THE FOLLOWING HAVE BEEN REGISTERED:

AN TIR

Allan Robbins. Name and device. Azure, a wolf's head erased and issuant from chief a demi-sun argent eclipsed azure.

Arianna othe Windisle. Name and device. Per pale purpure and Or two herons respectant counterchanged.

In period Arianna is Italian, so the locative, which was submitted as of the Windy Isles, is best interpreted as a translation, permitted under the lingua anglica allowance. The extent of this allowance was discussed in detail in the 12/95 return of Ananda the Fiery (Middle); according to the precedent there cited, it covers translations of documented period epithets, provided that the translation has been chosen to minimize any intrusive modernity. Actual practice has been somewhat looser: not only has the College allowed non-intrusive translations of epithets thought to be compatible with the naming practices of the source language, but it has even allowed fairly generic English epithets without requiring a demonstration that they were plausible translations of period epithets from the language of the rest of the name. This latter practice can easily result in names that have very little to do with period practice in any language. Consequently, we have no qualms about requiring in such cases -- of which this is one -- that the epithet be put into a period English form.

An original Old English or Old Norse name meaning windy island would most likely have resulted in a Middle English Windey or the like as a proper place-name; owing to popular re- etymologizing of a dative plural in -um, an originally plural name would most likely have ended up as Windham. Since neither of Windey nor of Windham would satisfy the submitter's desire to preserve the general sound of the name, we are constrained to treat the byname instead as topographical, i.e., referring to a local feature of the landscape. Because such bynames refer to specific topographical features, the plural seems inappropriate; at any rate we have not noted an example of such a topographical byname. Normal mediæval practice would fuse the adjective to the noun, making Windi(s)le; and although by far the most common preposition in such names is atte, othe is very occasionally found. We have therefore registered the byname as othe Windisle; though not really very plausible, this is both recognizably similar to the submitted byname and more or less period in form.

The birds were blazoned as passant in the LoI. A bird passant, that is to say, with one leg raised, is considered an unblazoned variant of close.

Catriona of the Field. Name and device. Per pale sable and argent, a Catherine's wheel within a bordure counterchanged.

Since the submitter much prefers Gaelic Catriona to the Anglicized Katrina, the English byname, which was submitted as of the Fields, requires the lingua anglica allowance. In Irish Names and Surnames Woulfe notes the Irish surname an Mhachaire of the field; we have dropped the final -s to make the byname an exact modern translation. (See the discussion of the lingua anglica allowance immediately above under the name Arianna othe Windisle.) A very similar mediŠval English form of the byname would be othe Feild, while a completely Gaelic version of the name would be Caitriona de Filde.

Catriona of the Field. Badge. (Fieldless) On a Catherine's wheel argent a catamount sejant guardant sable.

Cerdic MacAoidh. Device. Argent, an ounce rampant queue forchy sable spotted Or on a chief azure three increscents Or.

[Irreverent comment from the Laurel meeting: "Henceforth, the College of Arms will be on the metric system. As a consequence, all ounces will be blazoned as 28 grams, except for argent and Or ounces, which are Troy ounces, and thus 31 grams."]

Ceridwen o Aberystwyth. Inquiry regarding registered spelling of name.

It is Laurel's belief that this sort of item is not a proper one for inclusion in a Letter of Intent, where the kingdom heralds and the submitter must wait through the entire four month commentary period before a result may published in an LoAR. Such an inquiry is properly made in a separate correspondence to Laurel (perhaps with a copy to Morsulus), where the files may simply be checked and a response mailed within the week. As noted in the Administrative Handbook, p. 8:

Requests for Correction and Change of Registered Items Once an item has been registered, requests for modification of the registered form must use the following procedures.

A. Blazon and Spelling Corrections may be requested if an error derives from a typographical error or omission in a Letter of Acceptance and Return and/or the Armorial and Ordinary.

1. Corrections to a Letter of Acceptance and Return must be requested in writing to Laurel, clearly indicating the specific error or omission and the Letter of Acceptance and Return on which the error occurred. Requests for correction should not be included on letters of intent or letters of commentary and need not be circulated to the membership of the College of Arms prior to action. Such requests may be made by any member of the College of Arms.

2. Corrections to the Armorial and Ordinary not involving errors in a Letter of Acceptance and Return may be requested in writing the Morsulus Herald. Requests for correction should not be included on letters of intent or letters of commentary and need not be circulated to the membership of the College of Arms prior to action. Such requests may be made by any member of the College of Arms.

In fact, her name was registered as Ceridwen o Aberystwyth. The variant spelling of the later armory registration was in error.

Conrad Breakring of Ascalon. Device. Argent, an annulet fracted on the dexter side sable.

Freydís Kausi Fiðardóttir. Name.

Since one is used in the patronymic, we have restored the accent to the given name, and adoption of a standard ASCII representation for the non-ASCII characters commonly occurring in names allows us to restore the ð to the patronymic. (See the discussion in the Cover Letter.) The patronymic itself is problematic, however: though the name Fiðr is given by Geirr Bassi, it does not appear in Lind's massive collection of Norse-Icelandic baptismal names. This omission casts some doubt on its suitability for use and leaves us in ignorance of its correct declension. Contrary to Geirr's statement, names in -viðr don't all have genitives in -viðar, and there is in any case no guarantee that Fiðr is analogous to any of these. We have given the name the benefit of the doubt and, lacking any compelling reason to prefer Fiðsdóttir, have accepted the choice made by the An Tir College of Heralds.

We note that an earlier submission, returned in kingdom, had the byname Fors. This is probably acceptable: one meaning of the word is wrath, vehemence, which seems quite suitable for a byname.

Harrys Rob of Wamphray. Name and device. Vert, a chevron between three winged spurs argent.

The documentation clearly supports this type of Scottish byname.

We have decided to bring the SCA back in line with real world heraldry, at least in one area. Spurs will be palewise, rowel to chief by default. Prior registrations of spurs in the former SCA default in the A&O will be corrected to "fesswise in profile, rowel to sinister" in the Errata Letter accompanying this LoAR.

Judith de Montgomeri. Name and device. Per saltire azure and argent four hearts bases to center counterchanged.

Kathleen O'Shee. Name and device. Per pale sable and argent a selkie sejant guardant counterchanged atop a mount counterchanged Or and vert.

There is no evidence for Kathleen as a period spelling, but it is her modern given name. Please inform her that the surname, following the Irish, is pronounced to rhyme with shay, not she.

Lenora di Felicie. Reblazon of device. Gules, a goblet Or and a chief triangular Or goutty de sang.

This, too, is the kind of request which should be made in a separate correspondence to Laurel, rather than being placed in an LoI. Please see the section from the Administrative Handbook quoted above with the item for Ceridwen o Aberystwyth.

Lions March, College of. Device. Argent, a lion sejant erect grasping a spear and on a chief gules two laurel wreaths argent.

Rhiannon Annsachd. Device. Per bend sinister Or and azure, a sun in its glory counterchanged.

Rowan O'Shee. Name and device. Or, a seal sejant contourny gules atop a mount vert.

Please inform him that the surname, following the Irish, is pronounced to rhyme with shay, not she.

Rowan O'Shee. Household name for Daoine an Chrainn.
The household name was submitted as Daoine Crainn with the intended meaning people of the tree ; we have corrected the grammar. It is not clear that this name follows period models, but in the absence of commentary we deem it within the limits of current practice.

ATLANTIA

Alesia Gillefalyn. Device. Per bend argent and sable, a rose purpure barbed and seeded proper, a lion couchant guardant Or.

Cristina Wynde. Name and device. Per pale azure and argent, a crescent and a demi sun issuant from base counterchanged.

The name was submitted as Cairistìona Wynde, which combines Gaelic and English spellings in a manner not yet documented in period. Being unable to find a Gaelic form of Wynde, we have had to substituted an English spelling of the given name. (There is relatively little difference between the period pronunciations of the English and Gaelic spellings.)

Emma the Lost. Device. Per fess wavy ermine and azure, a sealion Or maintaining a trident sable.

Fíona inghean Dh´ibhid. Name.

The name was submitted as Fiona ni Dauíd;. Dauíd is an early Irish form; the corresponding form of the given name is Fíne, of which Fíona is the modern spelling. (The English name Fiona is an unrelated modern invention.) She wants a mid-14th century name making her David's daughter; we have come as close as we can while retaining the given name in a form compatible with the pronunciation fee-OH-na.

Geffrei Maudeleyne. Name.

Guy Lestrange. Name change from Gunther Starkfaust.

This is an excellent early Anglo-Norman name.

Maude of Burgundy. Device. Sable, a winged frog sejant and on a chief Or three maunches gules.

Maude of Burgundy. Badge. [Fieldless] A maunch per pale sable and gules.

Oswulf the Grey. Name and device. Or, a spear between flaunches sable each charged with a chalice Or.

