Alicia Hennenberg. Name.
Eumathios Bempetziotes. Name.

Good name!

Henry Clarence. Name and device. Argent, three unicorns passant azure.

Good name!

Beautiful arms, which are also quite stylistically compatible with the name!

James Irvin. Name and device. Azure, a sheaf of swords inverted Or banded argent all within a bordure Or.

Parker, under banded, states that the term "is used when two or more objects (e.g. a garb or branches of a tree) are bound together with a band of different tincture."

John de Duglas. Name change from holding name John of Stelton Wald.

This is a resubmission of a name that was returned for conflict in June 2002. In the Cover Letter for the January 2003 LoAR ("From Laurel: Beyond the Encyclopedia"), Laurel implemented new guidelines for conflicts with people listed in general encyclopedias. Therefore, this name has been resubmitted to be re-evaluated under the current policy.

In the case of this name, there are two potential conflicts. The first is the conflict for which this name was previously returned:

This name conflicts with John Douglas (1721-1807), Scottish man of letters, who has his own entry in the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica (vol. VIII, p.446). [John de Duglas, 06/2002 LoAR, R-Æthelmearc]

The second potential conflict was found by Kraken during the commentary period for the current submission:

The 1975 Funk & Wagnalls also lists another John Douglas (1844-1900), 8th Marquis of Queensberry; he codified the rules of modern boxing which are today known by his title.

In the case of John Douglas (1721-1807), Scottish man of letters, he is known in English literary circles but is not generally known outside of that area. While his name would be recognizable to students of 18th and 19th C English literature, he is not recognizable to enough of the modern population, including those in the SCA, to warrant protection.

Regarding John Douglas (1844-1900), eighth Marquis of Queensberry, The boxing rules noted by Kraken are sufficiently recognizable to the common SCA member that their name is worthy of protection. However, it is important to note that is these rules are known as the Marquis of Queensberry rules, not the John Douglas rules. If you asked people who were familiar with these rules which Marquis of Queensberry created these rules, very few would be able to identify that it was the eighth Marquis of Queensberry or that his name was John Douglas. This is an indication that it is these rules, and so the title Marquis of Queensberry, that are notable. As a result, we would protect the title Marquis of Queensberry. However, lacking evidence that John Douglas, eighth Marquis of Queensberry, is generally recognizable on his own to members of the SCA, he is not important enough to protect.

Riversedge, Shire of. Branch name.
Wynterset, Stronghold of. Device. Argent, a winged stag's head affronty erased at the shoulder wings displayed azure within a laurel wreath vert and on a chief sable three mullets of eight points argent.
Wynterset, Stronghold of. Badge. Argent, a winged stag's head affronty erased at the shoulder wings displayed azure and in base two swords in saltire sable.


Caerell mac Domnaill. Name and device. Per pale sable and Or, a sun in his glory counterchanged and a ford proper.

Both Parker, in A Glossary of Terms used in Heraldry, and Brooke-Little, in An Heraldic Alphabet, explain that a sun in his glory is the same thing as a sun in his splendor. This information is found under the header "sun".

Caterina Bella Rosso. Name.
Chemin Noir, Canton of. Branch name.
Gráinne inghean Shéadna. Name.

Submitted as Gráinne inghean Séadna, the patronym was not lenited, as is required by Gaelic grammar. We have made this correction.

Guy de Bealmont. Name and device. Per fess sable and azure, a fess wavy between two decrescents argent.

Submitted as Guy de Beaumont, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th C Norman and allowed minor changes. The byname de Beaumont was documented from the Web article "Normans at the Battle of Hastings" ( However, this article uses modern spellings. As a result, the listing of Robert de Beaumont, afterwards Count of Meulan and Earl of Leicester in this article supports the assertion that a man with some form of the name Robert de Beaumont was at the battle of Hastings, but it does not support the assertion that Robert de Beaumont was the form of his name used at that time. The College was unable to find any support for the use of the form Beaumont as early as the 12th C. The closet spelling found by the College was in Ekwall (p. 33 s.n. Beaumont), which dates the form Bealmont to 1175-80. Therefore, we have changed the byname to use the form Bealmont in order to make this name authentic for the submitter's desired time and culture.

James de Warrenne. Name.
Morgund McKenzie. Name.
Redulf Köl. Name (see RETURNS for device).
William of Loch Solleir. Badge. (Fieldless) In pale a stag at gaze conjoined to two roses slipped and leaved in saltire argent.


Eneas Mac Concarrigy. Name.

Submitted as Eneas Mac ConCarrigy, Mac ConCarrigy was submitted as an Anglicized Irish form of the Gaelic byname mac Con Charraige. There are a number of examples of period Anglicized Irish bynames formed from Gaelic bynames of the type mac Con C-. In all of those, only the first surviving letter of the patronym is capitalized. Therefore, lacking evidence that a capital would appear in the middle of this name, we have lowercased the second 'c' in this byname.

Mairsile Kendrick. Device. Azure, a fish in annulo head to base Or and on a chief argent a holly branch fructed proper.
Tanne Comyn. Name and device. Per bend sinister purpure and vert, a dragon sejant guardant and on a chief argent three pellets.

Sufficient contact existed between Flanders and Scotland in period to make a name combining Flemish and Scots registerable, though this combination is a weirdness.


Arthur O'Flaherty. Device reblazon. Erminois, a saltire parted and fretted sable, overall a shamrock vert.

The submitter requested a reblazon from Erminois, a saltire parted and fretted sable, overall a trefoil slipped vert. The charge in question has the heart-shaped foils of a shamrock, and can thus be blazoned as a shamrock.

Bartilmew Blackbourne. Name and device. Pily barry gules and Or, a sun sable within a bordure per sable and gules.

The sun's tincture was omitted in the blazon on the LoI. However, enough commenters deduced the correct tincture of the sun that this does not need to be pended for further research.

Fáelán Mac Cuinneagáin. Device. Sable, a sword Or surmounted by a saltire all within a bordure argent.
Guilla Ironhare. Name and device. Per pale Or and vert, in pale a single-horned anvil and a hare salient sable.

Submitted as Guilla Ironhair, there was considerable discussion regarding the submitted given name Guilla. As Siren found dated examples of Guilla in period, we are able to register this name.

Guilla was submitted as an Italian feminine given name based on information provided in the LoI:

[...]Guilla of Spoleto (c. 925-1012) was born in Este Italy, Aryanhwy merch Catmael notes that this website cites as its source, and that Laurel has previously ruled that this site alone is insufficient for SCA documentation [...]

The LoI is correct, as explained in the August 2001 LoAR:

Heinemann was documented from The April 2001 LoAR stated the following in regards to the submitted name Sueva the Short:

The given name was documented from Roberts, Notable Kin: An Anthology of Columns First Published in the NEHGS NEXUS, 1986-1995. While we have no reason to doubt the quality of the genealogical research, the goals of genealogists are different from ours and their data is not necessarily applicable to SCA use.

The same issue applies to documentation from genealogy Web sites including They cannot be relied on for documentation for spelling variants. [Tatiana Heinemann, 08/2001 LoAR, A-Trimaris]

The LoI hypothesized that Guilla could be a feminine form of the Breton masculine given name Guillo found in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "Given Names from Brittany, 1384-1600," ( Metron Ariston explained why this construction is not likely in Breton:

Unfortunately, Breton is not a Romance language and, while French names do appear in Brittany, particularly in the later periods, there is no evidence that this formation would be a valid feminine form from Guillo. Moreover, following normal rules for pronunciation, Guilla would be pronounced Willa so it will not sound like the name the submitter wants. I was in fact able to find the feminine name Willa in Morlet (Les noms de personnes, vol. I, col. 225b).

Siren found evidence of Guilla or Willa used as a woman's name in 11th C Italy:

A group of 11th century documents from Bologna seem to support <Guilla> or <Willa> as an Italian woman's name (discussion at; these are taken from

1033 (61) Donazione della contessa Guilla alla Pieve di S.Lorenzo di Imola. Si tratta di alcuni fondi nella zona suburbana di Imola e di un palazzo entro Imola. La nobilissima comitissa è considerata della famiglia dei conti Guidi.

1056 (HE) 14 gennaio: la contessa Willa, vedova del dux et marchio Ugo, ordina, assieme ai fratelli (figli di Willa ?) Ugo, Adelbertus, Bonifacius e Ubaldus, la liberazione di una donna di Pianoro. Si trovano a S.Bartolomeo di Musiano. Willa è probabilmente al suo secondo matrimonio (con Bonandus de Capraria).

It is possible that this use of Guilla is an import of the French Willa, but there is insufficient information to be certain at this time. Regardless, given the information provided by Siren, Guilla is registerable as an 11th C Italian feminine given name.

There was also a good bit of discussion regarding the submitted byname Ironhair. The LoI cited a number of period bynames with an element meaning 'iron' as the first element:

Ironhair is a constructed byname, following patterns of English nicknames such as Irnefoot (Ironfoot) 1332, Irenbard (Ironbeard) 1316, and Irenherde (Ironhard) 1379 (examples found in "A Study of Middle English Nicknames I. Compounds, Jan Jonsjo). These names could refer to the bearer's black, coarse hair, or to their strength.

The spelling Iron- shows up by the 13th C as shown in Reaney & Wilson (p. 249 s.n. Iremonger) which dates Elyas le Ironmmongere to 1294. Reaney & Wilson (p. 217 s.n. Hare) gives this byname as occasionally being "A nickname from the hair" and dates Henry Mytehare, Myttehere to 1253-4, identifying the meaning as "mid the here 'with the hair'".

Based on these examples, a byname such as Ironhare or Ironhere would be a plausible 13th C byname indicating the person's hair color. As no evidence was presented to support the spelling -hair in a period byname, we have changed this byname to the form Ironhare in order to register this name.

It should be noted that the LoI stated that:

[T]the submitter originally wished to use Ingwylla, to alliterate with the byname, but we couldn't find anything close (she'd also prefer the spelling of the current given name as Gwylla, if possible-she is most interested in the sound of the name, not the language or culture). Any help in justifying the spelling Gwylla, or even Ingwyllya, would be very much appreciated.

Multiple members of the College noted the Old Norse feminine given name Ingvildr found in Geirr Bassi (p. 12). In addition, Metron Ariston found:

[...] Inguelina which Morlet (op. cit., Vol. I, col. 146b) dates to the eleventh century.

As neither of these options are the submitter's desired Ingwylla, we have registered this name with the submitted given name Guilla, and provided this information as a courtesy to the submitter in case either of these options interest her.

Richard Steavenson. Name and device. Azure, a bend sinister between four lozenges argent.
Rowan O'Flaherty. Name change from holding name Rowan of Atenveldt.
Sely Bloxam. Household name House Bell and Frog.

Submitted as House Bells and Frog, all of the examples found by the College of English sign names with the form [item] and [item] had both items as singular, rather than plural, even in cases where there were multiple items of one on the associated image. Therefore, lacking examples of plural items in sign names of this type, we have changed the plural Bells to the singular Bell in order to register this name.

Veronica da Asola. Name.


Adam Starling. Name.
Ælfwynn of Witebi. Name and device. Checky argent and purpure, a chief embattled sable.

Submitted as Aelfwynn of Whitby, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th C English and allowed any changes. The submission form stated, "Submitter has used this form of the name for a long time; she'd appreciated it if spelling could be retained."

The form Ælfwynn is an Old English name, used by the Anglo-Saxons, which Searle (pp. 29-30 s.n. Ælfwynn) dates to the 10th C. No evidence was presented and none was found to support Aelfwynn as a variant spelling of Ælfwynn. Lacking such evidence, the form Aelfwynn is not registerable. A Middle English form of the name appropriate for the submitter's desired time period is Aluina, dated to 1206 in Talan Gwynek's "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" (

Whitby is the modern form of this placename, and may be a plausible spelling for the 16th C. Ekwall (s.n. Whitby) dates the forms Witebi to the Domesday Book, Witebia to c. 1100, Witeberia to c. 1150, Witebi to c. 1190, and Hwitebi to 1104-8.

