Halldórr bíldr. Name and device. Argent, two Thor's hammers in saltire gules.

Julianna Woolworth. Name and device. Argent, a sheep couchant sable within a bordure gules ermined argent.

Maria Caterina da Rauvenna. Name.

Niccola di Cristiano. Badge. Per pale Or and sable, a Maltese cross counterchanged.

This is clear of Maridonna Benvenuti, (Fieldless) A cross botonny per pale sable and Or, with a CD for fieldlessness and at least a CD for the type of cross.

Serena Finn. Name and device. Azure, a unicorn's head couped argent, in chief three scimitars inverted reversed Or.

Ysabeau Tiercelin. Name and device. Azure, a horse rampant Or within a bordure Or semy of pommes.


Áine ingen huí Néill. Device. Azure, two seahorses in fess between three shamrocks Or.

Alasdar Conner Drake. Name.

This name combines Gaelic and English in the same name; this is one step from period practice. Some commenters noted that the name pattern in use here appeared to be [Gaelic given name] + [Anglicized Gaelic given name] + [English surname]. However, the documentation shows the patterns is [Gaelic given name] + [English surname] + [English surname]. The pattern [given name] + [surname] + [surname] is found rarely in 16th C England.

Brynjólfr oxafotr. Device. Per saltire sable and azure, in pale two ox's heads caboshed argent.

Catelin the Wanderer. Name (see RETURNS for device).

This is not an aural conflict with Kalin the Wanderer, registered November 1981. The name Catelin is pronounced approximately \KAHT-@-lin\, while Kalin, which as far as we can determine is a modern name with several possible origins, is generally pronounced approximately \KAY-lin\. The names have a different number of syllables and the vowels of the stressed syllables of each name are hard to confuse.

We note that it is likely that the ordinary SCA member will pronounce the name Catelin as \KAYT-lin\. However, as we have mentioned in the past, for matters of conflict, we should not consider mispronunciations, just as we do not consider what parts of a submitted name we believe the submitter will actually use. We do request that the submitter be informed of the correct pronunciation of this name, and we would hope she would be consistent in using the correct pronunciation.

Christian van Ghendt. Name and device. Per chevron azure and Or, two goblets and a stag's head caboshed counterchanged.

The submitter requested an authentic 11th-12th C Flemish name. While we have no reason to believe that the various parts of this name were not found in this time period, we have no documentation for the given name in Flemish prior to the 13th C. Therefore, we are unwilling to state that this is an authentic 11th-12th C name. It is, however, a reasonable 13th C Flemish name.

Please advise the submitter to draw the goblets larger.

Emma Kindheart. Name.

Geoffrey de Rennes. Device change. Per pale argent and azure, a cross fleury fitchy and on a chief three fleurs-de-lys counterchanged.

The submitter's previous device, Or, a whirlpool rayonny vert, is retained as a badge.

Judith Greanwood. Name change from holding name Judith of Saint Bunstable.

The submitter has a letter of permission to conflict with Judith von Gruenwald, whose name was registered April 1987.

Matillis atte Hethe. Badge. Argent, three bendlets purpure and overall a tower azure.

This badge was pended on the January 2007 LoAR.

The submitted badge is clear of the device of Felice of Mayhem House, which is reblazoned elsewhere on the LoAR as Argent, a tower fracted, the upper half bendwise, azure. There is a CD for the difference between the towers due to the change in orientation of half of Felice's tower. There is a second CD for functionally changing the field from Argent to Bendy argent and purpure. Strictly speaking, we aren't changing the field, we're adding bendlets. Indeed, it can be argued that we're adding primary charges, which is sufficient difference in and of itself to clear these devices by RfS X.1. However, since we treat Argent, three bendlets purpure and Bendy argent and purpure as interchangeable blazons, there should only be a CD for the bendlets. We leave open the question whether RfS X.1 (addition of primary charge) applies in situations such as these.

Rohesia Morleigh. Device. Per fess purpure and vert, a Celtic cross and in chief a mullet of seven points Or.

Thormot Mac Otter. Name and device. Azure, a triskelion of armored legs and on a chief wavy argent a violin, pegs to sinister, azure.

Submitted as Thormot Mac Otter of Rushen, the submitter requested an authentic 16th C Manx name. As submitted, the name does not follow known patterns found in 16th C Manx names. We have very few examples of period Manx names, so it is possible that there are patterns we do not know about. However, none of the names we know of follow the pattern [given] + [patronymic] of [locative]. There are also no examples of [given] of [locative]. In Theophilus Talbot, Manorial Roll for the Isle of Man, 1511-1515, our main source for 16th C Manx names, there are thirteen names with multiple surnames. They show the patterns [given] + [descriptive] + [patronymic] (five examples), [given] + [marked patronymic] + [unmarked patronymic] (four examples), [given] + [unmarked patronymic] + [marked patronymic] (two examples), [given] + [patronymic] + [descriptive] and [given] + [patronymic] + [generational descriptive] (one example of each). Of the bynames in the available Manx data, the overwhelming majority of bynames are patronymics. We have changed the name to Thormot Mac Otter to make the name an authentic 16th C Manx name. We note that the alternative Thormot Rushen is also registerable.

Titus Antonius Thurinus. Name and device. Or, two swords inverted in saltire and on a chief triangular sable a Gorgon's head cabossed Or.


Arthur Blackmoon. Badge. Or, a pawprint within an annulet sable.

The use of a pawprint is a step from period practice.

Modius von Mergentheim. Augmentation. Sable, a flame and a base argent, as an augmentation on a canton Or, a mullet of five greater and five lesser points within an orle sable.

Viviana Ammary Rowntree. Name.

Originally submitted as Viviana Ammary Rowntree, the name was changed at kingdom to Viviana Amary Rowntree to match the naming pattern given + given + surname. However, the originally submitted name matches a valid pattern of English names, given + inherited surname + inherited surname. Laurel wrote in February 2002:

There hasn't yet been much research done regarding double surnames in 16th C England. But from the evidence that has been found, we can say that in cases where both names were inherited, the two surnames indicate the surnames of the child's parents. In fact, Withycombe (p. xliii) dates Robert Browne Lilly to 1593, noting that his father was John Lilly and his mother's maiden name was Browne. In a number of the instances of double surnames in the Dymock parish registers, this construction was an indication of illegitimacy. But considering the small amount of data we have at this time, it would be premature to presume that this is always the case. Indeed, the notation in Withycombe of Browne being "his mother's maiden name" would indicate that some of the time both parent's surnames were given to children born to married parents. [Benedict Saint-Jean Eldridge, 02/2004 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]

Therefore, we have changed the name back to the originally submitted form.


Adaliza Fitz Symmons. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Submitted as Adalize Fitz Symmons, the spelling Adalize is a Latin form in an inflected case, most likely dative, but possibly genitive. We only register given names in the nominative case; in this case, the expected form is Adaliza. We have changed the name to Adaliza Fitz Symmons to correct the grammar.

Calandra Raleigh. Name and device. Argent, on a pile between two roses vert in pale, a rose argent and a lark Or.

This name mixes Italian and English; this is one step from period practice.

The question was raised whether the name Calandro, of which Calandra is a feminization, was ever used by humans. David Herlihy's article, "Florentine Renaissance Resources:Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532" (, lists 10 examples of the name Calandro.

Elena Stavraki. Device. Or, an ankh and a chief enarched azure.

Gwenllyan verch Wilkin. Device. Vert ermined, a domestic cat statant guardant and on a chief embattled Or three crosses formy vert.

Please ask the submitter to draw the embattlements deeper.

Henry Erwaker. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Submitted as Henry Erricker, Erricker is an undated secondary header form in Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Earwaker. For an undated header form in this work to be registerable, it must be shown to be consistent with period spellings. None of the dated forms in this entry, nor any forms in Bardsley, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames, s.n. Earwaker, show any period spellings that do not include the "w". The closest dated form we found to the submitted spelling was in Reaney and Wilson: Edmundus Erwak'. The apostrophe is almost certainly a scribal abbreviation for "-er". We have changed the name to Henry Erwaker in order to register it.