The lingua anglica allowance permits the name to be registered unchanged. More authentically period forms would be Oswulf se græga (Old English), Osulf le Grey (Middle English), and súlfr inn grái (Old Norse).

Pascal Brendan Merredy. Device. Vert, a ray of the sun bendwise Or, in sinister chief a chalice argent.

The charge is a period one, and can be found in Parker, p. 491, and Guillim (1679 ed.), p. 83. It consists of a quarter sun issuant from dexter chief, issuing one very large ray bendwise across the field.

Pedro de Alcazar. Device. Or, six castles vert within a bordure gules bezanty.

Perigrine Mellyrn of the Last Mountain. Badge. Sable, a skull between three butterflies argent.

Raimund Lateiner. Device. Or, three pheons inverted gules, on a chief azure a pike naiant contourny Or.

Thorvaldr Hr´lfsson. Name.

William Mitchell Mackenzie. Name and device. Argent, a fess enarched per pale azure and vert between three torteaux each charged with a goutte argent.

CAID

Alexandria Elizabeth Vallandigham of Cambria. Device. Argent, on a mullet of seven points vert a griffin couchant wings folded Or, in chief two fleurs-de-lys purpure and a bordure compony purpure and Or.

Antonia de Gallicia. Name.

Arthur the Traveller. Name.

The byname, though popular in the Society, has not been found in period use.

Brigit MacPherson. Name change from Idunn in Spanverska.

Brigit occurs in English records from the second half of the 16th century, so there is no difficulty about combining it with Anglicized MacPherson. Her currently registered name is retained as an alternate persona.

Broinninn ni Choileain. Name and device. Azure, an equal-armed Celtic cross couped plain between three trees couped argent.

The patronym was submitted as Cullane, which is an English form; in the otherwise Irish name an Irish form is required.

Bryan Laurence Griffith. Name and device. Per bend sinister azure and sable, a griffin passant between three sets of three annulets each interlaced two and one, a bordure argent.

Carol of Gallavally. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Per pale sable and purpure, a butterfly, on a chief embattled Or three roses proper.

Submitted with the name Caitilín Duibheasa Duibhir.

Casia Thessalonica apo Constantinopolios. Badge. Purpure, two eagles' heads addorsed and conjoined Or.

Versus Jamal Damien Marcus, A dragon's head and an eagle's head erased addorsed and conjoined at the neck Or, there is a CD for fielded vs. fieldless, and another for changing the type of one of the two heads.

Catriona Stewart of the Glens. Device. Azure, a cross fleury between four roses within a bordure argent.

Corwin Breakshield. Name and device. Purpure, a unicorn rampant contourny reguardant and in sinister chief a mullet of four points argent, a bordure indented Or.

The byname was submitted as Shieldbreaker. The concept is excellent, but the construction does not follow period patterns: in such nicknames the verb comes first. (Compare the 5/95 registration of Conrad Breakring of Ascalon (An Tir), whose nickname was submitted as Ringbreaker, and the 11/93 registration of Christoph Breakshield (Meridies), whose byname was submitted as Shieldbreaker.) The example of Geoffrey le Seldmakere 1285, noted in the LoI, illustrates one of the few general exceptions to this rule, namely, occupational names in -makere; it does not support a more general agent construction of the form {VERB} + -er in nicknames. The spellings Brekes(h)eld would be more characteristic of the period in which such names are commonly found. This specifically overturns the old precedent (set during the tenure of Karina of the Far West) that one may not combine the name Corwin with a unicorn in the armory. "For those names that are well documented as period human names, that also happen to be the names of gods, one armorial allusion to the god will no longer be considered excessive." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR October 1992, p. 27) By this registration, we add to that allowance the combination of Corwin and a unicorn.

Daria Angela Fiore. Name.

The name was submitted as Daria Angelei Fiore. No one was able to document Angelei either as a given name or as a surname, so we have substituted the attested given name Angela. Other acceptable possibilities are Daria d'Angelo Fiore (Daria the daughter of Angelo Fiore) and Daria Angeli il Fiore the Flower, but these seemed to entail a greater change in the sound of the name, which she wished to preserve.

David de la Croupe. Name change David Gerland de la Croupe.

Ealasaid Chathasach. Name.

The byname was submitted as an Cathasach, but Gaelic does not appear to use the article with adjectival bynames, so we have dropped it. We have also aspirated the adjective in the nominative case after the feminine name.

Edwinna of Hawk's Bluff. Badge. Barry wavy azure and argent, three towers Or.

Eógan Cú Chaille. Device. Vert, a compass star within and conjoined to an annulet, and on a chief Or three shamrocks vert.

Everett of Gallavally. Holding name and device. Per pale gules and sable, a wolf's head erased contourny and a chief embattled argent.

Submitted under the name Seamus Maitiu an Rauid, which name was returned in the September 1995 LoAR.

Fransesc Miguel Joaquim Inacio. Device. Sable, a bull passant guardant contourny and on a chief argent a crescent gules between the horns of a bull's massacre sable.

Gabriel Shadewehauke. Device. Vert, on a cross bottony issuant from base Or a hawk stooping sable.

Gautier Langelier of Addershold. Name and device. Argent, on a bend sable between two adders erect tails nowed gules a cubit arm argent.

The name was submitted as Gautier L'Angelier of Addershold. However, the name L'Angelier seems to be based on an incorrect division of Langelier; the latter, according to Dauzat, represents Old French langeolier a seller of blankets or other covers . As noted in the LoI, there is also a surname Angelier; it is a French form of an old Germanic given name Angilhari, whose deuterotheme originally signified army, and whose prototheme is either the tribal name of the Angles or a derivative of ango point, lance . (This last possibility is the source of the misunderstanding in the LoI.) It is therefore a patronymic, and we have seen no evidence that they were used with the definite article. Of the two possibilities supported by the evidence, Langelier and Angelier, we have chosen the former as being closer to what was submitted.

Gavin MacDhomnuill. Badge. [Fieldless] A thistle issuant from a castle Or.

Gwendolen atte Whitedragon. Name change from holding name Wendy of Altavia.

The name appeared as Gwendolen White Dragon on the LoI, the byname(s) having been changed at kingdom from atte White Dragon. In fact the submitter's form is more in keeping with normal period practice, so we have restored it, merely fusing the elements in accordance with that practice. (She explicitly permits this change.) The use of the adjective in what is apparently a sign name is extremely rare, the only example to hand being Sevensterre 1355 (Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Sevenstar), but it is an attested variation on a well-established theme.

Heather of Darach. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Sable, on a pile between two kris knives argent an estoile sable.

Submitted with the name Jaida Badr al-Din.

Jadwiga Zerwas ze Gdanska. Name.

The given name was submitted as Jadwige; since no one was able to support this variant, we have substituted the customary form. Zerwas is the submitter's maiden name; according to Bahlow (Deutsches Namenlexikon, s.n. Serva(e)s) it is probably one of many variants of a patronymic surname derived from Servatius. The locative was submitted as von Gdansk, which mixes a German preposition with a Polish place-name. The German form is von Danzig, but the submitter clearly wants a Polish name; we have therefore substituted what appears to be the most idiomatic choice of Polish preposition, z (or in this case ze before a consonant cluster). Since it takes the genitive case, we have modified the place-name accordingly. An adjectival byname would probably be more characteristic of period Polish usage, but we prefer to keep as much of the submitted form as possible.

James Griffin. Device. Per bend sinister sable and gules, a griffin statant erect affronty wings displayed Or maintaining on its breast a sword gules hilted sable, a bordure Or.

John ap Gwyndaf of Holdingford. Household name and badge for House Gwyndaf. [Fieldless] A Celtic cross within and issuant from a mascle argent.

John of Dreiburgen. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Per chevron Or and gules, two wolves combattant and a death's head counterchanged.

Submitted with the name Grímr Blóthúlfr Berserkr.

Kimokuniya Hayato. Device. Sable, between three gouttes in pall inverted points outward an annulet all within an octagon voided argent.

Loinseach Mac an Leisdeir. Device. Argent, three lozenges sable in bend sinister between two scarpes gules between two cats sejant respectant each lifting a forepaw sable.

As most of the commenters were able to figure out from the comment in the LoI, the scarpes are gules, not the sable the blazon in the LoI implied.

Ludwiga Yagello ze Smocza Jamy. Name change from Celeste Cathan.