As submitted, this name combined the Old English name Ælfwynn (note that the name uses an aesh, Æ, not Ae-) with of Whitby, which uses a placename form that is dated to the 16th C or later. This name had one weirdness for combining Old English and Middle English within a name. Since the form Ælfwynn is dated no later than the 10th C and the form Whitby is dated no earlier than the 16th C, this name also had a weirdness for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years. The combination of these two weirdnesses made the submitted form of this name unregisterable.

Based on this information, Aluina of Witebi would be a fully Middle English form of this name appropriate for the submitter's desired time period of the 12th C. Since the submission form indicated that the submitter wished to retain the submitted spelling, we have made the minimal amount of changes necessary to register this name. The form Ælfwynn of Witebi combines the documented 10th C Old English form of the given name with a 12th C Middle English form of this byname. We have changed the name to this form to remove the weirdness for temporal disparity in order to register this name.

Alesone MacCormack. Name and device. Vert, on a lozenge Or a wolf rampant sable maintaining in its sinister forepaw a sword argent all within a bordure Or.
Alexandre of Kapellenberg. Name (see RETURNS for device).
Alexandria O'Fogarty. Badge. Per fess gules and purpure, a dance argent.
Aliénor de Narbonne. Badge. (Fieldless) An ermine spot azure.
Ambra Micheli. Name change from Annamaria Narelli.

Good name!

Her previous name, Annamaria Narelli, is released.

Angelo di Gabbriello. Name and device. Argent crusilly fitchy gules, on a chief sable three fleurs-de-lys Or.

Nice arms!

Anna of Gretna. Name and device. Purpure ermined argent, a sinister gore argent.
Anne Ramsay. Device. Argent, a tree eradicated and on a chief wavy purpure three cinquefoils argent.

The tree was initially blazoned as a hawthorn, and the flowers on the chief was originally blazoned as hawthorn blossoms. However, neither the tree nor the blossoms are identifiable as hawthorn, so they have been reblazoned generically.

Artúr hua Láegaire. Name and device. Per fess gules and sable, a sword inverted between three mullets argent.

Submitted as Artúr Ó Láegaire, the byname Ó Láegaire combined the Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) Ó with Láegaire, which is an Old Irish (c. 700 to c. 900) or Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) form. As a result, this byname violated RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. We have changed this byname to the fully Old Irish form hua Láegaire in order to register this name.

The sword was originally blazoned as proper, but it is argent. This does not require pending for further conflict research as there is no tincture difference given between a proper sword and an argent sword.

Artus Falconieri. Badge. (Fieldless) A hooded falcon belled and jessed gules perched atop and supported by a gloved fist fesswise sable.
Atlantia, Kingdom of. Heraldic title Blue Pike Herald.
Baldric of Falkonmore. Badge. Per pale sable and vert, a sprig of ash Or.

This does not conflict with a badge for the Barony of Bjornsborg, A sprig of alamosa palewise Or, slipped argent. There is one CD for fieldlessness. The sprig of alamosa is very similar in appearance to a small alder twig with Or leaves and an argent twig. There is one CD for the significant change in shape between the oval leaflet of the ash sprig and the more card-piqued shape leaflet of the alamosa. There is no difference for changing less than half the tincture of the sprig.

The Letter of Intent called this submission a device submission, but it is on a badge form. Blue Pike provided the following information to the College in commentary:

The submitter submitted two pieces of armory, both on Device forms, during the same event (Pennsic, as it turns out). Rather than force a resubmission and redraw to fix this relatively trivial matter, it seems easier to consider this analogous to a "Device submission", then "A change of device submission, if accepted, change the previous one to a badge". The mere fact that a practically zero time lag exists between the two submissions is unimportant. The submitter properly paid for two submissions, Atlantia forwarded to Laurel proper payment for two submissions, and conversation indicated this was how he wished it handled. The labeling of item 16 as a badge was intended to make it easier to identify how the submitter wished things to settle out, if both were accepted.

The submission form is simply marked as a new badge. We have received no written correspondence from the submitter to indicate that it is his intent to have this armory serve as a device rather than a badge. There is nothing in the submission form to indicate that, if this submission were indeed acting as a change of device, the previous device should be retained as a badge. It seems most prudent to merely register it as a new badge. Administrative Handbook section IV.C.7 states "If the submission involves a change of name or armory, the forms should include specific instructions for the disposition of the changed items. If no instructions are included on the forms, the name and/or armory will be automatically released when the change is approved." Thus, if we were to consider this badge to be a device change, it would be necessary to release the previous device, as the forms do not give instructions to retain the old device as a badge. The submitter may, of course, request an administrative change listed on a Letter of Intent as "Exchange of device and badge".

Bessenyei Rossa. Name and device. Vert, an orle of lotus blossoms in profile argent.

Submitted as Bessenyei Rozsa, Rozsa was documented from Kalman's The World of Names. Kalman should be used with care since, as Nebuly explains, "he never provides dates and modernizes all spellings". Whenever possible, better documentation should be used.

Nebuly provided information regarding the elements of this name:

The element Bessenyei is documented to 1576 in Kázmér and is a locative byname meaning "from Besnye". The spelling of the given name Rozsa is demonstrably post-period, since the ZS diphthong is a post-period innovation in Hungarian.

I have not found the name Rozsa (in any spelling) used as a given name in period Hungarian, but we may be able to justify it in another spelling. Kázmér has examples of its use as a byname (s.n. Rózsa); specifically, he has Rosa dated 1573 and Rossa dated 1592. He identifies the byname as a metronym, and although there may be another interpretation, the use of Rosa and Rossa as a given name in neighboring Italy (Arval) support Kázmér's interpretation. The name should be changed to Bessenyei Rosa or Bessenyei Rossa for registration.

As Rossa is the closer of the two forms found by Nebuly to the submitted Rosza, we have changed the name to use this form in order to register this name.

Bj{o,}rn Samsson. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Submitted as Bjorn Samsson, the documentation showed the given name as Bj{o,}rn. We have made this correction.

Ceara ní Néill. Device change. Vert, a sea-goat contourny Or within a bordure indented Or hurty.

Her previous device, Vert, a fish naiant Or, a bordure indented Or hurty, is retained as a badge.

Christine of Caer Mear. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Per pale sable and vert, on a lozenge argent a single-headed chess knight sable.

Submitted under the name Leofwynne le glasyer.

Cian Fitzwalter. Name and device. Per pale Or and vert, a serpent involved between three cups counterchanged.
Cristofana di Lorenzo. Name and device. Per bend argent and vert, in chief three passion nails palewise in bend sable, and in base a daisy blossom proper.
Cuilén Ó Cinnéide. Name (see RETURNS for device).
Dagr blóðøx. Name and badge. Per fess indented azure and argent, a sword fesswise reversed argent and a double-headed eagle displayed sable.

While the bird in base was originally blazoned as a double-headed raven, it clearly has the hooked beak and general proportions of a double-headed eagle, and we have so reblazoned it.

Damiana Morena. Name.
Diarmait Mainistrech of Iona. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Submitted as Diarmid Mainistrech of Iona, the submitter allowed minor changes. The LoI stated that:

Diarmid is documented from Tangwystl's "100 Most Popular Men's names in Early Medieval Ireland" (

However, that article lists the form Diarmait, not Diarmid. Lacking evidence that Diarmid is a plausible period form, it is not registerable. The Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name is Diarmait, while the Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form is Diarmaid. As the submitter indicated that, if his name must be changed, he was most interested in 12th to 13th C Irish, we have changed this name to the Middle Irish form in order to register this name.

No documentation at all was presented on the LoI for the elements Mainistrech or of Iona. Had a number of members of the College not gone out of their way to document these elements from scratch, this name would have had to be returned for lack of documentation of these elements.

Multiple members of the College provided support for Mainistrech. The submitter may wish to know that, though the byname Mainistrech literally means '[of the] Monastery', the four period examples of this byname found so far all refer to the monastery known today as Monasterboice, located in County Louth.

As Johnston (s.n. Iona) notes that the form Iona was originally an error for Ioua, there was some concern whether the form Iona appeared within our period. Speed's The Counties of Britain (p. 266, map of Scotland, map dated 1610) lists this island as Colmkil or Iona Ile, providing support for the locative byname of Iona.

Ealasaid inghean Eoin uí Fhearghuis. Name.
Elena de Rosa. Name.
Eliseo Folena. Name.

Submitted as Eliséo Foléna, the accents used in De Felice are pronunciation guides and are not part of the name.

Elspet Byndelase. Device. Gules, a chevron vair-in-pale between three wolves courant contourny argent each charged on the shoulder with a heart sable.
Elspet Byndelase. Badge. (Fieldless) A fer-a-loup per pale gules and sable.
Fulk the Bald. Name and device. Bendy gules and Or, three frogs sable.
Fylan MacFergus of Sligo. Badge. Quarterly argent and vert, in bend a greyhound passant contourny and a greyhound passant sable.
Geneviève de Beauvoir. Name and device. Argent, a domestic cat statant guardant sable within a bordure gules semy of cinquefoils Or.
Geoffrey Athos von Ulm. Device (see RETURNS for badge). Gules, a dolphin haurient between flaunches argent.
James of Ponte Alto. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Azure, a fret argent between in pale two mullets Or.

Submitted under the name Jörgen Von Unruh.

Jenet Froste. Name (see RETURNS for device).
Jumanah bint Nur al-Zarqa'. Name and device. Per bend Or and vert, a peacock in his pride argent.

Submitted as Alma Jumanah Bint Noor Al-Zarqa', the submitter requested authenticity for 15th C Arabic and allowed any changes.

This name has a number of issues. The submitted name had the form [given name] [given name] bint [given name] [byname]. Two given names in an Arabic name has long been cause for return in the past:

... none of the Arabic-speaking peoples seems to have used double given names, and this practice has been grounds for return in the past (Nasr Hasan ibn Muhammad Abdullaziz, Calontir, 11/93 LoAR). (Talan Gwynek, LoAR October 1995 p. 17)

No evidence was found that Alma was used as a given name before 1600. In fact, no evidence was found that it is an Arabic name at all. As the submitter allows major changes, we have dropped this element in order to register this name.

Jumana or Jumanah was the name of a woman who was a contemporary of Muhammad. Names from this time were often used in medieval Arabic.

The patronymic particle Bint is not normally capitalized in names. We have made this change.

Noor or Nur, to use the transcription used in the rest of the name, was at best vanishingly rare in our period. However, Siren was able to present evidence sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt:

The name <Noor> or <Nur> 'light' is a modern name; in period, it was used in compound names including honorifics like <Nur al-Din>, Saladin's uncle, and names given to concubines, such as <Nur Jahan> 'light of the world' and <Nur Malal> 'light of the palace', names given to late period Mughul empresses. There are also suggestions that it may have been used as a name, as in the 11th century ruler of modern Ronda, in al-Andalus, <Abu Nur Hilal> (whose name can be found, for example at

Another example is found in 16th century Ethiopia: "In 1552 she married Emir Nur Ibn Mujadid, successor of Ahmed, seeing in him the best prospect of achieving her aim of avenging the death of Ahmed. Indeed in 1559 a battle was fought between Ibn Nur and Emperor Gelawdewos in Fatagar, at which the latter was killed and beheaded by the order of Del Wanbera according to some sources (Ibid, 78; Sweetman 1984, 29; Doresse 1967, 147)." (an article from a publication series by the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa Given the use of <Abu Nur> and <ibn Nur>, the structure <bint Nur> should be registerable, though I'm unsure as to whether <Nur> (as opposed to <Nur X> was used as a given name in period.

al-Jamal was able to document the byname al-Zarqa':

Al-Zarqa' (again, the "a" in "al-" is not normally capitalized) is documented in period in the name of Warwar al-Zarqa', "A poetess who was probably the slave girl of Ja'far ibn Sulayman during the early 'Abbasid period; she was also a popular singer." (Dodge, Fihrist of al-Nadim, vol. 2, p. 1131)

As no evidence was found that Jumanah or bint Nur were in use in the 15th C, though al-Zarqa' almost certainly was, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's desired time period.

