Aaron Breck Gordon. Badge for House Dun Tyr. Sable, an arch between two towers argent, charged on the arch with an increscent sable, all between in pale a griffin segreant Or, maintaining two swords proper, and a dragon dormant to sinister Or.

There was a virtually unanimous opinion among the commentors that this is too complex for a badge. As no intended meaning was given for the name, it is difficult to tell whether it would be acceptable. If the name is meant to mean "House Dun-coloured Clothing", the forms are correct and there is no conflict, but the name does not make a great deal of sense. If it is meant to be Welsh, the vowels are not quite right and the components would have to be switched in position which would bring it into conflict with the Barony of Tir-y-Don. . . If it is meant to be Gaelic, "Dun" would mean "hill" but it is not clear what the second component would mean unless they really want "tur" (="tower") for something like "Tower Hill". (02/1989)

Aarquelle, Shire of. Device. Argent, on a pile inverted throughout azure between a fountain and a laurel wreath azure, an eagle displayed argent.

Note that what was drawn on the emblazon was not a fountain which is, by definition, composed of an equal number of bars wavy (usually six). However, given the group name, we had to assume that a fountain was indeed intended and, under Rules AR 1c, may not be placed on either an azure or an argent field: the visual effect is that of three barrulets wavy couped azure floating isolated on the argent field. The device also conflicts with that of Raim y Hynndyll ("Argent, on a pile inverted azure a lyre argent. "). It should be observed that, although two different charges on either side of a pile charged with a third type of charge was not been specifically banned at the time three different charges on a field or three different charges on a pile were banned, this is visually three different charges on a divided field and clearly violates the spirit of the rules. (03/1987)

Abaigeal Fairchild. Device. Quarterly vert and gules, five hearts, conjoined in annulo, bases to center, Or, voided vert, all within a bordure Or.

On the letter of intent, the charge conjunction was blazoned as "a rose Or, each petal charged with a heart and seeded of a star vert". This does not accurately represent the depiction here which is not really that of a heraldic rose, lacking as it does the barbing. The blazon of the local herald given on the letter ("5 hearts in annulo, points to center, Or, voided vert" is far more accurate, were the charges alone considered. However, for this to be totally accurate, the area at the center of the shield would have to be divided quarterly as is the remainder of the field and it is not: it is vert. All in all, this is not period style. Leaving aside the issue of whether a single heart is too complex to fimbriate under the new rules, there is no doubt that the "voided heart" effect is too complex, especially when the hearts are conjoined in this unusual manner to form a pseudo-rose. The anomaly of the field tincture at the center of the field only increases the difficulty of identification here: even if you try and call it a single rose, there is substantial agreement in the College that the petals of a rose should not be voided, whether or not it is so blazoned. . . (01/1990)

Abd Adin Tinkar. Name and device. Per bend sinister wavy argent and azure, a winged torch and a winged bull rampant, each with wings elevated and addorsed, counterchanged.

Despite Brigantia's statement in his letter of reply, the submittor's documentation does not show either that the formation of the name elements is "period spelling" or that the name is properly formed for Arabic practice. On the original letter of intent it was stated that the name "Abd Adin" was Arabic for "servant of the faith". Obelisk has demonstrated that this is incorrect (the first element is Arabic, the second is Hebrew, the latter fact being confirmed by Xeroxes included in the submittor's own documentation packet). Moreover, if the name were properly formed in Arabic, it would usually be formed with an article prefixed to the noun used and that noun would not be a proper name (the formation would probably be "'Abd-al-Din"). The Arabic formation "abd" is prefixive and functions similarly to a preposition or patronymic particle and thus under NR4 the Arabic "abd" should not be randomly combined with Hebraic "Adin", even if the latter were not a proper name. Additionally, "Adin" in Hebrew does not mean "faith", but rather is adjectival and means "voluptuous" (Odelain and Séguineau, Dictionary of Proper Names and Places in the Bible, p. 12) which would give quite a different meaning to the name, even if it were linguistically permissible. Finally, the submittor, who is female, should be warned that the names in "abd" were all masculine and it would be against either Arabic or Turkish practice for a woman to use such a name. It should be noted that no documentation was given for the Turkish byname beyond Xeroxes of dictionary pages showing "tin" and "kâr" as existing words in modern Turkish. No evidence was provided to support the construction of bynames in Turkish from the unmodified conjunction of two nouns. In fact, the word does appear as an orthographic variant of "tinker" dated to 1533 in the OED, but that form is not at all related to any Turkish original and has quite a different meaning. Unfortunately, since the submittor would accept no changes whatsoever to her name, we were compelled to return the submission as whole. (03/1988)

Aberafonydd, Shire of. Name and device. Or, a saltire wavy azure, surmounted by a laurel wreath vert, between four hop cones azure.

