Locative Bynames in Medieval Russia
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Locative Bynames in Medieval Russia

By Lord Paul Wickenden of Thanet, OSO, APF

There are a lot of misunderstandings about the proper formation and use of Russian locative bynames, that is, bynames that indicate a geographical provenance of the person. Such geographically-based personal names (or more precisely, topographic anthroponyms) were certainly used in period in Russia, but not as commonly found in SCA names. This article will attempt to explain briefly the proper formation of such names, while also discussing their logic. Following this introduction, a fairly comprehensive list of known locative bynames is included, some of which can be found in Wickenden (1996) but many of which are reproduced here for the first time.

The purpose of a locative byname was to either denote the place of birth or the residence of its holder. They were also used (and this meaning is most often the case with the adjectival forms) to denote property ownership. The byname in this latter case indicated that the person was not only from the area, but also owned it. Locative bynames thus run the risk of being presumptuous, as Unbegaun (1972: 126) dutifully records: "The proportion of aristocratic and noble surnames is higher in this group than in any other group of Russian surnames." Despite this occasional usage, locative bynames (of all types) did not necessarily have to indicate landedness and were used by a wide variety of people in period.

By "locative bynames," I wish to include not only bynames based upon the names of towns, villages, monasteries, castles, and other such proper nouns, but also bynames which are constructed from the names of generic locations (e.g., Ivan Polev, or, literally, "Ivan of the Field"). The latter bynames are more properly treated as surnames, but they share so much in common with bynames based on specific locations that their treatment here seems warranted. At the same time, however, I have avoided the inclusion of bynames denoting nationality (e.g., Russkoi, Polskoi, etc.) because, while they may denote a place of birth, their purpose of identifying nationality is much broader than my current effort. Finally, I am also excluding a discussion of Greek and Byzantine given names based upon toponyms (e.g., Adrian, Kiprian, etc.) as these names are borrowed and differ grammatically from Russian names. While these names were often used in conjunction with Russian name elements, it is unlikely that their meaning was understood literally by medieval Russians (i.e., no one really thought that an "Adrian" was from the Adriatic Sea).

There are four basic types of grammatical forms for locative bynames and they differ dramatically in terms of frequency of actual usage. The first one is rare to non-existent, while the fourth form is extremely common. The two other types fall somewhere in between. In addition, there appears to be a clear difference between epochs as to which forms were used. Adjectival forms, for example, are in use much later than any of the others.

Type I: Prepositions

Perhaps the most common form found in SCA names is the practice of literally translating "<given name> from <place name>" by using the preposition iz and s (both of which mean "of" or "from") and adding a genitive ending to the place name (e.g., iz Kieva, iz Pskova, iz Moskvy, etc.). As I wrote in my Dictionary (1996: xxi): "This construction is artificial, found only in a few questionable contexts, and probably improper medieval usage." Since writing that rather cursory rejection of this form, I have conducted rather extensive research for examples of it to see if my statement holds up. The results have been inconclusive, but some preliminary observations can be made.

The first thing that one is struck by is the paucity of examples. They are rare to the extreme. Beyond that, little can be proven. Proving the lack of a practice, after all, is more difficult than proving its existence. The fact that Type I locative bynames are found would seem to weaken the argument that they were not used. Still, an examination of how these specific cases were used will strengthen the point that they should not be.

One of the strongest resources for Type I locative bynames is Das Rigische Schuldbuch [DRG], a 13-14th century domesdaye of the city of Riga, populated at the time by a large contingent of Russians, as well as Swedes, Germans, and Poles. The names, however, have been rendered in Latin and may or may not reflect actual Russian usage. For example, Conrado de Morum (1289 [DRG 2]), Luberto de Vitebeke (1289 [DRG 10]), Dobre de Plescowe (1301 [DRG 23]), and Petro de Woldemar (1305 [DRG 62]) may in fact be renderable as Konrad iz Muroma, Lubert iz Vitsebska, Dobre iz Pskova, and Petr iz Vladimira respectively (as Semenova [1969: 89] asserts) but one suspects a bit of creative re-interpretation at the very least would be necessary to get them there. More likely, some Central European scribe ignored the peoples' real names and rendered them in whatever manner he pleased. It is probably impossible to ever know for certain how these people called themselves. Thus, the names found in Das Rigische Schuldbuch cannot be used to prove the existence of the Type I form.

