of the College of Arms
of the
Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.

May 1996


AN TIR Alessandra da Pavia. Name.
Arianwen ferch Ieuan. Name and device. Azure, on a fess between three swallows volant argent three roses proper.
Nice armory!

Brian of Boisfort. Name and device. Azure chapé invected Or, a rooster argent.
The name would be more authentic as Brian de Boisfort. The constructed place-name admits several reasonable derivations. To those mentioned in commentary Pelican cannot resist adding yet another. The modern place-names Boisbergues and Hardifort contain Germanic berg mountain and furt "ford", respectively (Dauzat & Rostaing, Dictionnaire étymologique de noms de lieux en France; Morlet, Les noms de personne sur le territoire de l ancienne Gaule du VIe au XIIe siècle, Vol. III, p. 352); Boisfort may therefore be "wood by a ford".

Cassia d'Artois. Name and device. Azure, on a pale between two stags combattant Or three fleurs-de-lys gules.

Christina of Adiantum. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Ermine, a lion passant guardant between three hearts gules.
Submitted with the name Aino Hurmawa.

Edwardus Honestus. Name and device. Argent, a saltire and on a chief gules a monkey statant argent collared and chained Or.
The name was submitted as Edwardus Civis Honestus. The byname, which means "honest (or honorable) citizen" seems too clumsy to be a translation of a spoken epithet and too generic to be a useful administrative identifier. We have therefore shortened it to Edwardus Honestus, "Honest Edward" or "Edward the Gentleman" to produce something more resembling a Latin version of a vernacular byname. Palimpsest suggests that mediæval Latin municepialis "burgess, free citizen of a borough" comes close to the sense implied by the submitter s documentation.

Elrich the Wanderer. Device. Per bend sinister argent and lozengy argent and gules, a bend sinister sable and in chief a griffin contourny gules.

Finngall McKetterick. Name.
Should he wish to match his late 13th century Manx persona more closely, he might consider Fingall Mac Shetrik, Mac Shytric, or the like.

Ian Anndra of Loch Sheelin. Name change from holding name LeAnn of Wastekeep.
The submitter has adopted suggestions made by Laurel in his return of an earlier version. For the record we note that Anndra is a speculative Anglicized form; the well-documented Andro would be much preferable. We also now suspect that Gaelic Sithleann is more likely to have been Anglicized Shilin than Sheelin; the latter presupposes something close to modern English pronunciation.

Isabel Tamar Le Fort. Device. Sable, a Latin cross bottony sustained by a lion's paw erased Or.

Isabel Tamar Le Fort. Badge. [Fieldless] A Latin cross bottony sustained by a lion's paw erased Or.

John of Brownwood. Name and device. Per bend sinister argent and sable, a skull and a feather bendwise counterchanged.
The place-name is very similar to the attested Brunshaw (Brounshagh 1311) "copse on the River Brun", i.e., on the "brown river". Versus Damianus Petrolino, Per bend sinister argent and sable, a skull sable jessant-de-lys gules and an eagle's foot erased inverted argent maintaining a torteau, there are CDs for changing the type of the charge in base and for changing the tincture of one-half the charge in chief (even assuming that we give nothing for type in skull vs. skull jessant-de-lys).

Katherine of Adiantum. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Ermine, a pavilion gules. Submitted with the name Pirkko Ihana.

Malcolm Radcliffe. Name.

Órfhlaith Broinnfind nic Bhriain. Badge. Per pale purpure and argent, in bend four pawprints bendwise counterchanged.

Rand Hawkyns. Name.

Regina from Adiantum. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Ermine, three liturgical fans gules.
The LoI presented documentation, which was confirmed and added to by some of the commenters, that this particular form of fan was used to "keep flies from the sacred elements during the celebrations of the Christian mysteries." (Encyclopedia Brittanica, 11th ed., vol. X, p. 168) Their basic shape was round and on a handle, as the fans here are (see illustration in margin), though they were often of openwork and made of precious metals.
Submitted with the name Ilmatar Iloinen.

Rowena of the Thornes. Name and device. Per fess gules and purpure, a natural sea turtle between two sharks naiant in annulo argent.
Please inform her that Rowena does not seem to have been used by human beings in our period; it is an "SCA-compatible" Latinization of a name used by Geoffrey of Monmouth for a fictional character. By far the most frequent English preposition in topographical bynames is atte, though other locative prepositions are also found (e.g., by, in, under). However, we have found a few topographical bynames uncharacteristically formed with othe and recently even a very few with the uncontracted form of the. Much as we dislike reïnforcing the widespread misconception, fed by modern fantasy, that of the X is a standard sort of mediæval English byname, these examples do justify the submitted form. (Possible 15th and 16th century alternatives with a similar sound are A'Thornes and A Thornes, from the usual mediæval atte Thornes.) We note, however, that we have not found any examples of non-topographical bynames of the form of the X; apart from sign names, which use atte, the period construction is with the X (in various spellings).

Sorcha of Gwynedd. Name and device. Argent, a hazel branch fructed vert supported by two cats combattant sable.
Although Sorcha does not seem to have been widely used as its own Anglicization, the name is sufficiently compatible with English orthographic principles to admit the possibility.


Perronnelle Charrette de La Tour du Pin. Transfer of badge from Ariel of Caer Myrddin. [Fieldless] An increscent purpure.


Brienus the Silent. Name and device. Purpure, six annulets, three, two, and one, argent.
The name is just registerable with the lingua anglica allowance. The Silent is a very unlikely period version of any byname, since silent seems not to have come into use until the second half of the 16th century. Brienus Taciturnus would put the byname into Latin (to match the given name) while leaving its meaning recognizable to most people.

Brighid ní Sheachnasaigh. Name.
The name was submitted as Brighid O'Seachnasaigh, but the feminine form of the patronymic is required after the feminine given name. The English form Bridget O'Shaughnessy would also be acceptable.

Conor MacAlister of Saint Andrews. Name and device. Argent, a brown bear rampant maintaining a wooden mallet proper, within a bordure gules semy of thistles argent.

Fëamîr Bek. Device. Per fess sable and gyronny from the fess point argent and vert, a cross alisée fitchy Or.

Gamli OEðikollr. Name only (see RETURNS for device).
The byname was submitted as Oedikollr, changed at kingdom from Oeðikollr. In fact its first letter is a digraph, OE, which is not the same as oe; we have made the necessary correction and restored the submitter's edh.

Gervais Delamare. Name and device. Bendy argent and sable, a wingless griffin within a bordure vert semy of anchors inverted Or.
The given name appeared as Gervaise on the LoI, changed at kingdom from Gervais. Reaney and Wilson give both as Old French forms of the name, so we have restored the submitter s version.

Giacomo Cavalli da Treviso. Name and device. Per pale vert and argent, in fess a rose between a swept-hilted rapier and another inverted counterchanged, a point pointed gules.
The locative was submitted as di Treviso; following normal Italian usage, we have substituted the locative preposition da for the patronymic di.

Joseph Walter McFadden. Device. Quarterly erminois and sable, in bend two trefoils slipped vert, a bordure counterchanged sable and Or.

Lynette Huntingdon. Device. Gules, two swans statant respectant argent, on a chief triangular Or a fleur-de-lis gules, a bordure ermine.
There is a "correction" for this device on the May 1996 Atenveldt LoI, noting that the device should have a chief triangular rather than a per chevron inverted field. Since it was submitted here with a chief triangular, and is identical in every way to the "corrected" version, we are registering it here.

Morgaine Rhys ap Gruffydd. Name and device. Per fess sable and lozengy vert and argent, in chief two demi-horses combattant argent.
The name was submitted as Morgaine ferch Rhys ap Gruffydd. Morgaine is a late English spelling of the Welsh masculine name Morgan, so a Morgaine cannot well be anyone s daughter. We are unwilling to change ferch to ap without prior consultation; substituting the unmarked form of the patronymic avoids the problem altogether.

Rhodri Longshanks. Badge. Per fess azure and gules, in fess two billets Or within ermine spots sans nombre in annulo argent.

Richard Foulweather. Device. Quarterly vert and sable, a stag's massacre Or.

Sean of Twin Moons. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Or, a wyvern displayed, on a chief embattled purpure three hearts Or.
Submitted with the name Tristan the Dragonheart.

Subotai Cinoa. Name and device. Gules, on a bend sinister sable fimbriated between a crescent and another pendant, a flamberge argent.

Una Eadgyth Eastmund. Badge. Argent, a sheep's head cabossed within a bordure dovetailed gules.


Briana of Skye. Name.
The name Briana has been ruled "SCA-compatible" on the basis of its great popularity within the Society; however, it appears to be modern.

Brianna O Duinn. Name.
The patronymic was submitted in the Gaelic spelling ó Duinn, which is incompatible with the non-Gaelic given name in both orthography and gender. It suffices to drop the accent however: although not given by Woulfe, the Anglicization O Duinn can be justified on the basis of late 16th or early 17th century English spellings O Duinaghan and O Dwynighan of Irish ó Duinneacháin. The name Brianna has been ruled "SCA-compatible" on the basis of its great popularity within the Society; however, it appears to be modern.

Donndubán ua Cathniad. Name and device. Per chevron azure and sable, a chevron rompu between two unicorns combattant and a pithon erect contourny Or. The name was submitted on the LoI as Donndubán ó Caitniad, changed at kingdom from the submitter's Donndubhán ó Caithniadh in order to accommodate his desire for an early spelling. The changes are in the right direction, but the patronymic isn't quite right; we have made the necessary correction.

Rhiannon ui Neill. Device change. Azure, on a chevron cotised between three birds displayed facing sinister argent three decresents sable.
Her currently registered device, Azure, on a chevron cotised argent, three decrescents palewise sable, in base a castle argent, is released.


Eleanor du Pré. Name change from holding name Eleanor of Caid.
This name had been returned in the April 1996 LoAR for lack names forms. The forms having been received, we can now register this name.

Geoffrey Linyiue. Name change from holding name Geoffrey of Caid.
This name had been returned in the April 1996 LoAR for lack names forms. The forms having been received, we can now register this name.


Drachenwald, Kingdom of. Seal of the Schwartzdrachen Principal Herald. Two straight trumpets in saltire surmounted by a dragon's head couped.BR>
Drachenwald, Kingdom of. Transfer of title for Albion Herald. This is being transferred from the East Kingdom.

Drachenwald, Kingdom of. Transfer of title for Aurochs Pursuivant. This is being transferred from the East Kingdom.

Drachenwald, Kingdom of. Transfer of title for Broken Wain Pursuivant. This is being transferred from the East Kingdom.

Drachenwald, Kingdom of. Transfer of title for Edelweiss Herald. This is being transferred from the East Kingdom.

Drachenwald, Kingdom of. Transfer of title for Post Horn Pursuivant. This is being transferred from the East Kingdom.

Drachenwald, Kingdom of. Transfer of title for Schwarzdrachen Principal Herald. This is being transferred from the East Kingdom.

Franziskus von Bachheim. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Juhana Maununpoika Kivisuo. Device change. Sable, a crane in its vigilance atop a trimount Or.
His currently registered device, Sable, a crane in its vigilance atop a trimount, in chief two seeblätter Or, is retained as a badge.

Mar Arthursson. Name only (see RETURNS for device and badge).
The combination is unlikely. Although Már is a well-documented early Icelandic name, no evidence has been presented for Norse use of the originally Celtic name Arthur. The latter was in occasional use in Scotland, however, so we cannot rule out the possibility of such a hybrid.

