Ćthelmearc, Kingdom of. Order name Order of the Golden Stirrup.

Benedict Fergus atte Mede. Device. Per pale vert and sable, a salamander contourny argent enflamed proper and on a chief embattled argent three mullets of seven points azure.

Boris Dragons Bane. Device change. Gules, a chevron and in base a griffin passant all between three pairs of axes in saltire argent.

The LoI blazoned the chevron and griffin as co-primary charges. As most commenters noted, correctly, that the griffin is a secondary charge, this need not be pended for further conflict checking.

His previous device, Per chevron gules and argent, a griffin passant in base gules between three pairs of axes in saltire counterchanged, is released.

Bridget Cordelia of Beau Fleuve. Name and device. Per pale sable and argent, three fleurs-de-lys counterchanged.

Beau Fleuve is the name of an SCA branch.

Nice armory.

Caniodricca verch Elidir. Name.

Submitted as Ceindrech merch Elidir, the submitter requested authenticity for 4th-9th C Welsh. This period is extremely difficult to provide authentic names for, given the lack of written records from the period and the difficulty in reconstructing Old Welsh forms from Medieval and Modern Welsh forms. Both Ceindrech and Elidir are Medieval Welsh spellings, with Kyn fil Elidir dated to 1283 in Morgan & Morgan s.n. Elidir, and Ceindrech appearing in a 14th century manuscript of an early period genealogy according to Bartrum; the woman in question lived in the early 6th century. Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "Names of Women of the Brythonic North in the 5-7th Centuries" discusses the name and gives Caniodricca as a reconstructed Latin form appropriate for the 6th century. The same article also notes that some form of the name Elidir was used in this period. However, we have no information how it was spelled, either in Latin or in Old Welsh, and so we cannot offer an authentic early period form of the patronym. We note that the spelling Ceindrech is not registerable even though it is found in medieval literature, because it is not the name of a saint:

Submitted as Nyfain of Brigantia, the submitter requested a name authentic for 6th century Britain. The name Nyfain is a standard modern form of a name found in the 6th C. The bearer of this name is found in genealogies written between the 10th through the 14th C. The name is not a saint's name. Early names found in later genealogies that are not saint's names are not registerable in standard modern (or standard later medieval) forms unless documentation is provided that the name was in use when such a spelling would be appropriate. Barring documentation that this name was in use in later period, the form Nyfain is not registerable. [Nemania Brigans, LoAR 05/2007, An Tir-A]

The byname merch Elidir violates RfS III.1.a by combining Old Welsh merch with Medieval Welsh Elidir. The correct Medieval Welsh form of 'daughter' is verch.

We have changed the name to Caniodricca verch Elidir in order to register it. This name has one step from period practice for the combination of Old Welsh and Medieval Welsh in the same name.

Finnr jafnkollr. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Grímkell bogsveigir. Name and device. Per chevron sable and Or, an arrow fesswise and a hammer counterchanged.

Gwen Telynores. Name.

This does not conflict with Gwenhwyvar Telynores (August 1996); though Gwen is used as a diminutive of Gwenhwyvar in modern times, Harpy explains that it was not a period diminutive of Gwenhwyvar:

The preponderance of evidence says that "Gwen" existed as an independent name and that we have no unambiguous examples of it being used as either an abbreviation or a diminutive of any other name.

As a result, Gwen and Gwenhwyvar must be considered with respect to their sound and spelling. As these are both significantly different, the two names do not conflict.

Gwion ab Wilim. Name.

Submitted as Gwion ab Willim, the submitter requested an authentic 11th-13th C Welsh name. The earliest examples of double ll spellings of William in Welsh that were found by the commenters are from the 14th century. Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th Century Welsh Names" shows Wilim and Gwilim as 13th century forms. We have changed the name to Gwion ab Wilim to make this name authentic for the 13th century.

Maghnus an Chnoic na n'Iora. Badge. Azure, a chevron humetty, in base a single-headed chess knight argent.

Please advise the submitter that more field should show between the chevron and the edge of the shield.

Onnena Creca. Name.

Submitted as Onnen_ Greg, the submitter requested authenticity for northern Brythonic culture. Onnen Greg is the standard modern form of a name which is recorded as Onnen grec in a 14th-century manuscript concerning events from the 6th century. We do not know how the name was spelled in Brythonic in this period. Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "Names of Women of the Brythonic North in the 5-7th Centuries", gives Onnena Creca as a reconstructed Latin form appropriate for the 5th-7th centuries. As we have no information about how the name would have been spelled in Brythonic during this time, this Latin form is the most authentic form we can offer. We have changed the name to Onnena Creca to best meet her request for authenticity.

The adoption of the entire name of a real historical figure is poor style, especially given how few examples we have of early Brythonic feminine names. However, as the historical Onnen Greg is not important enough to protect from conflict, this name is registerable.

Robert l'Etourdi. Device. Per saltire vert and sable, six bezants one, two, and three and on a chief Or three pellets.

Thorolf the Blak. Device. Quarterly embattled sable and Or, a Thor's hammer and a wolf's head ululant couped contourny sable.

The use of a wolf's head ululant is a step from period practice.


Andrew Crowe. Name.

Heinrich Wilhelm. Name and badge. Azure, a wing within a bordure argent.

Submitted as Heinrich Wilhelm von Ansbach, the submitter requested an authentic 11th-13th C German name. No evidence was provided either on the LoI or by the commenters for the use of two bynames in German during this period. Additionally, while the town Ansbach dates to at least the 13th century, the earliest byname based on the place name that was found by the College was der Onspech 1492, in Brechenmacher, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen, s.n. Ansbach. Lacking earlier examples of this byname, it is not authentic for the submitter's desired era. We have dropped the second byname and are registering the name as Heinrich Wilhelm_ 'Heinrich son of Wilhelm' to meet the submitter's authenticity request. Heinrich Wilhelm is a fine 13th C German name; both Heinricus and Wilhelmus are found in Talan Gwynek, "German Given Names 1200-1250"; these are Latinized forms of Heinrich and Wilhelm, respectively.