The name was submitted as Czarny Ludwiga Yagellio o Smocza Jama. Although Shield found evidence for Czarny as a given name, it is also an adjective meaning black, and the submitter intends it to be a nickname. However, we lack evidence of period Polish use of either double given names or preposed nicknames; neither would be particularly surprising, but some evidence, at least, is required. As the submitter explicitly allows, we have therefore dropped the problematic element in order to register the rest of the name. No one found adequate support for Yagellio, but Yagello seems to be a possible late-period variant of the standard modern form Jagieo; in particular, Pelican found modern Jagieka as Yagelka 1494. The preposition o is definitely wrong: it means of in the sense of about, pertaining to. The best choice appears to be z of, from; it takes the genitive case and becomes ze when the following word begins with a group of consonants. Smocza is the genitive of smok dragon, so jama cave is the actual object of the preposition; its genitive is apparently jamy, and the prepositional phrase is ze smocza jamy.

Her currently registered name is retained as an alternate persona.

Morgan of Dreiburgen. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Purpure, a bear sejant erect argent winged and maintaining a sword Or between three plates each charged with a quatrefoil vert.

Submitted with the name Morgan Torrie Kavanagh.

Murtaugh the Galloglas. Household name badge for Clan Mac Murtaugh. Gules, a boar statant to sinister Or.

In Gaelic the Mac would be omitted, but English usage appears to allow it. The name does not conflict with Clann Mhuirich (in an older spelling Clann Mhuiredhaigh), a sept of Clan Macpherson; the normal phonetic English form of the clan name is Clan Vurich, and Black (s.n. Macvurich) appears to take Macvurich as the standard form of the surname. It is true that Muiredhach, the nominative case of Mhuiredhaigh, is sometimes represented in English by Murdoch. Murtaugh, however, is an Anglo-Irish form that seems (at least in late Anglo-Irish usage) to be associated primarily with (Mac) Muircheartaigh; (Mac) Muiredhaigh was generally represented by forms similar to Murray (Woulfe, Irish Names and Surname, s.nn. Mac M(h)uircheartaigh, Mac M(h)uiredhaigh). (In fact the resemblance between Murdoch and Murtaugh seems to be largely accidental. The dh in Muiredhach was once written d; it originally represented the sound [d], but by the time the Norse were borrowing Irish names it appears to have weakened to [ð], the sound of th in this. In the 12th century we find in Scottish records Murdac, Morthaich, and Murdoch for the same person, an indication that the d represented [ð], as it often does in English records of this period. Over time the sound weakened even further, in some dialects almost completely disappearing; at no time, however, was it [t]. Thus, while it is natural to find Murtaugh for Muircheartach, representing a pronunciation in which the second syllable bears very little stress, it would be surprising to find it for Muiredhach at any stage in its phonetic development.)

The badge is clear of the Barony of Septentria, Gules, a bear statant to sinister Or, by application of X.2. Bears and boars were considered completely different creatures in period, and a comparison of the emblazons did not demonstrate a visual conflict.

Phelan Wolfer of Warrington. Device. Sable, a wolf's head erased, on a chief argent three swans close vert.

Sigtryggr inn Tryggvi. Name.

The definite article appeared as Inn on the LoI; we have restored the customary lower-case i.

Steinsee, Canton of. Badge. [Fieldless] A flame proper within and conjoined to an annulet argent.

Versus Randall Llewellyn Alyson, Azure a flame proper within an annulet nowed in base with a Stafford knot argent, there is the fieldless CD, another for removing the quite prominent knot, and possibly another for the fact that Randall's flame is very small inside and nowhere near to touching at any point the large annulet while Steinsee's is a very large flame clearly conjoined to the annulet.

Ulf of Sjaelland. Device change. Quarterly gules and argent.

Brachet has proposed that we not register this item "because it is "a simple field". We have for a long time refused to register simple fields, allowing them to be used for other purposes such as livery and simple colored banners." In fact, however, the College has only refused to register fields consisting of a plain or single tincture (e.g., Sable, or Ermine. "While the principle that a plain (i.e., undivided) tinctured field was not protected was written into the old rules, this principle existed by precedent long before it was added to the rules." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 28 May 90, p. 6) "Society tradition does not protect the ermine field of Brittany unless it appears in the context of quartering or attached to a name which is strongly redolent of Brittany." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 28 Feb 87, p. 2) Indeed, the provisions in the Rules for difference of "field only" or the newer "field primary" armory make it clear that restricting armory consisting of a divided field was never the intent of the College.

Brachet goes on to propose a Rules change: "I would also like to propose an explicit addition to the Rules, stating that we do not register plain fields, and categorizing plain fields as those of any single tincture or ermine or vair fur, and adding the field divisions into two parts by plain line, and the fields quarterly and per saltire by plain line. "The reasons I would give for refusing to register these as devices or badges in the SCA are twofold, both based on the use of simple fields as livery tabards, a practice which is both period and common in the SCA (for a minor miracle).

"One: If we can protect the registration, each such registration will remove one possible reasonable combination for livery tabards. I do not feel that we should be doing this, especially when it is one of the few non-armorial things that we do moderately correctly in terms of heraldic display. "Two (and more likely): Since we can't constrain people who are designing livery tabard (and we don't want to), we can't protect the registration, and we do not register what we cannot protect."

Even were we to accept this proposal without further discussion and implement such a rules change today, however, we could not use it to return this submission. It has been a long-standing principle of the College that a submitter who prompts a Rules change is exempt from its effects. See, e.g., Cover Letter of 29 Dec 85, p. 4-5. (The so-called "Ting McPhee Rule".) As a consequence, we could not use such a rules implementation to justify the return of this submission. Further, as Palimpsest notes, "a glance through Foster's Dictionary of Heraldry will show that such designs were not uncommon in period. It would require a major benefit to justify banning a period practice. Avoiding a hypothetical confusion with livery seems overkill. Even if we stipulate that this is a problem (though I have never seen it to be) we should investigate period livery display first. I haven't researched it, but my initial reaction is that livery colors were worn per pale. Is there any evidence for other displays, and particular to this submission displays quarterly? It would be absurd to ban a period practice in order to protect one which is not." Laurel concurs.

His currently registered badge, Quarterly gules and sable, a sword inverted surmounted by a wolf passant to sinister reguardant argent, is released.

Umberto Lodovico Scolari. Name.

Ysolde Eileen de Lorraine. Name and device. Per pale argent and vert, two unicorns salient respectant counterchanged.

Eileen is her modern given name; there is at present no evidence for it in period.

EAST

Aleksandra Alekseeva. Name and device. Per chevron gules and sable, two mullets of six points and a galleon Or.

Alexandre Saint Pierre. Name and device. Quarterly vert and sable, a swept- hilt rapier bendwise proper between two roses argent barbed and seeded proper.

Alexis of Ravensdale. Name.

Ravenesdal(e) would be more characteristic Middle English spellings.

Alexis of Woodsend. Name and device. Or, a bend azure between two pine trees couped vert.

The locative was submitted as of Woods End; we have followed the normal period practice of fusing the elements, as seen in the citation Adam de Wodeshende 1273 from Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Woodend. The spelling Wodesende would be more characteristic of the period in which names of this type were most common.

Alistrina de Mann. Device. Pean, a wolf sejant erect guardant within a bordure engrailed argent.

Arianna McPhearson. Badge. [Fieldless] Atop of an increscent argent a winged pig statant azure.

Aurelia Bryhtwyn. Device. Azure, a stag salient guardant argent, collared vert, between three increscents argent.

Versus Athena Catarina of Windcrest, Azure, an antelope rampant argent, "I would grant a CD between a correctly drawn antelope and a deer; the two charges were distinct in period armory (unlike, say, the heraldic dolphin and the bottlenosed dolphin, between which we grant no difference)." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR September 1992, pg. 37)

Bryn the Curious. Name and device. Vert, a wolf's head couped contourny ululant within an orle of maple leaves Or.

The name is very unlikely: Bryn is an unattested variant of Brin, a name found once as that of a moneyer in the reign of Edward the Confessor, while the earliest citations for curious are from the 14th century.

Carl of Carolingia. Device change only (see RETURNS for name change). Argent, three annulets azure.

Nice armory! His currently registered device, Or, a pall azure between three annulets gules, is released.

Submitted with a name change to Alexander Listkeeper.

Emma Llewellyn of Magherafelt. Name.

Gwenhwyfar Dinas Emrys. Name.

Jehan Fitz Alan. Name.

The LoI raised the possibility of conflict with Jonn Elynn, registered 8/79. The question is much more difficult than most commenters realized. As Black Dove pointed out, Jehan was monosyllabic; the h was silent, and the name sounded rather like "zhonn." Thus, Jonn and Jehan should sound very similar despite their very different appearances and are therefore not significantly different in the sense of RfS V.1.a.i (Given Names). The question of conflict therefore depends on the bynames.