A single example of a Type I name in the Novgorod digs (ot Pavla iz Rostova [birch bark document #745]) is summarily rejected as an anthroponym by the editors. They declare such ideas to be utterly "baseless" because the example appears out of the traditional parallel grammatical structure found in Novgorod birch barks (i.e., "ot Pavla ot Rostova") (Ianin & Zalizniak, 1994).

Examples of the Type I locative bynames are also cited by Wójtowicz (1986: 117), but with extreme caution. He notes that the form is "rarely" found and adds a cautionary postscript: "These onomastic forms, while appearing in the function of distinguishing [people], are not capable of evolving into anthroponyms" (1986: 118). His point is that the usages found indicate that the people used toponyms simply to differentiate (e.g., Ivan from Moscow -- as opposed to the one from Novgorod), not to name. The examples he found include: Ionoa is Chr'nigova (12th Century [Woj 117]), Lot'sha s Gorodisha (1270 [Woj 117]), Sanei z Belina (c1462-69 [Woj 271]), Ermak iz Velikogo Dvora (c1492 [Woj 207]), and Isachko z Borovyie derevni (c1492 [Woj 227]). As one can see, medieval scribes took liberties with spelling, using "is" for "iz" and "z" for "s" (although one could argue that the latter is merely a Polish form). In each case, Wójtowicz casts doubt on whether the place name would ever have been considered a personal name element. For example, the last of the examples means "Isachko from the Borov village" (or "from the village of the Borovs"). This is clearly not an anthroponym.

Overall, the idea that the place names in these examples can be considered part of the person's name often lacks merit. While the form is found in period documents, there is no convincing evidence that it was used as part of a personal name (or "anthroponym") in Russia and therefore its usage should be discouraged with Russian names. It is also telling that no major work on medieval Russian onomastics (besides Wójtowicz) even mentions this form.

Type II: Nouns

A far more common alternative is a noun formed from the place name, usually meaning "inhabitant of" or "citizen of." In cases where the place name ends in a hard consonant, this form is easily created by adding the suffix "-ets" to the place name (e.g., Novgorod Novgorodets, Murom Muromets, etc.). In other cases, it can get much more complicated and other suffixes (i.e., "-in," "-ainin/-ianin," and "-itin") are possible, to say nothing of consonant mutations and insertions. Because of their complexity, it is best to refer to the listing below for examples or consult a dictionary for the proper forms. According to Wójtowicz (1986: 118), this form first appears in the 12-13th centuries. It appears to die out by the end of the Middle Ages, although a few such surnames can occasionally still be encountered today.

A variant of this form is the appearance of place names in an unaltered form as a given name (or possibly a byname). Examples of this include: Donets Zavaleevich (1552 [Tup 132]), Onan'ia Istoma (14-15th Centuries [Gra 183]), Kazan' (1545 [Tup 171]), Vseslava Chernigova (1187 [Lvo 427]). While it is possible that these are unrelated given names, some of them at least must really be derived from toponyms and the person probably is named in honor of the town of their birth.

Type III: Patronymics

Related to Type II are place names turned into patronymics (these two forms are so related, in fact, that Wójtowicz combines Type II and Type III forms together). Literally, these "patronymics" would be translated as "son/daughter of <place name>," as if the city was the father of the person. The intention may seem overly poetic, but the form is quite common, as the list below shows. A variant form of these names are patronymics based on Type II noun forms (e.g., Novgorodtsev -- "son of Novgorodets," or literally, "son of a Novgorodite"). Like Type II forms, Type III locative bynames begin to appear in the 12-13th centuries. Unlike the Type II forms, many of these names survived to the present as surnames, losing their original meaning along the way. Reasoning backwards, Unbegaun (1972: 126) confirms this and notes about the subsequent surnames that "they derive from names of persons designated in relation to their place of origin or domicile or to their nationality. In exceptional cases, and usually by analogy, they may be formed direct from place-names."

Type IV: Adjectives

Type IV locative bynames are created by taking the toponym and adding an adjectival suffix (usually "-skii"/"-skoi"/"-skyi," or feminine "-skaia"). Often, the form is found in the genitive case ("-skogo"). Regardless of how it appears, the meaning is the same: "the person of <place name>" or "the <place name>-ish person." The person is described as being colored by his/her place of birth, bearing the place (so to speak) in their soul.