Unfortunately, this is a case where the rules technically require a return of the name since it is a direct translation of the name of the Shire of Riversmeet in the Kingdom of the East. However, it has previously been ruled that translations of such generic names as these may be registered if the group with which it conflicts gives permission and we would suggest that Dragon approach the Shire of Riversmeet for such permission. Unfortunately, if the saltire is drawn with appropriate thickness, rather than as the conjunction of thin lines used on the emblazon the laurel wreath vert will almost completely fade into the azure saltire (it is nearly unidentifiable as it is). (11/1987)

Abertridwr, Canton of. Name only.

There was a substantial feeling that this name conflicted by translation with the Barony of Three Rivers in Calontir. The problem of the Shire of Riversmeet (East) was also raised by several of the Laurel staff. (02/1988)

Abrana von Sturzenhofacker. Name and device. Pily barry argent and vert, an Arabic rose and on a chief embattled purpure, three rivenstars elongated to base Or.

The documentation provided for the name as a Spanish feminine form of Abraham was Sisneros and Torres Spanish Given Names in New Mexico which by definition considers out of period names. While there was considerable discussion of the "compatibility" of the name, noone could document it from period. As it is, we are talking about a supposed feminine form from an undocumented masculine period form for a name which was not popular outside orthodoxly Jewish circles in period Spain (in which it would hardly have been used by a female!). Moreover, the normal Spanish forms for Abraham today, according to several modern naming sources, are Abram, Abraham and Abrahan, none of which have the terminal "o" to modify to "a" in a feminine form. As noted on the November, 1989, letter when Katrine Stürzenhoffacktor's name was accepted, the documentation of a family name from modern immigration documents such as those used on the letter of intent is dicey: "even for the names used in the nineteenth century, because most clerks filling out the forms did not speak the languages in which the names were generated (anyone who has looked at the immigration records of those coming from Ireland, let alone eastern Europe, will know what we mean!). In this case, we have not been able to find anything like this name as a place name, much less one with the meaning given on the letter of intent ('fallen castle land'). However, when the usual 'sound slips' for nineteenth­century transcription are applied, the name does follow a well­known, if late period, occupational format for someone running a farm or estate. In this case, the actual form would combine 'Stürze' (meaning a 'fall', either literally or in the sense of ruins), 'Hof' (meaning a 'farm') and 'Faktor' (meaning a 'factor') for 'Stürzenhoffaktor'. With such a usage the preposition would naturally be dropped in period usage." While Silver Trumpet is correct in saying that it is not necessarily true that use of a distinctive charge must be limited to the individual or group who uses it first, in this case the issue of style intervenes. The submittor here proposes to use a slightly more complex variant of the "rivenstar" with six points (four greater and two lesser) as tertiary charges, i.e., where their identifiability would be diminished because of smaller size. While it is clear that the use of the "classic rivenstar", registered to the Barony of Rivenstar in August, 1979, would be "grandfathered" for that group, it does not seem that the modified "rivenstar" used here meets the standards for style that we have required for some time in Society heraldry. Even if it did, used as it is here, in a design that includes three different type of charges, two of which are variant forms of unusual charges, four tinctures and a visually distracting field combination, the "rivenstar" only adds to the excessive complexity of the device. Note that the primary charge has been previously registered in 1981 for Babur ibn Yesugai and Kaidu ibn Yesugai as a "Mamluk rosette" (not an Arabic rose) based on an illustration in Mayer's Saracenic Heraldry. (05/1990)

Achbar ibn Ali. Device. Gules, a dragon statant erect affronty, head to dexter, wings displayed, Or, pierced through the chest with a sword sable.