Imma Kaillewey. Device. Per pale indented gules and purpure, a needle bendwise sinister and a bordure argent.

Isibel sverðaspillir. Badge. (Fieldless) A raven displayed within and conjoined to an annulet azure.

The use of a bird displayed, other than an eagle, is a step from period practice.

Iuliana Muñoz Maldonado de Castile. Device. Gules, a catfish tergiant urinant and a bordure wavy Or.

The use of a fish tergiant is a step from period practice.

John Read. Name.

This name does not conflict with the journalist John Reed (1887-1920). The name is a common period name and none of the commenters felt the journalist was important enough to protect.

Kazimer Valentov. Name and device. Per chevron inverted sable and azure, in chief a tree blasted and eradicated argent.

The name appearing on the external LoI is different from the one on the internal LoI, but no mention of this change was made on the external LoI. In this case, the change was made on the request of the submitter. Submission heralds, please note, you must note these changes with the information on the LoI; this gives the College of Arms the chance to evaluate the name in light of its full history.

This device is clear of Ioseph of Locksley, Vert, a tree eradicated argent, and of the badge for the Middle Kingdom's Order of the Silver Oak, Purpure, an oak tree blasted eradicated argent, fructed Or. In each case there is a CD for changes to the field. Kazimer's tree lies solely on the sable portion of the field; thus it is definitely in chief. Therefore, in each case, there is a second CD for the placement of the tree.

Keneric Ollwyttir. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Submitted as Cyneric Ollwydtir, there are spelling problems with both the given name and the byname. Harpy explains:

The basic, standard form of the name in Welsh is Cynwrig, with two syllables, but the consonant cluster -nwr- is relatively unstable when Anglicized and one of the directions it can resolve in is to add an epenthetic vowel, hence forms like Keneric, Kenewreik, Kenewreck as seen in Morgan & Morgan. I can't find any examples of the submitted spelling though. Note that Medieval Welsh spellings use initial "k" (as is usual before non-low, non-back vowels. (That is, words that in standard modern Welsh would be spelled with "c" used "k" in Medieval Welsh in contexts where medieval Latin would pronounce a "c" as [s]. This spelling rule avoided ambiguity in indicating the pronunciation.) As spelling became somewhat more regularlized towards the 15-16th century, then general use of "c" ousted the c/k alternation. Use of initial "k" is pretty much the rule in Anglicized forms (again, because English spelling rules would interpret C before Y as [s]). In the data I've seen, Welsh-language forms stick close to the -nwr- spelling, while the variants in the -ndr- and -ner- groups show up in Anglicized forms. All of this together makes the specific spelling "Cyneric" suspect enough to want to see an actual citation of this spelling.

A compound of "llwyd" (gray, brown) and "tir" (land) is quite consistent with known period Welsh place names. While the word-order llwyd+tir is opposite to standard noun-modifier order, it is not uncommon in place-names. Normally, in compounds with this "reverse" word order, the second element is lenited, however this particular example gets more complicated. But backing up for a moment, Examples of names with these elements in these positions include the following (from Charles The Place-Names of Pembrokeshire):

Llwydarth, Llwydiarth (gray + ridge) -- p.414f, "Loydarth" 1326, "lloydarth" 1326

Brithdir (speckled + land) -- p.163, "Brithdir" 1343

By the basic rules of compounding, you'd expect llwyd+tir to form a compound "Llwyd-dir" but here's where the complications come in because the combination "-d+d-" in Welsh undergoes a sound change called provection and instead results in "-t+t-", i.e. "Llwyttir". (See Evans A Grammar of Middle Welsh section 17.a.i.)

The following are the locative bynames in my database that include the Welsh preposition "o" (from):

orhalt (o'r Allt - from the slope) - Merioneth LSR 1292

or Clay (o'r Clai - from the clay) - Bromfield & Yale 1315

or Dol (o'r Dol - from the meadow) - Merioneth LSR 1292

or Glastir (o'r Glastir - from the blue/green land) - Merioneth LSR 1292

Orglyn (o'r Glyn - from the valley) - Ardudwy court records 1325

Orellyn (o'r Llyn - from the lake) - Merioneth LSR 1292

or pant (o'r Pant - from the valley) - Merioneth LSR 1292

Note that although the general rule seems to be to use this construction only with simple, generic topographic terms, the single example of a compound term is of the form "color + tir" similarly to the submission. On the other hand, the construction universally includes not just the preposition "o" but also the definite article -- that is, it is still being treated as a generic term, not as a proper name. So these examples would support a byname of the form "or Llwyttir". It is also possible to find examples of the form "o + proper name" in genealogies and other situations where the status as a byname (as opposed to a description) is more ambiguous. E.g., from the Brut y Tywysogion "rys o deheubarth" (Rhys from Deheubarth), "trahayarn vychan o vrycheinyawc" (Trahaearn Fychan of Brycheiniog). So there is probably sufficient benefit of the doubt for registering the format "o + proper place name", although I'd consider it less solid. In this case, the place name following the preposition will lenite, thus "o Lwyttir". (While the proposition is sometimes run together with the following noun in Medieval Welsh orthography, I'd tend to advise against it for reasons of clarity except in cases where a high level of historic accuracy is desired.)


Charles, B.G.. 1992. Place-Names of Pembrokeshire (2 vol.). National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth. ISBN 0-907158-58-7

Ellis, T.P. 1924. First Extent of Bromfield and Yale A.D. 1315. Hon. Soc. of Cymmrodorion, London.

Evans, D. Simon. 1989. A Grammar of Middle Welsh. Dublin Inst for Adv St, Dublin.

Jones, Thomas ed.. 1941. Brut y Tywysogyon (Peniarth Ms. 20). University of Wales Press, Cardiff.

Lewis, E.A. "The Proceedings of the Small Hundred Court of the Commote of Ardudwy in the County of Merioneth from 8 October, 1325 to 18 September 1326" in BBCS Vol.4 Part 2 (May 1928) p.153-166.

Williams-Jones, Keith. 1976. Merioneth Lay Subsidy Roll 1292-3. University of Wales Press, Cardiff.

We have changed the name to Keneric Ollwyttir in order to register it.

Kolfinna of Bergen. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Olaf mj{o,}ksiglandi. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Submitted as Olaf mjöksiglandi, the ö character in the byname is a modern typographical convention for an o-ogonek. For purposes of registration, the o-ogonek is transliterated {o,}. We have changed the name to Olaf mj{o,}ksiglandi to follow standard College of Arms transliteration for Old Norse names. Scribes, please note that this letter should be written like an o with a reversed comma attached to the bottom of the letter.

Robert of Bergen. Name and device. Per saltire purpure and sable, a wolf's head erased contourny argent and a bordure argent semy of card piques sable.

Please advise the submitter to draw the bordure wider, which will allow the card piques to also be drawn larger.

Romanus Rodrigo. Badge. (Fieldless) An octopus azure charged with a caltrap argent.

Shonna Dennyng. Name.

Shonna is the submitter's legal given name.

Timothy Blackwell. Name.

Nice late-16th C English name!

Viola verch Howell. Name.

Submitted as Viola verch Hwyl, the submitter claimed that the spelling Hwyl was found as a standard modern form in Heather Rose Jones's articles "Snapshot of a Cantref: The Names and Naming Practices in a Mawddwy Court Roll of 1415-16" ( and "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th C Welsh Names" ( An examination of these articles reveals this is not the case -- the standard modern spelling given for this name is Hywel. No documentation was submitted and none found to suggest that Hwyl is a reasonable spelling variant of the name Hywel or that it is an independent Welsh name. The submitter indicated that if the submitted spelling Hwyl was not registerable, she would accept either the 13th C form Howel or the 15th C Howell. Because the given name is documented to the 16th C, the 15th C form is a closer temporal match. We have changed the name to Viola verch Howell in order to register it.