According the Wójtowicz (1986: 119), the form first appears in the 11th century, where it was not necessarily used as a personal name element per se. One of the earlier examples, Luka ep[isko]p Belogorodskyi (11th Century [Woj 119]), for example, simply means, "Luke, the Belogorod bishop." Yet, even at this early point in history, the form is found as a true anthroponym: Vseslav syn Briachislavl' Polot'skyi (1067 [Woj 119]). The quantity of such cases only begins to noticeably increase in the 13th Century but it grew quickly. By the 14th-15th century it was the accepted form for noting legal residency in court documents (Wójtowicz, 1986: 119]. It is by far the most common form in late period.

Wójtowicz (1986: 119) also notes that these forms were also prone over time to evolve into formal surnames, citing the early cases of the Zabolotskoi and Starodubskoi families (both dated to the late 15th centuries). By the account of Unbegaun (1972: 127) (and confirmed by my research), this Type IV form was used heavily by "princely families" (i.e., high nobility). Originally, these names denoted the possession of land grants. Thus, for example, Lord Rogovskii (1611-2 [RIB II 258]) was undoubtedly the property owner of the Rogov area. Even so, the presumption of these names evaporates as they were passed down as surnames -- a process that began in the 15th century at the very latest.


The common practice of using Type I locative bynames in the SCA is an outmoded and inaccurate notion of how Russian names are formed. Far better are Type II and III forms. Better yet are Type IV locative bynames. The latter are found quite commonly in period and have a much more "Russian flavor" to them. Such a "flavor" may not be immediately identifiable to a non-speaker, but it is identifiable because of the reliance of Types II, III, and IV upon grammatical conventions found in other name elements. The fact that they follow the same patterns makes them a better fit.

Type III and IV forms both gradually evolve into surnames and lose their original purpose of determining a person's home or birthplace. It is naturally hard to declare when exactly this change occurs, but such surnames-based-on-locatives were already quite common by the 16th century. The Type I form, if it ever truly existed as an anthroponym, certainly disappears by this time.


Das Rigische Schuldbuch (1286-1352) [The Riga Journal]. Edited by Hermann Hildebrand. Saint Petersburg, 1872.

Ianin, V. L. and A. A. Zalizniak. "Berestianye gramoty iz novgorodskikh raskopok [Birch Bark Documents from the Novgorod Digs, 1990-93]." Voprosy iazykoznaniia [Questions of Linguistics]. 1994, #3 (May-June).

Semenova, M. F. "Russkie lichnye imeni v srednevekovykh inoiazychnykh dokumentakh" [Russian Personal Names in Medieval Foreign Documents]." In Onomastika [Onomastics]. Pages 87-92. Moscow: Nauka, 1969.

Unbegaun, B. O. Russian Surnames. Oxford: Oxford Press, 1972.

Wickenden, Paul, of Thanet. Dictionary of Period Russian Names, Second Edition. Mountain View CA: Free Trumpet, 1996/1994.

Wójtowicz, Marian. Drevnerusskaia antroponimiia XIV-XV vv. [Old Russian Anthroponyms of the XIV-XVth Centuries]. Poznan: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickieicza w Poznaniu, 1986.

* * *

The lists that follow represent a comprehensive compilation of all known period locative bynames found in five primary sources and four major secondary reference works on Russian names. These sources are:

Art = Artsikhovskii, A. V., et al. Novgorodskie gramoty na bereste, Vols I-VII. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1953-78 [#'s indicate birchbark accession numbers]; Gra = Gramoty velikogo novgoroda i pskova. S. N. Valk, ed. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1949; Lvo = Polnoe sobranie russkikh letopisei, Vol XX: L'vovskaia letopis', 1st edition. Saint Petersburg: Tipografiia M. A. Aleksandrova, 1910; Mor = Moroshkin, Mikhail. Slavianskii imenoslov ili sobranie slavianskikh lichnykh imen. Saint Petersburg: n.p., 1867; RIB = Russkaia istoricheskaia biblioteka. Saint Petersburg, 1875-1894; Ste = Polnoe sobranie russkikh letopisei, Vol XXI: Kniga stepannaia tsarskogo rodosloviia, 1st edition. Saint Petersburg: Tipografiia M. A. Aleksandrova, 1913; Tup = Tupikov, N. M. Slovar' drevne-russkikh lichnykh sobstvennykh imen. Saint Petersburg: Tipografiia I. N. Skorokhodova, 1903; Ves = Veselovskii, S. B. Onomastikon. Moscow: Nauka, 1974; Woj = Wójtowicz, Marian. Drevnerusskaia antroponimiia XIV-XV vv. Poznan: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickieicza w Poznaniu, 1986.