Paul de Gorey. Name and device. Gules, a griffin contourny Or maintaining a broken sword argent and a chief indented crusilly long at the upper points ermine.
Pelican has found support for the unusual line of division on the chief in a somewhat similar design element in Randle Holme's Book (15th c.): a coat blazonable as Ermine, a chief indented flory at the upper points sable is attributed to Adame Dovynt of Sowthereychyre (Surrey). We find the line of division of the chief here to be a reasonable extension of that period line. Please ask him to draw the crosses larger.

Peter Schneck. Household name for Seitsemän Pyhän Unikeon veljeskunta only (see RETURNS for badge).
The household name means "Brotherhood of the Seven Holy Sleepers"; it refers to the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, who according to 6th c. legend were early Christians who were walled up in a cave near Ephesus while taking refuge from the persecution of Decius. God put them to sleep, and 200 years later they awoke to find their city Christian; soon afterward they died and were venerated as saints. The story was popularized by Gregory of Tours in the 6th century. Albion provided examples of 14th and 15th century guilds with similar names, e.g., Kolmen Pyhän Kuninkaan kilta "Guild of the Three Holy Kings".

Peter Scheck. Household name for Brotherhood of the Seven Holy Sleepers of Ephesus.
The submitter has chosen to protect the household name in English as well as in Finnish. Since they differ markedly in sound and appearance, the names would be independently registerable even if they were exact translations of each other, which they are not. (The English version is a trifle more explicit than the Finnish, which has nothing corresponding to of Ephesus.) No evidence has been offered for the use of such names in English, but even in the worst case the household name would be allowable as a lingua anglica version of its Finnish translation.

Ragna Kolgrimsdottir. Name and device. Argent, on a cartouche azure a horseshoe inverted argent, all within a bordure gules.

Tammilinna, Canton of. Name only (see RETURNS for device). The name is "Oak Castle" in Finnish.

Thomas Black of Alveton. Name.
As some commenters pointed out, a place-name Alveton could easily have arisen in a variety of ways. In this case no hypothetical derivation need be entertained, however, since Ekwall gives Alveton as a 1283 form of what is now Alton (Staffordshire).


Adelaide Wanderer. Name and device. Per chevron argent and vert, in chief two foxes combattant proper.
The byname, for all its enormous popularity in the SCA, remains unattested in English.

Alberic von Rostock. Name and device. Azure, a tower surmounted by two rapiers inverted in saltire argent.

Alia atte Holye. Name and device. Argent estencely sable, a boar passant gules and in chief three sprigs of holly vert fructed gules.

Andrew Hilte. Name and device. Argent, three roses purpure barbed and seeded within a bordure sable.

Anne Liese Wolkenhaar. Name and device. Or, a cloud azure between flaunches vert.
The name was submitted as Anneliese Wolkenhaar in hopes that the combined given name could be justified. Unfortunately, justification was not forthcoming, so we have split the elements. There is ample evidence of period German use of double given names.

Ariel of Caer Myrddin. Transfer of badge to Perronnelle Charrette de La Tour du Pin. [Fieldless] An increscent purpure.

Arnulf Adler. Badge change. [Fieldless] A fleur-de-lys sable.
His currently registered badges, Eight fleurs-de-lys palewise in annulo sable and An eagle displayed Or, grasping in its talons the blades of two swords in chevron inverted, hilts to base, proper, its wings surmounted by the blades of two swords in chevron, hilts to chief, proper, are released.

Asa Lee Durant. Device. Sable, on a pale Or three compass stars sable.
Nice armory!

Bartholomew of Suffolk. Name and device. Per pale bendy sinister Or and vert, and Or, in sinister a lion vert, a chief sable.

Ceridwen ferch Cadwaladr. Device. Per fess indented argent and vert, a griffin dormant maintaining a feather vert and a mullet of nine points argent.

Conall ua Gelacáin. Name.
The name was submitted as Conall ó Gealagáin, with a request that it be made as authentic as possible for 10th or 11th century Ireland. We have therefore replaced the modern patronymic with a hypothetical early version (as independently constructed by Harpy and Pelican).

Dierk zem Grauen Wolf. Name only (see RETURNS for badge).
The byname was submitted as mit dem Grauen Wolf "with the Grey Wolf" on the basis of such attested bynames as myt den Gensen "with the geese" 1397, Henne mit den Hunden 1396, and mit den Suewen (i.e., Sauen) 1389. These are not the best support, since all refer to animals commonly kept by human beings. We have therefore made a small change to convert the byname to a house- name, "at [the house called] the Grey Wolf". Although rare in English, this is a common German form of byname.

Dofinn-Hallr Morrisson. Badge. [Fieldless] A ragged staff Or chained to an open fetterlock sable.

Duncan of Wessex. Device change. Per fess rayonny sable and Or, a lion couchant argent and a rose sable.
His currently registered device, Per bend sable and azure, a bend between a lioin rampant and a unicorn's head couped contourny argent armed Or, is released.

Edward Stifhand. Name.

Francesco Greco. Household name only for House of Eastwood (see RETURNS for badge).

Gabrielle Dauphin. Name and device. Per chevron sable and vert, two natural dolphins haurient respectant and a pawprint argent.

Glass ua Gelacáin. Name.
The name was submitted as Glass ó Gealagáin, with a request that it be made as authentic as possible for 11th century Ireland. We have therefore replaced the modern patronymic with a hypothetical early version (as independently constructed by Harpy and Pelican).

Gráinne ingen Dauíd. Name and device. Azure, on a bend indented between two crescents argent a feather sable.

Grímr Víthfari. Name and device. Or, atop a bridge of three arches throughout a tower, the streams transfluent gules.
The name was submitted as Grímr ri Víthfari. There should be no accent in the second name. More important, Lind says that as a given name, Uri is mythological, the name of a dwarf. It may also have been a byname, but the question seems to be open; certainly no meaning is apparent. The element is therefore problematic on either interpretation. Moreover, either interpretation leads to another problem. Old Norse naming practice apparently didn t extend to double given names, and we have no evidence for double nicknames, either (except possibly when one is preposed, as in Skalla-Grímr). We have therefore dropped the problematic element, that being the simplest way to avoid all of these problems. This motif of water flowing through the arches of a bridge, though unusual in the SCA, is both period and more common in mundane heraldry.

Grímr Víthfari. Badge. [Fieldless] A torc gules.

Gudrún Gudmundardóttir. Name.

Gustav von Silberwald. Name change from Maximillian von Silberwald only (see RETURNS for device).
Please let him know that von Silberwald is "of Silverwood", not "of the silver wood".

Guy Cheveux de Guise. Device. Azure, a fleur-de-lys and on a chief embattled argent a hare courant contourny sable.

Jared Anjou. Name change from Jared Lackland and device. Per pale azure and sable, a winged lion segreant Or maintaining a sword argent, a bordure fleury Or.

Jonathan Miles. Name and device. Quarterly sable and gules, a mullet of four points throughout counterchanged fimbriated between four fleurs-de-lys Or.

Katya Nachtraven. Name and device. Or, on a chevron azure between three ravens rising contourny sable three crescents Or.

Kirstina Kahlisch. Name.

Líadaine nic odháin. Name only (see RETURNS for device). The name was submitted as Líadaine nic h edáin. The h prefixed to Aedáin is simply incorrect; of the patronymic particles, only ó (ua) causes this change, which is not aspiration. Aedáin is the early spelling of the patronymic; with it one would expect the early particle ingen, not the later contraction nic. The submitter s worksheet indicates that she does not care for ingen, so we have substituted a later form of the patronymic instead.

Liesl Lüder. Name.
The German pet form Lise goes back at least to the late 14th century, and -el is an ancient Germanic diminutive suffix, so it seems very likely that Liesl is period in some spelling; we are giving this one, which is characteristic of the south, the benefit of the doubt, though it looks a bit odd next to the Low German surname.

Luciliana de Castilla. Name and device. Azure, on a chevron between three hawk's lures Or, two arrows inverted azure.
The locative was submitted as de Castile, with the English spelling of the place-name; we have made it Spanish to match the given name.

Maeve Mayfair. Name and device. Or, an ambassadorial staff purpure beribboned gules, azure, purpure and vert.

Marcus Isenax. Name only (see RETURNS for device).
The name was submitted as Marcus Eisenaxt, which desires to be made as authentic as possible for pre-14th century southern Germany. The appropriate language for that setting is Middle High German, so we have replaced modern Eisen "iron" and Axt "ax" with Middle High German isen and ax. We wonder whether anyone would have found it necessary to note explicitly that an axe was made of iron.

Morgan MacDougal. Device. Per chevron vert and argent, two griffins combattant argent and a tower sable.

Noel Lenginnur. Name.

Padair MacGille Ruaidh. Name.

Pádraig ó Gealagáin. Name.
The submitter specifically requested whatever period form of the name is closest to what he submitted, so we have not changed it to match those of Conall ua Gelacáin and Glass ua Gelacáin despite the fact that all three appear to belong to the same modern family. The matching early form would be Pátraic ua Gelacáin, though the late form registered here is more likely: the Irish rarely if ever used the saint s name until very late in our period.

Ragnarr Sigurðarson. Name.
The patronymic was submitted as Sigardarson. Lind has a few citations with a in the second syllable instead of the usual u, but in each case the a is preceded by v, u, or w, and it is clear that none of the spellings represents the pronunciation indicated by the submitted form. Some change is therefore necessary; and since he requested that the name be made as authentic as possible for early 10th century Old Norse, we have simply substituted the standard form. In case the submitter is especially fond of the a, we note that the genitives Sigvardar and Siguardar are found in the mid- 13th century.

Reinhardt von Berchtesgaden. Name and device. Or, a wvyern erect sable within a bordure gules.

Rhonwen Angharad. Device. Vert, a heron-headed torc argent.

Roland de Wakefield. Device. Per chevron vert and sable, in fess three willow trees eradicated argent.

Rowena Moore. Name and device. Vert, on a nesselblatt argent a cluster of rowan berries gules slipped vert.
Please inform her that Rowena does not seem to have been used by human beings in our period; it is an "SCA-compatible" Latinization of a name used by Geoffrey of Monmouth for a fictional character.

Shila M'Lanaghan. Device. Per chevron nebuly vert and argent, three roses counterchanged barbed and seeded Or, a bordure counterchanged.

Sign Sigurðardóttir. Name.
The patronymic was submitted as Sigurdardóttir. Since we now allow the use of the letter edh, we have accepted Keystone's advice that restoring it to the patronymic would best match the submitter's intent.

Thorolf Egillsen. Device. Or, on an ogress within eight billets conjoined in annulo azure, a troll Or.

Tighearnait ní Chearnaigh. Change of name from holding name Vikki of Rusted Woodlands.

Ulric von der Insel. Device. Argent, a tower sable and a ford proper, on a chief sable an estoile argent.

Wilhelm Bruhn. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Zaynab al-Rakkasa. Name.

Zenobia Blake. Name and device. Per pale sable and gules, a chevron between three broadarrows inverted, a bordure argent.

Zenobia Blake. Badge. Sable, a chevron between three broadarrows inverted argent.
Nice armory!


Æduin Hacke. Name.
The name was originally submitted as æduin the Hacke; the article was dropped at kingdom for want of documentation. The submitter, slightly misunderstanding the documentation, took the meaning of the byname to be "keeper of the gate". Now Old English hæc(c) "hatch, gate" normally became hach(e) and then hatch, but in some dialects, especially those in which there was considerable Scandinavian influence, it did become hack(e). We have no evidence for a byname meaning "the gate", but atte Hacke "at the gate" is certainly possible if he particularly wants a longer form. Both this and the simple Hacke can signify simply residence near a gate - probably a sluice-gate or a gate into a wood - buth both can also imply the associated occupation of gate- keeper. Note, however, that the Domesday Book spelling of the given name is a bit out of place with either version; Edwin is much the most common Middle English spelling. Edwin atte Hache is a likely version of the type of name that he originally submitted.

