allowance to the original submitter's nearest kin. In this case the question is whether Roxane Blackfeather violates the present rules and precedents in any way that Ruaidhri Blackfeather does not.

Unfortunately, the answer depends on how one thinks of the latter name. (1) One might attempt to justify Blackfeather as a lingua anglica byname, but then one would have to show that it fits the semantic pattern of Irish bynames. If one adopts this view, then the present submission has essentially the same problem: it hasn't been demonstrated that Blackfeather is a reasonable (translation of a) byname in any period culture in which the name Roxane is likely to have been used. On this view the Grandfather Clause applies. (2) Alternatively, one might take Blackfeather to be a modern spelling of a hypothetical Middle English byname analogous to the attested Whitphether and Blakhat (J. Jönsjö, Middle English Nicknames); in that case the problem is the incompatible orthographies of Irish Ruaidhri and English Blackfeather, and the name would probably be registerable (if not particularly plausible) in the form Rory Blackfeather. On this view the only problem with Ruaidhri Blackfeather is a superficial incompatibility in the way the name is written, while Roxane Blackfeather suffers from a fundamental incompatibility in the nature of its elements; this is a new problem, and the Grandfather Clause does not apply.

When Ruaidhri Blackfeather was submitted on the 5/90 Eastern LoI, the examples from Jönsjö were in fact used to justify the byname. This served to place both names in the British Isles in period, and at that time no further justification was necessary. Thus, both the original justification and the probable registerability today of the form Rory Blackfeather suggest that the second interpretation is the sounder of the two. Add Keystone's statement that the submitter actually wants a name from around the time of Alexander the Great, and we find it preferable to return the name with suggestions.

Single names were probably the norm in Hellenistic culture, but bynames certainly were not unknown. We suggest that she consider a locative byname: they seem to have been recorded relatively often, and they are comparatively easy to form. Classically they are often adjectives, as in Roxane Persike `Roxane [the] Persian' and Roxane Kyzikene `Roxane of Cyzicus' (literally `the Cyzicene'). (Alexander's wife was a Bactrian, so Roxane Baktria is probably ill-advised.) In the New Testament one finds similar names with the definite article, e.g., Maria hê Magdalênê `Maria the Magdalene'; we do not know whether this usage was also found in Alexander's day. Simple descriptive adjectives are probably also appropriate, e.g., Roxane he Kale `Roxane the Fair'. (Note that all of the final es are syllabic; they more or less rhyme with way.) The lady lives in Pittsburgh; we suspect that there is someone at one of the universities there who can help with the grammatical details once she has an idea of what she'd like.

Ysabet an Ealaiontoir. Name.

The name mixes Anglo-French and Irish Gaelic spelling codes in a manner not found in period. If the Gaelic byname is kept, a Gaelic form of the given name is needed; Ó Corráin & Maguire, Irish Names, p. 165, give Sibéal and Isibéal as Irish borrowings of the French Isabel. However, we have not been able to confirm that ealaiontoir is modern Gaelic for `artist'; the closest that we have come is Scots Gaelic ealdhantair `artificer'. Perhaps she would consider the period byname ceárd `artisan, craftsman', which appears in Anglicized Scottish records as Kerd(e), Card, and (slightly out of period) Caird. Ysabet Kerd would be a reasonable English version of Gaelic Isibéal (an) Ceárd `Isabel (the) Artisan'.

All of the registerable forms involve more than minor changes, and in any case there was no name form in the packet, so we must return the name.


Meridies, Kingdom of. Title for Ursine Pursuivant.

We have found five mundane heraldic titles that might be adjectival. Besides the better known 14th century Vaillant or Volant King of Arms, A. Wagner (Heralds of England, pp. 55-7) mentions pursuivants temp. Henry V named Joyeulx and temp. Henry VI named Secret (or Segret), Diligent, and Desirous. However, they do not appear to support the indiscriminate use of adjectives as heraldic titles. First, it appears likely that Vaillant or Volant was an epithet of the man himself; both words were so used (Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Valiant, Volant), and he is called William Vaillant. The titles Diligent and Secret probably refer to traditional virtues of heralds and therefore prefigure the motto of the English College of Arms, Diligent and Secret, which can be traced at least to the time of Henry VIII (Wagner, p. 133). Desirous as a heraldic title probably means `full of eagerness or spirit; eager, ardent, esp. in deeds of arms'; this meaning, though now obsolete, was current in the 14th and 15th centuries. This leaves only Joyeulx, which, even if it have no direct reference to arms, armory, and heralds, is none the less like Vaillant, Diligent, Secret, and Desirous in naming a quality of character or spirit. And like them, it could be a motto and so belong to a known class of heraldic titles.