One commenter noted a possible conflict with the arms of Dante Alighieri, Azure, a sinister wing argent, claiming that Dante's arms had been depicted with both a dexter and a sinister wing, which would remove our CD for orientation of wings; but the commenter did not cite any documentation to support this claim. We have been unable to find these depictions, so we are continuing our practice of granting a CD for orientation of wings, making this submission clear of Dante's arms with one CD for the orientation of the wing and one for the addition of the bordure.

Jorgen von Stein. Name.

Mór Bran. Reblazon of device. Per bend sinister argent and vert, a crow sable and an hautboy bendwise sinister argent.

Registered in November 2006 with the blazon Per bend sinister argent and vert, a crow sable and an hautbois bendwise sinister argent, there is but a single hautboy on the device. As Clarion pointed out for another submission, "According to Merriam Webster online, the plural of hautboy is hautbois or hautboys."

Nicolette Thomas. Blanket permission to conflict with name.

The submitter grants blanket permission to register names that conflict with but are not identical to her registered name. Further, she notes that, if the Rules for Submission are changed to allow registration of identical items, she will allow registration of items that are identical to her name.

Onnwuen Ćthelhelmes dohtor. Name and device. Azure, a harp and on a chief embattled Or three crescents gules.

Submitted as Onnwuen Aethelhelmsdottr, the byname was improperly constructed. Aethelhelm is not a plausible variant spelling of Ćthelhelm, as past precedent indicates:

The name Aelric is a misrepresentation of the Old English Ćlric; Ae is not a valid spelling for Ć; when such names are translated to Middle English, the Ć typically appears as either A, Ai, or E. [LoAR 11/2004]

Additionally, the genitive of Ćthelhelm is Ćthelhelmes, not Ćthelhelms. Finally, no documentation was provided for dottr as a word meaning 'daughter' in any language. The usual spelling for the word in Old English is dohtor. We have therefore changed the byname to Ćthelhelmes dohtor to fix the grammar and documentation problems.

No documentation was provided that there was significant contact between Cornish and Old English speakers, which is required in order for names combining these two languages to be registerable. Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "Cornish (and Other) Personal Names from the 10th Century Bodmin Manumissions", includes a number of names of Old English origin and notes that the Manumissions were written in Old English and Latin. Furthermore, the section on "name formats" lists one Teţion filius Wasso; Teţion is of Cornish origin and Wasso of Old English. Given this information, we hereby rule that Cornish and Old English can be combined in the same name with no step from period practice.

Tymothy of Dover. Name.

Wilhelmin Weissenheimerin. Household name Companye of Seint Audre.


Tostig Logiosophia. Release of badge (see RETURNS for blanket permission to conflict). Azure, on a plate a pall azure, on a chief argent, a compass star between two mullets of four points azure.

Wiesenfeuer, Barony of. Badge. (Fieldless) An annulet of flame gules.

The use of an annulet of flames is grandfathered to the barony. Lacking evidence of flames used in this manner in period heraldry, an annulet of flames is not otherwise registerable.

This badge is clear of the device for Alanus de Bunghea, Per chevron azure and Or, in base a flame gules. There is a CD for fieldlessness and another for the difference between a flame and an annulet of flames.

Wiesenfeuer, Barony of. Badge. (Fieldless) An annulet of flame argent.

The use of an annulet of flames is grandfathered to the barony. Lacking evidence of flames used in this manner in period heraldry, an annulet of flames is not otherwise registerable.

The submitted badge is clear of the badge for Aislynn of Jarrow, (Fieldless) A flame argent. There is a CD for fieldlessness and another for the difference between a flame and an annulet of flame. The submitted badge is also clear of the badge for David MacColin, Sable, an open penannular brooch, pin to base, argent. There is a CD for fieldlessness. While a penannular brooch is granted no difference from an annulet, both are granted a CD from an annulet of flames.


Brandan Wanderer von Arnswold. Name and device. Per bend azure and vert, a bend raguly on the upper edge and in sinister chief a hawk's head erased argent.

Submitted as Brandan der Wanderer von Arnswold, no documentation was provided for the addition of der before Wanderer. We have dropped the article and are registering the name as Brandan_Wanderer von Arnswold in order to match the documentation.

Godfrey of Argyle. Device. Quarterly gules and sable, a quadrant and in chief a pair of shackles conjoined by a chain fesswise Or.

Jost der Luk. Name and device. Quarterly gules and sable all crusilly fitchy Or, a badger rampant argent marked sable.

Submitted as Jost Brandolf von Luck, the submitter requested authenticity for the Holy Roman Empire, 1300-1400, and cared most about sound. Brandolf was documented as an Anglo-Scandinavian form of the Old Norse name Br{o,}ndólfr. We were unable to find any evidence that either Brandolf or a cognate was used in the Holy Roman Empire; lacking such evidence, its use here is not authentic, and so we have dropped the element.

The only documentation provided for von Luck were printouts from the Rootsweb genealogy website. Genealogical websites are only acceptable as documentation if they cite their sources and if it is clear that they have not modernized or standardized the name forms. While the particular pages submitted for von Luck did include citations of sources, we were unable to confirm that the forms had not been standardized. The closest documentable 14th-century byname that the commenters found is der Luk, dated to 1310 in Brechenmacher, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen, s.n. Lu(c)k(e). We have changed the name to Jost_der Luk to meet his request for authenticity and in order to register the name.

Robert Lyons of Kilkenny. Name change from holding name Robert of Tir Ysgithr.

Shonna Dennyng. Device. Per bend sinister Or and gules, a trefoil knot and a chief vert.

Simon de Rouen. Device. Per bend sinister gules and purpure, in pale three hautboys bendwise within a bordure Or.

Please advise the submitter that the finger holes for the hautboys should be shown to aid in identifying the instrument.

Stephanie of Atenveldt. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Counter-ermine, a pegasus segreant and a bordure dovetailed argent.