Ailleann nic Eacháin. Name.

Alexander Kyppyn Kirkcaldy. Badge. Gules, a fish hauriant, a bordure engrailed argent.

Alexander Kyppyn Kirkcaldy. Badge. Sable, a pretzel and on a bordure argent eight keys in annulo sable.

Alyssa Cain. Name and device. Ermine, on a pall gules three lizards tergiant tails to center Or.
Alyssa is undocumented. It was suggested in commentary that it might be a 16th century variant of Alice, just as Ahelis 1188 has the variant Ahelissa 1188. This is unlikely: such 16th century forms as Alse and Als show that the stress was on the first syllable. The attested spellings do leave open some possibility that a form like Alyssa might have been written in the 13th century or so, however, so we we are giving the name the benefit of the doubt.

Aonghus an Leomhann MacFhionghuin Sgithaich. Name and device. Per bend azure and vert, on a bend between a mullet of eight points and a lion argent a thistle palewise proper.
The name was submitted on the LoI as Aonghus MacFhionghuin, which conflicts with Angus MacKinnon (9/92); though they look rather different, the names are pronounced almost identically, one being a phonetic Anglicization of the other. However, as noted in the LoI it had been changed from Aonghus MacFhionghuin the Lion of Skye because "the descriptive epithet has a certain "ring of presumptuousness" about it, given the symbolic & heraldic importance of the lion with Scotland". This change is not justified by RfS VI (Presumptuous Names): the epithet claims no rank, pretends to no recognized status, and in short is no more presumptuous than le bel the beautiful, the fair , Marshal, or le Campion "the Champion". We do not know of any Gaelic parallels to the Lion of Skye as a single epithet, so we cannot simply appeal to the lingua anglica allowance and append it to the Gaelic name. On the other hand, neither an Leomhann the Lion nor Sgithach of Skye is problematic. So far as we can tell, the most natural way to fit both of them into the name is Aonghus an Leomhann MacFhionghuin Sgithaich "Angus the Lion MacKinnon of Skye". We are unwilling to stretch the lingua anglica allowance to cover Aonghus the Lion MacFhionnghuin of Skye; the repeated shifts between Gaelic and English are far too intrusive. Taking into account the willingness of the Meridian CoH to drop them altogether, we have with some trepidation decided that in this case restoring the bynames in Gaelic is not too big a change. This seems to be the only way to avoid the conflict and assorted stylistic problems while retaining all of the semantic elements originally desired by the submitter.

Barbara Sterling. Name.

Bars Naran. Name and device. Per pale gules and sable, a bicorporate tyger argent, a chief rayonny Or.
The name was submitted as Baras Naran. Baras seems to be the plural of bars "tiger"; according to the submitter's excellent documentation it appears in the place-name Baras Qota "Fortress [of the] Tigers", while the singular is attested in the period name Bars-Buqa "Tiger-Bull". A number of animal names were used as Mongol given names in period, but the examples are all in the singular, so we have modified the given name to conform to this evidence.

Cerridwen du Potier. Device. Argent, on a pale purpure three escarbuncles argent.
Pretty armory!

Conan Hawkwood. Name.

Cristina de Asturias. Name and device. Argent, two fish naiant in annulo on a chief indented vert an escallop argent.

Deborah of Haleshaven. Name and device. Azure, on a chevron argent three bees palewise sable, and on a chief argent a beehive sable

The constructed place-name is rather unlikely, since both of its component elements are rare. The least improbable derivation seems to be "Hæle's harbor", based on a conjectural personal name deduced from the place-name Halesworth.

Dun Drumahaire, Canton of. Name.
There are several places in Ireland named Dún Droma "fort of the ridge"; this is often Anglicized Dundrum. There is also a place Drom Dhá Thiar "ridge of two demons", variously Anglicized Dromahair and Drumahaire. Presumably it too could have had its fort.

Elfwyn of Osprey. Device. Azure, a bend sinister argent estencely sable, between two domestic cats rampant contourny argent.
Clear of Alexandria Cecil of Fairbrook, Azure, a bend sinister ermine between a candle and a candlestick flammant, and a Latin cross argent. There is a CD for the type of secondary charges, and two more for the difference between a bend sinister ermine (a single tincture) and a bend sinister argent estencely sable (a single tincture with a semy of charges).

Gwalchmai Blackhawk. Device. Per chevron rayonny azure and argent, three suns counterchanged, a bordure erminois.
Please ask him to draw the rayons a little more boldly.

Hakon Gordon. Name.

James Guy of Bothwell. Name.

Jane Falada of Englewood. Badge. Per pale gules and sable, a ram rampant within a wreath of roses, in chief a coronet embattled argent.

Katarina Tesmer. Name and device. Argent, an owl contourny gules between flaunches azure.
The byname derives from a Slavic dithematic given name; G. Schlimpert, Slawische Personennamen in mittelalterlichen Quellen zur deutschen Geschichte, s.n. T mer cites inter alia Alheydis Tesmer 1353, Thideke Tesmer 1369, and Clawes Tesmer 1385.

Loric Silvestris. Badge. Azure, a fret couped Or, a bordure gyronny gules and Or.
While we are registering this, there is some question about whether or not bordures can be "gyronny" as opposed to, say, compony. I am calling for research on this issue. My concern is whether or not a charge such as a bordure can be considered to be "gyronny" when all that is there are the outermost edges of the gyrons; effectively, a single row of checks, or compony. (Put another way, can something be considered to be "gyronny" when the greatest part of what would otherwise be considered a gyronny field isn't there? Is it a gyronny bordure, or is it a gyronny field with an escutcheon as the primary charge?)

Maddalena Alessandra Godwin. Name and device. Per pale azure and purpure, a griffin contourny and in chief a jester's cap Or.
The combination of Italian given names and English surname is very unlikely. Please ask her to draw the jester's cap less stylized, a little "softer" in the future. As it stands, it borders on looking much like a crown.

Manfred von dem Schwarzwald. Badge. [Fieldless] On a stag trippant contourny sable attired maintaining a lance bendwise a cross formy argent.

Melissa of Thor's Mountain. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Or, a pale gules between two domestic cats sejant addorsed sable.
Please ask her to draw the pale a little wider in the future. Submitted with the name Morgan Brianna MacBride.

Phoenix Glade, Shire of. Device. Per pale vert and argent, a phoenix within a laurel wreath, on a chief two fir trees all counterchanged.
[I don't suppose we could convince them to remove the chief entirely? It would vastly improve the design, in addition to being easier for their artisans to reproduce.]

Rey Ribeaumont. Name and device. Quarterly gules and vair, a vol Or, a bordure counterchanged argent and gules.
The name was submitted as Rey de Ribeaumont, an excellent mediæval name. Reaney and Wilson cite both Thomas filius Rey 1279 (s.n. Ray) and Roi de Scallebi 1188 (s.n. Roy), making it clear that Old French rei (later roi) king was used as a personal name. Unfortunately, RfS VI.1 (Names Claiming Rank) allows the use of such a given name only if "there is no suggestion of territorial claim or explicit assertion of rank", and we have traditionally interpreted bynames of this type as territorial claims. This interpretation appears to have no basis in period usage, but the example in the rule of Regina of Germany is explicit. We have therefore dropped the preposition, an expedient previously used to register the name Reina Sainte Claire (Middle) on the 3/91 LoAR. A name of the form Rey de Ribeaumont would also be acceptable.

Seleone, Shire of. Device change. Barry engrailed azure and argent, a sea-lion contourny Or sustaining a laurel wreath vert.
The group's currently registered device, Barry engrailed argent and azure, a sea-lion erect contourny Or sustaining with both paws and tail a laurel wreath vert, is released.

Seleone, Shire of. Badge. Barry engrailed azure and argent, a sea lion contourny, a bordure Or.

Shane O Bryan Fitz-Patrick. Name and device. Vert, a bend azure fimbriated, a bordure argent.
The name was submitted as Sean o Bryan fitz Padraic, a rather strange mixture of Irish, Anglicized Irish, and Anglo-Norman. Despite its unlikely appearance, it can with fairly minor adjustments be made to conform to the documentary practice of the Patent Rolls for 1 James I (1603-4) as excerpted by Ewen in A History of Surnames of the British Isles, pp. 210-1. Among the names cited by Ewen are: Shane O'Neile McArte of Kilultagh; Donnell O'Kellie McColla McDonogh; Patrick Fitz-Laghlin McDonill; Patrick Fitz-Tirlagh O'Kellie; Arthur O'Criane Fitz-Edmund of Sligo; Robert Blake Fitz-Walter Fitz-Thomas of Galway; and Hubert oge Fitz-Hubert Fitz-William O'Birne. The last two names are particularly interesting, since they appear to combine originally Anglo-Norman names and name elements with the native Irish genealogical style of naming; Robert, for example, is presumably the son of Walter and the grandson of Thomas. They appear to show that as a sort of English equivalent of Mac, Fitz must have continued in use in Ireland in something like its original sense long after it had ceased to be productive in English naming. Several of the names show the unexpected placement of an O' name before one or more Mac or Fitz names, and the first shows the normal English phonetic transcription of Irish Seán. (It is pronounced like the Irish name, or like its modern equivalent, Shawn.) Finally, Woulfe has many examples from approximately the same time showing omission of the apostrophe. It therefore appears that Shane O Bryan Fitz- Patrick is a possible Anglo-Irish documentary form from the end of the 16th century, and we have so registered the name.
In case the submitter is especially fond of the Irish spelling of the given name, we note that the name could be made entirely Irish as Seán mac Pádraigín uí Briain, where we have taken note of the statement by ó Corráin and Maguire that the Irish rendered Anglo-Norman Patrick as the diminutive Pádraigín out of respect for the saint. (Please inform him that fitz does not mean "illegitimate son of"; that misconception arises from the occasional practice of giving royal bastards bynames indicating that they were the sons of their fathers.)

Siobhan Dhuinbheagain. Name and device. Argent, on a pile engrailed azure between two crescents gules, a castle triple-towered argent.
The name was submitted on the LoI as Siobhán o Dunvegan Túr, intended to be Gaelic for "Joanna of Dunvegan Castle". (The accent on the given name was added at kingdom.) This form has several problems. First, Dunvegan is an English spelling of the place-name; period practice would not combine it with the clearly Gaelic orthography of Siobhan. Secondly, we have no good evidence for prepositional Gaelic locatives. And finally, the Gaelic name of which Dunvegan is a phonetic English spelling already contains an element, dun, meaning fortress, castle , so Túr is redundant. (It is also probably not idiomatic in the desired sense, and in normal Gaelic word order it would precede its modifier.)
The last problem is easily solved by dropping Túr, which we are explicitly permitted to do. We also have no qualms about dropping the preposition. The problem is Dunvegan. The submitter, who evidently thinks that Dunvegan is Gaelic, explicitly forbids changing any part of the name to English; Siobhan is therefore inviolate, and we must find a Gaelic form of the place-name. This is complicated by the fact that its etymology is unknown. Johnston makes it "Began's or Bekan's dun', taking the given name to be a borrowing from Old Norse; Lind, on the other hand, thinks that the name, which appears in Scandinavian records as Bekan or Beigan, might be Celtic! ó Corráin and Maguire note several Irish saints named Beccán, of which the modern form is Beagán, so perhaps Lind's suggestion is correct. Darton suggests that the name is from Cumbric din "castle" + bychan "small", though he admits that the present castle is large and perhaps too young to have inspired a Cumbric name. And Dwelly, in his Illustrated Gaelic to English Dictionary, gives the modern Gaelic form of the name as Dunbheagan, which is the modern Gaelic equivalent of Darton's suggested "small castle".
This last form may be based on a false popular etymology, but it has the great virtue of not being hypothetical. The few available examples of non-adjectival Gaelic locatives consist of the aspirated place-name in the genitive case. Assuming that it is felt to be a compound, its genitive case would be Duinbheagain, and the whole name would be Siobhan Dhuinbheagain. (Duinbheagain is also the genitive case of Dunbheagain, a hypothetical spelling based on a derivation from Dun Bheagáin "Beagán's dun", so in the end the uncertain etymology of the place-name matters very little.)