Karl von Lindenheim. Device. Argent, a linden tree eradicated proper and in chief a rainbow banded gules, Or, vert, azure, and purpure clouded sable all within a bordure purpure.
Katerina Sina Samovicha. Name and device. Argent, a gillyflower slipped and leaved azure and on a chief purpure three feathers bendwise sinister argent.
Kevin of Thornbury. Badge (see RETURNS for household name). Per pale azure and argent, on an annulet four towers in cross counterchanged.
Konrad der Adler von Lübeck. Name and device. Per pale argent and sable, a double-headed eagle and in base an open book counterchanged.
Lachlann McQuhollastar. Name (see RETURNS for device).
Máel Brigte ingen huí Néill. Name and device. Argent goutty azure, a lynx rampant contourny gules and on a chief azure three compass stars argent.

Submitted as Máel Brigte inghean Néill, the submitter requested autheticity for "Irish (as early as possible)" and allowed any changes.

No identifiable examples have yet been found of Máel Brigte 'servant of [Saint] Bridget' used as a woman's name, rather than as a man's name. However, it is reasonable given other patterns of construction found in women's names. Máel Muire 'servant of Mary' and Máel Mide 'servant of [Saint] Ide' have both been found as women's names. In both of these cases, the object (Mary and Ide) are women. Additionally, Calybrid can be found as a woman's given name on the Isle of Man (Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "Manx Names in the Early 16th Century", As this is an Anglicized form of Caillech Brigte 'nun/veiled one [of Saint] Bridget', this lends additional support to the plausibility of Máel Brigte as a woman's given name in Ireland in period. Therefore, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt and are registering this given name as a feminine given name.

As the submitter requested authenticity for "Irish (as early as possible)", we have changed the byname to ingen huí Néill, which is an Old Irish (c. 700 to c. 900) or Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) form, in order to match the spelling of the submitted given name Máel Brigte.

Maeve of Spiaggia Levantina. Name and device. Argent, a talbot passant sable between flaunches purpure and a chief sable.
Magy Freyser. Device. Vert, on a bend cotised argent a dragonfly palewise purpure between two strawberries palewise proper.

This does not conflict with Genevieve Christianna Buchannon, Vert, on a bend cotised between two pairs of scissors argent, three fleurs-de-lys palewise purpure. There is one CD for removing the scissors, which are a secondary charge group. Under the new version of RfS X.4.j.ii, published in the cover letter to the December 2003 LoAR, there is a CD for changing the group of tertiary charges from three fleurs-de-lys to a dragonfly between two strawberries.

For armory that has no more than two types of charge directly on the field and has no overall charges, substantially changing the type of all of a group of charges placed entirely on an ordinary or other suitable charge is one clear difference. Only the new submission is required to meet these conditions in order to benefit from this clause. A charge is suitable for the purposes of this rule if (a) it is simple enough in outline to be voided, and (b) it is correctly drawn with an interior substantial enough to display easily recognizable charges.

Note that this was not clear of conflict under the previous version of RfS X.4.j.ii.b (the pertinent subclause of the previous RfS X.4.j.ii), which required that the group of charges on the ordinary must be identical in order to obtain difference for changing the type only of the group of charges. We note that, in the latter portion of period, it was not uncommon to find a group of three charges on a stripe ordinary (such as a bend or a chief) where the centermost charge is of a different type (and sometimes, of a different tincture) than the outermost charges.

Manus MacDay. Badge. (Fieldless) On an estoile gules a rose argent.
Margaret blomakinn Samsdottir. Name and device. Per bend sinister vert and sable, a tree blasted and eradicated and in chief three crescents argent.

Submitted as Margaret Blomakinn Samsdottir, we have lowercased the descriptive byname to use standard transliteration conventions for Old Norse. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.)

Marie Thérèse Normand. Device. Gules, on a bend sinister between a trefoil and a card-pique argent two hearts palewise alternating with two lozenges palewise gules.

It is not uncommon to find a group of three charges on a stripe ordinary such as a bend, where the centermost of the group is of a different type (and sometimes of a different tincture) than the outer two. This design, using four charges of two alternating types, appears to be one step from period practice (also known as "a weirdness") but is not so far from period practice to require return.

Marine Perle. Name.

Marine was documented from Louis-Fernand Flutre, Table des Noms Propres Avec Toutes Leurs Variantes Figurant dans les Romans du Moyen Age (s.n. Marine). However, the LoI did not provide the required summary of what this entry says about this name. As Siren notes, "Flutre is a listing of literary characters. We need to know something about the characters to know if it is a human character, and therefore possibly registerable." As this submission included photocopies of the relevant pages from Flutre, we were able to determine that at least one person referenced in this entry was a female saint, making the literary character in question likely to be human. As a result, the form Marine is registerable as a French feminine given names under the guidelines for the registerability of literary names.

We would also note that no translation was provided for the submitted documentation from Flutre. We would remind submission heralds that translations are required for submitted documentation that is not in English. For most submissions where the documentation is in French, this is not usually an issue, since the LoIs routinely quote the relevant entries and members of the College who read French are able to evaluate the information provided in the entry. Since this submission (1) was not properly summarized in the LoI and (2) no translation was provided for the submitted French documentation, most of this entry may not be used as support for this submission.

The submitter requested authenticity for "early 1500s France". As the only documentation for the given name was as a literary name and the only documentation provide for the byname was as a 13th C English byname, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's requested time and culture.

Mattheus Dupuy. Name and device. Per chevron gules and azure, a cross of Jerusalem argent and a label ermine.

The ermine label on this submission is drawn with one palewise ermine spot on each of the three points, and fesswise ermine spots on the bar from which the points depend. Please advise the submitter that the only ermine labels that our post-meeting research was able to discover appear to have a thinner horizontal bar (charged with no ermine spots), and longer points (each point charged with two or more palewise ermine spots - generally three ermine spots.) Please also advise the submitter that the points of the label should not be bunched so closely together in the center of the label.

Melisant Saint-Clair. Device. Sable, a chevron cotised argent between three oak leaves Or.

This does not conflict with Vagn Olafsson, Sable, a chevron argent cotised between three compass stars elongated to base Or. There is one CD for changing the tincture of one of the secondary charge groups (the cotises) and a second CD for changing the type of the other secondary charge group (from compass stars to oak leaves.) The cotises are a separate set of secondary charges by a number of precedents:

It is certainly possible to have more than one secondary charge group on the field. In the hypothetical arms Argent, a bend cotised between a mullet and a crescent all within a bordure gules, the primary charge group is the bend, the cotises are one secondary charge group, the mullet and crescent are, together, a second secondary charge group, and the bordure is a third secondary charge group (of the type often termed peripheral). (LoAR of October 2001)

[Argent, on a fess cotised embattled on the outer edges between three leopard's faces sable three crescents argent] This is clear of the flag of Meridies, Argent, on a fess sable, a crown of three points between two mullets argent, with one CD for the removal of the cotises and a second for the removal of the leopard's faces as they are two different charge groups (LoAR of March 2001)

The cotises are clearly a second group of secondary charges so that an additional point of difference can be obtained from adding them (LoAR of 27 November 1988, p.12)

Merewen Rolyns. Name.
Morvyth verch Morgan. Name.
Nancy of Atlantia. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Per bend vert and azure, a horseshoe and a broken snaffle bit chevronwise argent.

The blazon of the snaffle bit follows the blazon in the Pictorial Dictionary under "snaffle bit".

Submitted under the name Nem ingen Dochartaigh.

Nancy of Lochmere. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Vair, a hare sejant erect to sinister and a bordure Or.

Please advise the submitter to draw the bordure wider.

Summitted under the name Teofilia Karaszkiewicza.

Narfi Asgeirsson. Name.
Oddr ordspakr. Name and device. Gules, a tree blasted and eradicated argent and on a chief Or two ravens contourny sable.

Submitted as Oddr Ordspakr, we have lowercased the descriptive byname to use standard transliteration conventions for Old Norse. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.)

{O,}nundr {o,}lfúss Jóhansson. Name and device. Purpure, a maiden vested Or crined gules between three tankards Or.

Listed on the LoI as Onundr {O,}lfúss Jóhansson, the submission form listed this name as {O,}nundr {o,}lfúss Jóhansson, which matches the submitted documentation. We have made these corrections.

Piera da Ferrara. Device. Purpure, an eagle enflamed displayed head to sinister within a bordure wavy argent.
Rabah az-Zafir. Household name House of the Three Crescents.

Submitted as House of the Triple Crescent, no documentation was presented and none was found to support the use of words such as Double or Triple in English sign names in period, rather than simple numbers such as Two or Three. Lacking such evidence, House of the Triple Crescent is not registerable.

We have changed this household name to House of the Three Crescents, as allowed by the submitter, in order to register this name.

Reinhart Reinhold. Device. Azure, a sinister hand sustaining a mallet and in chief three open books argent.

Please advise the submitter to draw the hand a little larger.

Robert of Calais. Name.
Rumann mac Duib Sidhe. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Submitted as Rumhann MacDuibhsidhe, the submitter allowed minor changes.

Rumhann is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form. The corresponding Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name is Rumann. This is found as the name of men who lived in the 8th through 10th centuries. No evidence has been found that it was used as a masculine given name later than the 10th C. Lacking evidence that this name was used as a given name in Early Modern Gaelic, we have registered this name in the Middle Irish form Rumann in order to register this name.

The submitted byname MacDuibhsidhe was constructed based on information in Black (s.n. MacFee), which lists MacDhubhshith as the modern Gaelic form of this byname. It is important to note that during our period, even in late period bynames where the name refers to a family rather than a father's name, Mac is written as a separate word from the rest of the byname. Black (s.n. MacFee) also states that "The AFM. record Dubside (mod[ern] G[aelic] Dubhsidhe) as fer-leiginn or reader of Iona in 1164 [...]". In this case, Black seems to have misidentified his source. His notation of AFM indicates that this information came from "Annals of the kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters. Edited by John O'Donovan. Dublin, 1848-51. 7 v." (Black, p. lix). However, the rendering of O'Donovan's Annals of the Four Masters available at the CELT (Corpus of Electronic Texts) website shows that the entries for 1164 ( do not list any person by this name. However, the "The Annals of Ulster", also at the CELT site (, entry U1164.2, includes the text "in fer leiginn (.i., Dub Sidhe)", where Dub Sidhe is a man's given name.

Later examples of forms of this byname show -th- forms rather than -dh- forms. For example, the "Annals of Loch Cé A.D.1014-1590" (, entry LC1577.10, includes the name Ferdorcha mac Dhuibhsith. Therefore, we have changed this byname to mac Duib Sidhe, based on the example from the "Annals of Ulster", in order to retain the -sidh spelling which the submitter used consistently throughout his submission form.

Séamus Ó Maoil Riain. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Submitted as Séamus O'MaoLiriain, the submitter requested authenticity for "1560's Ireland/Scotland (lowlands)" and allowed any changes.

The submitted byname combines the Anglicized Irish O' in an otherwise Gaelic byname. As such, it violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. Additionally, the submitted documentation supported Ó Maoilriain as a modern Gaelic form of this name, rather than O' MaoLiriain. The Annals of the Four Masters were written in 1632-1636 and, for the most part, use spellings appropriate for 16th C Ireland. In the Annals of the Four Masters, vol. 5, (, entry M1585.8 includes the name Conchobhar na Moinge, mac Uilliam Chaoích, mic Diarmata Uí Mhaoil Riain tigherna Uaitne Uí Mhaoil Riain (the underlined e represents the "long e" character in Gaelic, which is sometimes rendered as ea and sometimes as e in Roman characters, depending upon the word). Based on this example, we have changed the byname to Ó Maoil Riain in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity.

Serena de la Mar. Name.

Good name!

Susanna Schweißguth. Name.

Submitted as Susanna von Schweißguth, the submitter allowed minor changes.

The only documentation provided for von Schweißguth on the LoI was the statement, "Schweißguth is formed from the Schweissgut family, dated to 1427 according to the Wappenbook." This statement is a woefully inadequate summarization of the submitted documentation. It is also misleading. As noted by Clarion:

Unfortunately Wappenbuch is a generic term meaning "roll of arms." It is unclear what book actually contains the citation (although it appears to not be Siebmacher).