It seems likely that Fitz Alan and Alan were at some point interchangeable, much like Richardson and Richard; if so, they would conflict. It is also quite possible that the difference in sound between Alan and Elynn is insufficient to bring them clear of each other. Nevertheless, we agree with the majority who thought that the names oughtn't to conflict; and by good fortune a strict interpretation of RfS V.1.a.ii (Bynames) justifies the conclusion that Fitz Alan is significantly different from Elynn. Certainly the two are quite different in sound and appearance; the only question is whether it is necessary to compare Elynn with Alan rather than with Fitz Alan. The rules do not explicitly cover this situation. However, any conflict between Alan and Fitz Alan lies in their potential interchangeability. Elynn, on the other hand, is not a variant of Alan and is therefore not interchangeable with Fitz Alan; consequently, the reasoning that brings Richard into conflict with Richardson does not apply to Fitz Alan and Elynn. Therefore the names need only meet the basic criterion of significant difference in sound and appearance, which, as we already noted, they clearly do.

Kellemetlen Arpád. Name.

The name was submitted as Arpad a Kellemetlen. The letters a and á being significantly different, at least in modern Hungarian, we have restored the missing accents to the given name. It appears on the basis of the available examples that Hungarian does not use the definite article (a) with adjectival bynames, so we have dropped it. Finally, we have reversed the order to conform to normal Hungarian practice, which puts the given name after the byname.

Maria Beatrice del Mare. Name and device. Vert, a pale wavy argent between six roses Or.

The locative was submitted as della Mare; Italian mare "sea" is a masculine noun, and we have corrected the grammar accordingly. Moro and (della) Mare are sufficiently different to bring this clear of Maria Beatriz Moro, registered 1/93.

Martyn Ferrett. Name and device. Argent, on a bend wavy azure three pig- faced bascinets palewise argent.

Rowan Woodring. Device. Argent, a natural rainbow proper between three estoiles sable.

Sebastiano da Pachino. Name.

Timotheos of Alexandria. Name and device. Azure, a chevron Or between two open books and a unicorn rampant reguardant maintaining a quill pen argent.

Timotheos apo Alexandrias seems to be one possible entirely Greek form of the name.

MIDDLE

Alessandra l'Amour. Name and device. Azure, a unicorn rampant between three roses and on a chief argent three roses gules.

Alina of Loch Mor. Name and device. Gules, a needle within an orle of mullets argent.

Alina of Loch Mor. Household name for House Loch Mor.

This is clear of the registered branch names Lochmorrow and Lochmere. We are not convinced that "Big Lake" is a particularly reasonable name for a household, but no one commented unfavorably.

Amabel d'Avignon. Device. Argent, on a heart gules a quatrefoil Or, on a chief sable three goblets Or.

Amicia Druet. Name and device. Azure, a dolphin urinant and on a chief rayonny argent two roses gules.

A first-rate mediŠval name.

Ania Dahlbergh. Device. Argent, a cup sable with ribbons issuant from its mouth gules within an orle of grapevine proper.

Please tell her to draw the vine with more and larger leaves and grape clusters.

Arinbjorn Runolfsson Rafnssonar. Badge. [Fieldless] A wolf's head cabossed per pale sable and argent enflamed gules.

Bran atte Rountre. Name and device. Per fess embattled argent and sable, a sprig bendwise sinister proper and a greyhound dormant Or.

Brand the Black. Device. Checky sable and Or, a seawolf rampant argent.

Brianna O'Kirrane. Name only (see RETURNS for device).
Brian(n)a is a modern name that has been declared SCA-compatible.

Brithwine of Grafhamwudu. Device. Azure, on a hand argent a mullet of seven points azure, a bordure argent.

Cailean Bane McDougall. Device change. Gules, a griffin segreant and on a chief indented Or three Celtic crosses gules.

Her currently registered device, Azure, a griffin segreant and on a chief indented argent three mallets azure, is released.

Cailean Bane McDougall. Badge. Per bend sinister sable and argent, in bend an annulet between two trees counterchanged.

Cathan the Tinker. Name and device. Quarterly bendy sinister sable and argent and azure.

The name is registerable only by virtue of the lingua anglica allowance. The th in Cathan came to be pronounced [h] very early; Cahan the Tinker would be a completely English form, with an English phonetic spelling of the Irish given name, and Cathan Ceard would be entirely Irish.

Catriona nicHugh McLae. Device change. Quarterly argent and gules, in bend two gillyflowers slipped and leaved proper.

A gillyflower proper is gules, slipped vert.

Since she did not specify the disposition of her currently registered device, Or, a bend rayonny gules within a bordure sable, it is, per the Administrative Handbook, released. ("Instructions for Disposition of Changed Items - If the submission involves a change of name or armory, the forms should include specific instructions for the disposition of the changed items. If no instructions are included on the forms, the name and/or armory will be automatically released when the change is approved.")

Celynen Anwyl. Name and device. Per fess indented sable and gules, in chief three pheons and in base three catamounts passant guardant argent.

Cerdic Weyfare. Device. Gyronny arrondy of six gules and argent.

This is clear of Roy de Cascades, Gyronny of four from dexter chief gules and argent per RfS X.4.a.ii.(a).

Christina Landswalker of Penrose. Device. Per pale gules and Or, a lion's jambe bendwise counterchanged.

Ciar McRobbie. Device. Argent, on a dance gules between three wolves heads one and two sable, four claymores inverted proper.

Cinaed Tire Eogain. Name and device. Per pale purpure and sable, a trident head and a chief rayonny Or.

Conrad d'Anjou. Name and device. Azure, a chevron and in chief two sheaves of arrows argent.

Dafydd Wolfson. Name and device. Sable, a wolf sejant ululant and in chief two towers argent.

The surname was submitted as Wulfsson, a form that matches neither Old nor Middle English practice. The Old English would have been Wulfes sunu; Wolveson is a likely Middle English spelling, which could have fossilized as a late-period hereditary surname Wolfson. This is unlikely, since the rare Old English name Wulf apparently did not long survive the Conquest. But Dafydd is a late spelling of a name that -- even in a Welsh context -- would more likely have been written Dauid when Wulf was still in use; as such it is more compatible with Wolfson than with the earlier forms. Since he cares most about the sound of the name, we have registered it as the late Anglo- Welsh Dafydd Wolfson.

David Martin Failsworth. Device change. Argent, a crequier within a bordure embattled vert.

His currently registered device, Argent, a winged Afghan hound rampant within a bordure embattled vert, is released.

Delores La Rosa. Name only (see PENDING for device).

Delores is her modern given name.

Diana Tesedale. Name and device. Per pale gules and vert, a flame between three mullets of eight interlocking mascles argent.

Duncan de Grey. Name and device. Argent, on a pile sable between two flanged maces gules a griffin segreant contourny doubly queued argent.

The name does not conflict with Donecan Grayson, registered 1/95: the surnames both look and sound significantly different. (The name de Grey is locative, not patronymic, so RfS V.1.a.ii(a) (Bynames of Relationship) does not apply.)

Edward Dowe of Ayrshire. Name.

Edward Sevensterre. Name and device. Vert, seven mullets and on a chief Or three martlets vert.

Eilonwen verch Gryffyn. Name and device. Per pale vert and sable, a Bowen knot crosswise argent.

Eilonwen appears to be acceptable as a constructed Welsh name.

Eilonwen verch Gryffyn. Badge. [Fieldless] A Bowen knot crosswise argent.

Elina de Braose. Name and device. Argent, a crequier and in chief a mullet of four points vert.

Despite the documentation of the given name as Old Norse, this is a reasonable 13th century English name.

Though not included in the packet, Laurel has since received a permission to confict from David Martin Failsworth, registered above.

Elric de Panton. Name and device. Argent, three triangles inverted voided sable. Emrys Eustace. Name change from Emrys Eustace Boreyne and device change. Or. three sprigs of broom gules.

His currently registered device, Or, a sprig of broom plant peascods within a mascle gules, is released.

Erik Svartskalle. Name and device. Argent, on a bend between two roundels azure three plates.

The byname was submitted as Old Norse Svartkollr, but the inflectional ending -r of the byname is out of place with Swedish Erik. A wholly Old Norse form would be Eiríkr svartkollr; but to preserve the given name, we have instead translated the byname into modern Swedish. (Oddly enough, the change largely preserves the sound of the name as well as the meaning, though kollr and skalle are unrelated.)

Ewander Maclachlan. Name.

The given name was submitted as Evander MacLachlan on the LoI; his forms had Maclachlan. Evander is the English form of Greek Éuandros, the name of a legendary king credited with civilizing Latium and said to have been the son of Hermes and a nymph. He figures in the Aeneid as an ally of Aeneas, so the name was available as part of the Classical tradition. According to De Felice (Dizionario dei Nomi Italiani, s.n. Evandro) it was resurrected during the Italian Renaissance. Moreover, the name was in use in Scotland by 1685 and has remained so, especially among the MacIvers. As in the case of Thalia (9/95 LoAR, Thalia Woodhall, An Tir), the evidence warrants giving the name the benefit of the doubt as a possible late-period English (or in this case Scottish) borrowing from the Classics. We have, however, substituted the earliest documented Scottish form.