Please advise the submitter to draw more and bolder ermine spots.

Submitted under the name Valora Tou Agina.

Tangwistel Corista. Name.


Clare Garland. Name and device. Checky vert and argent, on a chief argent four roses proper.

Emma verch Howell. Name.

Gabrell Fairecloughe. Device. Per pale wavy vert and argent, a dragon and a lion addorsed counterchanged.

Giovanna Rossellini da Firenze. Name and device. Per saltire vert and Or, two sunflowers Or seeded sable and two oak leaves gules.

The LoI noted "While we believe that the flowers could just as well be blazoned as proper, since the sable seeding appears important to the submitter, we felt it advisable to blazon it explicitly since sunflowers proper could just as easily have brown seeds." When the term proper is used as a shorthand for heraldic tinctures (as a rose proper is a concise way of saying rose gules, barbed vert, seeded Or), either the shorthand form or the expanded form are equally accurate; if the submitter states a preference, we will abide by it. In this case, if the submitter later decides that her sunflowers should be simply blazoned sunflowers proper, she may request a reblazon as an administrative action.

Marguerite d'Angers. Name and device. Azure crusilly Latin fleury, a dolphin haurient argent.

Mariana Francisco. Device. Per pale azure and argent, six strawberries two, two, and two counterchanged.

Rita de Tacoronte. Name.

Tailefhlaith ingen Ruaircc. Name.

This name was documented from Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in the Irish Annals", but the documentation was not properly summarized. Had the commenters not supplied the missing information, we would have been forced to return this name. For information on proper summarization of this source, please see the March 2008 Cover Letter.

Nice 9th C Gaelic name!


Alfgeirr skytja. Alternate name Abe no Tarou Hideaki (see RETURNS for badge).

Angus de Montfort. Name and device. Quarterly vert and sable, a hand within an orle argent.

Cristine Tailleur. Badge. Argent, a tree blasted and eradicated per pale purpure and vert, a bordure per pale vert and purpure.

Cristine Tailleur. Badge. (Fieldless) A tree blasted and eradicated per pale purpure and vert.

Eleri Breuestere. Name and device. Per bend sinister rayonny Or and gules, two frogs sejant affronty counterchanged within a bordure rayonny per bend sinister gules and Or.

The given name is registered under the saint's name allowance. Eleri is the name of a Welsh male saint; this spelling of the name occurs in number 18 in the Bonedd y Saint (Lineage of the Saints), which was compiled in the early twelfth century with the earliest surviving copy dating to the third quarter of the thirteenth century, according to Bartrum.

The submitter noted that she cared most about the meaning of the byname as 'female brewer'. While Breuestere is etymologically from an Old English feminine word, in the 13th century this form was used by both men and women, as is shown in the 1221 citation of Roger Breuestere, Reaney & Wilson s.n. Brewster. The submitter should be informed that Eleri Breuestere would have been interpreted as a masculine name, not a feminine name.

Francis Bean. Device. Per chevron sable and vert, three plates one and two and a bear statant argent.

The submitter has permission to conflict with the badge for Gwenneth Bowynne of Glamorgan, Per chevron sable and vert, in cross three plates and a cobra coiled erect affronty Or.

Geoffrey Lucas. Name and device. Per fess argent and vert, a Celtic cross and a wolf passant counterchanged.

Celtic crosses are Latin (with the lower limb longer than the others) by definition.

Guđrún Valdísardóttir. Name change from Gabrielle de La Roche.

Her previous name, Gabrielle de La Roche, is retained as an alternate name.

Inga in danska. Name.

Johan der Hund. Name change from Johann of Axed Root.

His previous name, Johann of Axed Root, is retained as an alternate name.

Ki no Kotori. Name change from Ki no Torame.

Her previous name, Ki no Torame, is hereby released.

Ki no Kotori. Alternate name Szabó Maria.

Ki no Kotori. Alternate name Tacye Holyfield (see RETURNS for badge).

Murdoch Macfarlane. Device. Lozengy argent and azure semy of hop cones stems to chief, on a lozenge Or a spearhead sable.

Thomas the Black. Badge. (Fieldless) A cross of chains couped sable.

Victoria the Red. Badge change. Per chevron Or and sable, two fleurs-de-lys and a stag's head affronty erased at the shoulders winged counterchanged.

Her previous badge, Per pall inverted argent, purpure and sable, in chief two triskeles counterchanged purpure and argent, is released.


Eva Grelsdotter. Name.

Thyrwi Stigsdottir. Name and device. Per fess wavy argent and azure, an arrow bendwise sinister counterchanged.


Aurora of Dragonship Haven. Name and device. Per fess azure and Or, a sun Or and a dog courant sable.

The submitter requested that the dog be blazoned as an Elghund, the Danish and Norwegian name for the breed known in English as the elkhound. There is evidence that dogs resembling the modern elkhound existed throughout period, so the depiction of this dog is registerable. The earliest use of the term elkhound is 1835, well outside of even our gray area. Had it been shown that the term "Elghund" was period, we would have used the English translation of that term so that the blazon was more easily understood; however, no evidence was found that the term Elghund was a period term for the dog. Until such evidence is found, we will simply identify the charge as a generic dog.

Brian le Wolfhunt. Name and device. Or, a wolf passant guardant and on a chief azure three plates.

Nice 13th C English name!

Please advise the submitter that some internal detailing would improve the identifiability of the wolf, as shown in OSCAR. We note that such mismatches between OSCAR emblazons and the forms received by Laurel are not currently grounds for a return unless they significantly effect the College's ability to provide relevant commentary on the submission. We wish to remind submissions heralds that differences which effect the outline of a charge or group of charges are sufficient grounds for return.

Brigit Comyn. Device. Vert, a bend wavy sinister between two stick shuttles bendwise sinister argent, threaded purpure.

Caitriona inghean Sheamuis. Name and device. Per chevron gules and argent, a mastiff statant defamed argent and three thistles one and two vert, headed purpure.