Under each heading, the bynames are grouped by type (I, II, III, or IV). The format is based upon the style used in my Dictionary.

A List of Locative Bynames Derived from Known Towns and Rivers

In this list, names are grouped under the names of the cities they are formed from. Unless otherwise indicated, the heading is in fact the name of a period city, town, village, or district.

Arbuzheves' -- IV: Arbozhov'skii. 1462-3. [Woj 120]

Bagut -- II: Grishka Baguta. 1598. [Tup 34]

Barukh -- II: Baroch. 1237. [Mor 8]

Beli -- IV: Bogdan Belskoi. 1602. [Tup 53]; Princess Bel'skaia. 1585-6. [RIB II 294]; Bel'skii. 1389. [Woj 120]; Nevezha Iakovlevich Bel'skoi. 1589. [RIB II 322]

Belino -- I: Sanei z Belina. c1462-69. [Woj 271]

Belogorod -- IV: Luka ep[isko]p Belogorodskyi. 11th Century. [Woj 119]

Beloozero -- II: Iena Belozerets, nicknamed Vashkal. 1613. [Tup 81]; III: Luka Belozerov. 1562. [Tup 497]

Boldyzh -- II: Shvarn Boldyzh'. 1151. [Mor 208]; III: Roman Boldyzhev. 1270. [Tup 483]; Ratislav Boldyzhevich. 1268. [Tup 334]

Borodin -- IV: Borodinskii. 1438. [Woj 120]

Borovaia -- I: Isachko z Borovyie derevni. c1492. [Woj 227]

Bortnikovo -- IV: Bortnichskoi. c1470. [Woj 120]

Bulich -- II: Nikon Bulych. 1552. [Tup 70]; III: Maksim Gavrilov syn Bulychev. 1593. [RIB XIV 521]

Chernigov -- I: Ionoa is Chr'nigova. 12th Century. [Woj 117]; II: Vseslava Chernigova. 1187. [Lvo 427]

Don (River) -- the second case actually means "by the Don." IV: Dmitrii Donskii. c1375. [Art I 33]; Ivan Zadonskii. 1635. [RIB II 583]

Donets -- II: Donets Zavaleevich. 1552. [Tup 132]

Galich -- II: Tudor Galichanin. 1159. [Mor 57]

Gavino -- IV: Gavinskoi. c1502. [Woj 120]

Gorodishche -- I: Lot'sha s Gorodisha. 1270. [Woj 117]

Iaropolch' -- III: Iaroslavets Sviatopolchich Iaroslava Iaropolchicha. 1102. [Tup 22]

Irdma (River) -- II: Tit Irdmin. c1455-75. [Woj 284]

Istoma -- II: Onan'ia Istoma. 14th-15th Centuries. [Gra 183]; Istomka Petrov. 1563. [RIB XIV 64]; III: Pavel Istomich. 1533. [Tup 561]; Shestoi Istomin syn Khlusova. 1539. [Tup 441-2]

Iukhot' -- IV: Iukhotskoi. 1463-78. [Woj 124]

Ivashkovo -- IV: Ivashkov'skii. 1474-84. [Woj 121]

Ivonino -- IV: Pozdniak Ivoninskoi. 1556. [Woj 121]

Ivoninskoe -- IV: Fomusha Ivoninskoi. c1492. [Woj 293]

Kalitino -- IV: Kalitinskoi. c1520. [Woj 121]

Kaluga -- II: Gridka Kaluga. 1495. [Tup 172]; Stepan Kaluzhka. 1648. [Tup 172]; Ivashko Koluga. 1622. [Tup 172]; III: Tomilko Kaluzheninov. 1648. [Tup 564]

Kargopol' -- II: Pavel Zinov'ev syn Kargapolets. 1568. [Tup 174]; Andrei Vat'manov syn Kargopolets. 1571. [Tup 174]