Francesca da Toscana. Name and device. Per chevron sable and Or, three horses rampant counterchanged.

We have substituted the Italian preposition da for the submitted de. Nice device.

Genevieve MacPherson. Name and device. Vert, a winged stag rampant contourny argent and a chief ermine.

Gerhardt Johannes Liebknecht von Erfurt. Name and device. Per chevron Or semy of Latin crosses sable and gules, a lion rampant paly Or and sable.

The name and device were registered April 1995, the latter with the blazon Per chevron Or crusily long sable and gules, in base a lion rampant paly Or and sable.

Giovanni Allegri. Name and device. Per chevron purpure and vert, in chief two swords inverted in chevron and conjoined at the pommel argent and in base two fish haurient addorsed Or.

The given name was typoed as Giovannni on the LoI; his forms had the usual spelling.

Gregor von Hannover. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Griffin Brandt. Name and device. Azure, a talbot passant within an orle of mullets of seven points Or.

The Continental spelling of Brandt is very unlikely but could perhaps have been brought into England from the Low Countries in the 16th century. Either Brand or Brant would be much more likely with the English Griffin.

Gunnbjörn Thorfinnsson. Name.

Gwenfrewi ferch Cadfael Caernarfon. Device. Per pale indented sable and lozengy gules and argent, an estoile argent and a lion sejant erect reguardant tail nowed sable.

Gwilliam Rhydderch of Essex. Name.

Gwylym Penbras. Name and device. Purpure, a lion dormant and on a chief argent three lions dormant contourny purpure.

While, as several commenters noted, there are precedents prohibiting the use of two different sizes of the same charge in a device, this prohibition does not run to the combination of primary and tertiary charges. It has almost always been applied to, e.g., primary and secondary, or primary and semy, groups containing two different sizes of the same charge. The use of the same charge as a primary and again as tertiary charges does not fall afoul of the prior precedents, and, indeed, can be documented as occurring in period arms.

Hanna Lore an dem Fenn. Name and device. Per bend sinister rayonny argent and azure, a cat statant contourny gules and a compass star elongated to base argent.

Hannelore, which was the submitter's original desire, appears to be modern.

John othe Lake. Name.

The name was submitted as John of the Lakes. The prepositions most often found in English topographical bynames are English atte and Anglo-French del, de la. However, there are occasional instances of othe of the, as in othe felde 1327, othe Wood 1374 and otheSee 1382. Indeed, in Heralds of England Anthony Wagner notes the early 14th century king of arms, by title March, named John Othelake! No one found a plural instance of the byname Lake in any form, probably because topographical bynames of this type generally refer to specific local features of the local landscape, and the lakes is too general to be a useful description. We have therefore slightly changed the name to match documented period practice.

Kenric Bjarnarson. Device. Vert, a saltire between four escutcheons Or.

Vs. Avram the Jew, Vert, a saltire couped Or between four bezants, there is a CD for the change in type of the secondary charges and another for the difference between a saltire couped (with the normal "flat" ends) and a standard saltire throughout. Nice armory!

Llwyd Aldrydd. Device. Per bend sinister gules and sable, a comet headed of a mullet of eight points fesswise reversed argent.

Martin of Rivenstar. Name and device. Per bend sable and gules, a Latin cross formy between in bend sinister two roundels argent.

Rivenstar is the registered name of his barony.

Niniane de Bretagne. Device. Sable, a bend ermine between a sun in its splendor Or and a decrescent argent all within a bordure Or.

Ragnarr Grásí a. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

The name was submitted as Ragnar Grási a. His form indicates that he would like the name to be Old Norse or Old Icelandic, so we have added the inflectional -r to the given name. For consistency we have also restored the missing accent in the byname.

Stormvale, Shire of. Badge. [Fieldless] A quatrefoil azure.

This does not conflict with Alys of the Midnight Rose, Or, a rose slipped and leaved azure, with the fieldless CD and another for the difference between a quatrefoil and a rose. Quatrefoils and roses do not appear to have been considered equivalent charges in our period. Clear also of Alyanora of Vinca, Argent, a periwinkle proper, by the same count. A comparison of the emblazons demonstrated the extreme similarity of a periwinkle to a rose, but not to a quatrefoil.

Wessex Mere, Canton of. Device. Per bend Or and barry wavy azure and argent, in sinister chief a laurel wreath vert.

William Stefan Gould. Name and device. Sable, five lozenges conjoined in pale Or within an orle argent and on a chief Or three martlets wings elevated and addorsed sable.

Please ask him to draw the lozenges and the martlets (which have their leg tufts, missing in the mini-emblazon) larger.

Ysabeau Herbier de Vauvert. Name and device. Vert, on a bend embattled to base ermine a cinquefoil sable.

Note that Herbier is not herbalist as stated in the LoI; according to the documentation, it either refers to a grassy or herbous region or signifies a farmer.

OUTLANDS

Bofharrach, Shire of. Device. Or, a cow statant sable within a laurel wreath vert, a bordure embattled sable.
This had been pended from the November 1995 Laurel meeting. Please tell them to draw the laurel wreath more nearly circular.

TRIMARIS

Aeleis Midwinter. Name.
A nice, authentic Middle English name circa 1200.

Airtín Leocháin. Name.

The patronymic was submitted as O'Leocháin on the LoI; his form had the correct spelling.

Alaric Eduardo Alfonso de Castilla. Name change from Alaric of Wyvernwood.

The name was submitted on the LoI as Alaric Alfonso del Castillo. Commentary supported the restoration of the submitter's Eduardo, which had been dropped at kingdom for lack of sufficient documentation. We have also modified the locative to give it the intended meaning of Castile ; del Castillo seems to be of the castle . The usual Spanish form of the given name was Alarigo; it, rather than Alaric, would be expected at the late date implied by the length of the name.

Alaric Eduardo Alfonso de Castilla. Household name for House of the Ram and Sword.

Alexander Maddison Midwinter. Name.

The most probable explanation of this name seems to be that he is Alexander, son of Matthew (or Maud) Midwinter. Names combining a patronymic in -son with a byname of another type in this fashion are found in Lancashire in the 14th century.

Alix de Lyon. Name.

Andrew William Montgomery. Name and badge. [Fieldless] A cubit arm armored bendwise sustaining a flanged mace bendwise sinister argent.

Arianna Rosa Cristina Veneziano. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

The third name appeared on the LoI as Christina, but her form had Cristina. There is evidence for period Italian use of three given names, but the practice seems to have been rare.

Bernadette Dymond. Name.

Bernadette was in use in southern France in the early 14th century.

Caitlín ní Dhubhghaill. Name and device. Per pale argent and azure, a chevron between three dragons segreant counterchanged.

The patronymic was submitted as ní Dhughaill, which appears to be a modern spelling; we have restored the missing consonant, which seems to have persisted throughout our period.

Catarina Ginevra Falconieri. Household name for Famiglia degl' Illuminatori.

What little evidence is available suggests that casa house would be more idiomatic than famiglia, and it is questionable whether the term illuminatori was applied to illuminators of manuscripts; these uncertainties are insufficient to deny this rather unobtrusive name the benefit of the doubt, however.

Catherine Rose FitzEdmund. Name.

The surname appeared on the LoI as FitzEdmunds, but the undocumented final -s is not on her form.

Davide di Dante Angelosanto. Name.

The given name was submitted as Davidi, a variant supported by a single instance of Danieli for Daniele. It is quite possible that more extensive sources would show that this was not an isolated instance, but we are unwilling to register an undocumented variant on the basis of a single data point and have therefore restored the name to its usual form.

Eithne ni Chailein. Name only (see PENDING for device).

The name appeared on the LoI as Eithne ní Chaillin, changed at kingdom from Eithne ni Cailean. Black (s.n. Colin) shows the genitive case of the patronymic as Cailein; with aspiration after ni, this is Chailein. From the limited evidence available it appears that in Scottish usage the particle would probably have been nighean rather than ni.

Eleanor Hardyng de Northhampton. Name and device. Per bend azure and vert, a bell within an orle Or.

Elizabeth of Cranstone. Name and device. Argent, on a pile vert between two roses purpure seeded Or barbed, slipped and leaved vert a crane in its vigilance argent.

Eóin Mac Seóin. Name.

The name was submitted as Eoin Mac Seóain; we have restored the missing fada in the given name and substituted a documented form of the patronymic.

Gillian Saintclair. Name.

The surname appeared on the LoI as Sinclaire, changed at kingdom from Saint Clair. Available period forms run the two elements together, but Saintclair seems well within the range exhibited by such attested forms as Santoclair 1407, Seinteclere 1327, and Sayntcleare 1611; we have therefore largely restored the submitter's version.

Lucia del Mar. Badge. Sable, a hornless goat's head couped within a bordure Or.