Instead of being from a wappenbuch, the submitted documentation was from a different source altogether. The submission form stated "Schweißguth = location in Austria; Family coat of arms dated to 1525 in Tirol. (See attached)." The attached documentation was a copy of Andrew Madison Swicegood, Schweissguth Wappenbrief: Schweissguth Coat of Arms (1994). It is an analysis of information in an attempt to determine which of several different coats of arms are the correct arms for this family. It is important to note that the focus of this article is the arms, not the name of this family. All of the information regarding the family name is third-hand, at best. The included Wappenbriefe (letters) are all transcriptions, not originals or photocopies, and are in German (for which no translations were provided). While period dates are noted next to some names, the names seem to be standardized or modernized.

As a result of the language issues with this documentation, and the inadequate summarization provided to the College, this documentation is not sufficient to support the submitted name. Various members of the College researched this name to aid the submitter. Nebuly described issues with the submitted form von Schweißguth:

Also, while the LoI is correct in saying that von is German for "of" in names, it is only used to mean "from the place named...". In other words, we need to know that there is a place named Schweißguth for this name to be correctly constructed. No supporting evidence for a place with that name was presented. In fact, the name Schweißguth was not properly documented, since no source for the information was provided. It is dated to 1427 in whatever roll of arms (Wappenbuch) the submitter or Atlantian College used, but we are not told which one that was. The only citation I have for Schweißgut(h) is dated to 1700 in Brechenmacher (q.v.), without the preposition. Since the name Schweißguth means either "good blood" or "goods gained through sweat/blood", it is unlikely that this is anything other than a nickname.

The College was unable to find support for a period location named Schweißguth. Lacking such documentation, the submitted form von Schweißguth is not registerable. Therefore, we have dropped von from the byname in order to register this name.

Talento Rana. Device. Quarterly vert and argent all fretty counterchanged, a frog sejant purpure.
Táriq ibn Khalil. Name.
Ysolt de la Mere. Device. Per chevron counter-ermine and sable, on a chevron gules fimbriated three fleurs-de-lis Or.


Adelicia of Caithness. Device. Argent ermined vert, a beaver sejant erect proper maintaining a threaded needle sable.

Based on period heraldry, naturalism, and the Pictorial Dictionary, beavers proper are brown by default.

The needle was blazoned as a sustained charge on the LoI but it is really a maintained charge. The needle's length is less than either the beaver's height or width, and of course the very thin needle has much less visual weight than a beaver. The needle is thus not large enough to be a co-primary charge with the beaver.

Ænwulf of Gyldenholt. Name and device. Per fess sable and gules, a wolf's head couped contourny and a mortar and pestle argent.
Aldgytha of Ashwood. Release of device. Purpure, a unicorn rampant argent, armed and crined Or, in base a thunderbolt argent, a bordure counter-compony Or and sable.

This submission releases one of her two registered devices, which should have been released when the current device was registered in March 1998.

al-Junaid ibn al-Razi. Name.

Listed on the LoI as Ruzbihan al-Junayd  al-Razi, this name was submitted as Junaid Ruzbihan ar-Razi. In both forms, this name combined two elements used as given names with a single byname. As such, lacking evidence that two given names were used in either Persian or Arabic names in period, this name was not registerable.

al-Jamal provided commentary regarding registerable forms of this name:

Ruzbihan seems fine (well, as a Persian name), documented in the cyberegypt site noted in the LoI as Ruzbihan ibn Hajji Na'im al-Din Katib Mudhahhib, i.e., Ruzbihan the illuminator, son of Na'im al-Din the scribe (literally, Ruzbihan the son of the pilgrim Na'im al-Din the scribe, the illuminator).

Al-Junayd (which could also [b]e transliterated al-Junaid) is a laqab-style name element used as an ism, a given name. It is documented in Dodge, the Fihrist of al-Nadim, vol. 2, pp. 1025-1026, in the names of Ibn al-Junayd; al-Junayd ibn 'Abd al-Rahman; and in three other examples. As such, then the name as submitted in the LoI effectively uses two given names in a row, something that was not done in period Arabic names. "Both 'Inan and Nihlah are Arabic feminine given names, but there is no evidence that Arabic names were formed of two given names."(Elsbeth Anne Roth, LoAR February 2000, p. 16)

Al-Razi is documented in the names of a number of individuals in Dodge: Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Razi; 'Ali al-Razi; Abu Sa'id Sahl ibn Ziyad al-Adami al-Razi; Abu Yusuf Ya'qub ibn Muhammad al-Razi.

The only real problem I see with the name is the construction. I can make the following recommendations:

Restore the "i" to Junaid; as I noted above, the transliteration with an "i" should be as acceptable as that with a "y".

The registrable form that would come closest to what he originally submitted would be al-Junaid ibn Ruzbihan al-Razi.

The registrable form that would come closest to what was submitted in the LoI would be Ruzbihan ibn al-Junaid al-Razi.

The registrable form that would come closest to what the LoI believes (without confirming) would be acceptable if an element had to be dropped would be al-Junaid ibn al-Razi.

All that said, if the meaning "the warrior" is what he cares most about (as stated in the LoI), al-Junaid does not meet that requirement. The "army" of that name is not a literal one, but rather a spiritual. Still, it's what he submitted, and it's registrable in any of the forms I recommend above.

Crescent forwarded al-Jamal's commentary to the submitter, who replied that his preferred choice of these options was al-Junaid ibn al-Razi. We have made this change.

Angelique C{oe}ur de Vere. Name.

Listed on the LoI as Angelique Coeurdeverre, this name was submitted as Angelique du Coeur Verre and changed at Kingdom to match the construction found in the byname C{oe}urdacier 'heart of steel' which is found undated in Dauzat (p. 139). The submission form indicated that the meaning 'Angelique of the Heart of Glass' was most important to her.

Morlet's Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de famille (p. 230 s.n. C{oe}ur) lists C{oe}urdacier, but gives no date for this name. The College found few period C{oe}ur- style bynames dated to period. Hercule Geraud, Paris sous Philippe-le-Bel: d'aprés des documents originaux et notamment d'aprés un manuscript contenant Le Rôle de la taille imposée sur les habitants de Paris en 1292 (p. 72, col. 2) lists Jehan Cuer-de-Roy. Colm Dubh's article "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" ( lists the name Hunout le fuiz Cuer-de-Lion. In this construction, the element Cuer-de-Lion would be his father's byname. Therefore, we have support for Cuer-de-Roy 'heart of [the] king' and Cuer-de-Lion 'heart of [the] lion' (more commonly translated into modern English as Lionheart).

No evidence was found by the College of the cited C{oe}urdacier 'heart of iron' as a period byname. However, even were such evidence found, it would not support a byname such as C{oe}urdeverre 'heart of glass' without evidence of a larger pattern of bynames formed as C{oe}urde- + [a material]. Bynames relating to battle, armoring, and smithwork appeared in a number of languages. The cited C{oe}urdacier could easily be one of these. Such bynames often did not have parallels for other industries.

Lacking evidence of a definitive pattern of C{oe}urde- + [a material] style bynames in French in period, a byname meaning 'heart of glass' is not supportable and is not registerable.

Evidence was found of C{oe}ur as a byname on its own in period. Additionally, Dauzat & Rostaing (p. 693 s.n. Vaire-sous-Corbie, subheader V.-St-Denis) lists a location modernly known as Vaire-St-Denis and dates de Vere to 1204 as a reference to this location. Geraud (p. 142, col. 1) lists an example of a locative byname of this type in the listing for Jehan de Ver, le péletier.

Based on this information, Angelique C{oe}ur de Vere is a registerable form of this name, though it would mean that Angelique C{oe}ur was a woman from Vere. We have made this change in order to register this name.

Bryan Gard Yale. Name and device. Azure, in pale a castle argent and a yale rampant to sinister Or.

Submitted as Bryan Gard of Yale, Yale was documented as an undated English placename. However, the College was unable to find evidence of a place that was known by the name Yale prior to 1600. Lacking such evidence, the byname of Yale is not registerable.

Reaney & Wilson (p. 507 s.n. Yale) dates Madog Yale to 1391. Therefore, we have dropped of in order to register this name using the form shown by Reaney & Wilson.

Carlin of Eastwood. Device. Sable mullety, on a bend Or three Greek lamps palewise sable all within a bordure Or.
Ceara ingen Chonaill. Badge. Vert, a compass rose within a bordure argent.
Ciar ingen Dáire. Badge. Gules, an oak leaf bendwise argent.
Ciar ingen Dáire. Badge. Sable, an oak leaf bendwise argent.
Edward Senestre. Device. Sable, on a pale vert fimbriated in chief a boar statant to sinister argent.
Einarr Tryggvason. Name.
Eleyn Scrivener. Device. Azure, on a bend sinister between two cinquefoils Or a quill pen gules.
Fatimah al-Zarqa' al-Rakkasah. Device. Azure, on a fess between a sheathed scimitar fesswise and a mazer argent three cushions lozengewise vert.
Fedelm Dub. Name.
Galen Sewell. Name and device. Azure, a griffin contourny and in chief two mullets of eight points all between flaunches argent.
Gaukr mjöksiglandi. Name.
Giovanna Luigia di Milano. Badge. (Fieldless) A dragon per bend purpure and gules.
Giovanna Luigia di Milano. Badge. Per bend purpure and gules.
Griffin Gard Yale. Name.

Submitted as Griffin Gard of Yale, Yale was documented as an undated English placename. However, the College was unable to find evidence of a place that was known by the name Yale prior to 1600. Lacking such evidence, the byname of Yale is not registerable.

Reaney & Wilson (p. 507 s.n. Yale) dates Madog Yale to 1391. Therefore, we have dropped of in order to register this name using the form shown by Reaney & Wilson.

Helgi hrafnfæðir. Device change. Sable, on a fess gules fimbriated between four bars humetty a roundel between two ravens respectant Or.

The submitter's previous device, Argent, a quill pen and a sword in saltire gules, on a chief embattled sable a compass-star Or, is released.

John Metzger. Name.
Levana Nicolette de Lyon. Name and device. Quarterly gules semy of cinquefoils argent and sable, a winged lion sejant contourny Or.

Note: Levana is her legal given name.

Marcellus Padovanus. Name.

Submitted as Marcellus Padovano, the submitter requested authenticity for Renaissance Italian and allowed all changes. The submitter indicated that the sound "Marcellus" is most important to him.

As submitted, this name combines a Latin form of the given name with an Italian form of the byname. Typically, if a given name was written in Latin rather than in Italian, the byname would also be written in Latin. A man with this name would have had his name written in the fully Latin form Marcellus Padovanus, if the document in which his name was recorded was in Latin. Similarly, he would be recorded using the fully Italian form Marcello Padovano in an Italian language document. As the fully Latin form preserves the sound of Marcellus, we have changed this name to the Latin form Marcellus Padovanus in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity.

Marisse vanden Berghe. Device. Per bend sable and barry wavy argent and azure, a pegasus salient argent.

The submitter has permission to conflict with a badge of Arianwen of Urquart, Vert, a horned pegasus salient argent, armed and unguled purpure.

Matheus le Vaus. Name.

Good name!

Mealla Caimbeul. Device. Per chevron purpure and gules, a chevron and in base the astrological symbol of Venus argent.
Megwynne Seonaid of Loch Lomand. Device change (see RETURNS for name change). Azure, a natural seahorse and in chief three escallops inverted argent.

The submitter's previous device, Vert, a sprig of heather within a bordure wavy argent, is released.

Submitted under the name Rannveig sundafyllir.

Miriel Gard Yale. Name.

Submitted as Miriel Gard of Yale, Yale was documented as an undated English placename. However, the College was unable to find evidence of a place that was known by the name Yale prior to 1600. Lacking such evidence, the byname of Yale is not registerable.

Reaney & Wilson (p. 507 s.n. Yale) dates Madog Yale to 1391. Therefore, we have dropped of in order to register this name using the form shown by Reaney & Wilson.