Agostino da Palermo. Name and device. Azure, in pale an eagle displayed and a sword inverted Or within a bordure Or crusilly formy gules.

Bella Farinelli. Device. Sable, a butterfly between three roundels, all within a bordure argent.

Bella Trentavasi. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Nice 14th C Italian name!

Bertran de Saint-Jean. Name.

Erik Olafssen. Device. Argent, a weeping willow tree couped sable charged on the trunk with an anchor argent, all within a bordure gules.

As noted on the June 2006 Cover Letter: "Given that the weeping willow is unknown in period (let alone period Europe), its use is considered one step from period practice (a weirdness)."

Please advise the submitter to draw the tree larger so that the anchor can be of a respectable size.

Francesca Lorenza Caterina Marino. Device. Azure, in saltire two hammers, on a chief argent three chess rooks sable.

Gisela Garces de Navarra. Name.

This name mixes German and Spanish; this is one step from period practice.

Gwenllian ferch Maredudd. Blanket permission to conflict with device. Argent, a bend cotised sable between six crescents azure.

Permission to conflict is granted for all armory that is at least one countable step (one CD) from her device.

Gwenllian ferch Maredudd. Blanket permission to conflict with badge. Per chevron indented argent and sable, two compass stars azure and an open book argent bound azure.

Permission to conflict is granted for all armory that is at least one countable step (one CD) from her badge.

Hawkwood, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Golden Moon (see RETURNS for other badge). Per chevron argent and azure, in base a decrescent Or.

John of Caer Gelynniog. Device. Sable, a raven and on a chief embattled argent three arrows fesswise reversed gules.

Katel of Ipswich. Device. Argent, an escarbuncle between flaunches sable.

Líadan ingen Fháeláin. Device. Or, a domestic cat sejant sable and on a chief wavy vert in canton a bezant.

Mærwynn de More. Device. Vert, on a bend sinister purpure fimbriated between a dragon couchant contourny and a harp, three roses argent.

Morgant Capellanus. Device. Per fess dovetailed gules and sable, a castle and three Maltese crosses argent.

Rowan of Needwood. Name.

Rowan is an SCA-compatible English feminine given name.

Rys ab Ifan. Name.

Sean Dalamara. Badge. Argent, a boarspear head sable between flaunches azure.

Please advise the submitter to draw larger cross pieces on the boarspear head.

Thomas Schreiber. Name.

Nice 15th C German name!


Aber of Western Seas. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Per chevron sable and vert, a flat-topped arch Or masoned sable and in base an ewer reversed Or.

There was some commentary on whether the ewer was in trian aspect, which would be grounds for return. Given the irregularity of pottery handles in period (and in modern efforts with period materials) the slight trian aspect is acceptable.

Submitted under the name Aber Hardt Wendländer.

Alexander Brim. Name.

Submitted as Alexander Brimm, the byname was documented as a header spelling in Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Bream. Header spellings in this work are only registerable if they are consistent with period spellings. This has not been shown with Brimm. Reaney and Wilson show the spellings Brim and Brymme. An examination of the Oxford English Dictionary and the "Middle English Dictionary" ( shows that either a single "m" or "mme" is found consistently at the end of the word. We have changed the name to Alexander Brim to match the documentation; we note that the forms Alexander Brymme and Alexander Brimme are registerable, too.

Alisander du Mont Saint Michel. Change device to badge. Argent, a compass rose between two flaunches sable.

This armory was registered in January 1987; it is currently listed in the O&A as a device with the note "should have been changed/released?" Alisdander registered a new device in June 1991. While we agree that this most likely should have been released at that time, we are reluctant to do so at this late date without Alisander's permission. We have therefore redesignated it as a badge.

Catherine Hunter. Device. Argent, in bend sinister three roundels vert between two scarpes gemel sable.

Please advise the submitter to draw the scarpes parallel and somewhat wider.

Estrild Gildenher. Name and device. Per pale sable and Or, three bees counterchanged.

Submitted as Estrill Gildenher, the documentation for the given name, Talan Gwynek, "An Index to the Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" ( shows Estrill'. This represents a scribal abbreviation (which we don't register); it most likely represents the Latin Estrillda. The closest English form would be Estrild which is found in the same article in the same century. We have changed the name to Estrild Gildenher in order to register it.

Please advise the submitter to draw the gold antennae, which are not present in the submitted color emblazon.

Estrild Gildenher. Badge. (Fieldless) A bee per pale Or and sable.

Please advise the submitter to draw the dexter antenna Or, not sable.

Ian Edwardson. Device. Vert, a fireball argent enflamed proper within a bordure rayonny Or.

Wavy crested is a post-period line of division. Many commenters thought that the emblazoned line of the bordure was wavy crested and should thus be returned. While this is a poorly drawn rayonny it is nonetheless not wavy crested and is thus acceptable. We note that a wavy crested line of division starts as an engrailed line and is then curved to one side; since the submitted line of division is not rounded on the inside edge it is not wavy crested.

We note that the emblazon in OSCAR appears somewhat different than the emblazon sent to Laurel. Comparing the outlines, this difference appears to be due to computer coloring the emblazon rather than scanning the emblazon. At this time we are not generally returning armory for such coloring mismatches, but it may be grounds for return on a case by case basis. We also note that Laurel policy may change in the future to make such recolorings returnable. We strongly urge submission heralds to simply scan a color copy of the emblazon and use that in OSCAR.

The submitter has permission to conflict with a badge of Christian du Glaive, Gules, a grenade Or, enflamed proper, within a bordure rayonny Or.

Lasairíona inghean Ghéibheannaigh. Device. Per pale sable and Or, three goblets counterchanged issuing flames gules.

This does not conflict with the device of Morgan Conner, Per pale sable and Or, two tankards, handles in the flanks, counterchanged. There's a CD for the number of primary charges and another for the difference between a goblet and a tankard.

Máirghréad nicChlurain. Device. Purpure, in pall a three-headed thistle between three triquetrae Or.

This device was pended on the January 2007 LoAR.

Matheus le Vaus. Device. Quarterly argent and azure, a serpent glissant palewise counterchanged.

Sarpedon Aegineta. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Listed on the LoI as Sarpedon Aeginata, both the form and the documentation show Aegineta. We have changed the name back to the originally submitted and documented form.

Signý í Þorskafjarðar. Name and device. Argent, a codfish haurient vert and in canton a mullet sable.

Please advise the submitter to draw the codfish larger.

Simon Montgumery. Badge. (Fieldless) On a compass rose argent a capital letter "S" gules.

Theodric of Pavia. Name.

Þorfinnr brimill. Name (see RETURNS for device).


Áskatla Ketilsdóttir. Name and device. Argent, a bear rampant azure maintaining a broken arrow, a base gules.

Blazoned on the LoI as a spear, most commenters thought that the maintained charge was an arrow rather than a spear. After consultation with the submitter, we are blazoning this as the arrow that it appears to be.


Benjamin d'Orb. Device. Argent, on a Latin cross formy gules between in chief two crossbows azure, a heart Or.

Cristoforo Donatello dei Visconti. Device. Sable semy of bees argent.

Nice armory.

Durko Vadas. Device. Sable, on a mullet of seven points inverted Or a single-headed chess knight purpure, a base rayonny Or.

Elysabeth Underhill. Device. Per pale Or and vert, a chevron counterchanged and in canton a cinquefoil vert.

Etain ingen ui Broin. Name.

Nice 12th C feminine Irish name!

Galefridus Peregrinus. Device. Azure, a chevron gules fimbriated between three stag's heads caboshed argent.

Honor Savage. Device. Per saltire gules and argent, four mullets of six points counterchanged.

Nice armory.

Ogedei Becinjab. Name and badge. (Fieldless) A monkey statant contourny sable.

In period, apes were shown on all fours when they were statant or passant, in the manner of beasts (as in the crest of FitzGerald, c.1601; Bedingfeld & Gwynn-Jones, p.59). We treat monkeys the same way.