There was some discussion about whether the patronymic particles nic and inghean were in conflict. The rules for submission are very clear on this: per RfS V.1.a, V.1.a.ii, and V.1.a.ii.(a), to be clear of each other, two bynames of relationship must (1) look and sound significantly different AND (2) indicate significantly different relationships. It is clear that the elements nic and inghean differ significantly in sound and appearance.

So, do inghean and nic express significantly different relationships? According to the April 2002 Cover Letter they do. The particle inghean is "daughter" while nic is "daughter of the son". As both conditions (1) and (2) are met, these bynames do not conflict.

The dog's tail is not shown. While tail docking seems to be a modern custom, the fact that the missing tail can be blazoned makes it registerable: Parker's Glossary of Heraldic Terms, p.377, gives defamed as the term for a tailless beast (e.g., a lion). There is sufficient evidence of mastiff-type dogs in the Rottweil region of Germany during our period that this depiction of a dog is registerable; however, the term Rottweiler for the breed of dog appears to be a significantly post-period development. Therefore the dog has been registered as a mastiff defamed.

Please advise the submitter that the thistles should be drawn larger to fill the available space.

The submitter has permission to conflict with Eoin Dubh (registered below), Per chevron azure and argent, a bow fesswise argent and three thistles one and two vert, headed purpure.

Eoin Dubh. Name and device. Per chevron gules and argent, a mastiff statant defamed argent and three thistles one and two vert, headed purpure.

Nice 16th C Irish Gaelic name!

The submitter has permission to conflict with Caitriona inghean Sheamuis (registered above), Per chevron gules and argent, a tailless dog statant argent and three thistles one and two vert, headed purpure.

Faolán Ó Sirideáin. Device. Azure, a chevron gules fimbriated Or, overall a wolf rampant argent.

The combination of a fimbriated ordinary and an overall charge is allowable so long as identifiability is maintained. In this case, both the chevron and the wolf are identifiable. Please see this month's Cover Letter for a complete discussion of this issue.

Joris de Tolosa. Name.

Nice 13th C Occitan name!

Lillian Stanhope. Name and device. Sable, on a lozenge argent a seahorse vert, in chief two escallops argent.

Mariota of Kildare. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Submitted as Mariota Fitzgerald of Kildare, the combination of the name Fitzgerald with the locative Kildare is not registerable because it is presumptuous:

There is a long-standing precedent against combining a Scottish clan name with the name of its seat, a precedent confirmed in the 3/93 registration of Alexander MacIntosh of Islay (Middle). By the same reasoning the combination Fitzgerald of Kildare must be prohibited: between 1316 and 1766 one of the major branches of the Fitzgeralds were Earls of Kildare. We have therefore dropped the locative to register the rest of the name.[Da'ud II; Talan Gwynek, LoAR Nov 1995, p. 6]

This name is registerable as either Mariota Fitzgerald or Mariota of Kildare. As the submitter had previous submitted Moriath of Kildare, we have changed the name to Mariota of Kildare in order to register it.

Oskar of the Wood. Badge. Gules, a decrescent Or within a bordure ermine.

Ruadhan Muir. Name (see RETURNS for device).

There was some question whether this name conflicted with the registered name Ruadhagán Mór, registered December 1993. Ó Corrain and Maguire, Irish Names, s.nn. Rúadacán and Rúadán, derive both names from a root rúad but do not indicate that one is a diminutive of the other. Therefore, the two names only need to differ significantly in sound and appearance. There is a hard /g/ sound in the given name Ruadhagan which provides a clear and unmistakable difference in sound between these two names. As they are also significantly different in appearance, they do not conflict.

Temair ingen Muiredaich. Badge. Purpure, a fox sejant contourny argent within a bordure ermine.

Temair ingen Muiredaich and Oskar of the Wood. Joint household name House of the White Stag and Fox.


Genevieve de Montfleur. Name.

Madelina of Duneheve. Name and device. Sable, in pale two unicorns passant and a bordure argent.

Nice armory.


Charmayne d'Aix la Chapelle. Device. Per fess dovetailed azure and argent, a lion passant argent and a tyger passant contourny sable.

As there is a CD between a lion and a (heraldic) tyger, this does not fall afoul of the so-called "sword-and-dagger" rule.

This was originally pended on the October 2007 LoAR.


Robert FitzAlwyn. Reblazon of device. Argent, a dragon sejant affronty, wings displayed, and on a chief triangular sable a flame Or charged with a broad-arrow gules.

Registered in February 1987 with the blazon Argent, a dragon sejant affronty, wings elevated and displayed, on a chief triangular sable a broad arrow gules, enflamed Or, the broad-arrow is not enflamed; it lies entirely on the flame.


Lorette Roberge. Name.

The submitter requested an authentic 15th French C name. Lorette is a fine 15th C name, but we have found no examples of Roberge from that time. However, we do have Roberge as a 13th C given name in Paris (Colm Dubh, "Index to the Given Names in the Census of Paris 1292"), as well as a surname in the gray area. Metron Ariston notes:

The web site you cite [] note the two brothers, both named Pierre Roberge from whom all of the many Canadians who bear the surname Roberge descend. One was born in 1637 and the other some eleven years later. However, an older half brother Denis Roberge also appears in documents and he was born around 1629 as the son of Jacques Roberge and Andrée Le Marchand (

Given this information, it seems highly likely that this spelling would have been used in the 15th C. While we cannot assure the submitter that this is an authentic 15th C name, it seems highly likely that it is one.

This was originally pended on the October 2007 LoAR.

Ulrich von Straszburg. Name.

Submitted as Ulrich von Strasbourg, the submitter requested an authentic German name. The byname phrase mixes a German article with French orthography in violation of RfS.III.1.a, Linguistic Consistency. The submitted documentation, a woodcut from Hartmann Schedel's Weltchronik (Nürnberg 1493), shows the spelling Straszburg. We have changed the name to Ulrich von Straszburg in order to register it and to fulfill his request for authenticity.

This was originally pended on the October 2007 LoAR.