Kazan' -- II: Kazan. 1545. [Tup 171]; Kazan'. 1471. [Mor 96]; Mikitka Kazanets. 1648. [Tup 171]; III: Grin Kazanovich. 1565. [Tup 562]

Kem' -- IV: Funik Kemskii. 15th Century. [Tup 413]

Kholm -- II: Istomka Kholmitin. 1605. [Tup 169]; IV: Iuria Kholmskii syn Danila Kholmskogo. 1376. [Woj 119]; Terentii Kholmovoi. 1621. [RIB XIV 349]; Danilo Dmitreevich' Kholm'skii. 1474. [Woj 200]

Khvostovo -- IV: Khvastovskoi. 1517. [Woj 123]

Kiev -- The Type II "Kiev" and Type III "Kievich" may also be patronymics of the given name "Kii." II: Malyshka Kiev. Beginning of the 16th Century. [Tup 242]; David Kievlianin Zorynich. 1167. [Mor 92]; Nikifor Kiianin. 11th Century. [Tup 4]; III: Petr Kievich. 1564. [Tup 571]; Gavrilo Kyianinov. 1270. [Tup 572]

Kisnoma -- IV: Kir'stnom'skoi. c1492. [Woj 121]

Kivoi -- IV: Kivoiskii. c1505. [Woj 121]

Klimshino -- IV: Klimshinskii. c1492. [Woj 121]

Klin -- III: Romashko Klintsov. 1554. [Tup 573]

Kolganovo -- IV: Kolganovskoi. c1505. [Woj 121]

Kolomna -- II: Kolomna Ivan. 1522. [Ves 150]; Evdokiia, called Kolomian'ka. Before 1527. [Ste 601]; III: Vasilii Kolomin. 1607. [Ves 150]

Korelovo -- IV: Korelovskoi. 1467-74. [Woj 121]

Kostroma -- II: Kostroma. c1330. [Tup 202]; III: Rudak Kostromkin. 1629. [Tup 340]; Zakharii Kostrominich. c1450. [Mor 103]; Kozemka Semenov syn Kostromitinov. 1634. [RIB XIV 948]

Kuchki -- IV: Kuchetskoi. 1521-2. [Woj 121]; Shestoi Kuchettskii. 1495. [Tup 441]

Kunesta -- I: Andrei is Kunesti. 1383. [Woj 117]

Kunil' -- III: Isachko Kunilov. 1495. [Tup 609]

Kursk -- II: Kur'ianin Ivan. c1492. [Woj 236]

Kusakinskoe -- IV: Kusakinskoi. c1465-9. [Woj 121]

Kuzmin -- IV: Ondrei Semenov syn Kuzminskogo. 1495-1506. [Woj 175]

Ladoga -- II: Ignatii Matveev Ladoga. 1564. [Ves 176]; III: Denis Ladogin. 1585. [Ves 176]

Leshmina -- IV: Leshminskoi. c1492. [Woj 122]

Liubech -- II: Maliusha doch' Liubchanina. 975. [Mor 118]; Malk Liubechanin. 970. [Tup 242]

Mana -- II: Maniak. c900. [Mor 118]; Man'iak. c900. [Mor 118]

Mel'nitsa -- IV: Melnits'kii. 1462-78. [Woj 122]

Melecha (River) -- IV: Neledinskii-Meletskii. 15th Century. [Ves 217]

Miloslavskoe -- IV: Miloslavskoi. 1510. [Woj 122]

Milovsh -- I: Andrei Khmara Milovskii s Milovsh. Recorded in 1569. [Tup 415]

Molva (River) -- II: Petr Molvanin. 1497-8. [Woj 264]

Moskva -- II: Ivan Ondreev syn Moskvitin. Early 16th Century. [Tup 257]; Moskva. 1539. [Tup 257]; Moskovka Gridia. End of the 15th Century. [Ves 205]; III: Fedko Moskovchich. 1552. [Tup 651]; Gridka Moskovkin. 1552. [Tup 117]; Kopos Nekrasov syn Moskvina. 1560. [Tup 257]

Mostovaia -- IV: Mostovskii. 1397-1427. [Woj 122]

Mozhaisk -- IV: Ivan Andreevich Mozhaiskii. End of the 15th Century. [Gra 43]