Quintin Brilliant. Name.

Uther McDermot. Device. Per chevron checky Or and gules and gules, in base an elephant statant argent.


Ormond Pursuivant. Correction of heraldic title from Ormond of Ormonde Pursuivant.

Originally registered as Ormond of Ormonde Pursuivant, this item was originally intended to be Ormond or Ormonde Pursuivant. The title used by the Lyon Court of Scotland has been recorded as both Ormond Pursuivant and Ormonde Pursuivant. Ormond Pursuivant is the spelling of the title currently in use in Scotland. We have corrected the registration to Ormond Pursuivant. The old title, Ormonde of Ormonde Pursuivant, is released.


Ælfwynn of Lynford. Name.

This name combines Old English and Middle English; this is one step from period practice.

Bianca Allegri da Vicenza. Badge. (Fieldless) A hand bendwise argent stabbed by a needle bendwise sinister sable threaded azure.

Engelbrecht Wandelber. Name and device. Per fess sable and Or, three suns Or eclipsed and a fret gules.

Isabella di Ambrogio Poliziano. Name.

Lorenzo Petrucci. Name change from Pyotr Lyagushka Vasiliev syn Tetiukhina.

His old name, Pyotr Lyagushka Vasiliev syn Tetiukhina, is retained as an alternative name.

Merlyn Elzebeth von Preßela. Name (Name and badge). (Fieldless) A merlin azure.

This badge is clear of the device of Reginleif Ragnarsdottir, Or chape gules, a raven azure. There is a CD for fieldlessness and, per the discussion in this month's Cover Letter (08/2007), there is another CD for the difference between a raven and a merlin.

Muirenn ingen Donngaile. Name and device. Per fess engrailed vert and azure, on a chief Or three turtles azure.

Patrice de Courtenay. Name.

Patrice is the submitter's legal given name.

The submitter requested an authentic name but did not specify a language/culture or time period. Given this lack of information, we are unable to provide advice on making this name authentic.


Ari keilismuli. Name.

Submitted as Ari Keilismuli, precedent states that descriptive bynames in Old Norse are not registerable in mixed case. We have changed the name to Ari keilismuli in order to register it.

Benusch Rickher. Name and device. Argent, on a bend purpure between a reremouse sable and a reremouse azure three mullets argent.

Christoph Rickher. Name and device (see RETURNS for badge). Argent mullety purpure, a unicorn rampant azure.

We acknowledge that German unicorns are generally depicted with "strange" horns, but those horns - as far as we have been able to determine - extend horizontally from the unicorn's head. The horn in this device points almost straight down. In addition, because the unicorn's head is tucked up against its neck, the unicorn's beard - which is one of the identifying features of a unicorn - is not visible. As the whole unicorn is present, there are just enough identifying clues to allow this to be recognized as a unicorn and thus it is registerable.

Jerome Calcote. Name.

Reimer Schifman. Name.

Nice 14th C German name!

Rhiannon Amber ferch Morgan ap Maredudd. Badge. Per saltire argent and purpure, two roses purpure barbed and seeded proper and two feathers bendwise sinister argent.

Blazoned on the LoI as per saltire purpure and argent, most commenters noted the correct field tincture - per saltire argent and purpure - so this need not be pended for further conflict checking.

Ulrich Rickher. Badge. Argent, a merman maintaining in his sinister hand a feather azure, a ford proper.

William Atherbridge. Device. Argent, in saltire a rose purpure, slipped and leaved vert, and a sword inverted purpure, a base wavy barry wavy vert and argent.

Please advise the submitter that the bottommost bar should be more visible.


Caterina di Bonanno. Name.

Nice 13th C Italian name!

Earc Ó Briain. Name and device. Per chevron sable and gules, on a chevron between three swans close argent three crosses crosslet azure.

The submitter requested an authentic 13th C Irish name. While Earc is an Early Modern Irish spelling of the Old Irish name Ercc, no documentation was submitted and none found that the name was still in use in the 13th C. Because Ercc is a saint's name, both its Old/Middle Irish and Early Modern Irish forms are registerable. However, barring documentation that Earc was found as a given name for a regular person in the 13th C, we doubt that it is authentic for the requested period.

James de Hagethorn and Kori Redjohan. Joint badge (See RETURNS for joint household name). (Fieldless) A bird perched on and sustaining an ax fesswise reversed azure.

James de Hagethorn and Kori Redjohan. Joint badge. Sable, on a bend between two axes argent three martlets azure.


Cilléne mac Conghalaigh. Name change from Cilléne Ó Conghalaigh (see RETURNS for household name and badge).

His old name, Cilléne Ó Conghalaigh, is retained as an alternative name.

Eoin Gallda mac Néill. Device. Per saltire sable and purpure, a dragon and a tyger combatant argent.

Kimberly Blackwood. Name and device. Erminois, a chevron gules between two demi-suns issuant from dexter and sinister chief and a tree sable.

Kimberly is her legal given name.

The submitter has permission to conflict with Christopher Blackwood, Erminois, a chevron gules between two trees and a demi-sun issuant from base sable.

Mari the Far-Travelled. Badge. Per pale azure and vert all semy of lozenges, a pale Or.

Matilda de Seton. Name change from Aindrea Mac Cullaich.

Her old name, Aindrea Mac Cullaich, is retained as an alternate name.

Robert Magnus. Name.

There was a question whether this name conflicted with Robertus Magnus, chancellor of York in the 12th C. Robertus does not have an article in Britannica Online, and no information beyond that he was chancellor of York was provided to explain why he should be worthy of protection. As such, we do not believe he is worthy of protection. As the name is not protected, there is no conflict.


Anna Zen. Device. Per chevron azure and purpure, a chevron argent between two bears sejant erect respectant Or and a peach tree couped argent fructed Or.

Arabella McQuharg. Name and device. Purpure, on a fess bretessed argent between six acorns Or three oak leaves fesswise vert.

Arthur Greenwood. Name and device. Quarterly vert and sable, a bear and a lion combatant argent.

In August 1998 Laurel returned Quarterly sable and gules, in fess a sword inverted and a drinking horn argent for marshalling:

This is being returned for breaking RfS XI.3., which states that "Armory that appears to marshall independent arms is considered presumptuous." The rule goes on to note that such marshalled fields "may be used with identical charges over the entire field, or with complex lines of partition or charges overall that were not used for marshalling in period heraldry." Additionally, "Charged sections must all contain charges of the same type to avoid the appearance of being different from each other." Since two different charges are used on the two sides of the palar line, this looks like the marshalled arms of Per fess sable and gules a sword inverted argent, impaled with Per fess gules and sable a drinking horn argent.

The precedent set in that return is hereby overturned: a quarterly field is not equivalent to the impalement of two per fess fields and is not, in and of itself, marshalling.

We all agree that Per pale X and Y, a bear and a lion would be considered marshalling: there are simply too many examples, and too many precedents. Sable, a bear and a lion combatant argent is not considered marshalling, despite the fact that it could be interpreted as Sable, a bear contourny argent impaled with Sable, a lion argent. The visual impression is not of impalement, because there is no per pale division. One would have to deliberately seek to see presumption here.

Likewise, Gyronny X and Y, a bear and a lion is not considered marshalling. Even though there's a per pale line running down the center of the shield, there is no appearance of impaled arms: partly because the gyronny field division is so familiar, and partly because each half of the field would be very difficult to interpret as a whole field.

Quarterly X and Y, a bear and a lion falls into the same category as gyronny: a very familiar field division that happens to incorporate a per pale line. If there'd been three tinctures, we might be able to argue for the appearance of two independent armories, but the very fact that the field repeats tinctures suggests a unified design. Thus Quarterly X and Y will not be treated as the impalement of Per fess X and Y and Per fess Y and X.

Commentary raised the hypothetical issue of whether one of the presumptively impaled devices having been previously registered would cause the new device to be presumptuous. We reserve decision on this issue until such time as it is not hypothetical.