Alys Bouchard. Device. Azure, three crescents conjoined one and two, horns outward, argent and in chief a compass star Or.

Anna By the Water. Name and device. Per bend sinister wavy argent and azure, a frog vert and a cattail slipped and leaved argent.

Originally submitted as Anna by the Waters, the name was changed at kingdom to Anna Bythewater, then corrected to Anna Bythewaters because there was no documentation for spaces in the byname. No documentation was provided and none found for the use of the plural in descriptive elements in bynames of this type. The spaces, though, are another matter: Blue Anchor noted, "I just stumbled on <Thomas By the Watir> in the Wakefield Court Rolls for 1349." This provides support for the multi-part byname. We have changed the name to Anna By the Water to more closely match her originally submitted form.

Caerthe, Barony of. Order name Order of Evan and badge association. Or, a dragon passant gules and a chief embattled sable.

There was some discussion about the documentation required for a order name where the intention is to name the order for an admired individual from the Society. In this case, the documentation requirements are the same as they are for any other name -- the submitters must demonstrate that all elements of the name are consistent with the Rules for Submission. Unless the element used in the formation of such an order name is already registered to the branch in question, the grandfather clause does not apply. We commend the Barony of Caerthe for the fine job they did in documenting the substantive element of this order name as a name found in period, as well as making it clear that the intent was to name the order for an admired individual within the Society.

Carlos Nieto de Andrade. Device. Per chevron azure and argent, three mullets of eight points one and two Or and a cross of Santiago gules within a bordure embattled counterchanged.

The top limb of the cross terminates in a shape similar to a card pique, rather than fleury as the other arms do. There was some question as to whether this was an acceptable depiction. It is a period Spanish form of the cross of Santiago and thus acceptable. It's dated in this form to at least 1445, from the retable in the chapel of Santiago at Toledo Cathedral (The Monks of War: the Military Religious Orders, Desmond Seward, 1972, plate 9).

Geillis inghean Phóil uí Shirideín. Device. Per bend argent and purpure, a bend counterchanged and in sinister chief three trefoils vert.

Submitted on a lozenge, the trefoils were blazoned on the Letter of Intent as in bend. This is not necessary, as it is the default placement of three charges in chief on a per bend field, on this shape of heraldic display. By not over-specifying their placement, we make it clear that the charges are filling their available space. And should this device be displayed on a heater or a square banner, they can be placed to still fill the space (two and one, in those cases) without needing a change of blazon.

James Bowyer. Name.

Originally submitted as James Bowyer, the name was changed at kingdom to James Boyer to match the available documentation. The Stonor letters and papers, 1290-1483; ed. for the Royal historical society, from the original documents in the Public Record Office, by Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, notes a Willm. Bowyer in a letter dated 1472. Given this example, we have changed the name back to the originally submitted form.

John Bowyer. Name and device. Azure, a lion couchant Or and a chief wavy argent.

Originally submitted as John Bowyer, the name was changed at kingdom to John Boyer to match the available documentation. The Stonor letters and papers, 1290-1483; ed. for the Royal historical society, from the original documents in the Public Record Office, by Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, notes a Willm. Bowyer in a letter dated 1472. Given this example, we have changed the name back to the originally submitted form.

Please advise the submitter that the waves should have somewhat more amplitude.

Lilian Bowyer. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Originally submitted as Lilian Bowyer, the name was changed at kingdom to Lilian Boyer to match the available documentation. The Stonor letters and papers, 1290-1483; ed. for the Royal historical society, from the original documents in the Public Record Office, by Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, notes a Willm. Bowyer in a letter dated 1472. Given this example, we have changed the name back to the originally submitted form.

Mari the Far-Travelled. Device. Azure, a demi-pegasus couped contourny between three compass stars Or.

We note that demi-creatures are erect by default.

Muirenn Glas ingen Fháeláin. Name.

Submitted as Muirenn Ghlais ingen Fáelán, the submitter requested an authentic Irish name. As submitted, both the descriptive byname and the patronym are in the wrong grammatical case. The descriptive byname is in the genitive case rather than the required nominative case, while, the patronym was in the nominative case rather than the required genitive case.

In addition, in Middle Irish, the lenition is written with the letter F and lenition occurs with this letter in patronyms following the feminine particle. The correct form is ingen Fháeláin. However, the lenition is not written in Middle Irish with the letter g, so the expected form for this byname is Glas. We have changed the name to Muireen Glas ingen Fháeláin to make the grammar correct for a Middle Irish name.

There was some question whether Glas was authentic for a Middle Irish name. The name is not found in the Irish annals as a byname until the 15th C. However, the word glas is found in Middle Irish, and is used to describe human complexion. Just as we would accept an English adjective as an authentic byname if it was used to describe humans in the appropriate period, even if we had no example of it used as a byname, it seems reasonable to do so with this Irish adjective.

We note that the use of h to denote lenition in Irish names is a side effect of using a fully Roman script for registration. In Irish script, lenition is denoted by a punctum delens, which looks like a dot above the lenited consonant. When writing her own name, the submitter may want to use the punctum delens instead of the h in Fháeláin.

Omar ibn Haroun al-Askari al-Rumi. Name change from holding name Omar of Dragonsspine.

Sorcha inghean Eoin. Device. Ermine, a water bouget azure within a bordure raguly vert.

Nice armory.

Stephen Axtell. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Walkelin Montgomery. Device. Argent, three arrow fletchings in pall, shafts to center, a bordure sable.


Aelesia Marschal. Device. Azure, three catamounts rampant argent, in chief an increscent Or.

Emrys Coedwig. Name.

Flann ua Donndubáin. Device. Argent, a heron rising wings displayed between a chevronel throughout and a bar azure.

While we have examples in period of ordinaries being framed by other ordinaries and of random primary charges being framed by two identical ordinaries, we can find no examples of an arbitrary type of primary charge framed by two non-identical ordinaries. Having two different types of ordinary framing a primary charge is therefore a step from period practice.