Mozyr' -- II: Lukash Mozyr'. 1649. [Tup 253]

Murom -- II: Iakush Muromets. 1598. [Tup 261]; III: Klementii Savinov syn Muromtsov. 1611. [Tup 655]

Myl'sk -- IV: Petr Kirdei Myl'skii. 1561. [Tup 178]

Napol'skoe -- IV: Napolskii. c1504. [Woj 122]; Vas'ian Napol'skoi. 1618. [RIB XIV 262]

Neledina (River) -- IV: Neledinskii-Meletskii. 15th Century. [Ves 217]

Nizhnii Novgorod -- II: Ivashka Savel'ev syn Nizhgorodets. 1627. [RIB II 990]

Novgorod -- II: Semeika Nougorodets. 1589. [Tup 280]; Moislav Novgorodets. 14th Century. [Tup 253]; III: Boris Iakovlev syn Novgorodtsova. 1591. [RIB XIV 134]; Iusup Leont'ev syn Novgorodtsev. 1565. [Tup 456]; Sidor Novgorodov. 15th Century. [Gra 276]; Istoma Nougorodov. 1542. [Tup 168]

Novosil' -- II: Iurii Novosilets. Second Half of 14th Century. [Ves 222]; Iakov Iur'evich Novosilits. 1374. [Tup 280]; III: Mikhalko Novosiltsov. 1608. [RIB II 177]; Domashnei Semenov syn Novosil'tsov. 1565. [Tup 131]; Mitia Seemenov Novosil'tsev. 1500. [Tup 668]

Novyi Torg -- II: Kalinka Novotorzhanin. 1495. [Tup 281]; Matfeika Novotorzhets. 1495. [Tup 281]

Obolensk -- IV: Ivan Vasil'evich Obolenskii. 1530. [RIB II 38]; Boris Mikhailovich Turena Obolenskoi. 1484. [Tup 405]

Odoev -- II: Olesha Ivanov syn Odoeva. 1546. [Tup 676]; III: Mikolai Odoevich. 1592. [Tup 676]; Feodr Matiushkin syn Odoevtsova. 1500. [Tup 676]

Pestovskaia -- II: Pestovo. 1467-74. [Woj 122]; IV: Pestoskii. 1499. [Woj 122]

Pinega -- II: Ivashko Pinega. 1649. [Tup 304]

Podol -- II: Nikolai Podolets. 1456. [Tup 309]; IV: Stanislav Podolskii. 1611-2. [RIB II 254]; Aggei Podol'nii. 1630. [Tup 309]

Polotsk -- II: Mitko Polotsko. 1552. [Tup 312]; Gavko Polotsanin. End of the 12th Century. [Art VII 97; #502]; Vasil' Polochanin. 1146. [Tup 313]; Polotska [feminine only]. 1144. [Mor 153]; Polots'k. First Half of the 12th Century. [Art IV 34; #155]; IV: Rogvolod Polotskoi. 980. [Tup 463]; Vseslav syn Briachislavl' Polot'skyi. 1067. [Woj 119]

Porech'e -- IV: Nekras Poretskii. 1495. [Tup 271]; Poretskoi. 1566. [Woj 122]

Porkhov -- II: Omelka Porokhovshchik. 1648. [Tup 315]

Potrocha -- II: Potrech. 1256. [Mor 154]

Priazhino -- IV: Priazhinskoi. 12th Century. [Woj 123]

Prokhorskoe -- IV: Prokhor'skoi. c1430-40. [Woj 123]

Pruzhinino -- IV: Pruzhininskoi. 1435-47. [Woj 123]

Pskov -- II: Ivan Pskovitin. Beginning of the 16th Century. [Tup 325]; IV: Paroei Pskovskoi. 1426. [Mor 148]

Pupki -- IV: Pupkovskii. c1492. [Woj 123]

Putivl' -- II: Putivlets. 1638. [Tup 326]; IV: Bogdan Putivl'skii. 1511. [Tup 51]

Radonezh -- IV: Sergei Radonezhskoi. 1615-9. [RIB XII 30]

Riapolovo -- IV: Semen Golitsa Riapolovskii. 1539. [Tup 109]; Riapolovskoi. 1526. [Woj 123]