Thorgrim Hildulfsson. Name and device. Sable, on a pile inverted between two skulls each vested of a conical helmet winged argent a wolf's head couped contourny sable.
The name was submitted as Thorgrim Hildulf, the elements being the Old Swedish forms of Old Norse Þorgrímr and Hildólfr. However, we have as yet no evidence for period Scandinavian use of unmarked patronymics; it is certainly possible that a few existed by the end of our period, but in the absence of any evidence we have substituted the normal Scandinavian construction.

Ursula the Saxon. Device. Per bend sinister sable and azure, a chalice and a bordure Or.


Abiel ben Hiel. Device. Gules masoned Or, a crescent bendwise sinister argent within a bordure ermine.

Antonio Cellini. Name.

Baile na Scolairi, Shire of. Badge. [Fieldless] On an open scroll vert a lantern Or.

Baile na Scolairi, Shire of. Name and badge for Le Corps de Sang. [Fieldless] On an open scroll Or two rapiers in saltire between four gouttes gules.
The name was submitted as Le Corps du Sang, but glossed phrases found in a variety of French dictionaries suggest that de sang would be more idiomatic for the sense intended here. The likeliest interpretation of the submitted name would seem to be "The Corps of the (Royal) Kin". [Irreverent Comment: Platelets?]

Charles Axon. Name.

Delores La Rosa. Device. Argent goutty des larmes, on a pile throughout gules a rose slipped and leaved Or.
This had been pended from the February 1996 Laurel meeting.

Dionysia of Nordskogen. Name and device. Argent, a bunch of grapes purpure slipped and leaved between three ermine spots vert, a bordure purpure.
Nordskogen is the registered name of her barony.

Edward the Red. Name and device. Quarterly gules and sable, on a roundel wavy Or a sun gules.

Giannetta da Firenze. Name.
The locative was submitted as di Firenza; we have corrected the spelling of the place-name and have substituted the locative preposition da for the patronymic preposition di to follow normal Italian usage. The adjectival form of this locative was more common: Giannetta Fiorentina.

Godwig Eadfrithing. Name and device. Argent, on an artist's palette azure an inkpot argent.
Although the fact wasn t mentioned in the LoI, -ing is (among other things) an Old English patronymic suffix; the name is essentially "Godwig son of Eadfrith".
Please ask the submitter to draw the charges a little larger in the future.

Gwyndlyn Caer Vyrddin. Name change from Rhiannon Caer Vyrddin and device. Per bend Or and azure, an owl and a lion dormant counterchanged.
Gwyndlyn is her modern given name.

Isabel Moundoghter. Name and device. Vert, on a bend between two rams heads erased argent four decrescents palewise sable.
The name was submitted on the LoI as Isabel Mohunsdoghter, changed at kingdom from Isabel Moonsdoghter. The Yorkshire West Riding Poll Tax of 1379 is replete with examples of women s bynames formed by adding -doghter or -wyf to the father's or husbands byname, respectively. The pattern is actually considerably more general; for example, a servant's byname is often formed by adding -man, -servant, -woman, or -mayden to the master s byname. Moreover, it appears to be applicable to all types of bynames. According to Reaney and Wilson, the modern surname Moon may derive either from the French place-name Moyon (e.g., de Mohun, de Moun 1239-53) or from the Anglo-French byname Mon' "the monk"; either origin justifies the spelling Moun, which we have substituted as being closer to the submitter's original form. However, in all of the available examples of this type of surname the term of relationship is appended directly to the father s, husband's, or master's byname; the latter is not put into the possessive case by addition of -(e)s. We have therefore slightly modified the submitted construction to follow the documented practice.

Ivor Grubb. Name and device. Per bend azure and gules, in saltire a sword and an arrow inverted, in chief a compass star elongated to base argent.
Please ask him to draw the arrowhead a little more robustly in the future.

Jonathan David. Name.
Pelican has late-period examples of Jonathan from London baptismal records.

Karl der Gaukler von Zähringen. Name and device. Argent, in chief two swords in saltire sable and in base two griffins combattant gules each brandishing two swords sable. The umlaut in the place-name, present on his form, was omitted from the LoI.

Kiltigern MacClibarn. Name.
The name was submitted as Caeltigern MacClibarn, combining a Gaelic feminine given name with an Anglicized masculine patronymic. The name could be made acceptable either by Anglicizing the given name, in which case the gender of the patronymic would not matter, or by finding a feminine Gaelic form of the latter. Normally we prefer not to modify given names. Unfortunately, Black gives no indication of the Gaelic basis for the Anglicized Macclibarn. Possibly it is Mac Libuirn(n), from the name Liburnn noted twice by O'Brien in Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae; then again, the name may be a hybrid containing the given name Clibern c.1150-69, Clibernus 1202 noted by Reaney and Wilson s.n. Clibburn. Neither of these possibilities carries great conviction, and neither yields a very satisfactory solution. Since all of the names are early, the first would yield something like Caeltigern ingen Libuirn, which is a fairly considerable change, especially for one that is very speculative to begin with. It is not clear how to deal with the second possibility, short of Anglicizing the whole name, and that requires modifying the given name. It appears that Kiltigern is a possible Anglicization, and it is close enough to the submitted form that we are willing to make the change in order to register the name.

Maricela the Vintner. Name change from holding name Barbara of Caer Anterth.
Maricela is a hypothetical feminization of Maricel; about the latter we have only the statement in a Spanish baby-name book that it is used in Catalonia as a baptismal name. Normally we would return the name for more convincing evidence that it is (or might reasonably be) period, but since the 3/93 return of her first attempt explicitly said that Maricela would have been acceptable, we feel obliged to give it the benefit of the doubt. The byname could be rendered into Spanish as la Vinatera.

Middle, Kingdom of the. Title for Aethon Herald.
This does not conflict with the registered title of the Aten Principal Herald; both the medial consonants and the initial vowels are different. (In the quasi-Classical pronunciation usually taught nowadays, the Latin diphthong ae rhymes with eye; in the traditional English pronunciation it rhymes with me.)

Mordred Blackstone of Norwich. Device. Argent, a bend between a tower and a pithon displayed sable.
Please ask him to draw the bend wider in the future.

Rhiannon of Caerleon. Device. Azure, a standing seraph proper, vested and nimbed Or, and in chief two swords in saltire proper.

Robert Leigh von Hengstof. Device. Paly sable and argent, a boar's head affronty couped gules.

Tofa Sigurdardóttir. Name.
The accent, present on her form, was omitted on the LoI.

Una Duckfoot. Name.
Dukfot would be a much more mediæval spelling.

Will of Sussex. Name and device. Per pale gules and sable, a crossbow Or within a bordure argent charged with six pheons inverted azure.
This is an excellent name.


Cainnleach Uiséir of Glendalough. Name and device. Purpure, two piles wavy in point argent in chief a sun Or.
The name was submitted as Cainnlech Uiséír of Glendalough on the LoI; her form had the later spelling Cainnleach and lacked the superfluous second accent in the surname. The English locative, out of place in an otherwise Irish name, is permitted by the lingua anglica allowance.

Caitlín ní Mháille. Device. Purpure, a horse rampant Or and a bordure Or mullety purpure.

Claudia Lisabetta Senatori da Firenze. Name only (see RETURNS for device).
The locative was submitted as di Firenze; in accordance with normal Italian practice we have substituted the locative preposition da for the patronymic di. Some commenters wondered whether the combination Senatori da Firenze was presumptuous, taking it to be "senator of Florence". However, senatori is the plural of senatore "senator", and a reasonably exact translation of the phrase senatori da Firenze appears to be "senators from Florence", which is clearly not a byname claiming rank. The name admits only one interpretation: Senatori is the hereditary surname of a lady from Florence.

Fiachra ni Ciardhubhain. Badge. Azure, on a bend between two crosses fleury Or three roses proper.

Hadya al-Katiba of Karnak. Device. Argent, a lotus blossom in profile and on a chief azure a quill pen argent.

Johanna of Mercia. Name and device. Or, a griffin azure within a bordure azure crusilly Or.
Morlet notes the name Johanna c.800 near Paris; it is not impossible that it could have found its way to Mercia. The fully Latinized form of the name appears to be simply Johanna de Mercia.

Richenda Arabella Letellier de Trémont. Device change. Per pale azure and purpure, on a compass star argent another vert.
Versus Thomasina MacGregor of Tay, Azure on a mullet of six point throughout argent a Scottish Thistle proper, the guidelines set out by Baron Bruce as Laurel in the Cover Letter with the November 1992 LoAR, pp. 2-3, and his later registrations of four hearts voided conjoined in cross points outward both appear to indicate that a mullet of six points is a simple enough charge when used as a primary to allow us to apply X.4.j.ii. between tertiary charges. As a consequence, there are CDs for the changes to the field and for the change in type of the tertiary charge. Her currently registered device, Per bend azure and vert, on a bend urdy bretessy between two crosses of four lozenges argent, thee columbines purpure slipped and leaved vert, is released.

Rivka Vladimirovna Rivkina. Device. Per pall sable, vert and Or.
Nice armory!

Rosalind of Wellmark. Badge. [Fieldless] On a hawk displayed sable a cross couped argent.


Amy of Trimaris. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Per chevron vert and azure, two domestic cats sejant guardant respectant and a tree blasted and eradicated Or.
Submitted with the name Ceridwen ferch Thomas Vaughan.

Andrew William Montgomery. Device. Per pale purpure and azure, a cubit arm armored bendwise, sustaining a flanged mace bendwise sinister argent.

Blundúlfr Kleykir. Name.
The name was submitted as Blund- lfr Kleykir. Though we have no evidence for Old Norse use of more than one nickname at a time, there is some indication that at times a preposed nickname combined with the given name to produce what was effectively a new given name. We are therefore giving the name the benefit of the doubt, though we have followed what seems to have been normal documentary practice in fusing nickname and name.

Cahir na Coille Móire. Device. Sable, three chevronels braced and in chief an eagle close Or.
Though the LoI left off the tincture of the chevronels, a correction was sent out in sufficient time to permit this being checked for conflict under the corrected blazon.

Diego Sanchez Montoya de Cordoba. Name and device. Quarterly sable and gules, a cross of Santiago throughout on a chief argent two scorpions sable.
Sufficient documentation having been received (in the May 1996 LoI from Caid appealing the return of the badge of Stephen de Huyn) for the use of the Cross of Santiago as a period charge and in this form, we are happy to register such cross here and in the future.

Eithne ní Chaillin. Device. Or, a griffin gules maintaining a sword sable between three wolf's heads erased gules all within a bordure sable.
This had been pended from the February 1996 Laurel meeting.

Fara Steinhauser. Device. Or semy of unicorn's heads couped, on a lozenge sable a unicorn's head couped Or.

Gillian Saintclair. Device. Azure, a horse rampant Or crined and unguled argent, on a chief Or a Celtic cross between two lion's faces purpure.