Harold Breakstone. Reblazon of badge. Azure, a cougar crouched to spring proper atop a mountain sable.

This was originally registered in January 1973 with the blazon Azure, a cougar crouched to spring upon a rock, all proper. Most interpret that blazon to place the cougar on the ground ready to spring to the top of the rock; however, it is actually on the rock ready to leap down. The cougar is a tannish-orange tincture; it can best be described as proper. It will conflict with an Or or a brown feline. The reblazon comes closest to representing the emblazon.

Isolte le Quite. Name.

Saxi bilstyggr Geirsson. Name and device. Azure, a bull's head cabossed within a bordure argent.

Submitted as Saxi bilstyggr Tyrgeirsson, the patronymic was put forward as a construction of Tyr- + -geirr. The protheme is based on the name Tyrfingr found in Haraldson, The Old Norse Name. However, Cleasby-Vigfusson, An Icelandic English Dictionary, s.v. Tyrfingr, notes "the name of the enchanted sword, Hervar S.; prop. from its flaming like resinous-wood (tyrfi): a pr. name, Landn." while s.v. tyrfi, tyrfi is defined as a resinous fir-tree. Thus the name Tyrfingr is not formed from the theme Tyr- but rather from the theme tyrfi-. There is no evidence that the theme Tyr- is found in diathematic Norse names. Of the similar god name Týr, the Academy of Saint Gabriel report 3332 notes:

All names with <Týr-> or <-týr> in Lind, E.H., Norsk-Isländska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn frĺn Medeltiden, (Uppsala & Leipzig: 1905-1915, sup. Oslo, Uppsala and Kobenhavn: 1931) are mythological or fictional.

Without evidence of the use of the themes Tyr- or Týr- in Old Norse, constructed diathematic names may not use these themes. Because Geirr is an Old Norse personal name in its own right (Cleasby Vigfusson, s.v. Geirr note it in the Landnamabok), we have changed the name to Saxi bilstyggr Geirsson in order to register it.

The primary charge was blazoned as an auroch's head on the LoI. As there is no cant or other reason to blazon this as an auroch's head, and the horns don't match those of auroch's skulls presently available (aurochs went extinct in Europe in 1627), we have reblazoned the charge as a bull's head.

- Explicit littera accipiendorum -



Aíbell ingen Chernacháin. Device. Argent, a dragon displayed maintaining a chalice and a needle threaded and on a chief triangular sable a decrescent argent.

This device is returned for conflict with the device for Robert FitzAlwyn, reblazoned elsewhere on this letter as Argent, a dragon sejant affronty, wings displayed, and on a chief triangular sable a flame Or charged with a broad-arrow gules. There is a CD for changes to the tertiary charge but not for removing the quaternary broad-arrow. Nor is there a CD for the posture of the dragon as Robert's dragon gives the overwhelming appearance of a dragon displayed.

If this general motif is resubmitted, we recommend using a tincture other than sable for the needle. The trouble that commenters had identifying the needle may have been sufficient grounds in and of itself for return.

Finnr jafnkollr. Device. Gules, in bend sinister a merlin rising sustaining an axe bendwise Or.

This device is returned for conflict with a badge for the Barony of Highland Foorde, Gules, a lark rising, wings elevated and addorsed, sustaining in its beak an open scroll Or. There is a CD for changing the type of sustained charged, but nothing for the fact that it is sustained in the bird's feet rather than its mouth. A lark not having been shown to be a period charge, we must fall back on visual comparison. In this case, the main distinguishing characteristic, the beak, is obscured by the charge sustained in the lark's beak. Therefore, there is not a CD between the types of bird.


Mairghread inghean Uilleim. Name.

This conflicts with Mairghread inghean Uilleim.

Sina di Andreas Valori. Name.

This violates RfS III.1.a, Linguistic Consistency, by combining Italian di with Latinized Andreas in the same phrase. We would change the byname to the wholly Italian di Andrea_ Valori, using the usual Italian vernacular of Andreas, but the submitter does not allow major changes. Changing the language of an element is a major change, so we are forced to return the name.


Ebergardis von Zell. Badge. Vert, in cross a bee proper maintaining a crown Or, two bees proper, and a beehive Or.

This badge is returned for a redraw: the crown is so small that it cannot be seen. This violates the section of the Rules for Submission (VIII.3) which requires that all charges must be identifiable. The rule states that "identifiable elements may be rendered unidentifiable by significant reduction in size, marginal contrast, excessive counterchanging, voiding, or fimbriation, or by being obscured by other elements of the design." In this case, the crown is not identifiable because of its size and so must be returned.

Tostig Logiosophia. Blanket permission to conflict with badge. (Fieldless) A closed book fesswise, spine to chief, azure, leaved, clasped and garnished argent.

This blanket permission to conflict is returned as it contains a condition that cannot be enforced. The letter states "I grant permission to any future submitter to register armory that is at least one countable step different from my registered armory provided that any submitter registering armory that is only one countable step different from my registered armory also grant Permission to Conflict for any future submitters." While we sympathize with the submitter's desire, such a condition cannot be enforced and we must decline to accept the permission to conflict.


Ragnarr skinnskrifari í Bládrekafirđi. Name.

This is returned for lack of documentation and for construction problems with both bynames.

The byname skinnskrifari was proposed as a constructed byname meaning "skin painter", and the LoI noted that the submitter was trying to construct an Old Norse byname appropriate for a tattooist. There are two problems with the byname. First, no examples were provided of bynames which use skinn as a prototheme; the only compound byname based on skinn that was provided was heljarskinn 'swarthy-skin' in Landnámabók. Second, no evidence was found that 'skin-painter' is a plausible concept in Old Norse. The Viking Answer Lady ( notes that there are no clear records of Viking tattoos, so it may be the case that there is no appropriate Old Norse term for a tattooist.