Bj{o,}rn Helgason. Badge. (Fieldless) A bull passant contourny maintaining in its mouth a pennant sable.

Brand McClellan. Device. Per fess vert and Or, three compass stars elongated palewise and a demi-sun inverted counterchanged.

Cerridwen Coedwig. Name and device. Per fess argent and vert, two oak trees eradicated proper and a cat couchant guardant argent.

Cerridwen is an SCA-compatible Welsh name.

Elias Madruga. Name.

Felice of Mayhem House. Reblazon of device. Argent, a tower fracted, the upper half bendwise, azure.

Registered in January 1973 with the blazon Argent, a broken tower azure, the upper half bendwise, illumined Or, the term broken tower is too easily confused with a ruined tower. We have chosen to explicitly blazon the orientation of the upper portion of the tower.

Leo Diogenes. Name.

This does not conflict with Leon Diogenes, son of the Emperor of Byzantium, Romanus Diogenes. He is not a sovereign, and the information about him in current general references is sparse. He does not have his own article in "Britannica Online." Given these factors, he is not important enough to protect.

Richard of Ardgour. Device. Per chevron sable and argent, three griffins counterchanged and a bordure embattled gules.

Sarah Bakestre. Name.

Serena Amarelli. Name.

Úrsúla Þorbjargardóttir. Name.

- Explicit littera accipendorum -



Gytha Oggesdohtor. Name and device. Per chevron inverted "azure" and vert, a cat dormant Or and issuant from dexter base three wolf's teeth argent.

Conflict with Gytha Ogg, a major character in the Discworld series by Terry Pratchett. The byname Ogg is an unmarked patronymic or metronymic; RfS V.1.a.ii.a says "Two bynames of relationship are significantly different if the natures of the relationships or the objects of the relationships are significantly different." As both Ogg and Oggesdohtor may express the same nature and object of relationship, these names are in conflict.

The device is returned as the emblazon is unlikely to be recreated from any blazon we can derive. The cat isn't really in chief since it lies partially on the azure portion of the field and partially on the vert. Nor is it in the center of the shield, which is where the current blazon would place it.

While the overall design of this device does not appear to resemble armory, the concept is registerable. Electrum looked for examples of wolf's teeth with other charges in Seibmach. He noted:

I found only one such example, on page 155, Keudel zu Schwebda, which can be blazoned as Argent, a fess vert and in chief six wolf's teeth, three from the dexter and three from the sinister, sable. Of note in the mode of depiction here are 1) the sets of three wolves' teeth on the dexter, and the three on the sinister are each conjoined at the base. 2) Each set of two from top to bottom (1 dexter and 1 sinister) are within millimeters of being conjoined on the palar line. Unfortunately, The Keudel arms were the only ones I noted.

I think the problems here are 1) the cat is too low on the field (it should be either fully centered on the field, or should default to its proper position fully on the blue). 2) The wolves' teeth are not properly conjoined at base. 3) If the cat gets back up where it belongs, then the wolves' teeth could be drawn larger. I will note that the example of Keudel does justify use of another charge with the teeth, and the forcing the teeth to chief or base as necessary.

We note that if the cat is centered on the field, it is unlikely that the wolf's teeth can be drawn in an acceptable manner. Thus, if this design is resubmitted, we recommend that the cat lie entirely on the azure portion of the field.

In addition, this device is returned as the ink used to print the emblazon has shifted from azure to purpure. As the tincture cannot be accurately determined, this is also sufficient grounds for return.

Yang SuGyong. Name change from Ann of Thanet and device. Per pale gules and argent, a pair of wings conjoined in lure counterchanged and on the honor point overall a trillium inverted purpure barbed vert.

There is not enough contact between Korea and Europe during our period to allow registration of Korean names. Precedent notes:

"Yang Mun. Name. There are two issues with this name submission that are cause for return.

"...However, there is a bigger issue. No documentation was presented and none was found that Korea had significant contact with pre-17th C Western culture. Such documentation is necessary in order to be able to register a Korean name. Lack of such documentation has been cause for return in the past:

"'More important, significant interaction between Tibet and pre-seventeenth century Western culture has not been demonstrated. The Encyclopædia Britannica dates the first visits to Tibet by Western missionaries to the 17th century, and the fact that the 8th century Tibetan kingdom had some contact with the Arab conquerors of Iran still leaves Tibetans at least two removes from Western Europe.' (Talan Gwynek, LoAR November 1995, p. 16)" [LoAR 04/2002]

The submitter has cited two known examples of contact, and included some cartographic evidence:

Savenije, Henny, "Korea through western cartographic eyes," Korean Culture, Vol. 21 No. 1 Spring 2000 pp. 4-19. (Los Angeles: Korean Cultural Center, 2000) reprinted online at <> states that Gregorio de Céspedes (1550-1611), a Jesuit, visited Korea from Dec. 27, 1593 until April 1594 on the invitation of one of the three leading generals of the Japanese invasion army and is generally believed to be the first westerner to visit Korea, despite evidence of a brief earlier visit by an unnamed western in 1582.

According to Savenije, a letter of one Father Luis Frois (1532-1597) tells of 300,000 Korean prisoners of war being brought to Nagasaki, Japan as part of a slave trade.

Savenije quotes Francesco Carletti's Discourses, in which Carletti describes his purchase in 1597 of five Korean slaves, and further states that one of Carletti's Korean pupils accompanied him back to Europe, visiting Holland and eventually residing in Italy. This Korean student was known by the European name of Antonio Correa (1578?-1626) and was sent to Manchuria by the Vatican in the 1610s as a missionary.

Item 2: Evidence of Korea on European maps

"Western Maps and Korea" at <> (WWW: The Republic of Korea, 2007) states in part:

The map created in 1594 by Petro Plancio of the Netherlands is known to be the oldest existing map in Europe that made reference to Korea with the marking "Corea." (There are two earlier maps, drawn by Bartholomeu Velho in 1562 and by Abraham Ortelius in the 1580s that show the Korean Peninsula but they gave no specific name to the peninsula.) In 1646, Sir Robert Dudley's hydrographic chart Dell'Arcano del Mare, (The Mysteries of the Sea), referred to Regno di Corai (the Kingdom of Korea).

This shows evidence of one European in Korea in the last decade of the 16th C, one slave trader who purchased five slaves, and some interaction between the one European in Korea and native Koreans. There is no evidence of Koreans in Europe prior to 1600, no evidence of regular trade, religious missions (larger than one individual), settlements, invasion, or other types of contact that we examine to determine whether cultures might have influenced each other. While there is evidence that Korea and Japan had substantial contact, and that Japan and Europe had sufficient contact to show some cultural trade, substantial contact between two non-European cultures (even when one has substantial contact with European cultures) is not sufficient evidence to allow registration of names from a culture with no evidence of substantial direct contact itself with European cultures.

This device is returned as the placement of the trillium is not reproducible. As noted in the LoI, the honor point is not really defined:

Parker [p. 468, sn Point] shows the honor point a little further down; Woodward [p. 59, Fig. 15], von volborth [p. 12, fig. 106], and Brooke-Little [p. 167] show it roughly the same spot as on the submission; and Friar [p. 143] shows it much higher on the field.

In addition, while blazoned as overall, the trillium is not overall - the top half lies on the field and the bottom half lies on the wings. This in itself is sufficient grounds for return.


Catelin the Wanderer. Device. Per fess argent and gules semy of "triquetrae" argent, in chief a thistle proper.

This device is returned as the triquetrae appear to be triangles - with diapering, but triangles nonetheless. As the submitter clearly wishes triquetrae, not triangles, we are returning this for a redraw. We note that the triquetrae could be blazoned either as semy of triquetrae or six triquetrae; on resubmission please ask the submitter which she prefers.

Cormacc ua Néill. Device. Sable, two shamrocks and a ram's head cabossed argent.