Guillaume Bovier. Name and device. Per chevron Or and pean, a chevron rompu between two Maltese crosses gules and a bull's head cabossed Or.

Iseult du Soleil. Device. Per pale purpure and azure, a cubit arm argent sustaining a sun between three fleurs-de-lys Or.

James Scrimgeour. Name.

Janos der Kleine. Badge. Sable, in pale a triskele and a lion passant argent.

Michael Kellahan. Name.
The name was submitted as Michael Callahan. While we cannot certainly say that this spelling of the surname is an impossible late-period Anglicization, at the very least it incorporates a number of rare practices: the omission of ó (or Mac), the rendering of -cháin as -han, and the rendering of Ceal- as Cal-. We have therefore slightly modified it to follow documented period practice. Woulfe, s.n. Mac Ceallagháin, notes the late 16th or early 17th century Anglicizations M'Keallachayn and M'Kelleghane. By far the most common English representation of -cháin is -ghan(e), but Pelican was able to find a significant number of instances of -han, s.nn. ó Beacháin (O Behan), ó Beagacháin (O Beggahan, O Begkahan), ó Beannacháin (O Benahan), ó Bruacháin (O Brohan), ó Cuinneacháin (O Quenahan), ó Farracháin (O Farrohan, O Farhan), ó Fiacháin (O Feehan).
As was noted in commentary, the name conflicts with that of the bartender in Spider Robinson s Crosstime Saloon books; the question is whether that character s name should be protected. Commentary on this was light and not unanimous. Silver Crescent noted that the name is very generic; unlike Richard Nixon of Watergate, say, it does not demand identification with a particular person, real or fictitious, and for this reason it is much less jolting than the latter name. Another commenter, though arguing for protection, underlined the generic nature of the name by remarking that he was personally acquainted with a bartender named Michael Callahan. While granting that many members of the Society have read the novels in question, we find ourselves in agreement with Silver Crescent: the name is far too unremarkable to be considered intrusively modern in an SCA context.
According to the revised wording of section III.A.4 (Names of Major Characters from Literary Works) of the Administrative Handbook, "[c]haracters from period or modern literary works of all genres may be considered major if they play a significant role in the action of the work in which they appear" [emphasis added]. We do not think that it serves the best interests of the submitter, the College, or the Society to protect the name of every significant character in every work of fiction; only those that would be genuinely intrusive or out of place in a Society context warrant such protection, and as we have already explained, Michael Callahan does not appear to us to satisfy this criterion. In contrast, Oliver Twist is perhaps an example of a name that does satisfy it: its elements, especially the surname, are somewhat unusual, and the widely recognized literary reference is therefore almost inescapable.

Tamera Borgia. Name.
Tamera is her modern given name.

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Emerald Sea. Barry wavy vert and argent, a triskele within a bordure Or.
This had been pended from the February 1996 Laurel meeting.

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Quiver. Argent, on a quiver with three arrows azure a triskele argent.

Wolfram Faust. Badge. [Fieldless] A wolf's head erased sable attired of a ram's horns Or.

Versus Leidhrun Leidolfsdottir, Per fess paly azure and argent, and argent, in base a wolf's head couped sable, there is a CD for fieldlessness and another for the addition of the very prominent ram's horns, which are here clearly the equivalent of gorging of a coronet which has previously been granted difference in the case of a head. "When considering a full beast or monster gorged, the gorging is usually treated as an artistic detail, worth no difference. When consider the same creature's head gorged, however, the gorging is much more prominent in proportion --- and treated as a tertiary charge." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR September 1993, p. 5)

Yrsa kistill Gunnarsdóttir. Name only (see RETURNS for device).


Christian de Holacombe. Name and device. Vert, a hawthorn leaf Or within an orle of gouttes d'eau.

The spelling Holacombe is unattested and somewhat unusual: by the time the change from -cumbe to -combe became common, the first element was usually written Hole- or Hol-. But althouth the orthographic substitution of o for u in the vicinity of minim letters like m did not become general until about 1250, it occurs sporadically much earlier, and the submitted form must be given the benefit of the doubt.

Christian de Holacombe. Badge. [Fieldless] On a hawthorn leaf vert three gouttes d'eau.

Konstanza von Brunnenburg. Device. Per fess gules and azure, a dance flory Or.

Lynnette Cantwell. Device. Or, a fess purpure between three leopard's faces sable.

Makedonii Dmitrii Aleksievich Kolchin. Name and device. Per pale argent and gules, five ducks naiant to sinister in annulo counterchanged.
The name is extremely unlikely, owing to the fact that the given names Makedonii and Dmitrii are both Christian given names. Double given names are not especially remarkable in period Russian naming, but almost invariably one was Slavic and the other Christian. There are apparently isolated examples of double Christian names, but they are most uncharacteristic of normal Russian practice.

Padraig Ruadh Cille Chainnigh. Name.
The name was submitted on the LoI as Padraig Ruadh Cille Cainneaigh, the locative having been changed at kingdom from Cille Ceanaigh; we have corrected it to Cille Chainnigh, the standard modern Irish spelling orthographically consistent with the rest of the name.



Finland. Release of protection of arms. Gules semy of roses argent, a lion rampant crowned Or brandishing with one human arm in armour a sword and treading upon a scimitar reversed proper.
The College has already determined that under the "Modest Proposal" we will protect all national arms. No qualifications about the size of the nation or the relative importance or recognizability of the arms were otherwise stated.


Aino Hurmawa. Name.
The byname is a reasonable 16th century spelling of modern hurmaava charming . Unfortunately, Aino appears to be a 19th century invention of Elias Lönnrot, the man who collected and edited folk poetry into the Finnish epic poem Kalevala. Since the submitter appears to want an authentic Finnish name, we recommend that she consult with Schwarzdrachen, Albion, or Shield.
The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Christina of Adiantum.

Ilmatar Iloinen. Name.
Unfortunately, Ilmatar appears to be a 19th century invention of Elias Lönnrot, the man who collected and edited folk poetry into the Finnish epic poem Kalevala. Since the submitter appears to want an authentic Finnish name, we recommend that she consult with Schwarzdrachen, Albion, or Shield.
The accompanying armory was registered under the holding name Regina from Adiantum.

Isabel Tamar Le Fort. Badge. Per pale sable semy of arrows inverted Or and argent semy of swords inverted azure, a griffin contourny gules.
Having the halves of the field with strewn with different charges adds a great deal of complexity to an otherwise simple design. This is especially so since the two different charges are both long and slender, and both are inverted from their normal default postures, which increases the chances of them being confused. That alone might be sufficient to require a return for simplification. Combined with a complexity count which is right at the rule of thumb limits of RfS VIII.1.a. (sable, Or, argent, azure, gules, arrows, swords, and griffin), however, definitely pushes it over the edge of acceptability.

Pirkko Ihana. Name.
The name Pirkko is derived from Swedish Birgitta or perhaps Irish Brigit; unfortunately, it appears to be a modern derivative, the earliest known examples being from the early 20th century. Since the submitter appears to want an authentic Finnish name, we recommend that she consult with Schwarzdrachen, Albion, or Shield.
The accompanying armory was registered under the holding name Katherine of Adiantum.


Aaron Whyteshade. Badge. Or, a rose slipped inverted between two roses slipped all barbed and seeded proper interlaced with a sword fesswise between two more swords fesswise reversed sable, all within a bordure vert.
"A similar design was returned in July 1993 `because the arrows are pointing in four different directions, the blazon required to describe it would be so complex as to clearly show the non-period style of the submission.' We have the same problem here." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR November 1994, p. 15) "The arrows are not in a blazonable heraldic posture. They aren't fretted `in cross', as blazoned on the LOI, but more like `in crosshatch' -- with two arrows fesswise and two bendwise sinister. Moreover, because the arrows are pointing in four different directions, the blazon required to describe it would be so complex as to clearly show the non-period style of the submission." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR July 1993, p. 12) The style problem becomes even more pronounced with three each of two different types of charge.

Caelina Lærd Reisende. Device. Vert, a mascle knot Or.
"The mascle knot is an SCA invention, with only two registrations, and is unattested anywhere else. As such, it is not sufficiently well-known or defined (outside of the Pictorial Dictionary) to retain as a registrable charge, nor does there appear to be sufficient interest to continue to register it in the future." LoAR March 1996, p. 12.

Einarr Atgorvi-Madr. Name.
Although it appeared as Einarr Atgorvi-Madr on the LoI, the name was submitted as Einarr Atgorvi-ma r on his form. Atgorvi-ma r is apparently a misreading of atg rvi-maðr, a glossary entry in Gordon's Introduction to Old Norse; it means "man of great physical accomplishments and is a reasonable enough epithet in the form atg rvimaðr. (The hyphen is an editorial device used to clarify the construction of the word; it is not normally written.) We would be happy to register Einarr atg rvimaðr, but unfortunately he permits no changes at all. We aren't particularly concerned about the capitalization of the byname, but the hyphen must go, ð (or some reasonable equivalent) must be substituted for, and (or ö) must replace o. (The change made by the Atenveldt CoH fixed one of the problems, but it seems not to have been permitted by the submitter.)
It might be a kindness to disabuse the submitter of the notion that Einarr is etymologically "only scar". It may very early have been a byname meaning "one who fights alone", though this interpretation isn't universally accepted; at any rate the prototheme is "one, alone", and the deuterotheme is related to various Germanic words for "army".

Eleanora Jane of Canterbury. Device. Per chevron purpure and Or, seven estoiles in demi-annulo Or, and a unicorn rampant contourny sable.
"It has been ruled that an arch of charges is not period heraldic style. The ruling was originally for an arch of stars: `Stars surrounding only part of a charge is fantasy art.' [Baldwin of Erebor, 28 September 1984] It has since been extended to any charges `in arch'." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR October 1992, p. 30)

Gamli OEðikollr. Device. Sable, a mammoth's skull affronty argent.
Conflict with Morgan Argante Elandris of Contef Gwaelon, Sable, a ram's skull cabossed argent. There is clearly a CD between the two charges, but it was the consensus of the commentary, and those attending the Laurel meeting comparing the two emblazons, that sufficient difference (per RfS X.2.) between two skulls is does not exist.

Jakob von Hohl. Device. Per pale sable and argent, a roundel between two pallets counterchanged.
Conflict with William Gordon of York, Per pale sable and argent, a roundel counterchanged. There is only one CD, for the addition of the secondary charges.

Tristan the Dragonheart. Name.
The byname is somewhat questionable in both form and semantic content. It is presumably modelled on Lionheart, a modern English translation of the Old French byname cuer de lion commonly associated with Richard I of England. It is by no means clear that this byname was used in English in period. The earliest OED citation for the word lionheart is only from 1665, while the French byname gave rise to an hereditary English surname and can be found (in variously Anglicized spellings) in London and at least five counties, including Yorkshire, in the 13th and 14th centuries (Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Codlin). Such a wide distribution strongly suggests that the name had multiple sources, which in turn implies that the French phrase was at some point a familiar idiom with a generally understood meaning. To judge by the citations given by Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Corderey, Anglo-French cuer de rei king s heart was another such phrase. Each of these phrases seems to have embodied a popular association of ideas, and each has been preserved only in a French form.
It is not clear that cuer de dragon embodies a metaphor that would have been equally meaningful in period; at least in Germanic tradition dragons seem to have been primarily associated in the popular mind with treasure hoards and deep places in the earth. None the less, we would be inclined to give a mediæval form like Cuerdedragon, Querdedragon, etc. the benefit of the doubt. Similarly, despite the absence of period English forms of bynames of this type, we would be willing (even without the lingua anglica allowance) to register Lionhert(e), Lyonhert(e), Lionhart(e), etc. as possible Middle English forms of an attested Anglo-French byname. Tristan Dragonhert would require the benefit of the doubt on both counts; Tristan the Dragonheart adds the further anomaly of the definite article, which corresponds to nothing in the French models. Still, we would have dropped the definite article and registered the name as Tristan Dragonhert had the submitter allowed minor changes; since he did not, we are returning it.
The accompanying armory was registered under the holding name Sean of Twin Moons.