The only documentation provided for the byname í Bládrekafirđi was dictionary entries for each of the words blár, dreki, and firđi (a declined form of fj{o,}rđr). No evidence was provided that the pattern color + mythical beast + toponymic element is a plausible construction for Scandinavian place names. While we do have examples of Norse place names constructed from personal bynames, past precedent (Kristin Hvithestr, 12/2003, q.v.) indicates that there is no evidence for color + animal bynames in Old Norse, so this model cannot be used for this place name. Lacking evidence for this pattern in Scandinavian place names, í Bládrekafirđi is not registerable.

Valora Tou Agina. Name.

This is being returned for administrative reasons. Listed on the LoI as Valora Tou Agina, the name appeared on the forms as Valora Tou Ayiva and the fact that the name was changed in kingdom was not noted on the LoI. We have repeatedly warned this kingdom that changes made in kingdom must be summarized on the LoI, with both the original form and the reason for the change being given. For a further discussion of this issue, please see the Cover Letter for this LoAR. Because of the kingdom's systematic failure to provide this information, we are administratively returning this name and decline to rule on its registerability at this time.

Her device has been registered under the holding name Stephanie of Atenveldt.


Randvér askmađr. Device. Azure, a drakkar Or between three drinking horns palewise argent within a bordure Or.

This device conflicts with the badge of the Barony of Stormhold, Azure, a drakkar affronty within a bordure Or. There is a CD for the addition of the horns. The second CD must come from the orientation of the drakkar; however, the sails in both case are in the same position. The main way we can tell the orientation of a drakkar is by its dragon prow. In Stormhold's case, the prow is invisible: an Or prow against an Or sail. Also, the curving sides of the hull look like a bow and stern. The lack of a rudder is not an indication that the ship is affronty as the lack of rudder is frequent among profile renderings. Stormhold's drakkar is just too similar to a drakkar in profile to grant a CD; therefore, the submitted device does conflict with Stormhold's badge.

The submitted device is clear of the arms of the Shire of Korsväg, Azure, a drakkar reversed Or, sail set argent and charged with a laurel wreath vert, all within a bordure Or. There is a CD for the removal of the laurel wreath and a CD for the addition of the horns.

Sorcha Préchán. Name.

This is returned for lack of documentation for the byname. The documentation for Préchán consisted of a dictionary citation for the use of the word in Middle Irish, and a reference to an early 16th century Eoghan An Preachain in a website on the history of the McCarthy Mor clan. This latter reference is, unfortunately, unreliable. No source for this Eoghan was provided, and no independent references to him could be found. The question is then whether a byname meaning 'crow' is plausible in Irish Gaelic. Mari Elspeth nic Brian, "Index of Names in the Irish Annals" shows only two animal bynames, 'fox' and 'wolf/hound'. As past precedent says,

Descriptive bynames based on animals are extremely rare in Gaelic. At this point, only a handful have been dated to period, specifically Cu 'wolf', Sinnach 'fox', Damán 'little stag, little ox', and Rón 'seal' (which may be unique to Áed Rón). It is important to note that none of these animals are rodents. The return of this submitter's previous name stated in part:

In a broader sense, no evidence was presented and none was found that any type of rodent would have been included as a root in [...] a descriptive byname. Lacking such evidence, this name is not registerable. [Eileen ingen Dubh-luchag, LoAR December 2001, R-An Tir]

No documentation was provided for the current submission and none was found to show that a descriptive byname formed from the name of a rodent is reasonable in Gaelic. Lacking such evidence, the byname in Luch is not registerable. [Eileen in Luch, 03/2003, R-An Tir]

The current case is analogous; none of our examples of animal bynames in Gaelic are based on birds. Lacking evidence for bynames based on birds in Gaelic, Préchán is not registerable.


Alfgeirr skytja. Badge. Purpure, three oak leaves conjoined in pall throughout Or.

This badge is returned for a redraw of the leaves. They are not oak leaves. The LoI suggested that they could be reblazoned as Japanese oak leaves based on depictions of mon found in the Matsuya collection; however, depictions of mon elements are generally allowed only if they can be blazoned in (European) heraldic terms. These leaves do not resemble leaves found in period heraldry, and no evidence was presented the Japanese oak was known in Europe prior to 1600. We cannot reblazon these as simply as "leaves" since, unlike most other generic charges, a leaf has a specific shape: it is oval shaped and possibly has a pointed tip. We grant a CD between a generic leaf and oak leaves (among others).

Drawn with standard oak leaves, the submitted device would not conflict with the device of Uta von dem Lindenwald, Gules, in pall three linden leaves stems conjoined Or. There is a CD for changing the tincture of the field and another for the difference between oak leaves and linden leaves.

Ki no Kotori. Badge. Argent semy of holly sprigs vert fructed gules.

This badge is returned for conflict with the device of Gwenllyen the Minstrel, Argent, three sprigs of holly inverted vert fructed gules. There is a CD for changing the number of holly sprigs but nothing for the orientation. Two of the three holly leaves in each sprig are in the same position in both pieces of armory.




Mariota of Kildare. Device. Or vętu, a duck purpure between in pale two gouttes de larmes.

This device is returned for conflict with the device of Caterina Nadalini, Purpure, on a lozenge ployé Or a bunch of grapes proper. There is but a single CD for changes to the tertiary charges when Mariota's device is considered as Purpure, on a lozenge Or.... On the April 2008 LoAR (v. Caitilín inghean Fheichín), it was ruled that "While a lozenge throughout must always be checked as though it were a vętu field (and thus comparable to all other fields) a lozenge need only be compared to a vętu field (not to all fields)." This was not a new precedent, merely a clarification of longstanding precedent.

Given that the duck and the gouttes appear to be two different groups, a fact that is acceptable on a field but not for charges on a charge, there was some question if the above conflict held. This argument is based on the June 2004 Cover Letter Discussion, "Alternate Blazons and Conflicts". Essentially the Cover Letter states that if a conflict only exists when the armory in submission is blazoned in a way that is not registerable, then the conflict doesn't exist. In that case, the issue was the presence of a quaternary charge if the armory was reblazoned. The precedent from the June 2004 Cover Letter does not apply in this case. Lozenges, and vętu, are a special case. Vętu is visually a lozenge. We have period examples of vętu and lozenges throughout being used interchangeably. Therefore, vętu must always be checked as if it were a lozenge, even if the result is something we wouldn't register for stylistic reasons.