This device is returned for conflict with the badge for Morgan Argante Elandris of Cantref Gwaelon, Sable, a ram's skull cabossed argent. There is a CD for adding the shamrocks but, as there is not a CD between a ram's head and a ram's skull that is the only difference.


Dean Alexander Montgomery. Name change from Odhran of Kilmaine.

The name Dean was used as a title of rank in period. RfS IV.1 says:

Names Claiming Rank. - Names containing titles, territorial claims, or allusions to rank are considered presumptuous.

Titles like Earl and Duke generally may not be used as Society names, even if the title is the submitters legal name. Names documented to have been used in period may be used, even if they were derived from titles, provided there is no suggestion of territorial claim or explicit assertion of rank. For example, Regina the Laundress is acceptable but Regina of Germany is not.

The Oxford English Dictionary, s.n. dean, gives this definition dating to the 14th C:

A presbyter invested with jurisdiction or precedence (under the bishop or archdeacon) over a division of an archdeaconry; more fully called rural dean; formerly (in some cases) dean of Christianity; see CHRISTIANITY 4. (There were also urban deans (decani urbani): see Kennett Par. Antiq. II. 339.) The rural dean had, in England till the Reformation, and in France till the Revolution, large powers of visitation, administration, and jurisdiction, which are still retained in some Roman Catholic countries.

Even if the name were not a title, it is a form of address. The "Dictionary of the Scots Language" ( s.v. dene, gives this definition with examples in the 14th C, "A title prefixed to the names of ecclesiastics, not only to those holding the office of dean, but also to other dignitaries and even to ordinary monks," and shows examples of the word so used. Precedent holds that forms of address are, like titles, not registerable if they can be interpreted as a form of address:

Friar falls into the same category as Brother. Both are titles or forms of address which carry no implicit assertion of rank. Brother as a form of address was recently discussed:

In the case of this name, the element Brother in Brother Timothy is a form of address, not a name element. We do not register forms of address regardless of whether they would be presumptuous, such as Lord or Mistress, or whether they would not be presumptuous, such as Brother or Goodwife. The submitter is welcome to use Brother, as in Brother Timothy, as his preferred form of address, but this use of Brother is not registerable. [Timothy Brother, LoAR 11/2002, A-Artemisia]

The submitter will not accept major changes, so we cannot make this name registerable. In resubmitting, we suggest Alexander Montgomery, a form of the name that removes any question or title or claim to rank.


Adaliza Fitz Symmons. Device. Or, a tree eradicated and on a chief embattled vert, a sewing needle inverted and a rapier in saltire Or.

This is returned for a redraw due to multiple problems; it is likely that no single problem would have caused this to be returned but the combination of problems is sufficient to warrant a return. The tertiary charges are not centered on the chief, the non-symmetric embattlements on the chief make it appear to be slanted, and the use of two different long pointy objects in saltire causes their identity to be obscured. It is possible that, even correctly drawn, there will be enough confusion between the rapier and the sewing needle to cause a return.

Alexandra de la Mer Verte. Badge. Azure, on a pale between two swords inverted argent, three crosses bottony fitchy gules.

This badge is returned as the emblazon in OSCAR does not match the emblazon sent to Laurel; the swords have been redrawn and the emblazon recolored. While some leeway with color is allowed due to scanning and monitor displays, the redrawn swords are sufficient cause for return. The recoloring is not at this time cause for return, but we recommend that this practice not be used.

Black Stag has shown that, in period, a cross crosslet/bottony fitchy had a bottom limb significantly longer than the other three. Thus these do not need to be blazoned Latin.

Amalie Loreley. Name.

Submitted as Amalie Loreley, no documentation was submitted and none found to show that Loreley is a period name for the rock that marks the narrowest part of Rhine river between Switzerland and the North Sea. While this name is well known from legend, according to "Britannica Online" (, s.n. Lorelei, "The essentials of the legend were claimed as his invention by German writer Clemens Brentano in his novel Godwi (1800-02)." Although the submitter asserts that Loreley is a family name found in Seibicke, Volume 3, p. 91, the original passage is not included, the name of the cited work is not included with the documentation, nor were photocopies of the page included with the submission. Metron Ariston notes the following passage in Wilfried Seibicke, Historisches Deutsches Vornamenbuch I-IV

Loreley w, Name eines Schieferfelsens am rechten Rheinufer oberhalb von St. Goarshausen (Bedeutung etwa `Schieferfelsen, von dem man Ausschau hält'); [d]ie junge, erst von Clemens Brentano (Ballade von der Lore Lay) geschaffene und dann von Eichendorff, Heine u. a. gestaltete Sage von der Hexe oder Fee Loreley beruht auf einer romantischen Umdeutung des Namens in Anlehnung an den Frauennamen Lore," BERGER (s.u.) 172; auch ital. (DE FELICE 1992, 237f.) Bel.: Konstanz 1993 FVN, Ztg. BERGER, Dieter: "Geographische Namen in Deutschland", Mannheim u.a. 1993 (= Duden-Taschenbuch 25)

(Loreley, w, Name of slate cliff on the right bank of the Rhine above St Goarshausen (meaning loosely 'a slate cliff from which one has a view') The young singer was first created by Clemens Brentano (ballad of the Lore Lay) and then von Eichendorf, and Heine formed a. Saga of the Witch or Fairy Loreley is based upon a romantic reinterpretation of the name modelled on the woman's name Lore, " BERGER (see below) 172; also ital. (DE FELICE 1992, 237f.) Bel.: Constance 1993 FVN, Ztg. BERGER, Dieter: " geographic names in Germany", Mannheim u.a. 1993

None of this shows that the name, as submitted, is known in our period. Barring documentation that Loreley is a spelling found in period as either a personal or a placename, it is not registerable.

If the submitter is interested in a locative based on this rock, we suggest Lurlenberg. A poem by the Minnesinger Conrad Marner written in the 13th C says "Der Nibelungen Hort liegt in dem Lurlenberg" (The Nibelung horde lies in the Lurlenberg). In the 1613, Marquard Freher, Origines Palatinae part II, uses the term Mons Lurlenberg in a section title. In resubmitting, we would suggest Amalie von dem Lurlenberg or Amalie die Lurlenbergerin.

Angus of the Blue Spruce Shire. Name and device. Or, two wooden tankards proper and a spruce tree couped, a bordure embattled azure.

No documentation was submitted and none found to suggest that Blue Spruce Shire is a reasonable English placename and, by extension, locative byname. While the submitter demonstrates that the word spruce, meaning the plant, comes from the Middle English pruce (a name for Prussia), no dates for the word spruce meaning the fir tree or plant are provided. The Oxford English Dictionary s.v. Spruce dates the first example of this usage in English to 1670, which is well past our gray period.

This device is returned as the emblazon in OSCAR does not match the emblazon sent to Laurel; the bordure is significantly different.

Cera Aghafatten. Name.

No documentation was submitted and none found to suggest that the placename Aghafatten was found in period. Mills, A Dictionary of British Placenames, s.n. Aghafatten, dates this name to 1780. As we know of no period spelling for this name, we are unable to register it.

We note that even had Aghafatten been found in period, it is likely that the name would be two steps from period practice. First, Aghafatten is an Anglicized spelling for a Gaelic placename; mixing Gaelic and Anglicized Gaelic in a single name is a step from period practice. Second, the given name is Middle Irish, whose orthography is not typically found later than 1200. Given this, there is likely to be more than 300 years between the latest possible date for Cera and the earliest date for Aghafatten. If the submitter is interested in an Old Irish name, we suggest selecting a patronymic byname. This type of byname is the most common type used in Ireland.

Charles the Bear. Household name Casa Libre and badge. Or, a chain fesswise throughout and fracted sable.

This name has two returnable problems. First, it is an aural conflict with Liber Herald, registered to the Outlands in January 2003. For non-personal names, the designators do not count for difference for purposes of conflict. Second, no documentation was submitted and none provided by the commenters that this name follows patterns for organized groups of people in Spanish speaking cultures during our period. It is necessary to document a household naming pattern to a culture that uses the language in which the name is submitted.