Agnes Daunce. Badge. Or, three mullets one and two pierced vert. Conflict with Morgunn Sheridan, Or, four mullets in cross vert. There is one CD for the change in number of charges, but current research seems to indicate that mullets and mullets pierced (or spur rowels) were used interchangeably in period. As a consequence, no difference is currently granted between them.


Franziskus von Bachheim. Device. Or, two bendlets sinister gules, overall a lion contourny maintaining a 'Bartmannskrug' counterchanged.
"Prior Laurel rulings have banned the use of animate charges counterchanged over an ordinary. While the submitter has tried to get around this ban by using a striped breed of bull, the visual effect is still that of a bull counterchanged over a pale. Heraldry is a visual art; the visual effect cannot be avoided by clever reblazons. This violates our ban on complex counterchanging and must be returned for redesign." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR September 1993, p. 24) [Per pale, a beast, overall a bend cotised counterchanged] "This falls under the prohibition of excessive counterchanging under the old rules and the requirement for identifiability in the new rules (Armorial Identifiability, X.3, p. 11). There was a strong consensus on the part of the College that the complex counterchanging rendered the [beast] virtually unidentifiable." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 26 November 1989, p. 40) The same identifiability problems occur here.

Malcolm Rorie Rowntree. Device. Argent, a pentaskelion of peacock feathers proper within a bordure wavy purpure.
The peacock feathers were not really identifiable as such; the addition of a second "eye" in the center of each feather confuses their identity. Peacock feathers have only one "eye", located at the tip of the feather. Further, the emblazon did not have the feathers "proper"; they were colored mostly purple, with the "eyes" being of various hues of purple and blue. Peacock feathers proper should be mostly blue and green.

Mar Arthursson. Device. Gules, a tent Or.
The emblazon did not show a tent of any kind, but rather a "viking tent arch", a charge which has been returned before for further documentation. "The College has not previously registered a `Viking tent arch' as a charge. As a consequence, this registration (and/or one of the others in this LoI) would be the `defining instance', and we need some documentation for it: either that it appeared in period armory in this form or that it is a period artifact and that this is its standard or typical form." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1994, p. 17) We have not received any additional documentation for the charge since that time. As a consequence, we must return it here for additional documentation.

Mar Arthursson. Badge. [Fieldless] A fang Or.
Blazoned in the LoI as a "tooth", the charge is better blazoned as a fang; the default tooth is generally emblazoned as a human molar. It is not identifiable as drawn here. The charge was registered in August 1991 in a Middle Kingdom badge, but only on appeal and against Laurel's inclinations; more recently there is a return of shark's teeth for lack of identifiability ("It was the overwhelming consensus of the commentary that the "shark's teeth" were unrecognizable, as is required by RfS VII.7.a., Identification Requirement." Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR September 1994, p. 15)

Peter Schneck. Device. Sable, a schnecke issuant from dexter chief Or.
Conflict with Damian Thorvaldsson, Sable, a gurges Or. There is clearly a CD between a schnecke and a gurges, but the consensus of the commentary and those attending the meeting that RfS X.2. does not apply between them.

Peter Schneck. Badge for Seitsemän Pyhän Unikeon veljeskunta. Sable, a sun Or eclipsed sable.
Conflict with Kourost Bernard of the East Woods, Sable, a sun eclipsed Or. This is an exact conflict.

Ragna Kolgrimsdottir. Badge. [Fieldless] On an oval azure a horseshoe argent.
"If a charge can be considered a medium for heraldic display, it may not bear a tertiary in a fieldless badge: such a design is interpretable as a display of arms, with the tertiary as a primary. For instance, we don t permit [Fieldless] On a lozenge argent a fleur-de-lys gules: since the lozenge is a medium for heraldic display, this looks like a display of Argent a fleur-de-lys gules. Such arms-badge confusion is reason enough for return, even if the display in question doesn t conflict. In this case, the triangle inverted must be considered such a medium, comparable to the escutcheon, lozenge, or roundel. It may be considered either an early style shield . . . or a lance pennon." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR March 1993, p. 25) A cartouche is a recognized medium of heraldic display, having been used a various times for clerical estates and for women's armory. That being the case, the cartouche may not be charged as is done here.

Tammilinna, Canton of. Device. Gules, an oak tree eradicated within a laurel wreath Or.
Conflict with Shire of Brantestone, Quarterly argent and sable, an oak tree within a laurel wreath Or. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field.


Dierk zem Grauen Wolf. Badge. [Fieldless] On a tower per pale argent and sable in pale a dragon passant between two more passant contourny counterchanged.
The tertiaries were drawn so small, not even coming close to filling the area available to them on the tower, that their identity is problematical at best. RfS VII.7.a. requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance.", and RfS VIII.3. notes that "Identifiable elements may be rendered unidentifiable by significant reduction in size...." Such is the case here; having them going in different directions serves only to further confuse the issue.

Fenice d'Aix. Device. Gules, on a pile ployé throughout between two wolf's heads addorsed argent a rabbit's head cabossed sable.
What was drawn on the emblazon is not a pile. "A pile does not intersect the corners of the chief." (Baldwin of Erebor, 28 September 1984, p. 9) Nor do we charge the shod part of a chapé or chaussé field. "It is not good style to charge the chape or chausse portion of a field." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 25 January 1987, p. 9) "The charged chausse here is really something of a solecism." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 26 February 1989, p. 16) This needs to be redrawn as a pile.

Francesco Greco. Household badge for House of Eastwood. Vert, a helm pierced by an arrow bendwise sinister argent.
The helmet here is a three-quarter view (trian aspect). Except for a very few charges like dice and tambourines, trian aspect has not been registrable for many years. "The [charge] is in trian aspect, which is not permitted in SCA heraldry." (Baldwin of Erebor, 19 January 1986, p.12) "The [charge] is in trian aspect, which is out of period." (Wilhelm von Schlüssel, LoAR 27 August 1980, p. 9)

Gustav von Silberwald. Device. Per chevron sable and azure, a saltire and in base a cluster of rowan flowers argent.
The overall design does not appear to be period in style. Especially given the number of period examples of per chevron fields with steep lines of division, it is probably not safe to assume that the charge would overlie the line of division in this way. To ensure the depiction here, we would almost have to blazon the device Per saltire azure, azure, azure, and sable, a saltire.... This is something that Laurel is not prepared to do.

Líadaine nic odháin. Device. Per bend vert mullety argent and Or, an arrow fesswise Or surmounted by a decrescent argent and a tree vert.
The design uses three different types of charge in the primary charge group. This falls afoul of the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a., "As another guideline, three or more types of charges should not be used in the same group." "Additionally, given the relative sizes of the charges and their visual weight, this falls afoul of the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a., containing as it does three different types of charge in a single charge group: bow, crescent, and arrows." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR January 1996, p. 29)

Lìsidh nighean Catrìona nic Lachlainn. Name.
The available evidence strongly suggests that Lìsidh is post-period, at least in this form, which is apparently modeled on the English pet form Lizzie. Being unable to find any minor change that would salvage it, we must perforce return the name.
The submitter s worksheet indicates that she wants a Scots Gaelic as close as possible to what she submitted. On the other hand, she allowed only minor changes, so it isn t clear how authentic she wants to be. She may wish to know that the use of a metronymic is not particularly authentic. And as Harpy points out, even Gaelic-speakers in period seem to have used Anglicized written forms of their names. Thus, something like Elspeth Nik Lachlann would not be out of place in a 16th century Scottish record. Ealasaid (or other given name) nighean Chatriona nic Lachlainn would probably be registerable, but it would not be authentic. (Here we have added the required aspiration to the metronym and dropped the modern accents.)

Louise LaMotte. Badge. [Fieldless] A butterfly inverted azure.
Conflict with Constance von Messer, Argent, a butterfly azure marked proper. There is only one CD, for fieldlessness. Given the overall symmetry of a butterfly, the inversion here does not significantly change the outline, and no CD can be granted for inverting it.

Marcus Isenax. Device. Sable, a two-headed tyger rampant, heads addorsed, within a bordure Or.
The monster here is not the heraldic tyger; we are unsure exactly what it is. The Pictorial Dictionary, 2nd ed., #766, notes that the specific characteristics of the tyger are "its body is much like that of the wolf, but it has a crest of tufts on the back of its neck, and a tusk pointing town from its nose." RfS VII.7.a. requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." Since that is not the case here, we are forced to return this for redrawing.

Myron Duxippus Draco. Device. Per chevron inverted gules and sable, a dragon statant reguardant Or.
Conflict with Percival de Toulouse, Per fess indented azure and gules, a wyvern passant Or. There is one CD for the changes to the field, but as dragons and wyverns are simply the British and Continental variants of the same charge the SCA grants no difference between them, and precedent has long held that there is no CD between passant and statant, which involves only the moving of one leg.

Radu Drakula. Name and device. Per fess enarched sable and vert, a wolf- headed serpent erect contourny and in base a crescent argent.
Withdrawn from consideration by the submitter.

Seán ó Móráin. Device. Vert, on a fess sable fimbriated between an Irish Wolfhound couchant and a Celtic cross, three mullets of six points irradiated Or.
The mullets on the submission are not truly irradiated; they each have but a single dash or line radiating outward between each of the points of the mullets. He might review his brother's registered device as a better model for mullets of six points irradiated.

Wilhelm Bruhn. Device. Quarterly gules and vert, four drinking horns interlaced in saltire Or.
RfS VII.7.a. requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." The drinking horns here were variously misidentified by the commenters. Most took it to be a single charge, not four charges interlaced. There was a general consensus that interlacing four charges like this is probably not a very good concept because of the identifiability problem.


Ewige Vogel, Shire of. Name and device. Argent, a phoenix sable rising from flames proper within a laurel wreath vert.
RfS III.2.b.i (Branch Names) requires names of branches to "follow the patterns of period place- names". However, no one was able to provide an example of a real period place-name that could serve as a model for this name, and there was a clear consensus that "Eternal Bird" is simply not a reasonable place-name in any language. If the group particularly want a German name, we suggest that they begin by poring over a fairly detailed map of Germany to get a feel for real German place-names. A couple of period place-names containing the word Vogel bird are (in modern spelling) Vogelsberg "Bird's Mountain" and Vogelweid(e) "Bird Meadow", and the eagle (Adler) and raven (Raben, Raven) also figure in period German place-naming.
Because we cannot form holding names for groups, we are having to return this very nice group armory.