Murchadh Garrioch. Name and device. Per saltire azure and vert, in pale a Celtic cross and a ship reversed Or sailed argent.

The submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 14th C "Scots-Gaelic" and allowed minor changes. This name combines a Gaelic given name with a placename documented to 1540 in Scots (a language closely related to English). In period, a man named Murchadh from Garrioch would have had his name written completely in Scots or completely in Gaelic depending upon the language of the document in which his name was recorded. At this time, no evidence has been found of placenames used in Gaelic names in Scotland except as part of chiefly titles, though some examples have been found of locative bynames used in Irish Gaelic in period. As the submitter only allowed minor changes, we were unable to change this name to a completely Scots form in order to meet his request for authenticity.

Robert Wright. Device. Per chevron Or and azure, two trees and a dragon passant counterchanged and a chief dovetailed azure.
Siobhan ingen in Chamsroin. Name change from Siobhán inghean an Chamsroin.

Listed on the LoI as Siobhan ingen  Chamsroin, this name was submitted as Siobhan ingen Camsroin. The byname was corrected at Kingdom to add the missing lenition to the byname as required by Gaelic grammar. Since Camsroin is a descriptive term meaning 'crooked-nose' rather than a masculine given name, it would appear in a woman's byname in the form ingen in Chamsroin 'daughter [of] the crooked-nose [man]' rather than ingen Chamsroin 'daughter [of] crooked-nose [man]'. The byname ingen in Chamsroin is a fully Middle Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this byname. The previously registered form inghean an Chamsroin is a fully Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this byname. We have added the article in 'the' to this byname in order to make this byname grammatically correct for Middle Gaelic in order to register this name.

Her previous name, Siobhán inghean an Chamsroin, is released.

Svarðkell bíldr. Name and device. Per pale sable and vert, two battle-axes in saltire and in base a double-horned anvil argent.

Submitted as Svarðkell inn bíldr, no evidence was found to support adding inn 'the' to the documented byname bíldr 'ax, ax-blade'. Gunnvör silfrahár provided commentary regarding this type of byname:

For the by-name <inn bíldr>, I think the <inn> should be dropped. Reviewing all the by-names listed in Geirr Bassi, those with <inn> all appear to be adjectives ("the wise", "the fat", etc.) whereas weapon names such as <geirr>, "spear", appear by themselves. <Bíldr> is defined as "axe; an instrument for bleeding, blood-letter", with the second meaning being demonstrated in the kenning <bíldr skæru> ("blood-letter of battle", a sword), and as a proper noun appears as one of the names of Óðinn as well as a human personal name.

Landnámabók has two examples of this by-name

ch. 87: <Sigmundr kleykir son Önundar bílds> (Sigmundr kleykir, son of Önundr bíldr)

ch. 100: <Þórgrímr bíldr> (the brother of Önundr bíldr)

Lacking evidence that inn would be added to a byname of this type, we changed the submitted byname to the documented form bíldr in order to register this name.

Tristan Wreccesham. Name.

Submitted as Tristan Wrexham, the submitted spelling of the placename was undated. The submitter provided a variety of dated forms, but none justified the modern spelling Wrexham as a plausible period form. Therefore, we have changed the placename to the dated form that most closely matches the submitted spelling.

Valeria Sergi. Name.
Ysabeau Anais Roussot du Lioncourt. Household name Chateau Flammel.


Angel de Saint Germain. Name and device. Per bend sinister azure and sable, a dragon rampant and in dexter chief a decrescent argent.
Rakonczay Gergely. Name.
Theophrastus da Farfa. Name (see RETURNS for device).


Alistair Kirk. Device change. Quarterly argent ermined azure and Or, in bend sinister two compass stars all within a bordure azure.

This was originally pended from the August 2003 LoAR due to incorrect tinctures. It was on Ealdormere's LoI of April 20, 2003.

The submitter's previous device, Quarterly ermine and Or, a raven volant sable between in bend sinister two compass stars, all within a bordure azure, is retained as a badge.


Fiora Valori. Name and device. Per chevron inverted argent and gules, a boot bendwise sinister gules.
Pierre Vorman de Saint Germain. Device. Quarterly argent and azure, on a bend sable between two double-headed eagles seven Maltese crosses palewise Or.

This was originally pended from the August 2003 LoAR due to a missing tincture. It was originally on Meridies's LoI of April 30, 2003.

Valentine Blake. Badge. (Fieldless) An anchor sable.

Nice badge!


Anastasia Antiochitissa. Name.

The submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 13th C Byzantine. While the LoI presented evidence for Anastasia as a Byzantine name in the 6th to 7th C, the College was unable to find evidence that Anastasia was used in the 12th to 13th C in the Byzantine empire, though this may be due to lack of easily available records from that time and culture. As a result, we were unable to confirm that this name is authentic for the submitter's desired time period.

Brighid Chaomhanach. Name (see RETURNS for device).
Heregyð Ketilsdóttir. Name.
Juliana Rose. Name.
Shattered Oak, Shire of. Device. Per bend sinister vert and sable, a bend sinister dancetty between three oak leaves conjoined in pall stems inwards and a laurel wreath argent.


Adam Stedefast. Device. Per chevron azure and sable, a phoenix Or rising from flames proper issuant from the line of division and a rose argent.
Brighid Óg inghean Néill. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Submitted as Brighid Óg inghean Neill, accents were sometimes left out of period Irish Gaelic documents. Therefore, as with Norse names, the accents should be used or omitted consistently throughout the name. As the submitted form included the accent in Óg, we have added the accent to Néill.

Gweneth of al-Barran. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Argent, three ladybugs gules marked sable within an orle of ivy vert.

Submitted under the name Gweneth Sastre.

Wolfgang Grothe de Verron. Name and device. Sable, a mullet of eight points between two scarpes Or.

Submitted as Wolfgang Grothe zu Verron, Verron was documented by the submitter and by the College only as a French place name. As such, the phrase zu Verron combines the German zu with a French place name and, so, violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. We have changed this byname to the fully French form de Verron in order to register this name.


Alberta. Correction to important non-SCA armory. A landscape (in pale sky azure, snow-capped mountains argent, hills vert, prairie proper, and a wheat field proper) and on a chief argent a cross gules.

The Middle Kingdom LoI of August 29, 1997 (redated to September 2 due to postmark), proposed protection of the arms of the Canadian provinces and other items as important non-SCA armory. However, the arms of the province of Alberta were incorrectly listed as being identical to the arms of the province of Saskatchewan. The January 1998 LoAR protected the arms of Alberta (incorrectly) and Saskatchewan (correctly) as Vert, three garbs in fess and on a chief Or a lion passant guardant gules. (These items were listed under the "Society for Creative Anachronism" sections on the LoAR.) This action is intended to rectify this error.

This armory posed some difficult questions regarding blazon:

We are fortunate to have benefited by the efficiency and kindness of the Canadian Heraldic Authority. The Chief Herald of Canada, Robert D. Watt, provided the following information:

The most definitive information we have here is found on page 209 of Conrad Swan's, (now Sir Conrad Swan) landmark study entitled 'Canada: Symbols of Sovereignty' (University of Toronto Press, 1977). In the chapter on Alberta, Sir Conrad notes that the arms were assigned by Royal Warrant on 30 May 1907 and were blazoned as follows: 'Azure, in front of a range of snowy mountains proper a range of hills Vert, in base a wheat field surmounted by a prairie both also proper, on a chief Argent a St. George's cross.' The reference he gives is College of Arms 175.127. As he was York Herald at the time of writing and had full access to the records of the College, I believe it is fair to assume that this blazon can be considered absolutely accurate.

The real-world official blazon of the province of Alberta is not clearly comprehensible from the perspective of SCA blazon. It uses the term surmounted in a different way than we do. It also assumes that the reader is aware that a St. George's cross is, by definition, a cross (throughout) gules. We have elected to reblazon the armory for the SCA, as we generally do with important real-world armory when it is necessary. We have left in the ambiguous proper tinctures for the wheat field and the prairie, as this ambiguity seems to be part of the definition of the armory. By blazoning this armory, exclusive of the chief, as a landscape, we hope to make it clear for future researchers that this armory is distinct from most heraldic treatments (aside from issues of purely visual conflict). The landscape is not, for example, equivalent to a variant of a barry field, or some combination of bars, but it is an excellent example of an overly pictorial design per RfS VIII.4.a, that could not be registered to a new SCA submitter.

Society for Creative Anachronism. Release of badge for Privy Clerk to Morsulus Herald. (Tinctureless) A secretary-bird sejant regardant. [Sagittarius sepentarius].


Danaë FitzRoberts. Badge. Azure, a castle issuant from base argent within a bordure argent mullety of eight points vert.
Dregel Alewulf. Badge. Quarterly sable and gules, a wolf's head erased contourny argent.
Effric Neyn Ken{gh}ocht Mcherrald. Alternate name Effe Men{gh}eis.

Submitted as Effric Neyn Ken3ocht Mcherrald, we have replaced the 3 with {gh} as the representation for the yogh character per the May 2001 LoAR:

The main question in this submission was how to represent the letter yogh. For most purposes within the College, Da'ud notation is likely to be used; in that notation, {gh} is the appropriate choice. [Effric Neyn Ken{gh}ocht Mcherrald, 05/2001 LoAR, A-West]

Effric Neyn Ken{gh}ocht Mcherrald. Device. Ermine, a cross formy and a chief gules.

The device works well with the new alternate name! In Scotland, it was relatively common for a new armigerous family to design armory which resembled - but was not cadenced from - armory belonging to an existing armigerous family with the same surname. (In fact, current Scots armorial practice requires that a newly armigerous family contain an appropriate armorial reference to an existing armigerous family of the same surname, even if no blood relationship is present). This device is quite appropriate for a 16th C newly armigerous family surnamed "Menzies" (or one of its many period spelling variants.)

Elsa Saxenkammer. Name and device. Purpure, on a pale doubly endorsed argent three ducks naiant purpure.
Marguerite du Royon and Brian FitzWilliam of Glastonbury. Joint badge. (Fieldless) On a tower azure a fleur-de-lys Or.

- Explicit littera accipendorum -





Adelaide de Bourbon. Badge. (Fieldless) A panther's head argent incensed gules jessant-de-lis vert.

The panther's head was blazoned, both on the submission form and on the Letter of Intent, as sable, but it is a medium pencil grey, somewhat closer to argent than to sable. Because the charge is clearly not sable, but equally clearly does not appear to be intended to be argent, it is being returned for clarification of the submitter's intent.

Alden Drake. Badge. (Fieldless) A triskelion of dragon's heads argent.

Conflict with Evja r{o,}skva, Per pale sable and gules, a triskelion of dragon's heads argent. There is only one CD for fieldlessness.

Faílenn de la Maurienne. Name.

As submitted, this name combined a 7th C Gaelic feminine given name with a byname using a modern French placename.

Combining Gaelic and French in the same name is registerable, though it is a weirdness. The temporal disparity between these name elements is greater than 300 years and may be more than 1000 years. Names with a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years but less than 1000 years carry a weirdness. Names having a temporal disparity of greater than 1000 years have long been unregisterable. In either case, the name had at least two weirdnesses and, so, was unregisterable.

Maurienne is the modern French name for this location. The College was unable to find an example of this spelling dated to period, though it may (or may not) be reasonable as a late period form. The original Old French version of La Chanson de Roland, written circa 1090, mentions this valley in section CLXXII: "vals de Moriane" ( Based on this information, de Moriane would be a plausible form of this byname for the late 11th C. Dauzat & Rostaing (p. 480 s.n. Morienval) date the Latin form Mauriniane vallis to circa 570. Based on this example, a locative byname form appropriate for circa 570 would be de Maurinianum.

Combining the byname form de Maurinianum with the submitted given name would remove the weirdness for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years, but it would raise a different issue.