This badge is returned as the emblazon in OSCAR does not match the emblazon sent to Laurel. We note that the links are so close, and so evenly aligned, as to make it impossible to tell that this is a chain and not a complex fess. We recommend that some of the links be drawn more edge-on (which is how they are drawn in the Pictorial Dictionary) would make the chain more identifiable.

Henry Erwaker. Device. Vert, a winged sword all inverted and a bordure embattled Or.

This device is returned for a redraw of the wings. The wings in this emblazon issue from the pommel, not the expected quillons (or the blade near the hilt). In addition, the wings appear more wreath-like than wing-like.

Keneric Ollwyttir. Device. Per pale argent and counter-ermine, a ferret rampant gules.

This device is returned as the emblazon in OSCAR does not match the emblazon sent to Laurel. We recommend using the ferret depicted in the OSCAR emblazon on resubmission; its tail is much better drawn than on the emblazon sent to Laurel.

Kolfinna of Bergen. Device. Purpure, three horses passant conjoined in annulo and a bordure argent.

This device is returned as the emblazon in OSCAR does not match the emblazon sent to Laurel; the bordure is significantly wider in OSCAR. The LoI noted "The same orientation of the horses is seen in the armory of Lí Ban ingen Echtigeirn, registered in October 2000, Argent, three horses passant in annulo sable." This is not the case; the orientation of the horses is different and, more importantly, Lí Ban's horses are not conjoined as are the horses in the submitted emblazon.

Nakada Tadamitsu. Device. Per pale sable and gules, on a pile inverted argent the I Ching symbol "jiji" gules.

This device is returned for using an I Ching symbol; these symbols do not appear to have been known to Europeans in period and thus are not registerable.

This device is also returned for conflict with the device of Edwin FitzLloyd, Ermine, chaussé raguly vert, a tower gules, and with the badge for the Shire of the Isles, Barry wavy argent and azure, a tower gules. In both cases there is a CD for changes to the field when treating the submitted device as having the field Per chevron per pale sable and gules and argent. The I Ching symbol jiji, as emblazoned here, appears to be a tower gules masoned argent. On a stonework edifice, such as a tower, masoning does not contribute to difference. Thus there is no difference in the primary charges and the submitted device conflicts with Edwin's device and Isles' badge.

The submitted device does not violate the ban on using armory that consists solely of an abstract field. For conflict purposes, a field with a pile inverted must also be treated as a per chevron field. However, it is possible to blazon your way out of a style problem, and when considered as a charged pile the I Ching symbol is a tertiary charge (not a sole primary charge).

Olaf mj{o,}ksiglandi. Device. Purpure, a dragon with the head and forequarters of an eagle statant erect maintaining in its foreclaws a claw-headed staff, a bordure engrailed Or.

This device must be returned for lack of identifiability. Blazoned on the LoI as a dragon with the head and forequarters of an eagle, none of the remaining dragon anatomy (except the bat-wings, which are more or less generic) allows identification as a dragon. We know of no period dragon with a tail spiked like a stegosaurus, nor with hindlegs of this shape. If the monster, or its parts, cannot be identified, it cannot be registered. If this were resubmitted with the hindquarters of a period dragon, it might be acceptable; should the submitter decide to do this, please ask him to render the posture more heraldically (i.e. with the tail not sticking straight out behind the monster).


Adeliza of Bristol. Badge. Sable, three ermine spots in pale Or between an owl contourny maintaining an acorn argent and a boar rampant, between two ermine spots in fess Or, all between two roses in bend argent and two roses in bend sinister Or.

This badge is returned as it is not really blazonable. The two best options we could derive were the blazon shown above and Sable, in fess an owl contourny maintaining in its sinister claw an acorn argent and a boar rampant Or, all between in bend two roses argent, in bend sinister two roses, and in cross five ermine spots Or. It is complex, having a complexity count of eight for three tinctures and five charges (yes, the maintained acorn counts). This is borderline when it comes to complexity and, in association with the non-period style of the device and the trouble in blazoning it, is grounds for return.

Though the badge was blazoned on the LoI as Pean, in fess an owl contourny maintaining in its sinister claw an acorn argent and a boar rampant Or, all between in bend two roses argent and in bend sinister two roses Or, there are only five ermine spots. This is insufficient for an ermined field.

Bella Trentavasi. Device. Quarterly sable and argent, a lion's head Or jessant-de-lys gules.

This device is returned for conflict with the badge for Cathyn Fitzgerald, (Fieldless) A lion's head Or jessant-de-lys gules. There is a single CD for the field.

Hawkwood, Barony of. Badge for Award of the Silver Wings of Hawkwood. Azure, a winged lantern argent.

This badge is returned for conflict with the device of Angus MacNokard, Azure, a winged tankard argent. There is a significant difference (a CD), but not a substantial (X.2) difference between a winged tankard and a winged lantern.

This badge is clear of a badge for Arthur Lemner of Wesley, Azure, a two-spouted oil lamp argent, flamed Or. There is a substantial (X.2) difference between a winged tankard and a two-spouted oil lamp.

Kristin Ailbe Anmclaid. Badge. Or, a badger's head erased sable within a bordure gules.

This badge is returned for conflict with the device of Juan Santiago, Or, a natural panther's head couped sable within a bordure gules. There is a significant difference (CD) but not a substantial (X.2) difference between these particular beast heads.

Matthew of Battle. Badge. Gules, a mullet pierced argent within a bordure Or.

The submitter has requested that this badge be withdrawn.


Aber Hardt Wendländer. Name.

No documentation was submitted and none found to support the naming pattern used for this name: [given] + [surname or hausname] + [ethnic adjectival surname]. Barring documentation for this pattern, it is not registerable. We would change the name to the pattern [given] + [surname or hausname] von [locative] (Aber Hardt von Wendländ, but the change of the second surname to a true locative adds an element. As the submitter will not accept major changes, we are forced to return this name.

The commenters noted that a form nearly identical in sound and appearance is registerable: Eberhardt Wendländer. Eberhardt is found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "German Names from Nürnberg, 1497" ( While this technically meets the definition of a minor change, the pattern change and the meaning of the name is significantly changed. As the submitter is already using the submitted spelling as part of his email address, we believe he may feel that this is more than a minor change. Therefore, we are returning this so that he can make his own decision.

His armory has been registered under the holding name Aber of Western Seas.

Aubray Brangwyne de Vitry. Device. Per chevron vert and purpure, on a pile Or a feather vert, overall a chevron rompu counterchanged purpure and Or.

This device is return for violating the Rules for Submission (RfS) section VIII.3, Armorial Identifiability, which states "Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability." The section goes on to state "Identifiable elements may be rendered unidentifiable by significant reduction in size, marginal contrast, excessive counterchanging, voiding, or fimbriation, or by being obscured by other elements of the design."

In general, a charge may only be counterchanged over another charge if both are ordinaries. The assumption is that both charges will maintain their identifiability in such cases. However, in the submitted emblazon counterchanging the chevron rompu fatally hampers its identifiability. This must therefore be returned.

It was suggested that this be reblazoned as Per chevron vert and purpure, on a pile Or a feather vert, overall a chevron rompu Or counterchanged purpure. While this is a valid blazon, we have only twice registered this form (specifying a single tincture) twice - once in 1986 and once in 1988. The form counterchanged tincture 1 and tincture 2 has been registered almost 300 times. In order maintain clarity of the blazon, we have elected to use the slightly longer blazon and specified both tinctures.

Sarpedon Aegineta. Device. Argent chaussé, on a roundel gules a serpent involved Or.

This device conflicts with the device for Klaus von Hallerstein-Obersüdland, Gyronny of three arrondi Or, vert, and ermine, on a torteau a penannular brooch palewise, pin to sinister, Or . There is a CD for the field. In order to obtain a second CD, there must be a substantial (X.2) difference between the tertiary charges. However, there is a CD but not a substantial (X.2) difference between a serpent involved and a penannular brooch, and therefore changing the type only of the tertiary charge does not grant the necessary second CD.