Jaret Stillbhard. Name.
Stillbhard was submitted as a Gaelic version of Stewart on the basis of a typo in what appears to be some edition of Robert Bain's The Clans and Tartans of Scotland; the actual Gaelic name is Stiubhard. Since the submitter has through no fault of his own got a completely erroneous notion of the look and sound of the surname, we would hesitate to correct it without prior consultation even if that were the only change required. But in fact the name would still combine obviously non-Gaelic and obviously Gaelic orthographies in a non-period fashion, so further correction would still be required. The name would be registerable as Jaret Steward, for example, but that is very far from the submitted name and even further from the Jheric Stillbhard that he would actually like. Consequently we prefer to return the name with some suggestions.
Jaret Steward would do nicely if he wishes the name to match his Scottish persona. Both Stiller, originally an English byname for a fisherman or trapper, and Stillcart, noted from 1590 by Black, may be closer in sound to his pronunciation of Stillbhard, and both would be at least roughly compatible with a Scottish persona. But if he doesn't care whether the name matches the persona, he could register something very close to what he has been using.
The Germanic Gericus, which consists of the prototheme Gair- and the hypocoristic suffix - ico, is shown by Morlet to have been in use at least from the late 7th to the mid-11th century (in a variety of slightly different spellings). The prototheme, Gair-, appears as Jer- in half a dozen dithematic names; it also appears once each as Jir- and Jeir-. These 10th and 11th century spellings foreshadow its modern French pronunciation in such names as Gérard. (At that time the consonant was more like the j in English judge.) That the same change was affecting Gerico is shown by the 1188 spelling apud Jeresi of modern Gerisy, from Gerico + -iacum (Morlet, vol. III, s.n. Gerico). It appears that this softening of Ger- to Jer- occurred quite early in some cases, early enough to have preceded the eventual loss of the final c. (The usual Old French form of the name is Geri.) Thus, Jeric would seem to be quite possible as a 10th or 11th century spelling of Gerico (or possibly even the fairly common dithematic name Gerricus, Gerrich).
The byname can also be closely approximated by a Continental Germanic name, though this one is hypothetical. Morlet notes four dithematic names and a hypocorism from the prototheme Stille-, and Pelican has found a variety of examples of a deuterotheme -bard(us): Kinbardus, Adalbardus, Teutbardus, Tetbardus, Gerbardus, Ratbardus, Rekinbard, Sicbardus. This seems just sufficient to justify Stillebard and hence Jeric Stillebard. (If the submitter pronounces Stillbhard with a Gaelic bh, i.e., like English w or v, he may prefer to construct Stilleward or Stillevard, from the fairly common deuterotheme -wardus (e.g., Adowardus) or its variant -vardus (e.g., Girvardus).)

Loric Silvestris. Badge. [Fieldless] A fret couped Or surmounted by a unicorn rampant sable.
There are two problems with this submission. First, it is of the "barely overall" variety which has long been reason for return. Second, if the unicorn were made large enough to be truly "overall", it would have the problem of overall charges in fieldless badges. In the Cover Letter to the November 1992 LoAR, p. 3, Baron Bruce as Laurel implemented a partial ban on this pattern, excepting "where one of the charges is a long, slender object, and the area of intersection is small." Such is not the case here; as a consequence, it must be returned.

Morgan Brianna MacBride. Name.
Brianna is a modern name that has been ruled "SCA-compatible"; its use is a definite "weirdness" and costs the name any further benefit of the doubt (see SCA-Compatibility is Weird in the 1/96 Cover Letter). In period Morgan is strictly a man's name, so Morgan Brianna cannot be a double given name; but if Brianna is interpreted as a metronymic, there is no way to reconcile the patronymic MacBride with what we know of period naming practice in Great Britain. To quote Harpy, "I can't make this one work". This alone would almost certainly be sufficient reason to return or modify the name; the use of the "SCA-compatible" Brianna removes any possible doubt.
Morgan MacBride would be entirely acceptable; Morgan Brianna and Brianna MacBride would be non-period but registerable. Her form allows minor changes, but she has imposed specific restrictions on their nature. She does allow us to respell Brianna, but we doubt that this permission extends to respelling it and are therefore obliged to return the name.
The accompanying armory was registered under the holding name Melissa of Thor's Mountain.

Sadira bint Raya al-Asiri. Name only (see PENDING for device).
The only support for Sadira comes from Kolatch, who offers the improbable gloss "ostrich returning from water"! The closest name found in more reputable Arabic name books is Sa(a)bira, from a word meaning "patient, enduring"; though not yet documented as a period name, it would be acceptable for registration. Rayyâ is a documented period feminine name, and the vagaries of transliteration from the Arabic would probably justify the submitted spelling in the metronymic bint Raya "daughter of Raya". However, it still does not appear that metronymics based on personal names were used in Arabic-speaking cultures. Laurel has found just one example (apart from the inherently exceptional "Isa ibn Maryam "Jesus son of Mary"), and Ensign has one example of a metronymic apparently based on the mother's occupational byname. This latter discovery indicates the desirability of further research, but for now the overwhelming weight of cultural and onomastic evidence argues against overturning the precedents against registering Arabic metronymics. Finally, the byname al-Asiri is the masculine form of the locative and denotes a man from the province of Asir; the feminine is al-Asiriyya(h).
The name would be acceptable as Sabira bint al-Asiriyya or indeed simply as Sabira al-Asiriyya, but these are considerably more than minor changes, so we are returning the name for further work. We suggest that the submitter be put in touch with Laurel, who is always happy to help with Arabic names.

Troy of Seleone. Household Name for Emerichs Keep.
Emerich is either German, in which case Keep is out of place, or an unattested spelling of a name usually found in English records as Emeric(us) or Emery. A Middle English Emericeskepe might possibly have become Emerickeskeep by the end of our period, though Emery Keep accords better with the available evidence. Moreover, no example of keep in a period English place-name is known. With a change in the generic term, however, the name can be made to follow period models very closely. Modern Barnard Castle was recorded as Bernardescastell in 1399, and there is also a place named Richards Castle ((baronia) Castri Ricardi 1212); Emericescastell would be an exact parallel of these names.
However, this submission was made before the 12/95 return of his personal name submission, Tobias, son of Emerich, and the 3/96 return of his lady s personal name submission, Jessimond of Emerichs Keep. The lady wanted her name to match her husband s, and the present form implies that the household name is intended to match both. Normally we would be inclined to make it Emericeskepe and give kepe the benefit of the doubt; but since we do not know how they will modify their personal names, we prefer in this case simply to return the household name. This way they can resubmit at no extra cost a version that matches their revised personal names; the alternative would force them either to live with a mismatched household name or to pay to change it.


Ailred Mac Pìoba An Th•rra Dhuibh. Name.
As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned.

Ailred Mac Pìoba An Th•rra Dhuibh. Household name.
As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. Additionally, the LoI did not state the household name being submitted.

Alan Járnhauss inn Hárlangri. Device change. Quarterly vert and sable, a wolf salient reguardant maintaining a ram in its jaws argent.
Conflict with Jonathan Crusadene Whitewolfe, Gules ermined argent, a wolf rampant argent. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field.

Andrew Maklaurene. Name and device. Azure, three comets fesswise in pale and on a chief argent three crescents gules.
As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned.

Baronial Colleges of Nordleigh, Canton of the. Name and device. Sable, between three squirrels rampant a laurel wreath Or.
This submission raises two separate issues, one stylistic, the other administrative. Stylistically the name is said to be modelled on that of Kings College (Cambridge), though the obvious analogical construction would be Barons College. This is probably too generic to be registered, but we see no serious stylistic bar to registering Barons College at Nordleigh, say. Barons Colleges at Nordleigh is another matter: it seems very unlikely that two colleges within a single university would have been given the same name. We are also reluctant to allow Baronial in lieu of Barons without some support from period usage. In addition to Kings College, there are the Queens Colleges at Cambridge and Oxford, Bishops Castle in Shropshire, Countesthorpe the countess s village in Leicestershire, and other similar constructs to support Barons College; as a model for Baronial only Royal comes to mind. Moreover, the OED does not attest baronial until the middle of the 18th century (though it probably existed at least a bit earlier). The change from the submitted name to Barons College at Nordleigh is formally not very large. However, it appears that the group specifically chose Baronial rather than Barons in order that the modifier might refer to both the Baron and the Baroness, and it chose Colleges because in the modern world it is based simultaneously at Carleton College and at St. Olaf College. Under the circumstances we are not willing to make these changes without permission and must therefore return the name.
The administrative problem concerns the use of college, an officially approved designator for an institutional branch based at a school, research facility, or the like. The submitted name implies that the group is administratively a canton, and it is so listed in the most recent Middle Kingdom newsletter. The distinction is significant, since cantons and colleges are subject to different administrative requirements. If in fact the group is administratively a college, there is no problem: they need only drop the words Canton of (and indeed must do so). Assuming that it is a canton, however, the question arises: May a canton use the word college, which as a designator has a specific (and in this case inappropriate) meaning, as a non-designating part of its name? The relevant part of RfS III.2.b says that a branch name "must consist of a designator that identifies the type of entity and at least one descriptive element and that `[t]he designator must be appropriate to the status of the submitter". In Canton of the Baronial Colleges of Nordleigh it is clear from the syntax that Canton is the required designator; the rule says nothing about the use of designators in the descriptive part of the name, so the first requirement is technically met, and if the group is a canton, the second requirement is met as well. In the absence of stylistic problems we would therefore not have returned the name. Nevertheless, we agree with Hawk that the use of an administratively inappropriate standard designator in the descriptive part of a branch name is potentially confusing and urge the group to consider this issue before resubmitting their name.
As we cannot form holding names for groups, we are having to return the device.

Cynred Broccan. Badge. [Fieldless] An annulet surmounted by a mullet of four points.
As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. Additionally, the LoI gave no tincture for the charges.

Cynred Broccan. Household name and badge for House Dyrhamfyrd. [Fieldless] Within an annulet argent four heads azure hearing spangenhelms conjoined argent.
As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. Additionally, there were some stylistic questions about the badge.

Elizabetta Venusta. Name.
As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned.

Geirólfr of D kktungl. Name and device. Per saltire azure and sable, on a flame argent a gauntlet clutching a rose fesswise reversed slipped and leaved sable.
The byname is intended to mean "of Darkmoon", referring to the unregistered name of his household. There are several problems here. First, as virtually all commenters noted, the English preposition is completely out of place. Several went further to note that even an Old Norse preposition is probably inappropriate, pointing out that although D kktungl might possibly be justifiable as an epithet, it cannot be construed as the name of a period place or socio-economic group. It isn't clear that it is a reasonable hypothetical Old Norse epithet; there seem to be few if any parallels. Nevertheless, we would probably have given the benefit of the doubt to an idiomatic byname that could be taken to refer to the phase of the moon at its bearer's birth or on the occasion of some notable exploit of his. Unfortunately, d kktungl is almost certainly not at all idiomatic. Though tungl is the ordinary word for "moon", its underlying sense is "a luminary", and the combination with d kkr "dark" is therefore at least faintly oxymoronic. Even more telling is the fact that Old Norse has a completely different word for the new moon: nið. Niðamyrkr is "pitch darkness and no moon". The name would be acceptable as Geirólfr Nið or Niðamyrkr. The device conflicts with Elvira de Cordoba, Per pale gules and sable on a flame argent a unicorn s head couped sable. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. X.4.j.ii. does not allow a second for the change to type only of a tertiary charge on a complex charge such as a flame.

Halfdan the Blackanvil. Name and device. Argent, a chevron Or fimbriated between three anvils sable.
As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. Additionally, there were some questions regarding the propriety of the construction of the byname.

Owls' Haven, Shire of. Name and device. Argent, a Great Horned owl proper within and perched upon a laurel wreath vert grasped by a wyvern's claw vert issuant from a ford.
As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned.

Shattered Oak, Shire of. Device. Sable, in pale a lightning bolt and a forked tree blasted issuant from a mount argent charged with a laurel wreath sable.
The fact that none of the commenters was able to suggest a good way to blazon "a tree being split by a lightning bolt" is a strong indication of the non-heraldic nature of the design. Additionally, the lightning bolt tends to get lost among the branches of the tree, making the design somewhat ambiguous visually. The design could be much improved by removing the lightning bolt entirely.