Under both rules this conflicts visually and technically with Geoffrey Mandragora ("Gules, a wyvern displayed Or charged with a rose sable."). Under the old rules, there would be at most a minor for type of monster. The weight to be attributed to the sword is dicey since its depiction is somewhat non­standard. However, its weight is clearly no more than that of a tertiary. Thus under the old rules it would give no more than a minor for change of type, yielding in toto two minors from Geoffrey's device. Under the new rules, even if one grants a difference for the type of monster, the same conflict exists. Note that the position of the monsters is essentially identical in both devices, although they are blazoned differently. (04/1990)

Achmed Al'Gran Shaban. Change of name from Babur ibn Yesugai.

The commentors were totally unable to provide any evidence for "Al'Gran" as meaning "left-handed". Star noted that a thorough search of all his sources showed no Persian or Arabic words beginning with "gr". Moreover, the term that appears for the left hand in the Persian dictionaries that could be consulted appears to be "dast-i chap". The name could be registered as "Achmed Shaban" (= "Achmed the Shepherd"), but the submittor allowed no changes to his name save to form a holding name. Since this was a name only submission, no holding name could be formed. (12/1988)

Achren of the Debatable Lands. Name only.

There was a considerable consensus in the College that the name Achren was too closely associated with the non-human for use in the Society. In the submittor's own documentation, the name is only associated with women of superhuman magical powers. Other citations which suggest Achren is closely associated with the underworld (and in some sources may even be an alternate name for Arawn) made commentors uncomfortable, particularly when taken in conjunction with the vulture on the device. (12/1988)

Adan Calentaur. Device. Or, six trees vert.

Conflict with Viedma ("Or, an olive tree vert."). (08/1987)

Adela Ote. Device. Per chevron gules and counterermine, a garb of oats argent.

Conflict under both rules with Holsheff ("Azure, a garb argent, banded gules.", as cited in Papworth, p. 894): the only difference is the field. (03/1990)

Adelaide de Beaumont. Badge. Argent, a pimpernel barbed gules, slipped, leaved and seeded proper, within a bordure sable.

There is a conflict with the cited device of Frances la Rouge ("Argent, a meadow beauty, blossom pendant, gules, slipped and leaved, within a bordure sable."). The changes in type and tincture of the flower cannot be more than two strong minors, if that. (11/1986)

Adelvarg na Midnathimmel. Name and device. Sable, a wolf statant atop a rock argent.

The elements in the given name could­not be documented as name elements, rather than independent words and the period Scandinavian languages, where they were not "borrowing" Biblical names, generally were like Old German, Old English and Old Norse in drawing "prothemes" and "deuterothemes" from a fixed pool of words. "Varg" does not appear in the Old Norse tradition of naming (or as a naming element in any of the cognate languages). The Old Norse name elements for "noble wolf" would produce "Adalulfr", although Old German Adelulf would be closer in sound. Also, the preposition here should be "av" (cognate with English "of"). He should also be aware that the primary meaning of "htmmel" in period and modern Germanic languages seems to be "heaven" (as in the German phrase "Gott im Himmel!"). The name "Noble wolf of the Midnight Heaven" made several people distinctly nervous. As the wolf is distinctly secondary in importance here, there is no visual conflict with Aodh of Gloghgriffin, cited in the letter of intent ("Pean, a wingless griffin statant upon a rock issuant from base argent."). However, it is technically in conflict with Walter de Montagne ("Sable, in chief a lion passant dismembered and in base a mount argent."). (12/1986)

Adelvarg va Midnatthimmel. Name and device. Sable, a wolf statant to sinister atop a rock argent.

Although both name and device were listed as resubmissions on the letter of intent, the name was actually being appealed, as there was no change made from the form returned. This appeal did not address the major objection to the given name, which was that neither "varg" nor any cognate form appears in the fixed pool of Germanic naming elements (either as a protheme or a deuterotheme). The submittor has provided copious documentation for the use of "Adel" as a protheme (which was never in dispute), but no evidence that "varg" was ever used in period or today in place of the "ulf" form that is common in Germanic names as a deuterotheme. It has long been established that the use of an element with meaning in one language does not necessarily mean that a translated form can be used in the same manner in another language. His argument basically is that, since "ulf" means "wolf" and is used, "varg" which also means "wolf" should also be used. This is not a valid argument. Also, no documentation has been provided for the use of "va" as a prepositional form, as opposed to the more familiar "av" that he has documented.