Þorfinnr brimill. Device. Quarterly argent and sable, a cross azure between in bend two Latin Maltese crosses sable and in bend sinister a dog sejant and a dog sejant contourny argent.

This device is returned for marshalling as different charges are used in the argent and sable quarters. As crosses were used in period as overall charges on marshalled coats of arms, adding the cross does not remove the appearance of marshalling.




Marsaili inghean Lachtnáin. Device. Azure, on a saltire argent between four double roses argent and purpure a feather bendwise purpure.

This device is returned for redraw of the double-roses: the purpure roses appear to be seeding rather than a rose.






Christoph Rickher. Badge. Paly wavy Or and azure a unicorn's head erased purpure.

While the field is neutral and technically has sufficient contrast for a purpure charge, in this case - in conjunction with the particular rendition of the unicorn's head - the unicorn's head is unidentifiable and must be returned. We acknowledge that German unicorns are generally depicted with "strange" horns, but those horns - as far as we have been able to determine - extend horizontally from the unicorn's head. The horn in this badge points almost straight down. In addition, because the unicorn's head is tucked up against its neck, the unicorn's beard - which is one of the identifying features of a unicorn - is not visible. Combined with the non-standard (even for German unicorns) horn, the problems with the beard and the borderline contrast mean that this badge must be return for lack of identifiability.

Pierre de Montereau. Device. Vert, a dolphin naiant to sinister, chief urdy argent charged with a two roses gules seeded argent barbed vert and a base urdy argent charged with a rose gules seeded argent and barbed vert.

The submitter has requested that this device be withdrawn from submission.

Ulrich Rickher and Christoph Rickher. Joint household name Haus Rickher zu dem Walde and joint badge. Argent, on a bend purpure between a merman maintaining in his sinister hand a feather and a unicorn's head erased azure, an upper case letter R between two mullets argent.

No documentation was submitted and none found to suggest that German housenames were formed using the pattern [element] + (von or zu) + (dem) + [locative or topographic feature]. An examination of Karl Schmidt, Die Hausnamen und Hauszeichen im mittelalterlichen Freiburg, shows that either Haus zum Rickher or Haus zum Walde is consistent with housenames found between the 15th and 16th C. According to Bahlow/Gentry, German Names, s.n. Rickert, Rickert and Rickher are forenames. Schmidt, p 15, gives 24 examples of housenames of the form zum [forename], dating between 1449 and 1565. While Walde is not listed by itself, Schmidt s.n. Walde lists zu dem grünen wald in 1434, and zum grinen wald in 1478. We believe that zum Walde without the adjective is consistent with housenaming practices. We would change the name to one of these forms, but the submitter will not accept major changes.

This badge is returned for being overly complex and for identifiability problems with the unicorn's head. As a rule of thumb, the complexity count (number of tinctures plus number of types of charges) of a piece of armory should not exceed eight. The complexity count is nine with three tinctures (argent, purpure, azure) and six types of charges (bend, merman, feather, unicorn's head, letter, mullets). While exceptions are made, such as for late-period style armory, in this case the armory does not closely reflect period armory and thus there is no justification for such an exception.

As drawn, the unicorn's head is not recognizable. We acknowledge that German unicorns are generally depicted with "strange" horns, but those horns - as far as we have been able to determine - extend horizontally from the unicorn's head. The horn in this badge points almost straight down. In addition, because the unicorn's head is tucked up against its neck, the unicorn's beard - which is one of the identifying features of a unicorn - is not visible. Combined with the non-standard (even for German unicorns) horn, the problems with the beard mean that this badge must be return for lack of identifiability.


James de Hagethorn and Kori Redjohan. Joint household name House de Hagethorn.

Conflict with Hawthorn Hall, registered to Siranna of Hawthorn in December 1982. When pronounced using period pronunciations, the names are nearly identical in sound. The spelling Hagethorn is documented in 1199; at that time, we would expect standard Old English pronunciation. According to "Engl401| Lessons| Old English Spelling and Pronunciations" (, "The letter g is pronounced with a "hard" g sound (i.e. the sound in the Modern English words give and grape) if it comes before a back vowel (like o or a) or another consonant. If it comes before a front vowel (like i or e), or at the end of a word following a front vowel, it is usually pronounced like Modern English y in yes or yellow." Thus the pronunciations of Hagethorne and Hawthorne are nearly identical (not surprising for two spellings for the same word). As the designators do not count for difference when considering conflict, the only different in sound is a single, similar sound at the end of the first syllable. This is not sufficient to clear conflict.

Jared of Midewinde. Device. Per chevron vert and sable, a mug reversed and a mug Or foaming argent and a wolf rampant contourny argent.

This is returned for using a non-period depiction of a tankard or stein. The consensus of the commentary was that the steins were drawn as "A&W root beer mugs", which are modern. If the submitter wishes a tankard (or a variant: stein, mug, jack, etc.), this must be redrawn in a period form.

If the submitter wishes to use a period glass vessel that was designed for beer, we note that glass steins didn't appear before the 18th Century, and were luxury items, elaborately engraved. A better choice would be the "prunted beaker", a roughly barrel-shaped glass with lumps of glass (the "prunts") covering the outside to ensure a better grip. It's not only a period beer glass, found in the source cited by Batonvert (von Saldern's Glass: 500 BC to AD 1900), but a period heraldic charge as well: it's used in the canting arms of Escher vom Glas, 1605 (Siebmacher, plate 199).


Cilléne mac Conghalaigh. Household name The House of the Dirk and Arrow and badge. Per pale vert and purpure, a dagger and an arrow inverted in chevron argent.

No documentation was submitted and none found that the word dirk was used in English prior to 1600. The earliest citation in English that we have found for any spelling of this word is 1602; the Oxford English Dictionary has the first example of the spelling dirk in 1755. Between 1602 and 1755, the only spellings found are dork and durk. Even with this, the fact that the word does not appear until after 1600, and that at that time it is a specific term for a specific type of Scottish dagger, makes it unsuitable for use in an English sign name.

We note that the inn sign pattern [designator] + [object] and [object] is attested. In resubmitting, we would suggest Dagger and Arrow House; the Oxford English Dictionary s.v. dagger defines a dagger as a short sword. The Hengwrt ms of Chaucer's Canterbury tales shows the spelling dagger.

There was some discussion whether House was a valid designator for a English sign-based household name. While we have no direct examples, we believe it is a reasonable designator. The Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. house, lists the definition "A building for the entertainment of travellers or of the public generally; an inn, tavern" and dates this quotation to 1638, "The Coho house is a house of good the Coho house they also inebriate their braines with Arace and Tobacco." While the discussion of English sign-based names typically evokes the term "inn signs", signs and sign based names are attested for other corporate entities such as shops and other commercial entities. Under the same entry, the OED defines house as "A place of business; transf. a business establishment, a mercantile firm." with this 1582 quote "Treasurer of the house of the Indias." In a separate work, we also note the inn-sign name The Armes of the East India Company in 1636 (Gretchen Beck, "Inn Sign Names from A Catelogue of Tavernew in Tenne Shires about London" []. While this information is sparse, we believe it is sufficient to allow the designator house or house of the with English sign-based names.

This badge is returned for violating the Rules for Submission section XI.3 as it appears to be marshalled arms - the impalement of Vert, a dagger bendwise sinister argent and Purpure, an arrow bendwise argent. This badge is also returned for identifiability problems with the arrow; hanging feathers are not found on heraldic arrows. On resubmission please use a standard heraldic arrow. The badge is also returned for using what appears to be a sgian dubh, which appears to be a non-period artifact. Barring evidence that this is a period form of a dagger, a standard heraldic dagger should be used on resubmission.



- Explicit littera renuntiationum -

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Created at 2007-12-06T00:42:07