Versus Tinoran Skipborrinn, Vert, a mountain goat's head erased at the shoulder within a bordure Or, there is a clear point for the field color, and another for the addition of the very prominent horns. (Tinoran's charge is a mountain goat, drawn with horns nearly as long as a gazelle's, and not a mountain sheep with the circular "Princess Leia bun" circular horns, which would not have as great a visual impact).

Margaret MacGregor. Name.

Morgan Sparhawk. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Please make sure that the submitter knows that she has registered a man's name.

Olaf Hilditónn. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

The byname appeared as Hilditonn on the LoI; we have restored the missing diacritical mark.

Olwen ferch Rhodri. Name and device. Vert, on a bend argent between two garbs Or three oak leaves inverted fructed proper.

Rhiannon Walkinfire. Name.

Rhiannon is a name from Welsh mythology that does not seem to have been used by human beings in period; it has been ruled SCA-compatible , however. Walkinfire is syntactically very good; semantically it is more questionable, as fire-walking was certainly not a normal period activity. Nevertheless, we observe that the byname fall-in-the-well , which seems likely to commemorate a notable misstep, was applied to men in at least three different counties in the 14th century (Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Fallowell: Falinthewol 1301, ffalliwolle 1327, Falleinthewelle 1343), and we must agree with Ensign that walking into a fire might be an equally memorable mishap. Other verbs would probably be more idiomatic, however; in personal names walk rarely appears save in as the nomen agentis Walker fuller . Go is fairly common, and step and tread are also found. Go inthe Fyre, Stepinfyre, and Tredinfyre all follow 13th or 14th century models (Reaney, The Origin of English Surnames, pp. 284, 289).

Seymour the Skeptic. Name and device. Per bend sinister argent and Or, a Maltese cross within an orle vert.

The name appeared on the LoI as Richard Seymour the Skeptic, Richard having been added at kingdom for lack of documentation of Seymour as a given name. Fortunately, Bardsley's Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames (p. 460) cites Seymour Knightley 1597-8, so we have restored the submitter's version. We note, however, that both Seymour as a given name and English use of the word skeptic seem to date from the later 16th century, by which time names of this form were extremely rare.

Somhairle Laidhigh. Household name for Clann an Chullaich Bhain.

The household name was submitted as Clan Cullach Ban, intended to be Clan of the White Boar ; this name raises questions both of style and of grammar.

The name was justified as an inn name in the LoI, but this is impossible: the root meaning of clann is "plant", whence "off-shoot; children, family, offspring; descendants, race". Thus, the name must be justified as a clan name. Extant examples of these take the form Clann {GENITIVE name personal of case}; strict adherence to these examples would obviously rule out the present submission. However, the Dictionary of the Irish Language cites mediŠval use of an Cullach the Boar as an epithet. This opens the possibility that the descendants of a warrior called an Cullach B´n "the White Boar" might have taken his epithet as their clan name. In view of the loose standard of authenticity to which the College has traditionally held household names, we are willing to give the name the benefit of the doubt on this point. (The example of Clan Chattan, brought up in commentary to support the style of this submission, is not to the point, since the name does not mean "Clan of the Cat"; rather, it appears to be derived from a personal name. As Black notes, the cat in the arms of the clan is merely canting.)

The name required a number of minor technical corrections to spelling and grammar. The Gaelic word is clann, and it is followed by the genitive case of the clan name. On the basis of the justification given above, this would include the definite article, so in Scots Gaelic the final result would appear to be Clann an Chullaich Bhain.

Thorgeirr inn danski. Name and device. Per bend sinister purpure and sable, a bend sinister embattled counter-embattled between two gauntlets aversant argent.

The name is excellent.

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for the Order of the Argent Palm of Trimaris. Azure, a palm tree couped within a bordure argent.

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Name and badge for Order of the Argent Rainbow of Trimaris. Azure, a rainbow ant.###

The name was submitted as the Order of the Rainbow Argent of Trimaris; we have reversed the adjective and noun to follow normal English word order and such examples as the Order of the Golden Fleece.

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for the Order of the Argent Trefoil of Trimaris. Argent, on a triskele vert a trefoil argent.

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for the Crowns Order of Gratitude. Per pale azure and vert, a triskele within a bordure Or.

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Golden Galleon. Azure, a galleon Or.

Vs. Finnvar de Taahe, Azure, a drakkar sable, fimbriated Or, sailed argent, prowed gules, over the prow a six pointed mullet Or, the whole environed of six, six pointed mullets Or, there are CDs for removing the secondary charges and another for tincture of the primary charge. Finnvar's is mostly black and white, with a thin band of gold fimbriation around the hull. This is entirely Or.

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Healers Lamp. Azure, on a lamp Or a fleam gules.

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Trimarian Gratitude. Barry wavy azure and argent, a triskele within a bordure Or.

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge. Argent, on a spider inverted sable a triskele Or.

Versus Andrew of Riga (reblazoned in the Errata Letter with this LoAR), A spider sable, there is a CD for field vs. fieldless, and another for the addition of the tertiary charge.

WEST

Alys Beaupied. Device. Per bend sinister vert and sable, a double arched bridge and a bordure argent.

Amanda Wyndeswyft. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Ceara MacDonald. Device. Per fess wavy azure and vert, a natural dolphin hauriant within a bordure argent.

Please tell her to use slightly lighter shades of blue and green in the future. The precise form of "bumpity" of the line of division was not easy to identify with the very dark tinctures used on the large emblazon.

Ceinwen ferch Belyn. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Chrisstine of Danegeld Tor. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Argent, a mermaid in her vanity within a bordure sable.

Submitted with the name Aoife ingen Gharbain.

Dante Stefani. Name and device. Per chevron Or and azure, in base a bear's head argent and on a chief azure three mullets of eight points Or.

Eliza O'Donegan. Name.

Ewein Padelford. Device change. Chevronelly Or and sable, on a pale azure three roses and on a chief argent three equal-armed Celtic crosses azure.

His currently registered device, Chevronelly inverted Or and sable, on a pale argent, in pale a hammer and an anvil azure, is released.

Faustus von dem Schwartzwald. Name.

Withycombe's statement that Latin Faustus "fortunate" was a major source of the German surname Faust should be taken with a large grain of salt: the latter is in most cases much more likely to be from Middle High German vust fist.

Hans von Wolfholz. Device. Per bend sinister purpure and sable, a rose slipped and leaved bendwise within a bordure indented argent.

Kæll of the Broken Tower. Name change from Koell of the Broken Tower. The original registration of Koell was the result of misreading the digraph; Kæll is the correct form.

Oriana Morgan of Ely. Name and device. Purpure, on a bend invected argent in chief a cross of Calatrava palewise purpure.

THE FOLLOWING HAVE BEEN RETURNED FOR FURTHER WORK:

AN TIR

None!

ATLANTIA

Katelin Lestrange. Device. Azure, three suns in their splendor and on a chief Or, three decrescent moons azure.
Conflict with the Kaylitha Rhiannon of Southhaven, Azure, three estoiles and on a chief Or, three crescents azure. There is a CD for the change to type of the primary charges, but nothing for the orientation of the tertiary charges on the chief.

CAID

Aonghus Donnchaid Mac Leòid of Sea March. Name.
So far no evidence has been presented for period Gaelic use of double given names. Since Donnchaid is in the genitive case, it may be intended as a reduced form of the patronymic mac Donnchaid; this usage has been found in Ireland, but so far not in our period. Aonghus mac Donnchaidh mhic Leoid and Aonghus mac Leoid would be documentable forms of the Gaelic part of the name, and the locative, which refers to a shire in Trimaris, would be registerable under the lingua anglica allowance; unfortunately, he permits no changes, so we must return the name. (Note that the accent on Mac Lòid is a modern Scots Gaelic innovation that should be removed in any future submission using this element.)

Caitilín Duibheasa Duibhir. Name.

There are several significant problems with this name. First, it does not appear that double given names or unmarked metronymics were part of period Irish naming practice; secondly, the patronymic must be in the feminine form after the feminine given name; and thirdly, the information given by MacLysaght and Woulfe strongly suggests that Duibhir is a strictly modern spelling, Dubhuidhir being the etymologically transparent early modern spelling. We consider feminizing the patronymic to be a minor change (which she permits), and her earlier submission of Caitlin Carol uí Dubhuidir suggests that she has no objection to the period spelling of the patronymic; the last two problems could therefore be solved by changing Duibhir to Ní Dhubhuidhir. The first problem could be solved by dropping Duibheasa altogether or by making the submitter the daughter of a Duvessa O Dwyer; the resulting names are Caitilín Ní Dhubhuidhir and Caitilín inghean (or ní) Dhuibheasa Uí Dhubhuidhir. Since the submitter has used a double given name in every attempt so far, we consider either of these changes to be more than minor and are therefore returning the name for further input from her.