In the 6th C, people in the area that is now France were speaking Frankish and a kind of vulgar Latin that evolved to become Old French. Old French appeared in the 9th C and evolved for some time after that. The ruling allowing names combining Gaelic and French to be registered, but carry a weirdness, was based on the significant contact between Anglo-Normans who settled in Ireland beginning in the late 12th C. The Normans who invaded England in the 11th C spoke a form of Old French. Their descendants who settled in Ireland also spoke some form of this language. Therefore, we have support for significant contact between speakers of Gaelic and Old French (or a variant thereof). However, no evidence was found of significant contact between speakers of Gaelic and either Frankish or the vulgar Latin precursor of Old French. Lacking such evidence, a name combining these languages is not registerable.

As we were unable to find a way to combine these name elements in a registerable manner, we must return this name.

Redulf Köl. Device. Gules, a wolf triply queued rampant contourny and a bordure argent.

There was substantial mismatch between the mini-emblazon and the full-sized emblazon. On the full-sized emblazon, the wolf's tails are conjoined so closely to the wolf that they interfere with the identifiability of the wolf by obscuring the charge's outline. The outline of the entire charge is almost as close to that of an eight-armed estoile as it is to a triply queued wolf. This lack of identifiability is reason for return in itself. The mini-emblazon on the Letter of Intent did not have this identifiability problem.

Please remember that a mismatch between the full-sized emblazon and the mini-emblazon may be reason for return. The mismatch in this submission is large enough to require return for this reason alone. The Administrative Handbook section V.B.2.e requires that "An accurate representation of each piece of submitted armory shall be included on the letter of intent."




Nicolette d'Avranges. Device reblazon. Per bend vert and argent, two fleurs-de-lys and a bordure counterchanged.

This device has already been reblazoned, in the errata letter issued with the December 2003 LoAR (dated March 17, 2004). The reblazon in that errata letter matches this blazon.


Áedán uí Néill. Device. Per pale vert and gules, a stag rampant argent.

Conflict with Earl of Morris, Lozengy sable and gules, a hart rampant argent. There is only one CD for changing the field.

More than commenter cited the conflict above as being "important real-world armory" for "the Earl of Morris." However, the Armorial and Ordinary, and the Earl of Morris submission form, are clear that this registration, originally from 1973 albeit reblazoned later, is not real-world armory. It is just for some SCA guy named [Sir] Earl. Please be precise in your citations.

This also conflicts with a badge of Aldwyn ap Llewelyn, Purpure, a stag salient argent. There is one CD for changing the field, but no difference between rampant and salient.

Alexandre of Kapellenberg. Device. Quarterly vert and sable, a dragonfly argent.

Conflict with Mairghread Maire Draigdaimhalachd, Per saltire azure and vert, a dragonfly tergiant displayed argent, orbed Or. There is one CD for changing the field but these two dragonflies are in virtually identical postures.

Bj{o,}rn Samsson. Device. Per bend sable and vert, a drakkar and in chief three mullets argent.

The field was originally blazoned as per bend vert and sable, but was really per bend sable and vert. This would ordinarily be a cause for pending the device for further research, except that under either blazon, this submission is in conflict with Eoin Maclullich, Azure, a drakkar and in chief three mullets of four points argent. There is only one CD for changing the field.

Cuilén Ó Cinnéide. Device. Per bend sinister argent and gules masoned argent.

Conflict with Sabine Berard, Per bend sinister azure and argent. There is one CD for changing the tincture of the field, but not sufficient difference. As noted in an analogous ruling in the LoAR of January 2001, "The only possible rule that could make these clear is RfS X.4.a.ii.b, Complete Change of Tincture (part of the Field-Primary Armory rules); however that rule states 'If the fields of two pieces of field-primary armory have no tinctures in common, they are considered completely different and do not conflict, irrespective of any other similarities between them.' While each portion of the field has changed tincture, one cannot say that they do not have a tincture in common." In this comparison, the tincture in common is argent (the upper tincture in this submission, and the lower tincture in Sabine's submission.)

Note that the masoning is considered part of the field tincture (like the ermine spots on an ermine field).

Diarmait Mainistrech of Iona. Device. Sable, a cogwheel within an annulet embattled on the inner edge argent.

This submission is in violation of RfS VII.7.a for the reasons cited by al-Jamal: "The 'cog' (more properly, cogwheel) is not identifiable as such. The 'cogs' are so thin and elongated that it loses its identifiability as a cogwheel entirely, and looks more like something along the lines of a Norse sun cross with an odd number of arms (actually roundel with thin things out of it). RfS VII.7.a. requires that 'Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance.'"

In addition to the issue of violation of RfS VII.7.a, many commenters found this armory to be an obtrusively modern reference to a symbol found in a wide variety of materials associated with the Star Wars movies. So many commenters found this to be obtrusively modern that this submission violates RfS VIII.4.b, Modern Insignia, which states, "Overt allusions to modern insignia, trademarks, or common designs may not be registered." Here the concern is primarily about the overt allusion to modern insignia.

While not all of the commenters gave specific citations for the symbol that they found obtrusively modern, some did cite references. References cited by the commenters or by Wreath staff included:

Geoffrey Athos von Ulm. Badge. Gules, a dolphin urinant argent.

Conflict with the badge of the Kingdom of Caid for the Order of the Dolphin, Azure, a dolphin embowed uriant to sinister argent. There is one CD for changing the field. The only difference in posture between a dolphin urinant and a dolphin urinant to sinister is the way its head is facing, which is not worth difference by RfS X.4.h: "[A dolphin urinant contourny proper] "Conflict with... a dolphin urinant vert... There is... nothing for reversing the fish in this position" (LoAR of May 1992, p. 22).

Ichijou Jirou Toshiyasu. Device. Gules, a sheaf of arrows within an annulet argent.

Conflict with Aeddan Ivor, Gules, a sheaf of three arrows argent fletched vert marked sable, a chief embattled argent. There is one CD for changing the chief to the annulet under RfS X.4.e. However, there is no additional difference for changing the tincture of the arrows. The head and fletching of arrows are together considered half the tincture of the arrow (per the LoAR of January 1992, p. 6), but the fletching alone is not half the tincture of the arrow. Therefore, since less than half the tincture of the arrow has changed, there is no difference per RfS X.4.d. Note that Aeddan's fletching is indeed vert marked sable, the sable markings are not elsewhere on the arrow.

Jenet Froste. Device. Per bend azure and vert, a natural leopard rampant within a bordure dovetailed argent.

Conflict with Vanna Edwinsdochter Dawburn, Per bend sinister vert and gules, a lynx rampant within a bordure embattled argent. There is one CD for changing the field. There is no difference for changing the type of feline from a lynx to a natural leopard. There is no difference for changing the type of the bordure as there is "nothing for dovetailed vs. embattled" (LoAR of July 1999).

Jörgen Von Unruh. Name.

The submitter requested authenticity for "Germanic" 14th to 15th C and allowed no changes to his given name.

This name has two problems. The first is that Jörgen, which was cited from Gentry's English edition of Bahlow (s.n. Jörn), is not a given name. Instead it is a genitive form that effectively means 'George's'; hence Jörgensen 'George's son'. No evidence was found of Jörgen used in a given name position, rather than as part of a patronymic byname, in German in period. Lacking evidence that Jörgen was a form used as a given name in period, it is not registerable.

The second problem with this name is that documentation was only found for Unruh as a descriptive byname meaning 'troublemaker'. The LoI documented Von Unruh from the Gentry's English translation of Bahlow (p. 520 s.n. Unruh). However, that entry turns out to have a translation error. Nebuly explains:

The submitter has misinterpreted the documentation for the byname from Bahlow (s.n. Unruh). The complete entry appears as follows:

Unruh (LGer. Unrau [unrest]), also: von Unruh: 'troublemaker' (Nicclos Unru, Liegnitz 1390, Unrowe, Hildesheim 1368).

The misinterpretation is the result of incomplete translation into English by Gentry. The von at the end of the first line of the entry should have been translated to from, since it is used to indicate the etymology of the byname, and not as part of a byname construction.

The particle von is used in locative bynames that refer to specific placenames, for example von Köln meaning 'of Cologne'. Lacking evidence of Unruh as a German placename in period, the byname Von Unruh is not registerable.

A grammatically correct, and registerable, form of this name would be Jörg Unru or Jörg Unrowe. However, as the submitter allows no changes to his given name, we must return this submission.

His armory has been registered under the holding name James of Ponte Alto.

Katrin Bächlein. Device. Argent, an otter passant and on a chief sable a branch argent.

The animal is not clearly identifiable as an otter, or any other particular type of beast. This is a reason for return under RfS VII.7.a. In addition, the charge on the chief was blazoned on the LoI as an ash branch but it does not have the distinctive leaflets of the ash. We have reblazoned it as a generic branch.

Kevin of Thornbury. Household name Consortium Turrium.

No evidence was presented, nor could any be found that Consortium was a term used to refer to a group of people in period, or that Consortium Turrium follows a period naming pattern for an organized group of people in period. Lacking such evidence, this household name does not meet RfS III.2.b.iv, which states that "Household names must follow the patterns of period names of organized groups of people." Therefore, this household name cannot be registered.

In addition, the submitter may wish to know that the the submitted construction does not mean 'Consortium of the Tower' which he indicated was his desired meaning. The form that would have that meaning would be Consortium Turris. The submitted form means 'Consortium of the Towers'.

Lachlann McQuhollastar. Device. Argent, an increscent and a decrescent gules and a thistle proper.

Conflict with the important non-SCA flag of the Red Crescent, Argent, a decrescent gules. There is one CD for adding the other two co-primary charges (the increscent and the thistle.)

Leofwynne le glasyer. Name.

The Letter of Intent asserts that the spelling Leofwynne is found in Searle. However, multiple commenters were unable to locate this spelling. Searle (pp. 334 - 336 s.n. Leofwine, multiple headers) dates Leofwine to the 9th and 10th C as a masculine given name. Searle dates the feminine given names Leofwynn (p. 336 s.n. Leofwynn) to the 7th C and 997 and Leofwen (p. 334 s.n. Leofwen) to c. 1050. A single entry in Searle (p. 336 s.n. Leofwynn), includes the information local: Liofwynne mearc. The name Liofwynne is most likely a dative form in this construction. In an Old English name, names used in the given name position are in the nominative case. Lacking evidence of Liofwynne clearly used in the nominative case, or even other names using the spelling -wynne in the nominative case, neither Liofwynne nor Leofwynne is registerable as a given name. As the submission form specifically states "No changes to first name", we cannot change Leofwynne to a dated form in order to register this name.

Her armory has been registered under the holding name Christine of Caer Mear.

Nem ingen Dochartaigh. Name.

The submitter requested authenticity for 9th to 10th C Irish. The submitted byname ingen Dochartaigh combines the Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) ingen with the Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) Dochartaigh and, so, violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. A fully Middle Irish Gaelic form of this byname would be ingen Docartaig. A fully Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of this byname would be inghean Dochartaigh.

The submitter's name form has the "no minor changes" box checked (though the "no major changes" box is unchecked). A common problem with the current form is that it is not uncommon for submitters to interpret the major and minor changes boxes as a "pick one" setup, where checking the minor changes box also implies that major changes are not allowed. Therefore, in cases where the forms are marked in this manner, we interpret the changes allowed as "no changes".

Regardless, the changes necessary to modify the byname to a registerable form are minor changes, which the submitter does not allow.

Her armory has been registered under the holding name Nancy of Atlantia.

Otel Altunat. Device. Azure, a horse courant to sinister Or.

Conflict with the Kingdom of Artemisia, badge for the Order of the Cheval d'Or, A horse courant contourny Or. There is one CD for fieldlessness. This also conflicts with the Kingdom of the West, badge for the Equestrian Arts office, Azure, a horse passant Or. There is one CD for turning the horse to sinister.

Rumann mac Duib Sidhe. Device. Per bend sinister argent and azure, a bend sinister counterchanged between a hawk's head erased sable and an increscent argent.

The hawk's head is drawn with erasures that are much too small and numerous for period style. In this submission there are seven small "pinking-shear" type erasures that are roughly indented in shape. As noted in the Cover Letter to the November 2001 LoAR,

Erased necks were marked by prominent jags. By far the most common number of jags found in the sources, regardless of national origin, was three. However, as many as eight jags were found with some frequency by the end of period. It should be noted that the number of jags does not appear to be the critical factor, but rather the prominence of the jags. The jags generally appear to be approximately one-sixth to one-third of the height of the entire erased head, and the jags were consistently wavy like the rays of an estoile or a rayonny line of division (refs. 8, 9, 10 and 11). In no cases did the erasing appear to resemble an indented line, neither large scale nor in a smaller pinking-shear depiction.