Skalla Gorm the Frenzied. Name and device. Per pale sable and gules, a harpy displayed wings inverted brandishing two swords argent.
As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned.

Skalla Gorm the Frenzied. Household name and badge for House Red Herring. [Fieldless] A herring naiant gules.
As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned.


Claudia Lisabetta Senatori da Firenze. Device. Azure, on a pile between a fleam reversed and a fleam argent a water bouget sable.
Though no blazon was included in the LoI, which would normally have required this to be pended, the primary charge is not really a pile; but neither is it a chapé field nor a chief triangular. "The field is not really chaussé it is not per chevron inverted, it is not a pile, it is not a chief triangular; being somewhere between all of these, we really don't know what it is. Chaussé issues from the corners of the chief and would touch the base point of the shield; per chevron inverted would issue from the sides of the field (rather than the chief corners); a pile would issue from farther in on the chief (rather [than] from the corners) and would almost touch the base point of the shield and would not have room for a charge beneath it; and a chief triangular would not descend the field nearly so far as the one here does. Please have them choose one and reemblazon it properly." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR October 1990, p. 21) This also must be returned for redrawing as one or another of the options.


Elzabeth Osanna Zelter. Device. Argent, upon a mount vert, a pavilion between in chief two mullets voided and interlaced azure.
Despite all of the commentary on this submission which discussed such things as anti-discrimination law and various other issues, as it was in the prior submission of this device in July 1994, "`the issue in question is modern offense', and consideration of this device has to focus on that issue as the central one here." To quote from relevant portions of the prior return: "The relevant portions of the Rules for Submissions are found in General Principles I.2.: `Offense - No name or armory will be registered that may be offensive to a significant segment of the Society or the general population. No submission will be registered that is detrimental to the educational purposes or good name of the Society, or the enjoyment of its participants because of offense that may be caused, intentionally or unintentionally, by its use.'; Section IX. `Offensive armory may not be registered, as is required by General Principle 2 of these rules. Armory may be innately offensive from its content, or because of its usual associations or the context in which it is placed, such as the swastika which, although used in period armory, is so strongly associated with the Third Reich that it offends a large segment of the population. Armory may be considered offensive even if the submitter did not intend it to be. This section defines the categories of designs that are generally considered offensive.'; and Section IX.4. `Offensive Political Symbolism - Symbols specifically associated with social or political movements or events that may be offensive to a particular race, religion, or ethnic group will not be registered. Even if used without prejudice in period, such symbols are offensive by their modern context. Thus, designs suggestive of the SS, the Ku-Klux Klan, or similar organizations, may not be used.' I have underlined those portions which I believe may be applicable to the submission at hand."
"The ban on pentacles/pentagrams (as Trefoil noted [and as further research and commentary have indicated since, in dictionary definitions and in usage in correspondence and news articles], the two terms are often used interchangeably [by Wiccans and non-Wiccans alike]. As a consequence, any decision affecting the one will of necessity apply to the other) in SCA armory is a long-standing one, by Ioseph of Locksley (1 September 1973), by Karina of the Far West (in correspondence 7 January 1976 and in the LoAR of 10 March 1978), by Wilhelm von Schlüssel (24 October 1979), and by Da'ud ibn Auda (LoAR of August 1990, p. 16). This last was reviewed by the Board of Directors in their April 1991 meeting, who noted, among other things, that `the device was not returned for its specific religious content as perceived by the submitter and her co-religionists, but for the specific anti-religious content as perceived by a far larger number of people, both within and without the SCA. Whether this latter perception is with `good' cause, whether the distressed person `should' feel that way, is not the point -- we're not here to declare or enforce moral correctness.... The Board has a duty of care for the whole organization. We heard from a number of people who have had problems in the communities because of perceptions of the SCA as not merely tolerating, but actively encouraging, various anti-social activities. Again, the rightness or wrongness of their perceptions is not at issue; those perceptions are simply part of the larger environment within which the SCA must operate. We can reasonably expect that the SCA will come up against similar perceptions in the future, and we cannot reasonably expect outsiders to understand the subtleties of authority underlying 'registration,' which to them will inevitably imply official recognition, approval, and sanction.... Let me add that so far as any of the Directors could see, there was no solution to this dilemma that will satisfy all our members. Whichever way we chose would cause distress to people of good will who have the interests of the SCA at heart, including ourselves. Your return seems to us to be the least bad among several unattractive alternatives.' (Letter from Board of Directors to Laurel, quoted in the Cover Letter with the April 1991 LoAR, pp. 2-3)" "Given these long-standing precedents and rulings, the decision then hinges on whether or not sufficient evidence of the charge's inoffensiveness has been presented to overturn them and register the charge." [LoAR July 1994, pp. 11-12] Trefoil presented a goodly number of examples of the use of mullets of five points voided and interlaced in modern commercial and political venues. Included among her examples were usage by Fingerhut, the national flag of Morocco, Prodigy, the seal of the Solomon Islands, Lone Star Industries in Tennessee, a 1995 design of Diet Coke can, the 1995 Arts Resources Calendar of the City of El Paso, Texas. Clearly, this must be considered as supporting the position of the charge's inoffensiveness to the population at large. Trefoil also cited a number of articles which indicate a growing acceptance or tolerance of Wicca in general.
On the other hand, Pale submitted a sizable number of newspaper articles from across the United States in 1995 in which pentacles and pentagrams were plainly called "satanic symbols", sometimes by chiefs of police, law enforcement officers, and newspaper editors. A few examples are:
"On the door someone has spray-painted a gold pentacle " the devil's logo." (The Observer, November 19, 1995)
"But what if Satanists wanted to draw pentagrams on government property? How would Ms. Warren feel about the constitutional right of free speech then?" (The Richmond Times Dispatch, January 2, 1995, Tuesday, City Edition, Editorial, p. A-8)
"'Satan is Lord' dominates one wall. On the ceiling, the word 'Jews' is splattered with a red slash through it. Two swastikas and a satanic pentagram round out the decor." (The Record, December 3, 1995)
"'If I have an officer who is a Satanist, I'd have to allow him to put a pentagram on his squad car,' he [Police Chief Donald Grady II] said. 'I think that would be more offensive to a Catholic community [than his order requiring removal of personal and religious items from squad cars].'" (The Santa Fe New Mexican, November 17, 1995)
"The fire follows three incidents in October in which vandals broke into classrooms -- once at Hoover and twice at Glendale High School -- and either stole or attempted to steal computer parts, then scribbled pentagrams or other satanic-style symbols on the walls or chalk boards." (Los Angeles Times, November 2, 1995, Valley Edition)
"Time and nature haven't been the only enemy. Transients and youths have built fires on the floors and scrawled graffiti throughout. A pentagram is painted on the floor of one room; evidence, police say, of satanic worship." (The Salt Lake Tribune, August 21, 1995)
"As in the first case, satanic symbols known in the cult subculture accompanied the cat's body. Written in blood on one door was "Jesus is Dead" and on the other door were two pentagrams, satanic symbols featuring an inverted five-point star within a circle, also drawn in blood." (The Tampa Tribune, March 21, 1995)
"For proof, parishioners flash fuzzy photographs of a pentagram -- a Satanic symbol -- that was scratched in the gravel of the church's parking lot a few weeks after the assault." (Los Angeles Times, January 29, 1995)
Also to be considered are statements by Wiccans and other neo-pagans regarding the public perception of the pentacle/pentagram:
"Being a witch is not easy. [Morgana Katrina] Cabot said she's had rocks thrown at her and was spit on at a grocery store when people saw her pentagram necklace. They thought it stood for a worship of Satan, something she angrily denies." (The Detroit News, October 13, 1995)
"Yes, many people do connect the inverted pentagram and `satanism"." (Milamber Silver Wolf, October 27, 1995 correspondence)
"Too many erroneous ideas are being spread around i.e.; 1. That the pentagram is a symbol of Satanism. Maybe to Satanist who appriated [sic] it from the Pagan Wiccan religion...." (Faye Jones, Circle of the Emerald Dragon, February 28, 1995 correspondence)
"[M]ost companies who discover a witch on the payroll `will do anything to fire you,' she [Marie Wilhite, founder of the Pagan Elders Alliance] said. Some local witches have even received death threats." "Secrecy reigns even among themselves. `Some are so into their jobs that I know they're not telling me their real names,' Ms. Wilhite said." (The Dallas Morning News, October 30, 1995, pp. 17A, 20A)
Kit Howard, a member of ADF [Ar nDraiocht Fein, an American organization of neo-Druids founded in 1983] and their chief information officer, "We aren't taken seriously. We got covered under the usual misconceptions in today's western society that affects all neo-pagan groups -- that anything that isn't Christianity, Islam, Judaism, or any other well-recognized religion must, by definition, be Satanism." ("Modern Druidry", Renaissance Magazine, Vol. 1, Issue 1 (February 1996), p. 28)
And, of course, the experience of SCA members must also be considered. "The incident ... occured at a this year's local Renfaire, when a fighter bore an electrical tape formed pentacle on the side of his helm.... I did not even realize he had it until I saw him on the field that day. As we prepared to segue to a new demonstration, a child pointed to the fighter a [sic] loudly proclaimed to all in earshot `Look, Satan!'" (Wendy C. Donaldson/Lady Eleanor ferch Rhiwallon, June 1994 correspondence)
After careful review of all of the arguments and evidence presented, including all that presented in the prior submission of this device and the appeal of the kingdom return of Cerridwen of Raventree's device, in addition to the the four letters received after a call for a letter-writing campaign in The Circle Network News, a nation-wide Wiccan and pagan publication, I do not believe that I can say it any better than was said in the July 1994 return of this device: "After much consideration and thought and careful re-reading of all of the documentation and commentary, I feel compelled to uphold the prior precedents disallowing the registration of mullets of five points voided and interlaced, whether within and conjoined to an annulet or standing by themselves. [Based on the evidence presented, s]uch charges still are perceived by a significant portion of the population as [a] "satanic symbol", and hence cannot be registered by the College." (emphasis in original) (LoAR July 1994, pp. 11-12)


Barbara of the Crossroads. Badge. [Fieldless] On a rose proper a fleece Or. Conflict with Marta Sansgrail, Argent, a garden rose gules slipped and leaved vert, in the center of the rose a worm Or. There is the fieldless CD, but nothing for the change of type only of a tertiary on a non-voidable charge, per RfS X.4.j.ii.

Ceridwen ferch Thomas Vaughan. Name.
Ceridwen is a goddess name that does not seem to have been used by human beings in our period; however, it has been declared "SCA-compatible", and the name is registerable. Unfortunately, we must return it, since there was no form in the packet.
The accompanying armory was registered under the holding name Amy of Trimaris.

Yrsa kistill Gunnarsdóttir. Device. Per fess engrailed vert and sable, a fish haurient argent.
Conflict with Brendel the Swordfish, Azure, a swordfish palewise haurient embowed to sinister argent. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for the type between a generic fish and a swordfish.





Robert de Rath. Device. Sable, on a pile Or ermined gules between two estoiles Or a sword sable.
This name has not yet been considered. The device must therefore be pended until the consideration of the name is made at the August Laurel meeting.


Dunja Fuxfell. Device. Per bend sinister argent and vert, a fox's mask gules and a hawk's bell Or.
The name for this submission was returned last year for lack of forms. It has been resubmitted on a later LoI. As the name has not yet been considered, we are pending this until the name submission "catches up" with it.


Sadira bint Raya al-Asiri. Device. Per fess gules and vert, on a fess sable fimbriated the Arabic character 'siin' argent.
The tincture of the fimbriation and the tertiary was missing from the LoI.

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