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Carol of Gallavally.

Constance O' Keeley. Device. Purpure, a sword inverted surmounted by a heart argent.

Conflict with Neal Gyrfalcon, Purpure, perched atop the pommel of a sword inverted proper a gyrfalcon reversed argent (as reblazoned in the Errata Letter accompanying this LoAR). There is a CD for the addition of the overall charge, but a review of the emblazon demonstrated that the gyrfalcon is the equivalent of a maintained charge, no additional CD is available for its removal.

Eadwine Rune-Deniga. Name change from Eadwynne of Runedun.

No evidence has been presented that kennings and other poetic expressions were used as bynames. Previous returns for this reason involved Old Norse names, but the limited evidence available for Old English bynames suggests that they were equally down-to-earth. We are therefore returning this name and broadening the precedent to include Old English as well as Old Norse bynames. (The most recent discussion of the matter can be found in the 1/96 return of Ragnar Bölvisbörrskjaldar (Caid).)

There are also some grammatical problems with the byname. Rune is an oblique case of run secret; rune (accusative in the passage cited in the submitter's documentation); here it needs to be in the nominative case. Deniga is an alternative form of Dena, the genitive plural of Dene a Dane. The desired compound would therefore be Rundene rune-Dane.

Eadwine Rune-Deniga. Alternate persona name Eadwynne Iren-Dracan.

No evidence has been presented that kennings and other poetic expressions were used as bynames. Previous returns for this reason involved Old Norse names, but the limited evidence available for Old English bynames suggests that they were equally down-to-earth. We are therefore returning this name and broadening the precedent to include Old English as well as Old Norse bynames. (The most recent discussion of the matter can be found in the 1/96 return of Ragnar Bölvisbörrskjaldar (Caid).)

Even if it were stylistically acceptable, Iren-Dracan would require a little grammatical repair. Dracan is the form taken by the noun draca in the singular oblique cases, so the byname would actually be Irendraca. Finally, the given name is somewhat problematic. Old English -wine is a masculine deuterotheme, while -wynn is feminine. This in itself is not a problem, but even if the submitter doesn't mind having a woman's name, it must be in the nominative case, and Eadwynne is the accusative case of the name Eadwyn(n). If the byname could be justified stylistically, the name would be Eadwynn Irendraca.

Eógan Cú Chaille. Badge for Snorri Karlsson. [Fieldless] A shamrock vert, overall a compass star within and conjoined to an annulet Or.

The compass star and annulet combination is the kind of "barely overall" charge that we have been returning for some time now. This should be redrawn so that the charges are either entirely on the shamrock or truly overall.

Genheah Grimskona. Name.

(Her form has a macron over the second e in the given name, but this is a modern scholarly addition that was not used in period.) Even if Gen- is a genuine Old English prototheme, which is not clear, there is no possibility of a Genheah being Grim's wife (Old Norse kona): the deuterotheme -heah is masculine. (Unlike most of the other Germanic languages, Old English never abandoned the old Germanic naming principle according to which the gender of a name was determined by that of the deuterotheme.) Since much more than a minor change would be needed to fix this problem, we must return the name.

It appears that the submitter would like a given name as close as possible in sound to Jenna and a byname that makes her persona the wife of her husband's persona; here is the best suggestion that we can make at this point. Pelican has found Iana in a late-15th century genealogical manuscript as a Latinization of Jane; in the orthography of the period it could as well have been Jana. The name Grim seems to be rare in England after the 12th century, but Grímr continued in use in Norway at least through the 15th century. Since Latinized records are occasionally also found quite late, Jana uxor Grim is a registerable, if improbable, documentary form. (Note that Grim was undeclinable in Latin, so uxor Grim is correct for Grim's wife.)

Grímr Blóðúlfr Berserkr. Name.

Blóðúlfr "blood-wolf" was justified in the LoI on the basis of the attested bynames blóð x "blood-axe" and kveldúlfr "evening-wolf, werewolf". We aren't sure that these are sufficient justification for the meaning "blood-wolf", but we agree with the Caidan CoH that it is likelier than "wolf-blood"; had there been no other question about the name, we'd have given it the benefit of the doubt. However, the double nickname is even more problematical. It's true that Geirr Bassi says that some Norseman had more than one nickname simultaneously; however, he does not say that more than one would actually have been used in a given instantiation of the name, and we have no examples to show what kinds of combinations were actually used. Two purely descriptive nicknames with roughly the same sense seems an unlikely combination. It seems especially unlikely for someone who is apparently a slave: Geirr says that in general only slaves had no patronymic or metronymic. Had one of the nicknames been preposed, we'd have given the construction the benefit of the doubt on the grounds that in some of the historical examples a preposed nickname seems almost to have become part of the given name; unfortunately, it is not clear that either of them can be. It is possible that with further research this name could be adequately justified; at present, however, it contains too many problematic elements for comfort. If the submitter is willing to drop blˇ­, the remaining three elements can be combined in a couple of ways. First, lf-Grímr inn Berserkr is probably registerable: lf- seems a reasonable nickname to prepose even without an attestation. Alternatively, there is an attested Old Norse name Grímólfr, whose deuterotheme is a variant of ´lfr; Grímólfr inn Berserkr would certainly be acceptable. (Note that the Caidan CoH was in error in thinking that berserkr would become berserki after the definite article inn: berserkr is a noun, not an adjective.)

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name John of Dreiburgen.

Jaida Badr al-Din. Name.

We must return this name for violation of RfS VI.1 (Names Claiming Rank): laqabs of the form {NOUN} al-Din "{NOUN} of the Faith" were bestowed upon princes, statesmen, generals and high officers of state by the Caliph as titles and so constitute implicit claims to rank and station. Laurel further notes that he has not seen a laqab for a woman formed from the element al-Din.

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Heather of Darach.

Morgan Torrie Kavanagh. Name.

The name does not appear to follow period models. Kavanagh is an Anglicization of an Irish surname that became hereditary at an early date. In this Irish context Torrie is a late Anglicization of Tuiridh, itself a borrowing of Old French Thierri; it is a hereditary Anglo-Norman surname. (In an English context Torrie can also be an unmarked patronymic directly from Thierri.) Before registering such a combination, we need evidence for Irish use of double hereditary surnames. Morgan Torry would have been very good. And since there is an Irish place-name whose English form is Cavan, Morgan Torrie of Cavan would also be quite acceptable and would preserve more of the sound of the submitted name.

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Morgan of Dreiburgen.

Sophia de Forest. Device. Quarterly argent and argent semy of fir trees proper overall a griffin segreant azure maintaining a torch vert enflamed gules.

"Semy should cover a defined area, not part of a field. The effect here is visually confusing and unbalanced." [Baldwin of Erebor, LoAR 10 Mar 85, p.14] That is the case here. It is impossible to tell where the argent ends and the argent with semy begins, making the device visually confusing and unbalanced.

Stephen de Huyn. Badge. [Fieldless] A cross of Santiago argent.

While the cross of Santiago can be found in the Pictorial Dictionary, its presence there appears to be based on its presence in an article by Erasmierz Waspanieski in the 1987 Known World Heraldic Symposium Proceedings, where it is noted as "75 - S. JAMES, Santiago. A composed cross. The badge of the chatelaines of the cathedral church of S. James in Compostela. It is not attested in period or Society Armory". The only other instance of it is found in Elvin, pl. 11, fig. 2, which gives a quite different form. Given the lack of attestation in armory in or out of the SCA (aside from two registrations to the Barony of Rising Waters during Baron Bruce's tenure), and a different form of it given in the only non-SCA source in which we could find it, the cross of Santiago is insufficiently defined to be registered beyond the two registrations already in the Armorial.

Thurstan de Barri. Badge. [Fieldless] An annulet surmounted by a winged lion- dragon sejant to sinister Or winged argent.

The lion-dragon here is neither truly surmounting the annulet, nor is it within and conjoined to it. This type of "barely overall" arrangement has been cause for return for quite some time, and is cause for return here.

EAST

Adam the Unexpected. Name.
As was noted in the 4/94 return of Deirdre the Distracted (Ansteorra), no evidence has been presented to show that fairly abstract past participles like this were used as nicknames in period. Lacking such evidence, we must return the name.

Alexander Listkeeper. Name change from holding name Carl of Carolingia.

It was suggested in the LoI that the byname might be justified as an occupational term for one who maintained the town fences, from Middle English liste "border, edge" and kepere "keeper, guardian, attendant". Close examination of the senses and citations recorded in the OED suggests that liste simply wasn't used in quite this way, even in its territorial senses. Rather, it seems to have connoted either a bordering strip or a kind of abstract boundary or limit. The one clear exception is its use, usually in the plural, to refer to a palisade or other barrier defining a space for combat and hence to the space itself; but this use appears to have been influenced by an unrelated but similar-sounding French word of the same meaning and in any case does not lead to a plausible occupational term.