Riazan'/Rezan -- II: Riazan Kuz'min syn. 1506. [Tup 347]; Medved' Riazanets. 1482. [Mor 121]; III: Naum Rezanov. Prior to 1427. [Tup 733]; Ivan Kozarin Rezanovich. 1430. [Tup 733]; Fedko Iakovlev syn Rezantsev. 1507. [Tup 733]; Dobrina Riazanich. 1227. [Mor 170]; Onisimko Riazanov. 1621. [Tup 735]; Pan Kazarin Riazanovich. 1403. [Tup 735]; Kozarin Riazanovich'. 1450. [Tup 186]; Ivan Riazantsev. 1570. [Ves 275]; Putilo Riazantsov. 1609. [Tup 326]; IV: Anna Riazanskaia [feminine]. 1497. [Nov 535]; Oleg Riazanskii. 1393. [Art I 30]; Aleksandr Fedorovich Dmitriev Rezanyi. Mid 16th Century. [Ves 267]

Rogachev -- IV: Iatsko Gutor Rogachovskii. 1569. [Tup 124]

Rogov -- IV: Rogovskii. 1611-2. [RIB II 258]

Romodanovo -- IV: Romodanovskoi. 1566. [Woj 123]; Grigorii Petrovich Romodanovskii. 1611-2. [RIB II 224]

Rostov -- II: Tret'iak Borisov syn Rostovka. 1552. [Tup 339]; Rostovets Nikitin syn Kolzakov. 1560. [Tup 339]; III: Sumorok Matveev syn Rostovtsov. 1562. [Tup 380]; IV: Iesaf Rostovskii. 1585-6. [RIB II 313]; Petr Semenovich Lobanov Rostovskoi. 1589. [RIB II 316]

Rzev -- IV: D'iak Ivanovich Rzevskii. 1557. [Mor 81]

Rzhev -- IV: Mikhail Rzhevskii. 1585-6. [RIB II 293]

Samara -- III: Zamiatnia Samarin. 1539. [Tup 737]; Mar'ia Odintsova zhena Samarina [feminine]. 1613. [Tup 286]

Sarai -- III: Vasilei Saraev. 1594. [RIB II 115]

Savino -- IV: Savinskii. 1595. [Woj 123]

Shakhova -- IV: Dranitsa Shakhov'skoi. End of 14th Century. [Ves 363]

Shiriatskaia -- IV: Fedor Nikitich Shiriatskii. 1518. [Ves 369]

Shukhomash -- I: Koshch'i is Shukhomsha. Before 1459. [Woj 234]

Smolensk -- II: Petr Somolianin Prokosha. 14th Century. [Art VI 30; #343]; Ivan Smol'nianin. 1266-91. [Gra 317]; IV: Aleksandr Iur'evich Monastyr Smolenskii. Mid 14th Century. [Ves 203]

Sotnitsa -- IV: Sonitskii. 1504. [Woj 123]

Starodub -- II: Mikhalka Starodubets. 1605. [Tup 372]; III: Vasiuk Starodubov syn. 1530. [RIB II 39]; IV: Fedor Starodubskii Pestroi. 1430. [Tup 302]; Ivan Kostiantinovich Starodubskoi. 1468-78. [Woj 217]

Suzdal -- II: Iushko Olekseev Suzdalets Koshachkova. 1500. [Tup 378]; IV: Ivan Aleksandrovich Suzdal'skii Barbosha. 1500. [Tup 39]

Tal'sha -- II: Mikhalka Talshanin. 1453-62. [Woj 119]

Teliatevo -- IV: Teliatevskii. 1504. [Woj 123]

Tolmach' -- II: Alferei Ivanov syn Tolmach'. 1583-7. [RIB XIV 122]; III: Ivan Tolmachev. 1614. [Tup 392]

Tolstikova -- IV: Tolstikovskii. c1471. [Woj 123]

Trubetsk -- IV: Mikhail Ondreevich Trubetskoi. 1541. [RIB II 973]

Turov -- II: Pilat Turovets. 1552. [Tup 304]; Posnik Ivanov syn Turov. 1571. [Tup 304]

Ugleche Pole -- II: Pospei Uglechenin. 1566. [Tup 318]

Ust'-Shekhonskaia -- IV: Shokhonskii. 1432-45. [Woj 124]