In resubmitting, he has attempted to avoid conflict with Walter de Montagne ("Sable, in chief a lion passant dismembered and in base a mount argent."), but beast is very definitely secondary in importance here and the conflict must be held to still exist. It also now runs into technical problems with Guillaume le Chien Blanc ("Sable, a samoyed dog statant to sinister proper and a chief argent.") and Haroun ibn-al-Dhib al Abyadh ("Sable, a wolf passant to sinister argent, in base a scimitar fesswise reversed Or."). (11/1987)

Adendra Marlan. Name and device. Sable, a ferret statant argent, orbed vert, in chief a compass star, its greater rays wavy and an increscent argent.

The given name was stated to be manufactured as a feminine variant form of Aidan. Unfortunately, not only is the formation not really plausible in terms of Irish name formation, it is actually an existing feminine Greek adjective which means "treeless" and thus is not permissible for registration under NR10a ("If a proposed name is found to be an existing word or name, it is treated as such, and not considered 'made-up'.") Perhaps the lady could be persuaded to consider the documented form "Edana"? The derivation given for the surname is not linguistically valid, but since "Marland" is documented as a family name, this would be a reasonable variant. The device runs afoul of AR6c which bans the use of three or more different types of device in an arrangement which might be regarded as a group: in the usual period arrangement of three charges, two and one, the lower charge is considerably larger in order to fill the area of the shield, as is the case here. (04/1988)

Adiantum, Barony of. Badge for Fern and Quill Award. Vert, in saltire a quill and a fern frond argent.

Unfortunately, Crescent was correct in feeling that this might be visually in conflict with the device of Elinor Annora ferch Llewelyn ("Vert, two quills crossed in saltire within an orle argent."): the quills on Elinor's device are halfway between the quill here and the fern frond here, both of which are in the range of Society quill pen depictions, and the result is that the badge looks a great deal like Elinor's device without the orle. (05/1989)

Adlersruhe, Shire of. Name only.

Name withdrawn at request of Star Principal Herald. (03/1987)

Adria of the Crosswinds. Device. Per saltire Or and argent, a saltire azure between in fess two wolf's heads, erased and respectant, sable and in pale two garden rosebuds gules, slipped and leaved vert.

This is just too busy: there are three types of charges (with two in a single group) and six tinctures (with three in a single group), not to mention the additional anomaly of the garden rosebuds. (03/1990)

Adrian Blackfire. Device. Azure, a chevron inverted throughout Or, overall a wyvern couchant coward argent.

This does in fact conflict with Karina of the Far West ("Azure, a wyvern statant argent." as reblazoned elsewhere on this letter) which has a wyvern statant in almost precisely the posture that is here blazoned as couchant. The wyvern on Adrian's arms is closer to the traditional statant than couchant in any case (a wyvern couchant would be in the same posture as a dragon couchant). (11/1987)

Adriana Maria Presley. Device. Sable, in pale and a chevronel between in chief three escallops and in base a frog sejant to sinister argent.

However this is blazoned, in appearance it includes a fimbriated chief, which is not permitted for Society usage. (12/1986)

Adrienne du Val des Roses. Badge for House Val des Roses. Argent, a rose purpure, barbed vert, within a bordure nebuly purpure.

Conflict with Alyanora of Vinca ("Argent, a periwinkle proper."). Obelisk is correct in noting that the flowers are virtually identical visually. (12/1987)

Aedrik Thorulfsson. Device. Per bend sable and gules, a borre­style gripping beast within and grasping an annulet argent.

The gripping beast is not a consistent heraldic charge which could reliably be rendered by a competent heraldic artist. The beast on the emblazon is in fact copied from a particular broach from Rinkaby. Additionally, there is a technical conflict with Comura Shimitsu ("Sable, two chevronels couped counter­couched within and annulet argent."). (11/1986)

Ædrik Thorulfsson. Device. Per bend sinister sable and gules, three tau crosses argent.

Conflict with Sean MacFflam of Ravenswaard ("Sable, in sinister chief a tau cross argent."). There is a major point of difference for the number of crosses, but only a minor for the field. (03/1988)

Aegirjon of Cathanar. Name and device. Sable, in pale three squirrels pelts inverted in fess argent and a bezant.

The name "Aegir" is not Celtic, as stated on the letter of intent. Instead, it is the name of the Norse god of the sea, and such, is not eligible for use in the Society unless it has been documented to be used by normal human beings in period. Such documentation has not been forthcoming. The squirrel pelts are not standard heraldic charges and are not identifiable without the blazon (one member of Laurel staff blazoned this as "three Caspars in fess"!). If the submitter wishes to be "squirrelly", why not adopt the excellent suggestions of the Brachet meeting and use vair? (09/1989)

Ælfgar the Pure. Device. Azure, a heron statant close Or.