Ursine `bearlike' is neither a plausible motto nor a description of character or spirit and therefore does not appear actually to follow the period models that it most nearly resembles. Since it is intended for the pursuivant of the Barony of Small Grey Bear, perhaps they would consider the title Ursel Pursuivant; Reaney & Wilson cite a William Vrsel 1163, and surnames were a major source of heraldic titles. It would be very appropriate, since Ursel is a diminutive of Ursus `Bear'.

Tobias, son of Emerich. Name.

The name was submitted as Tobias, son of Emerich, but this patronymic construction does not seem to have been used in English, even as a translation from other languages. It is not clear whether the submitter intends the name to be English or German; in either case the Latinized Tobias filius Emerici, which is an exact translation of the submitted name, would be fine. In English the usual form was simply Tobias Emeric; the similar Tobias Em(m)erich would be fine for German, as would Tobias Emeriches. If he wants to preserve as much as possible of the submitted form in a German name, Tobias Em(m)eriches sone follows rare but attested models. Given the wide variety of registerable alternatives, we prefer to return the name to let him decide which he prefers.

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Troy of Seleone.


Ananda the Fiery. Name change from Amba Aedhi.

The lingua anglica allowance is not intended to allow the use of English phrases as bynames in combination with given names of another language without regard to the naming practices of either language. Its only expression in the Rules for Submissions is found at the end of RfS III.2.a (Linguistic Consistency): `In the case of place names and other name elements frequently used in English in their original form, an English article or preposition may be used.' Precedent extends the allowance somewhat further, as explained in the 28 March 1993 Laurel Cover Letter:

Less codified, but of long practice, has been the translation of epithets into our lingua franca. Again, this follows a common historian's usage: Harald I of Norway, for instance, is far better known as Harald Fairhair than by the untranslated Harald Haarfagr. Eric the Red, Philip the Good, Charles the Fat, all are translations of the period names, not the period names themselves. SCA names are permitted a similar translation: a simple epithet, documented as a period form, may be translated into English. (We prefer to register the untranslated form, but I concede that such rigor doesn't always serve our clients' best interests.)

The use of lingua franca translation is extended only to single, simple descriptives. Given names, for instance, may not normally be translated into their putative meaning: e.g. Bear may not be used as a given name, even though it's the lingua franca translation of the given name Björn. Placenames, hereditary surnames, and bynames from different languages (e.g. French and German) likewise don't fall under the lingua franca allowance.

The English translation should be chosen to minimize any intrusive modernity: e.g. the Old Norse byname kunta is better translated as "wench" than as the intrusive "bimbo". (Well, actually, neither of those is exactly right, but there may be children reading.) Period terms are always preferable, but when necessary, we will translate documented period epithets into the Society's common tongue. That seems to be the best compromise between the needs of authenticity and ease of use.

Note that the discussion refers to documented period epithets. No evidence has been submitted to suggest that the Fiery is a reasonable English translation of an epithet from any period culture in which the Sanskrit name Ananda was used, or even that it is a believable period English epithet. (The 9/94 registration of Ananda of the Bells, noted in the LoI, seems to rest on the judgement that of the Bells is a reasonable English byname. Though the actual form should probably be with the Bells, it is at least close.)

In view of the problem with the byname, the question of whether Sanskrit Ananda is within the domain of the Society is moot. (Please see the Cover Letter for further commentary on this point.)

Arwyn of Leicester. Device. Purpure, a Bourchier knot within a bordure argent.

Conflict with Terrence of Edgecumbe, Purpure, a wake knot of two strands within an orle argent. There is one CD for changing the type of the peripheral charge, but a visual comparison of the two blazons showed that the two knots are too similar to grant the necessary second.

Balthazar fitz Gryphon. Device. Azure chapé ployé argent, a griffin segreant argent.

Conflict with Griffin Val Drummond, Per pale purpure and azure, a griffin segreant argent bearing in its dexter talon a morgenstern and in its sinister talon a targe charged with a tower azure. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for the maintained charges.

Brennisteinvatn, Shire of. Device. Sable, on a flame within a laurel wreath argent, a lizard tergiant fesswise vert.

The laurel wreath is emblazoned as "lying as on a bordure", which has been disallowed for some time now. Please let them know that laurel wreaths are nearly circular in shape, and cannot follow the line of a bordure or orle.