Vasharovo -- II: Vasarovitin. 1451-56. [Woj 118]

Vel'iadovo -- IV: Vel'iadovskoi. c1435-40. [Woj 120]

Velikii Dvor -- I: Ermak iz Velikogo Dvora. c1492. [Woj 207]

Verznevo -- IV: Ver'znevskii. c1440-4. [Woj 120]

Viaz'ma -- II: Viazma Semenov. 1566. [Tup 100]

Vokshera -- III: Vasiuk Alekseev Voksherin. 1490. [Ves 70]

Volga (River) -- II: Volga Fedorovich Podosenov. 1586. [Ves 70]; III: Mark Volgin. 1608. [Ves 70]

Volyn' -- II: Volynets Matveev syn Skobeev. 1642. [Tup 94]; III: Stepka Vasil'ev syn Volyntsov. 1606. [RIB XIV 828]

Vysheslavskoe -- III: Mikhail Matveevich Vysheslavtsev. 1450-5. [Woj 248]

Vyshgorod -- III: Fedor Vasil'ev syn Vyshegorodov. 1567. [Tup 511]

Zamytskii -- II: Zamytskoi. 1504. [Woj 120]; Vasilii Shumikha Timofeev syn Zamyttskogo. 1504. [Tup 451]

Zastolb'e -- IV: Roman Ivanovich Zastolbskii. Second Half of 15th Century. [Ves 120]

Zbarazh -- IV: Zbarazhskii. 1633. [RIB II 527]

Zhitomir -- III: Dmitrii Zhidomirich. 1327. [Mor 85]

Zhmuda -- IV: Zhmuttskii. 1611-2. [RIB II 261]

Zvenigorod -- IV: Vasilii Ondreevich Zvenigorodskii. 1573. [RIB XIV 102]; Vasilii Ondreevich Zvenigorodskoi. 1629-33. [RIB II 1008]

A List of Locative Bynames Derived from Geographical Landmarks

This list is arranged similarly but the bynames included here do not refer to actual place names. In these cases, the person was merely named after a landmark or geographical feature. The headings are listed according to the word(s) used to form the byname and then literally translated into English to provide their meaning.

Bania -- "bathhouse." III: Berislavl' Banich. 1232. [Mor 11]

Belyi+gora -- "white hill." II: Belogor Semen Borisovich Alymov. 1610. [Ves 35]; IV: Ivan Pavlov syn Belogorskoi. 1583-7. [RIB XIV 122]

Belyi+selo -- "white field." IV: Vladimir Ivanov syn Belosel'skogo. 1539. [Tup 316]

Bolota -- "swamp." III: Semen Bolotov. 1500. [Tup 483]

Gorod -- "city." II: Pasko Gorodko. 1564. [Tup 115]; III: Kropot Gorodchikov. 1521. [Tup 210]; IV: Gorodovoi Kurbat Ishiutin syn Izvol'skogo. 1577. [Tup 218]

Iz+gorod -- "from the city." II: Izgoroda Bilibin. 1526. [Tup 166]

Kholm+gora -- "hill." II: Bogdan Kolmogor. 1609. [Tup 53]; Piatoi Iur'ev Kolmogorets. 1613-8. [RIB XII 27]

Monastyr -- "monastery." II: Aleksandr Iur'evich Monastyr Smolenskii. Mid 14th Century. [Ves 203]; III: Dmitrei Aleksandrovich Monastyrev. 1378. [Tup 649]

Ozero -- "lake." III: Ratai Briukhatovo syn Ozerov. 1565. [Tup 334]

Pogost -- "parish." II: Ivan Pogast. 15th-16th Centuries. [Tup 308]

Pole -- "field." II: Onofreiko Polovets. 1586. [Tup 312]; III: Fedor Polev. 1477. [Tup 699]

Staryi+selo -- "old field." IV: Ivan Eufimov syn Staroselskoi. 1623-4. [RIB II 645]

Vorota -- "gate." IV: Bogdan Vorotnyi. 1520. [Tup 96]

Za+bolota -- "by the swamp." IV: Ivan Petrovich Zabolotskii. 1568. [RIB XIV 78]; Kostiantin Grigorievich Zabolotskoi. 1497-8. [Woj 232]

Za+gorod -- "suburb." IV: Fedor Zagorodnoi. 1649. [Tup 155]