Under both sets of rules this conflicts with Fithie ("Azure, a crane argent.", cited in Papworth, p. 305) and Roper ("Sable, a stork Or.", ibid.): there is no heraldic difference between a heron, a crane and a stork. Additionally, this representation of the bird is distinctly three-dimensional. . . (01/1990)

Aelfgifu of the Hazel Thicket. Device. Vair, on a chief azure, four feathers palewise argent.

Crescent and Brachet are correct to cite a visual conflict with Llywelyn ap Evan ("Per fess azure and vair ancient, three escallops in chief argent."): period heraldry did not really make that much distinction visually between a field divided per fess and one divided "per chief" (as Papworth sometimes calls it). In this case the "enhancement" of the line of division is even more diminished because the chief lies entirely along an azure portion of the field, which it should not. (05/1988)

Aelfgifu Wolfsängerin. Device. Vert, a wolf sejant ululant argent.

The device is functionally identical to the arms of de Wolf ("Vert, a wolf sejant argent.", as cited in Woodward, p. 228). It is also in conflict under both old and new rules with Robert Strongbow ("Vert, a wolf rampant argent, grasping in its erect sinister forepaw a bow gules held fesswise and in its dexter forepaw a sheaf of three clothyard shafts Or, armed and flighted argent.") as well as Gambow ("vert, a wolf salient argent.", cited in Papworth, p. 98). (05/1990)

Alastair the Eastern Traveller. Device. Argent, a chevron inverted between a patriarchal cross gules and a plant of three thistles, slipped, proper.

Under both old and new rules this is a conflict with Grendon ("Argent, a chevron reversed gules.", as cited in Papworth, p. 373). (05/1990)

Aelfheri Lewyn de Romeilli. Name only.

Sadly, the submittor allows no changes, however minor, to the name as submitted. "Ælfhere" is a perfectly good Anglo- Saxon masculine name and the form here is presented as a "perfectly good spelling variant". Unfortunately, an examination of the actual citation that the submittor was using (Selten, The Anglo-Saxon Heritage in Middle English Personal Names, Vol. II, p. 14) indicates that the form terminating in an "i" is in fact the genitive of a Latinized form "Ælferus" or "Elferus", which is in common use in clerical contexts (Selten, ibid.). No examples of the name which we could find in the nominative (or in Anglo-Saxon) end in an "i". Otherwise, the name is fine, if a bit anachronistic in its components. (06/1988)

Aelfreda o Lyn Ewig. Device. Azure, a stag lodged and in chief a decrescent and increscent, all argent.

Under both the old rules, and the new rules, this is a conflict with Downes ("Azure, a stag couchant argent.", cited in Papworth, p. 59). Under the old rules there is a major point for addition of a group of secondaries (the two crescent variants form a single groups of charges). Under the new rules a single difference is derived from the same addition. (11/1989)

Aelfric of Purbeck. Badge. Or, fretty azure, on a pale gules, a cross potent fitchy Or.

Under both sets of rules this would be a visual conflict with Wright ("Argent, on a pale gules, a cross crosslet fitchy Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 1005): the two crosses are functionally identical. (01/1990)

Aelfric Rayden. Device. Argent, an abacus palewise within a bordure sable.

After a comparison of the emblazons, we concluded that this was visually in conflict with the badge registered to Tadhg Liath of Duncairn ("An abacus sable."): the nature of the abacus is such that the visual effect of the rotation is diminished to a great degree. (08/1989)

Aelfrun Errantmaid. Device. Azure, a bend sinister Or between a hedgehog statant to sinister and a quatrefoil argent.

Conflict with Dennis Flaxenhelm ("Azure, on a bend sinister Or, a goblet upright sable."), with Blair Dubois ("Azure, a bend sinister between a cat sejant guardant and a dove close Or."), and with Barbara Caballeus ("Azure, a bend sinister Or between in chief an open book argent, leathered Or, and in base a horse trippant Or."). (02/1987)

Aelfwine the Wanderer. Device. Per fess Or and sable, a wolf rampant counterchanged.