Conal MacDhomhnuil. Device. Per bend sinister azure and Or, a cock contourny charged with an annulet all counterchanged.

No record could be found that this name was ever registered. The Conal Mac Dhòmhnuill registered in January 1994 is a different person, as a comparison of the legal names on the forms demonstrated.

Ealdormere, Principality of. Badge for the Award of the Wolf's Tooth. Azure, three wolves' teeth issuant from chief argent.

Conflict with Elisane Gilraedd, Azure, three piles argent and in base a tower sable. There is a CD for removing the tower, but we have generally given nothing for enarching a charge.

Felicity Penne. Badge. (Fieldless) Perched atop the sinister horn of a jester's hood gules a bird Or.

Conflict with the Barony of Bjornsborg, A jester's hood gules, doubled and belled Or. There is a CD fieldlessness, but as the bird is but the equivalent of a maintained charge, nothing else is available for its addition.

Mathieu Bohemond. Name.

Unfortunately, this fine name conflicts with Matthew de Beaumont, registered 9/93; they simply sound too much alike.

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Matthew of Skraeling Althing.

Thyra Thorkilsdottir. Name and device. Gyronny arrondy vert and Or, a Lisbjerg gripping beast sable.

Thorkilsdottir is an attested form of Thorkelsdóttir; unfortunately, the name appears as Thyra Thorkillsdattir on her form. The second l can be justified, but dattir is a problem. It is justified by the submitter as a transliteration of a runic version of Danish datter. Now it is true that from 800 to 1100 or so the common runic alphabets in Scandinavia used the i-rune to represent both i and e; in fact, there were only sixteen different runes, so many of them not only represented several different sounds but also corresponded to several different Roman letters. A runic version of the Old Danish patronymic Gormssun appears on a stone from c.935 at Hällestad, Skåne, for example, in a form that is usually transcribed kurms sun (E.V. Gordon, Introduction to Old Norse, Oxford, 1971, p. 191). But when Roman letters were used, the distinctions between k and g, u and o, i and e, etc. were maintained. The submitter is of course welcome to write her name in runes, but we register it in the Roman alphabet in a form consonant with period practice. With no evidence for the spelling dattir we must therefore return the name, since she apparently permits no changes. (A consistent transliteration of the most likely runic version of the patronymic would in any case be urkilsdotir: since double letters were very rarely written, and extant Danish runic inscriptions have urkil.)

The forename is also a bit problematical. E.H. Lind (Norsk-Isländska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn, col. 1229) shows only -i, -e, and -y for the final vowel and gives Thyri as the Old Danish form. Lind also mentions one of the two runic versions in the 10th century Old Danish runic inscriptions on the Jelling stones, noting that it corresponds to West Norse Thorvé; these are transcribed urui and aurui (R.W.V. Elliott, Runes, New York, 1959, p. 31). (The a should have a reversed comma dangling from its lower edge to indicate a nasal vowel.) The only more or less authoritative evidence offered for the variant Thyra is in A History of the Vikings, by Gwyn Jones, who at one point names the wife of Gorm the Old `Thyri (or Thyra)'. Still, Jones is generally quite careful with names, so there is presumably some basis for his parenthetical comment, and in the absence of any other problems with the name, it would probably suffice.

The Lisbjerg gripping-beast seems to have been registered only once, in March 1978 to Bjorn of Havok. In the November 1986 LoAR a `borre-style gripping beast' was returned in part because `[t]he gripping beast is not a consistent heraldic charge which could reliably be rendered by a competent heraldic artist'. Such appears also to be the case with the Lisbjerg gripping beast. Indeed, no one was able to find a source for it outside the Pictorial Dictionary, which is, it must be remembered, but a compilation of charges which have been registered in the SCA even if only, as with this charge, once. Given the obscurity of the charge, its difficulty of reproduction from the blazon, and the fact that it has not been registered since the time of the original registration some 17 years ago, we do not feel that it remains appropriate for registration in the SCA.

Ulvar van der Nederlanden. Badge. [Fieldless] A phoenix vert rising from flames, within and issuant from an annulet of flame proper.

The annulet of flame proper and the flames beneath the phoenix are drawn as flames gules fimbriated Or, a motif which has been disallowed for some years now. Additionally, and as noted by Laurel before, "We have not allowed charges of flame for quite some time."' (LoAR July 1994, p. 11)

Umm Yaasmeen Sahar. Name.