Ruadhan Muir. Device. Per chevron azure and argent, two rapiers in saltire argent and a popinjay azure.

This device is returned for a redraw. Blazoned on the LoI as swords, the charges in chief most closely resemble rapiers. They are drawn in such a manner that they must be considered "thin-line heraldry": the upper portion of each rapier is invisible. While the bird is parrot-like, its beak should be hooked and the tail longer. As ruled on the February 2006 Cover Letter, we grant a CD between a properly drawn raven and a popinjay. That letter stated:

The popinjay's beak is the typical hooked form we associate with parrots, macaws, budgies, etc, while the crow's beak is long and pointy. The popinjay also has a long, pointed tail,

Finally, the line of division should be straight and symmetrical. No one of these issues is likely grounds for return, but when every element of the design requires an artist's note, the combination of problems is sufficient grounds for return.

We note that the term sword covers many edged weapons. Something blazoned a sword may legitimately be depicted as a rapier if the owner chooses; however, if it is desired that a rapier always be depicted, it is best to blazon it as such. Given the blazon of a sword, most heraldic artists would draw the default broadsword.










Andreas von Wittelsbach. Name.

This name is a presumptuous claim to be a member of the Bavarian royal family. We have found no examples, either in period or today, of people bearing this name who are not a member of this ruling dynasty. We have also not found a locative independent of the family that would allow the name to be constructed without reference to the dynasty. As such, the byname von Wittelsbach is not registerable.

Lilian Bowyer. Device. Argent, a cross gules, in dexter chief a brown quail proper.

This device is returned for conflict with the flag of England, Argent, a cross gules: there is a single CD for adding the quail. This does not conflict with the flag of the Red Cross, Argent, a cross couped gules. There is a CD for adding the quail and another for the difference between a cross couped and cross throughout.

The underbelly of the quail is approaching argent, which may have been sufficient grounds for return: the argent underbelly would have no contrast with the field, and not be registerable. Additionally, a brown quail proper should be entirely brown; it should not have a belly which is nearly white. If not blazoned as a brown quail proper, it could not have any brown, since quails have no defined proper. Thus it would not be possible to know what tinctures to make it without using a Linnean name, which we no longer allow.

Stephen Axtell. Device. Per pale azure and gules, an arm fesswise couped embowed maintaining an axe bendwise sinister Or.

This depiction of an axe blurs the distinction between maintained and sustained charges, which is grounds for return. Treating the axe as a maintained charge, the submitted device conflicts with the armory of Piedro Vega y Garcia de Barcelona, Sable, an infant's arm couped at the shoulder, fesswise embowed Or, maintaining an apple proper. If the axe were clearly drawn as a sustained charge, it would clear this conflict, though others may be introduced.



- Explicit littera renuntiationum -



Constantia in der lachun. Name.

Listed on the LoI as Constantia of the Lake, the documentation was for the name Constantia in der lachun. Because there was considerable confusion amongst the commenters as to which name was actually submitted, we are pending this for further research under the correct form, Constantia in der lachun.

The LoI originally provided this information about the name:

Submitter desires a female name.

Client requests authenticity for 12th-13th century Germany.

Language (German) most important.

Culture (German) most important.

The submitter has the following in the documentation section of the form from Brian Russel consulting herald: "(<>), I believe I was able to locate the reference Lade Constntia referred to in our interview, which shows the feminine given name Constantia. This article shows the name being used in the are [sic] of Ansverg, a city in the modern German state of North Rhine-Westpahalia between 1200 and 1250 AD.......The `of the Lake' seems a reasonable locative byname (even though it is in English, the Laurel Precedents do allow for the use of bynames in what we call "lingua franca", or sometimes "lingua anglia" allowance).

The article quoted above is Talan Gwynek's "German Given Names 1200-1250"

It was decided that if the submitter really wants an authentic name, she'll need a byname in German. The following additional documentation was included by Ursula Georges;

Academy of Saint Gabriel Report 1152 (<>) says:

The singular form, <of the lake>, is more plausible. We find a <Bentz im Seo> 1381; his name literally means "in the lake", from the German <See> "lake". If the lady wants her name to mean "of/from the lake", then a good translation is "zum See".

The reference is:

[8]Brechenmacher, Josef Karlmann, _Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen familiennamen_ (Limburg a. d. Lahn, C. A. Starke-Verlag, 1957-1960) s.nn. Bei dem Wasser, Wasser.

Although Ursula was not convinced those are the right headwords.

Academy Report 1941 (<>) says:

We did find bynames for someone living near a lake: <vomme Sewe> 1336 'of / from the lake', and <Bi deme Wasser> 1312 'by the water'. [11, 12] These are attested a little later than your period, but they would also be appropriate for the 13th century.

The references here are:

[11] Bahlow, Dictionary of German Names s.n. <Seeber>.

[12] Brechenmacher, op. cit., s.n. <Bei dem Wasser>.

Ursula concluded that <Constantia vomme Sewe> should be a reasonably authentic German name; <of the Lake> is a reasonable lingua anglica rendering of <vomme Sewe>, but is not authentic.

Gawain of Miskbridge noted that according to Bahlow's entries for "Lachmann" and "Lachner", "Lach" translates to "pond" rather than "lake". The submitter cites "Heinrich in der lachun" from 1280, and "Henzi ze der lachun" from 1306.

As there were multiple choices for authenticity, I contacted the submitter and she advised her choice was Constantia in der lachun. I confirmed with Ursula Georges that this name would be acceptable. As this was a resubmission to Kingdom for a previous administration return, I've kept the filing name as Constantia of the Lake to save confusion as there is also a returned device on this file.

This was item 2 on the An Tir letter of February 22, 2008.

- Explicit -

Created at 2008-11-20T23:20:36