We advise the submitter to refer to the Cover Letter of the November 2001 LoAR for more discussion of the correct way to draw either a couped or erased hawk's head.

Séamus Ó Maoil Riain. Device. Per bend sinister azure and vert, a fret Or.

Conflict with a badge for Morgaina Sarai la Foncée, Per saltire vert and azure, a fret throughout Or. There is only one CD for changing the field.

Sean O'Fogarty. Badge. (Fieldless) A yale rampant vert bezanty armed Or.

Conflict with Styrkárr Bjarnarson, Or, a yale rampant guardant vert bezanty armed gules. There is one CD for fieldlessness. There is no difference for changing the head posture of the yale, and no difference for changing the tincture of its horns.

Semeeah bint Qadir al-Aqsur. Name.

This name is being returned for various issues with this name. The submitter requested authenticity for 15th C Egypt.

Semeeah was documented from Da'ud ibn Auda's article "Arabic Women's Names" ( However, this article has been superceded by Da'ud's article "Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices" ( There are some names that appear in the "Arabic Women's Names" article that do not appear in the newer "Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices". Da'ud explained that these are names which he "was not able to find [...] again, and thus I cannot cite a source for them or vouch for their accuracy." As a result, we do not have evidence of Semeeah as an Arabic name during our period. Lacking such evidence, this name must be returned.

There is also an issue with the submitted element Qadir. Da'ud al-Jamal explains:

Qadir: was not documented in the LoI. As al-Qadir, the Omnipotent, is one of the 99 names of Allah, it is unlikely to be found as a given name in period, except in the form 'Abd al-Qadir, "servant of the Omnipotent".

Al-Aqsur: is not documented in the LoI, nor do I find in any of the usual sources, including such general - and modern - sources as Ahmed's A Dictionary of Muslim Names.

From this information, bint 'Abd al-Qadir is a reasonable byname. Lacking evidence supporting the element al-Aqsur as a period name element, it is not registerable.

Stronghold Santa Elena. Branch name.

This name conflicts with Saint Helena, the island on which Napoleon lived out his final years.

Adding an element to create a placename such as Santa Elena de Losa would clear the conflict. Spanish placenames derived from saint's names often have a second element, such as Santa Eufemia de Pozancos, Santa Eugenia de Codouilla, San Martin de Losa, and San Martin de Felines (all from the "Indice de Toponimos" in Diez Melcon).

Subetai Nasan. Device. Per pale gules and sable, a monster rampant breathing fire within an orle of lozenges Or.

The charge here was blazoned by the submitter and on the Letter of Intent as an Oriental dragon. It is not an Oriental dragon, which is a long sinuous monster. It is a quadrupedal monster which is otherwise difficult to describe. This monster does not clearly resemble any particular SCA-defined monster. Without an adequate description of this charge for use in SCA blazon, it may not be registered, per RfS VII.7.b (which states "Any element used in Society armory must be describable in standard heraldic terms so that a competent heraldic artist can reproduce the armory solely from the blazon"). Without proof that this charge is compatible with period armorial practice, it may not be registered per RfS VII.5 (which states "Monsters compatible with period armorial practice may be registered in armory").

Teofilia Karaszkiewicza. Name.

This name is being returned for lack of a given name as required by RfS III.2.a, "Personal Names", which states in part that "A personal name must contain a given name and at least one byname".

Teofilia was submitted as a given name as stated in the LoI:

Teofilia is dated to before 1607 by Zofia Teofilia Danilowicz, mother of Jan Sobieski III, b 1607 (<>)

This website is a genealogy website. Genealogy sources often standardize and/or modernize names. While this practice aids in presentation of a genealogist's research, it is not useful for our purposes. Nebuly provided significant commentary regarding the person mentioned in this webside, and regarding the name Teofilia in general:

Although it may be true that Zofia Teofilia Danilowicz appears as the mother of Jan III Sobieski on the cited web page, I doubt that this is a period form for her name, especially since it is grammatically incorrect for Polish. I have examined the web site and find that it is a purported genealogy of the Guli{n'}ski family, with information indiscriminately pulled from a wide array of sources. Spellings of names on the site are heavily modernized, and information is often unreliable. For example, Jan III Sobieksi's father, Jakub Sobieski, had four sons (Stone, p136), but the Guli{n'}ski site lists only three sons. We do not generally regard genealogical sources as sufficient for documentation, and given the mistakes and modernization of names, the site should be regarded with extreme suspicion.

It was unclear to me whether the cited individual had two given names and a patronym, or a single given name and compound patronym. That is, the name might mean "Zofia, daughter of Teofil Danilowicz." The element Teofilia would thus be the masculine given name Teofil in its genitive form. Some digging into the genealogy of Jan III revealed that his maternal grandfather was Stefan {Z.}ó{l/}kiewski (Stone p236). This at least rules out the possibility that Teofilia was a patronymic.

However, it still seemed unlikely that Teofilia was a second given name. Knab (s.n. Teofila) says that it was a "more popular name in the 17th century [than today]," but does not say when the name was introduced. I suspect that its use and popularity originated with Jan III's wife Zofia. Imitation of popular royalty and saints is a hallmark of Polish naming practice. However, double given names are extremely rare in period Polish and when they do occur in Slavic languages, one name is Christian and the other is a Slavic use name. Since both Zofia and Teofilia are Christian given names, this makes it doubly unlikely that we here have an example of a double given name.

I believe I have the answer as to the origin and meaning of Teofilia in the cited name. My clue came when I noticed that the wife of Jan III was Marie Casimira d'Arquien, a French-born woman who moved to Poland at a young age to serve as a lady-in-waiting to Queen Louise Marie, wife of King Jan Kazimierz (Stone, p162). Now since Jan III's wife Marie was French, there is zero possibility that the Polish name element Casimira came to her from her birth heritage. What I do know is that King Jan Kazimierz and his queen Louise Marie built a favorable political faction around themselves by marrying off the queen's "nieces" (highly favored ladies-in-waiting). It seems likely that Jan III's wife was called Casimira because of her status in the royal court, and public use of the name would have strengthened political ties to the royalty. That is, the only logical reason for the intrusion of Casimira into an otherwise French name is to show political allegiance in the nobility. My best guess is the name Zofia Teofilia Danilowicz exemplifies another such case of political allegiance to a noble named Teofil. This would make the name inappropriate as a feminine given name, though it could still be used as a nickname in a three element Polish name.

In addition, the birthdate information given for Zofia in the LoI is incorrect. She did not give birth to Jan III Sobieski in 1607, but rather she herself was born in that year. She married Jakub in 1627 and gave birth to the future Jan III in 1629. This means that even if Teofilia had been a second given name, it is quite firmly post-1600.

Based on this information, Teofilia is only documented as a second element in a feminine name, most likely as a byname of allegiance of the type described by Nebuly. Lacking clear evidence of Teofilia used as a feminine given name, it is not registerable in that position. As a result, the submitted name has no given name and is, therefore, not registerable.

At this time, we only have evidence of use of bynames of allegiance (such as Casimira in the name of Marie Casimira d'Arquien, b. 1641) from sometime in the mid to late 17th C. If evidence can be found that the use of bynames of allegiance were a practice in Poland during period, then Teofilia would be registerable as the second element in a three element feminine name. For example, if the submitter added a feminine given name then this name would be registerable as [feminine given name] Teofilia Karaszkiewicza.

Her armory has been registered under the holding name Nancy of Lochmere.

Theron Andronikos. Name and device. Gules, in pale a heron statant contourny atop a plant all within a bordure rayonny Or.

This name is being returned for lack of documentation. The only documentation provided for this name on the LoI was:

Theron was the name of a tyrant of Akragas, overthrown in 489/88 BCE (

Andronikos appears in the Oxford Classical Dictionary (ref Livius),. Also in Lempriere (1801).

Neither of these sources are included in the Administrative Handbook in Appendix H, "Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel". Therefore, photocopies were required to be included as part of this name submission. However, they were not provided. Lacking these photocopies, the information provided on the LoI may not be considered as documentation for this submission.

In the case of the website referenced for Theron, the link no longer functions. We would remind submission heralds that this situation is one reason why copies are required for articles that are not resident on

Metron Ariston was able to confirm some of the documentation:

Theron is also documented from the Oxford Classical Dictionary (Second Edition, s.v. Theron). You also need to specify that the citation for Andronicus (the Latinized form) is from the Second Edition of the OCD.

Orle found that J. R. Martindale, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire: A. D. 395-527, vol. 2 (p. 90 s.n. Andronicus) dates Flavius Andronicus to 439 A. D.

However, none of this information identifies whether Theron is a given name, a byname, or something else entirely. Further, none of it supports the submitted spelling Andronikos rather than Andronicus.

Additionally the issue of whether these elements combine in a documented construction pattern was not addressed. The normal structure of a Roman name is [praenomen] [nomen] [cognomen], as in Caius Iulius Caesar. In order to know what position Andronicus may be used for, its type (praenomen, nomen, or cognomen) must be identified. Then, combined with documentation that identifies what type of element Theron is, the combination of Theron and Andronicus may be evaluated to see if it follows a known naming pattern.

The LoI blazoned the bird in the device as a "(bird of some sort)". We have blazoned it as a heron because it closely resembles a heron. The submission form gives no guidance about the intended type of bird (although one might conjecture that "heron" might cant on on the submitter's given name).

The charge in base upon which the heron stands is not identifiable as any particular sort of plant. In fact there is some doubt whether this charge is meant to represent a plant. The charge in base was not blazoned in the Letter of Intent, and the form does not describe it either. This charge violates RfS VII.7.a, which states "Any charge, line of partition, or field treatment used in Society armory must be identifiable, in and of itself, without labels or excessive explanation."

The bordure also must be returned for redrawing. While it was blazoned on the Letter of Intent as rayonny, the repeats are drawn in a fashion that is not clearly either rayonny, indented, or wavy-crested. Each repeat is small, roughly triangular, and very slightly curved. Rayonny repeats should be longer, thinner and more markedly wavy, indented repeats should be triangular with straight sides, and wavy-crested is a line of division which significantly post-dates 1600 and thus is not acceptable for SCA use. In addition, the repeats are too small and numerous to be registered.

Valr Krigføsingglad. Name.

The submitter requested authenticity for 8th to 10th C West Norse. The only documentation provided for Krigføsingglad in the LoI was the statement:

Krigføringglad is and [sic] English-Norweigian translation of "warfare fond" according to Submitter wishes this meaning, but is flexible on the translation.

This site provides a translation to modern Norweigian. As such, it provides no evidence that the word Krigføringglad is plausible in any language in period. Additionally, it provides no evidence that this word, even if it were plausible in period, would have appeared as a person's byname. Lacking evidence that the word Krigføringglad is plausible as a byname in period, it is not registerable.

The College was able to find evidence of words using the root víg- 'battle' in Geir T. Zöega's A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic (, though these words are not documented as bynames and may or may not be plausible in that use. Geirr Bassi (p. 29) lists two descriptive bynames referring to 'battle': valfrekr 'val-fresh, greedy for battle-casualties' and vegandi 'battler, fighter'.


Bridget Lucia Mackenzie. Transfer of badge to Society for Creative Anachronism. Per pale purpure and argent, two swords in saltire and in chief two roundels counterchanged.

This badge was kindly offered to the Society for designating boffer and youth combat activities.

When armory is registered for an office or activity at the Society level, that armory becomes the default that must be used by all kingdoms. In this case, if this badge transfer had been accepted, the Society Marshal would be requiring all kingdoms to use this badge to represent boffer and youth combat, possibly replacing any such badge currently in use by each kingdom. The Society Marshal does not wish to define a Society-wide badge at this time, but he intends to encourage further discussion on this topic within the marshal community.

Rannveig sundafyllir. Name change from Megwynne Seonaid of Loch Lomand.