Conflict with Barker ("Per fess Or and sable, a lion rampant counterchanged.", as cited in Papworth, p. 89). As complete difference of charge cannot exist between two quadrupeds, the technical conflict is clear and the visual conflict is striking. (08/1987)

Aeruin na Cantaireachet Sreagan. Device. Per bend vert and azure, a bend Or between a greyhound courant and three sheaves of three arrows argent.

Conflict with Floeda fram Beran Beorth ("Per bend vert and azure, a bend between a bear passant Or and a mountain peak issuant from dexter base argent. "): the most difference that may be derived from cumulative changes to a group of secondary charges is a major and a minor. (03/1987)

Aeruin na Cantairechet Sreagan. Device. Per pale sable and Or, two dragons combattant counterchanged, collared gules.

There is a conflict with Milo FitzLyon, cited on the letter of intent ("Per pale Or and sable, two dragons combattant between two bars embattled to base counterchanged."): the addition of the collars is not a significant enough visual detail to add the minor point needed to clear this technically and the visual echo is very strong. Brachet is also correct in stating that this also infringes on Aaron Elvenspeed ("Per pale vert and Or, two dragons serpentine combattant counterchanged."). (04/1988)

Æthelflæda of Saint Hereswitha's Abbey. Device. Vert, a plate, overall a cross counterchanged argent and azure.

The arms of House ("Vert, a cross argent.") cannot be differenced merely by adding a roundel bearing the flag of Finland. In any case, the roundel is essentially an oddly tinctured counterchange and it is dubious whether it should be allowed more than a major point of difference under our rules. (07/1989)

Æthelmearc, Consort of. Device. Gules, an escarbuncle argent within a chaplet of roses, in chief a coronet Or.

In all the pother over the proposed devices for the Heir and Heiress of the principality, the fact that this device contained a chaplet of roses more or less escaped notice. While Brigantia noted that the blazon had been selected specifically to distinguish it from the wreath of roses reserved to Queens and Ladies of the Rose, this is a distinction rather than a difference. Not only are chaplets regularly listed under "wreath", but several pieces of royal armoury have the wreath blazoned as a chaplet (most notably that of the Queen of the Middle). Moreover, this is depicted in much the same manner as the standard depiction of the wreath of roses on the device of the Queen of the East (albeit a bit thinner in the roses than is usual for the Queen's arms). As a territorial princess is not eligible to become a member of the Order of the Rose on the basis of her service to her principality, she may not use the wreath of roses (however blazoned) on her official or personal armoury. (04/1990)

Aethelred de Lowther. Device. Or, in pale six annulets sable between a pair of flaunches Or, fimbriated azure.

Although the flaunches were blazoned on the letter of intent as "azure voided" they are in fact thin partial arcs of azure placed on an Or field: an almost classic instance of "thin line heraldry". In fact, as Crescent has noted, the voiding or fimbriating of flaunches has been banned since September, 1981: "Flaunches voided and flaunches cotised are both non-period. . ." (05/1988)

Afonglyn, Shire of. Name only.

There documentation indicates that they wish the meaning "River Valley": that would be Glynafon in Welsh. The form here is the unmutated form for a place name which would mean "valley river". It's more common form in this meaning would be "Afonlyn". As there is some uncertainty whether the meaning or the name is more important to the group, we have returned the name as a whole. (04/1987)

Aghared Aethnen filia Cuneddae. Device. Azure, an aspen tree eradicated argent, leaved, within a bordure embattled Or.

Although White Staff submitted new forms and indicated that the submitter would accept a raguly border in his comment letter of 1 March, 1989, this is not a valid substitute for a letter of intent which would allow for complete conflict checking. Since the submitter is not willing to agree to the conditions laid down by Derrick Gunther Valdemar for conflict with his device ("Per pale sable and gules, a tree eradicated argent within a bordure embattled Or."), that conflict still stands. Given the nature of the change, pending the submission seemed inappropriate. (For those who were interested in the nature of the conditions and the reason why the submittor might refuse, the text of the condition reads: "I agree to conflict on a condition. Any device that holds up a tree argent or Or and/or is embattled Or or argent does represent that tree of eternal life found in the holy scriptures of the Hebrews and the writtings [sic] of those followers of the only true Son of God which is Jesus Christ. The stipulation is that the lady who does wish to register this device must vow a vow to her local herald with two other nobles present and signing as witness that if ever asked what this tree represents she will answer "The tree of eternal life which is found in heaven in care of Jesus Christ the only true Son of God. . .". (03/1989)

Agnes de Lanvallei. Device. Per chevron inverted azure and gules, a sprig of mint argent.