Gunther Pathwarden. Name change from Johan Kronenwache.

No one who commented on the name found Pathwarden a believable occupational byname.

Morgaine ferch Cadwr. Name.

Morgaine is apparently an English spelling of the masculine Welsh name Morgan, as may be seen from Bardsley's mention (s.n. Hailstone) of the 1583 marriage of Morgaine Hubble and Tomison (Thomasine) Halestone. Morgaine therefore cannot well be the daughter of Cadwr. Since she permits no changes, we must return the name.

MIDDLE

Brianna O'Kirrane. Device. Vert, three roses and a bordure argent.
Conflict with Rowan Perigrynne, Vert, a cinquefoil within a bordure argent. There is a CD for number but nothing for rose vs. cinquefoil. "[T]here's no CDs between cinquefoil and (heraldic) rose." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR August 1992, p. 32)

Dafydd ap Morgan ap Gwydion. Device. Sable, on a pale between two swords each surmounted by a tankard argent three crosses of four hops clusters vert.

The tankards, being of the same tincture as the swords, tend to become confused with them visually, making identifiability problematical. (See RfS VII.7.a.) That being the case, they cannot truly count as the addition of another group of charges, but are as a modification to the swords. As such, this does conflict with the two Orders of the White Scarf (Ansteorra and Outlands), Sable, on a pale between two rapiers proper [tertiaries], with only one CD for the multiple changes to the tertiaries. It was suggested that if the tankards were changed to Or, this would clear up both problems.

Gregor von Hannover. Device. Per pale gules and azure, on a pale Or a sword inverted sable.

Conflict with Cathyn Bluesword, Lozengy couped in fess gules and argent, on a pale Or, a sword inverted azure. There is one CD for the changes to the field, but nothing the change of tincture only to the tertiary sword.

Lassarina of Esclavonia. Name.

Esclavonia is an older name for Slavonia, once the eastern part of the kingdom of Croatia and later a part of Yugoslavia; Lassarina is an Anglicized (or Latinized) Irish given name. No evidence was offered of cultural contact sufficient to support this combination, which seems quite improbable. (If the submitter is strongly attached to the name and wishes to search for such evidence, a possible starting point is the life of St. Kilian: though Irish, he was a bishop at Würzburg, Germany, in the late 7th century. The obvious questions to be answered are whether Irish monks got as far east as Slavonia and whether any women accompanied them.)

Lloyd of Penrose. Badge for House Penrose. Per pale Or and gules, three Latin crosses counterchanged.

Conflict with Elwyn Tenways, Per pale Or and gules, three crosses patonce counterchanged. There is a CD for type of cross, but the consensus of those commenting was that X.2 did not apply between a Latin cross and a cross patonce.

Medb Renata. Badge. [Fieldless] On a sun argent a bear's pawprint sable.

This is still in conflict with Anthony the Sinister, [Fieldless] On a mullet of ten points argent, a pheon sable. There is one point for fieldlessness, but mullets of many points and suns are heraldically equivalent, so there is no CD between them. Nor does a sun allow application of X.4.j.ii. to give a CD for change of the type only of the tertiary charge.

Mór Dúin Ruaid. Device. Per pale azure and argent, a Lacy knot and on a chief three triskeles all counterchanged.

The name has not been registered, nor does it appear to be in submission. As a consequence, we are unable to process the armory.

Ragnarr Grásíða. Device. Argent, a Bengal tiger rampant contourny sable striped argent.

Conflict with Houri the Savage, Argent, a lion rampant sable armed, orbed and langued gules, with only one CD for posture; and with Gweneth Atwater, Argent, semy of roses azure, seeded Or, a domestic cat rampant to sinister guardant sable, with one CD for the strewn charges. Conflict also with Elizabeth Ruthven Carmichael, Argent, in chief a cat couchant to sinister and in base two cats rampant reguardant addorsed sable, with only one CD for adding two cats (but no more for the different posture of the added cats). The College has consistently not granted a CD between types of feline or for the addition/tincture of stripes of a natural tiger.

TRIMARIS

Arianna Rosa Cristina Veneziano. Device. Azure, a greyhound rampant argent collared gules maintaining a fleur-de-lys Or.
Conflict with Jonathan Crusadene Whitewolfe, Gules, ermined argent, a wolf rampant argent: there is just one CD for changing the tincture of the field, since we do not grant difference for type of canine. Conflict also with Robina Wyclif, Azure, a wolf rampant argent maintaining a spear Or flying to sinister a pennoncelle gules, fimbriated, all within a bordure Or; the only CD is for removing the border. Conflict also with Dorcas Dorcadas, Sable, a three-headed hound rampant, one head reguardant, argent, langued gules; there is a CD for the field tincture, but nothing for the difference in number of heads.

Morgan Sparhawk. Device. Per pale purpure and Or, two horses passant respectant counterchanged.

The horses here are neither passant nor rampant, but are in a posture roughly halfway between the two. This is being returned for redrawing as either one or the other.

Olaf Hilditónn. Device. Sable, a triquetra argent.

Conflict with Charles Stewart O'Connor, Gules, a triquetra argent. There is just one CD for the field.

Susan van Ham Langille. Device. Argent, a bend sinister enarched purpure between a horse's head couped sable and a heart fracted distilling three gouttes gules.

The heart is not fracted in any standard heraldic fashion, and is not blazonable in any way which would reproduce the emblazon. Gareth of Bloodwine Gorge has a heart blazoned as rent which is sufficiently different from the depiction here that we did not feel that we could use that term here.

Susan van Ham Lengille. Badge. Argent, a heart fracted gules distilling three gouttes de sang.

The heart is not fracted in any standard heraldic fashion, and is not blazonable in any way which would reproduce the emblazon. Gareth of Bloodwine Gorge has a heart blazoned as rent which is sufficiently different from the depiction here that we did not feel that we could use that term here.

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Fletcher. Argent, an unfletched arrow inverted between two feathers sable.

Conflict with Lawnslot of the Black Lance, Argent a lance between flaunches sable. An unfletched arrow is visually and heraldically indistinguishable from a lance, leaving only one CD for the change to the type of the secondary/peripheral charges.

WEST

Amanda Wyndeswyft. Device. Per bend sinister Or and gules, a pegasus couped at the breast wings elevated and addorsed issuant from the line of division sable and a feather bendwise sinister argent, a chief gules.
The chief on the large emblazon was only 3/4" wide (on a 5ź" long shield). It is far too narrow to be adequately identifiable as a chief. (Indeed, at least one attending the Laurel meeting first thought it was a gules field with a pile fesswise.) It needs to be redrawn.

Aoife ingen Gharbain. Name.

Aoife is a late spelling of the given name, while ingen is an early spelling, and the use of gh in the patronym but not in ingen is inconsistent. The name would be fine as Aífe ingen Garb´in, which is early, or as Aoife inghean Gharbh´in, which uses a later orthography. It seems very likely that mixtures of early and late orthographic features can be found at some point; conceivably a combination like this one can be justified. But it is an exception to the patterns found in the available data; lacking both specific justification and detailed information on the sequencing of Irish orthographic changes, we are unwilling to depart from documented practice. Unfortunately, she allows no changes, so we must return the name.

The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Chrisstine of Danegeld Tor.

Ceinwen ferch Belyn. Device. Per chevron sable and argent, in chief three compass stars and in base a cat sejant counterchanged.

Technical conflict with Nikolaj Valosatov, Per chevron sable and argent, three mullets in chevron argent and a double-bitted axe sable. There is a CD for the arrangement of the primary group (three and one vs. one, two and one), but nothing else for change the type only of the bottommost of a group of four charges.

Ewein Padelford. Badge. Chevronelly Or and sable, on a pale argent a hand aversant sustaining a hammer and a square anvil azure.

The three different types of tertiary charges on the pale are in the same group and thus considered "slot-machine heraldry", disallowed by RfS VIII.1.a. ("As another guideline, three or more types of charges should not be used in the same group.").

THE FOLLOWING HAVE BEEN PENDED UNTIL THE MAY 1996 LAUREL MEETING:

MIDDLE

Delores La Rosa. Device. Argent goutty des larmes, on a pile throughout gules a rose slipped and leaved Or.
The tincture of the pile was accidentally missing from the LoI. It is gules. This is pended for research under the corrected blazon.

TRIMARIS

Eithne ní Chaillin. Device. Or, a griffin segreant gules maintaining a sword sable between three wolf's heads erased gules all within a bordure sable.
The LoI accidentally dropped the tincture of the wolves' heads; they are gules, not sable.

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Emerald Sea. Barry wavy vert and argent, a triskele within a bordure Or.

The field was accidentally blazoned in the LoI as Barry wavy vert and azure....

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