This name is being returned for issues with the byname sundafyllir. This byname was documented from Geirr Bassi (p. 28) as meaning 'sound-filler, able to fill a bay with fish by magic'.

Gunnvör silfrahárr provided further information regarding this byname:

[A]s far as I know only woman person ever bore this by-name, <Þuríðr sundafyllir>, as is explained in Landnámabók ch. 50 (

Þuríðr sundafyllir og Völu-Steinn son hennar fór af Hálogalandi til Íslands og nam Bolungarvík, og bjuggu í Vatnsnesi. Hún var því kölluð sundafyllir, að hún seiddi til þess í hallæri á Hálogalandi, að hvert sund var fullt af fiskum.

[Þuríðr sundafyllir and Völu-Steinn, her son, fared from Hálogaland to Iceland and took for themselves Bolungarvík and kept house at Vatnsness. For this was she called "sound-filler", that in a hard year in Hálogaland she brought it about by seiðr (witchcraft) that every sound was filled with fish.]

I tend to agree with the previous commenters about the name suggesting magical powers.

Therefore, the current evidence shows that the byname sundafyllir is both unique and a claim to magical powers. As such, it violates RfS VI.2 "Names Claiming Powers", which states in part:

Names containing elements that allude to powers that the submitter does not possess are considered presumptuous. Society names may not claim divine descent, superhuman abilities, or other powers that the submitter does not actually possess.


Theophrastus da Farfa. Device. Per bend sinister sable and vert, a sword inverted entwined by a snake argent.

Conflict with a badge of Gareth of Bloodwine Gorge, (Fieldless) A sword inverted entwined by a serpent argent. There is only one CD for fieldlessness.






Brighid Chaomhanach. Device. Per fess gules and azure, a trident bendwise sinister Or transfixing a closed scroll bendwise argent.

The trident is in a position intermediate between palewise and bendwise sinister, and cannot be clearly blazoned. It is thus in violation of RfS VII.7.b. Please note that if the trident were palewise, it would conflict with a badge of Eirikr inn kengr, (Fieldless) A trident Or, with one CD for fieldlessness but no difference for removing the (effectively "maintained") scroll.


Brighid Óg inghean Néill. Device. Azure, a chevron inverted argent between three roses Or barbed vert seeded of a heart gules charged with a cross sable.

The charged roses were originally blazoned as Luther roses. They represent a variantly tinctured version of an important non-SCA badge used by Martin Luther (and protected in the Armorial and Ordinary), (Fieldless) A rose argent seeded of a heart gules charged with a Latin cross sable. The Letter of Intent surmised that because the "Luther rose" design was known in period (as evidenced by the Martin Luther badge), this submission should not be considered in violation of RfS VIII.1.c.ii, Layer Limit, which would otherwise be violated for placing a charge (the cross) on another charge (the heart) which does not lie directly on the field (but lies wholly on the rose). They also surmised that this submission likewise should not be considered in violation of RfS VIII.2.b.ii, which would otherwise be violated for placing the color cross wholly on the color heart.

The College was not able to find any evidence that this symbol of Martin Luther's was found outside of uses by Martin Luther himself and eventually, by the Lutheran church.

RfS VIII.6, Documented Exceptions, describes the cases in which period armory may be used to justify a violation of the SCA Rules for Submission. This submission does not meet the criteria of RfS VIII.6.a, General Exceptions, which states, "In most cases the documentation for a proposed exceptional armorial design element should be drawn from several European heraldic jurisdictions." No documentation was provided, or found, showing that, in period, this Luther rose was used in several European heraldic jurisdictions.

This submission also does not meet the criteria of RfS VIII.6.b, Regional Style, which states,

Alternatively, a proposed exceptional armorial design element may be documented as characteristic of a specific regional armorial style...In such cases the submitted armory may be registered provided that all of the following conditions are met. (1) The submitter explicitly requests an exception to the other sections of Part VIII (Compatible Armorial Style) on the grounds that the submitted armory exemplifies a specific regional style. (2) Documentation is adduced to show that exceptional design element was not uncommon in the regional style in question. (3) Documentation is adduced to show that all elements of the submitted armory can be found in the regional style in question.

The submitter has not indicated a particular regional style exemplified by this armory, has not provided evidence that this design element was "not uncommon" in any regional style, and has not shown that "all elements of the submitted armory can be found" in any regional style. The College was also not able to shed light on these issues.

The College also was concerned that the Luther rose may be so closely associated with Martin Luther and the Lutheran Church that this submission might violate either RfS XI, presumption (claiming "status ... that the submitter does not possess"), or RfS IX.2, Offensive Religious Symbolism (for reason of excessive religious symbolism). We are declining to rule on these issues at this time as this submission has clear reasons for return under RfS VIII.1.c.ii and RfS VIII.2.b.ii. However, these are serious issues and should be addressed on resubmission, if the resubmission continues to use the Luther rose design.

Darius Tigres Jaxarticus. Name change from Darius of Jaxartes and device change. Per pale sable and argent, a pale counter-compony sable and argent fimbriated in sinister chief a bull's head cabossed gules, maintaining from the dexter horn a coronet sable.

This name has several issues. The byname Tigres is improperly constructed; the Latin word for 'tiger' is tigris.

No evidence was presented that the Jaxartes River was known to the Romans, let alone that they used that name. However, the College was able to confirm that the name Iaxartes was found in the first century Roman geography of Pomponius Mela ( While evidence was presented of forming a cognomen like Germanicus and Britannicus from provincial names, no evidence was presented that a cognomen could be formed from river names. Moreover, the name Iaxartes is not of the same declension as the cited placenames, so even if a cognomen could be formed from Iaxartes, it might not take the form Iaxarticus. Barring evidence that a cognomen could be formed from the name of a river, this byname is not registerable.

The structure of this name raises issues as well. As submitted, it combines Persian and Roman name elements, an issue which the LoI did not address. Fortunately, the College was able to provide information that there was sufficient contact that the combination should be registerable, though with a weirdness. However, it combines a Persian given name with two Roman cognomen. Given that the majority of the name elements are Roman, the structure of this name must be judged in Roman terms.

The normal structure of a Roman name is [praenomen] [nomen] [cognomen], as in Caius Iulius Caesar. The elements Tigris and Iaxarticus are submitted as cognomens. Given names from other cultures do not map well to the Classical Roman trinomina system, but Darius could be considered equivalent to a nomen in the submitted name. A nomen followed by a cognomen, as in Iulius Caesar, is a normal use name in Classical Latin. There are many cases of Roman notables with multiple cognomens, such as Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, who was also sometimes identified with just the cognomens as Scipio Africanus. However, no evidence was presented that the a nomen followed by multiple cognomens would be a reasonable usename for Classical Roman. Barring such evidence, the name cannot be registered in this form.

Clarion summarized the issues with the device submission rather well: "I have not seen any period examples of a crown being placed on an animal head this way, and given its unbalanced appearance am not willing to support it without such documentation. Administratively, we do not allow alternates to be considered in submissions, although the primary reason for that restriction (to avoid having to do multiple conflict checks) does not apply in this case."

The stylistic issue with the crown is sufficient reason for return. It is not clearly period style. The crown hanging at an odd angle from the horn is not blazonable (and thus, is not registerable under RfS VII.7.b).

As for the administrative issue, we do note that the submitting kingdom did provide two full sets of paperwork (for both the primary piece of armory and the alternate), and we thank them for their consideration in so doing. However, Clarion is correct: we do not process alternate armory submissions at the Laurel level. (Just imagine, after all, if everyone did it.)

Gweneth Sastre. Name.

This name combines a Welsh given name with a Spanish byname. No evidence was presented, nor could the College find any, that there was significant contact between Welsh speakers and Spanish speakers in our period. Barring such evidence, a name combining Welsh and Spanish elements is not registerable.

Her armory has been registered under the holding name Gweneth of al-Barran.

Kathryn of Iveragh. Device change. Per bend sinister sable and gules, on a bend sinister wavy argent a ducal coronet bendwise sable, in chief three passion nails inverted bendwise in bend sinister gules enflamed Or and in base, for augmentation, an inescutcheon azure charged with a demi-sun issuant from base Or within a bordure argent.

The device change was made on a form that also depicted the (pre-existing) augmentation. Precedent states "As we protect both the augmented arms and the unaugmented arms, a device change and an augmentation must be submitted as two separate actions" (LoAR October 2000). The same logic implies that, because we protect both the augmented arms and the unaugmented arms, in order to register this we will need two actions, each action with associated forms: one representing the unaugmented device change, and one representing the augmented device change.

It is important to note that if armory is changed with a previously existing augmentation, it is possible for that augmentation to become incompatible with the underlying armory due to the armory change. When this happens, the augmentation is not "automatically grandfathered", because (as noted in the Cover Letter to the October 2003 LoAR) "Augmentations do not have an existence separate from the arms that they augment, and therefore are not independently protectable entities."

As an example, consider the case of a submitter with the hypothetical armory Or, a pall inverted vert, for augmentation, in canton an estoile azure, who then submits a device change for the underlying device to Vert, a pall inverted Or, and for the augmented device to Vert, a pall inverted Or, for augmentation, in canton an estoile azure. The augmentation would violate RfS VIII.7, which states that "The augmentation must itself follow the armory rules", in conjunction with the ruling in the LoAR of August 1997, p. 26, which stated "Barring documentation of large numbers of period augmentations that break the rule of tincture, we are unwilling to register this practice."

Because the old augmentation is not compatible with the new device change, Laurel would be forced to (without extra direction from the submitter) register the new device change (unaugmented) and return the augmented device change. The "old augmented device" could not be retained as a badge and thus must be released. At the end of this series of actions, the submitter would no longer have a blue estoile augmentation on his list of registered items. In order to avoid this situation, the submitter could, as part of the original submission, add an administrative note to the submission indicating that, if the changed augmented arms were not registerable, the unaugmented device change is to be withdrawn, and the previous device (augmented or not) is to be retained.

Kathws Rusa. Device. Azure, a scimitar inverted proper issuant from a trimount vert.

Vert trimounts on color fields ordinarily would be in violation of RfS VIII.2.b.i (requiring good contrast between the field and charges lying upon it). However, documentation was presented showing that this submission is eligible for a Documented Exception per RfS VIII.6.a.

However, this submission conflicts with Barbara Fitzhugh de Brandhard, Azure, a sword inverted proper entwined widdershins of a poppy proper. There is one CD for adding the trimount. There is no difference given between types of sword, including a sword versus a scimitar. As has been noted a number of times in precedent, the poppy in Barbara's device functions as a maintained charge, and its deletion is not worth difference.




Geoffrey Scott. Badge. (Fieldless) On a heart purpure, a compass star Or.

Precedent holds that a heart is a shape used for armorial display (because of the heart-shaped escutcheons found in period): "While blazoned on the LoI as (Fieldless) On a heart gules, a hare salient contourny argent., since a heart is considered standard shape for armorial display, the submission is considered as Gules, a hare salient contourny argent. As such it conflicts with..." (LoAR of May 1998, p. 26).

This submission has a similar problem. In this case, the armory appears to be a display of Purpure, a compass star Or. This conflicts with a large number of pieces of armory, including (but not limited to) Paul of Sunriver, Azure, a compass star Or, (one CD for changing the field), Constans Erikson, Purpure, a compass star within a bordure embattled Or, (one CD for removing the bordure), and the important non-SCA flag of Macedonia, Gules, a sun Or, (one CD for changing the field, nothing for the difference between a compass star and a sun).

The conflicts are not the only problem with this armory. The fact that this fieldless armory does not appear to be a charged charge, but appears to be an independent display of a different piece of armory (because the heart is a shield shape), is in itself a reason for return. Per the LoAR of April 2002 (which upheld a significant number of prior precedents), "Note ... our long-standing policy about such 'shield shape' charges used in fieldless badges if the tincture is not plain (thus, divided or with a field treatment), or if the charge is itself charged. Such armory will continue to be returned for the appearance of an independent form of armorial display."

- Explicit littera renuntiationum -

Created at 2004-05-16T13:53:18