The kunya (honorific) Umm Yaasmeen `mother of Yaasmeen' is in effect an `upside-down metronymic'; and just as metronymics do not seem to have been part of Arabic naming practice, no one has found a kunya based on a feminine name. We have previously returned Arabic names for incorporating metronymics (e.g., Raym 'Inan bint Rabi'ah, Atenveldt, 8/95 LoAR, and Aliyah bint Leyla, Middle, 4/94 LoAR); given the equal lack of evidence for the reciprocal practice and its equal implausibility in the male-oriented Arab culture, consistency requires that we return this name as well.


Marie Solange Chantal de Sainte Geneviève. Device. Gyronny argent ermined and azure, a caltrap Or.

Conflict with the badge of Scellanus of Skye, Azure a caltrap Or; with Morgan of Aberystwyth, Gules, a caltrap Or; and with Selene of the Northern Woods, Sable, a caltrap Or. In each case there is but a one CD, for the changes to the field.


Alaric of Wyvernwood. Badge. Sable, on a cross nowy argent a sword inverted gules hilted sable pommeled purpure between two ram's heads couped respectant sable.

Conflicts with John of Two Towers, Sable, on a cross nowy argent, a compass star gules and with Petroushka of Bohemia, Sable, on a cross nowy argent a sprig of parsley vert between three mullets sable and a heart gules. In each case, there is a maximum of one CD for the changes to the tertiaries.

Justin of Kent. Device. Argent, three crosses crosslet sable, on a chief gules a quill pen Or all within a bordure sable.

Though blazoned (and emblazoned) in the LoI without a bordure, the submission forms had exactly the same bordure as in his previous submission and included the bordure in the proposed blazon. As a consequence, it fails to correct or even address the problems for which it was returned before.

Priscilla of Wyvernwood. Device. Per pale sable and purpure, a pegasus segreant argent.

Conflict with Margherita di San Gimignano, Per bend gules and ermine, a winged unicorn rampant wings addorsed argent, armed, crined, unguled, and chased Or, and with Arianwen of Urquart, Vert, a horned pegasus salient argent, armed and unguled azure. In each case there is only one CD, for the difference in the fields. (On Margherita's device, the monster is drawn more as a unicornate pegasus than it is as a winged unicorn, though it has some features of both.)

Sebastian Blacke. Device. Vert, a Jerusalem cross sable fimbriated Or, a bordure Or semy-de-lys sable.

RfS VIII.3. requires that "Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability", and goes on to note that "Voiding and fimbriation may only be used with simple geometric charges placed in the center of the design." In an effort to develop a rule of thumb that could be used as a guideline in determining when a charge was "simple" enough to be fimbriated, Baron Bruce as Laurel stated that "if the voided charge can be reblazoned as On a [charge], another --- that is, if the inner line and the outer line of the voided charge are geometrically similar --- then it's simple enough to void." He then went on to note specifically that a griffin's head was not simple enough, and that "mullets, hearts and triangles are all simple enough to be voided or fimbriated." (Cover Letter, January 15, 1993 (November 1992 LoAR), pp. 2-3) Since that time, we have registered compass stars fimbriated, but we have also returned both roses and suns as being too complex to fimbriate. It is Laurel's belief that a cross potent, the central cross in a cross of Jerusalem, falls into the same "too complex to fimbriate" category as roses and suns. Even were that not felt to be the case, however, the amount of fimbriation, of both the cross potent and the four surrounding crosses couped, is excessive and sufficient grounds for return in and of itself.

Tomás Skotakollr. Device. Azure, a lion statant between two mullets and a point pointed all within a bordure Or.

The "point pointed" here really simply is not; it is far too narrow to be reasonably blazoned as such. As a consequence, we are returning this for redrawing with a standard heraldic point pointed.


Balin Fear-Dàna. Name.

Malory's Balin is probably from Belin(us), which is apparently a Latinized form of the Welsh name Beli. It isn't clear that it was ever used as a name outside of literature; we may give it the benefit of the doubt on that score, but when written in Irish (as with this byname) it would have been given an Irish form. We are unable to guess what that might have been. O'Brien (Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniæ, p. 518) notes one instance of a name Belán; Belán Ferdána seems to be an acceptable early Irish name. (A late form would probably be Bealán Feardána.) The alternative would be to use an English or Anglo-French form of the byname, e.g., Gleman, Harper, Mynstrall, le Singere, etc. These changes are hardly minor, so we are returning the name to let him choose.

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Scott of Golden Rivers.