Conflict with the badge of the Atenveldt College of Bards ("Azure, a branch palewise argent."). (04/1989)

Agro d'Aix. Name.

Agro is not a valid Latin or Greek name. Moreover, De Felice (Dizionario del Cognomi Italiani, p. 46) shows this as an Italian surname derived from an epithetic use of the adjective "harsh" or "hard". (12/1986)

Ahmed al-Kalbi al-Kahnzir. Name and device. Chequy vert and Or, a heart gules, pierced by a scimitar bendwise sinister inverted argent, all between in bend a crescent inverted and a boar's head couped gules.

As Star notes, the name conflicts with that of Ahmad al-Kalbi, a scribe in the service of the Caliph al-Ma'mun in the early ninth century. There was considerable feeling in the College that the use of the second byname, which means "the Pig", could be interpreted as offensive to those of Moslem persuasion when placed in a perfectly formed Arabic name. (Star's comment is typical, "To use it as a name or epithet is so offensive that it is something that would not have been even considered, much less used, as a name either in period or since."). The device, which unites multiple unrelated design elements in a standard arrangement on a complex field comes under the heading of "slot machine heraldry" and is visually too complex. Additionally, the use of the inverted crescent gules and the boar's head was felt to increase the overall offensive effect with regard to Islamic beliefs. (11/1988)

Aidan Brandr Arinbjornson. Device. Vert, three swords in pall, hilts conjoined, blades enflamed, within a bordure of flames, all proper.

As noted by Mistress Keridwen, there is a standing precedent against the use of bordures of flame. If we may quote from the return of the device of Antoine le Rêveur in November, 88: "Although we must admit that bordures of flame have been registered before, Hund is correct when he points out that what is depicted on the emblazon is in fact a bordure fimbriated (actually a bordure rayonny gules, fimbriated Or). It seems inconsistent to ban fimbriated bordures as non­period practise when they are plain and not to do so when they are more complex." In this case, the bordure of flame does not even stand as the only anomaly, but is accompanied by the three swords proper with enflamed blades in an unusual position (though one that is documented for swords in a few late period devices). The general effect is not period style under either the old rules or the new. (02/1990)

Aidan MacAlpin. Device. Vert, a satyr rampant to sinister argent, crined and furred sable, within a bordure rayonny argent.

Although minor details of a charge may break tincture, the crining and furring of the beast here is not minor. The contrast between the sable of the lower extremities of the satyr and the vert of the field is so dim that lower portion of the monster fades into the field. Since the goatish nether regions of the satyr are its primary distinguishing features, this unacceptably reduces the identifiability of the primary charge. (08/1988)

Ailene nic Aedain. Device. Argent, a fret azure and a chief azure, fretty argent.

Conflict with Beltoft ("Argent, a fret and a chief azure."), cited in Papworth, p. 879). (11/1988)

Ailis FitzUre. Name and device. Argent, a Solomon's knot azure, within three orles purpure, azure and purpure.

By the submittor's own documentation, "Ure" is the name of a river and cannot be used with the patronymic particle "fitz" (see the discussion on Eadmund FitzTonge below). The "Solomon's knot" is not a standard heraldic charge and no documentation has been provided for its use. Several commentors noted that from the blazon many heraldic artists would depict the "Solomon's seal" which is quite a different thing. Further, the use of the nested orles in different tinctures is an anomaly for period heraldic style. (02/1987)

Aindrea MacFirnaclachan. Name and device. Argent, a saltire vert between a pile and a pile inverted sable and in fess two thistles proper.

The patronymic is not properly formed: while there are occasional instances of patronymics formed with "mac" plus an occupational noun, we could find none with a a noun formation purely derived from a location. Moreover, the formation "Fir na Clachan" is not how Gaelic would indicate a man who lived in a stone house. The blazon does not really correctly describe the device as the sable is not really pile-shaped. The nearest blazon probably is "Per saltire sable and argent, a saltire vert, fimbriated argent, between in fess two thistles, slipped and leaved, proper." However, this is not permissible since much of the "fimbriation" will fade into the argent portion of the field. This is not period style. (11/1987)

Aindreas MacRaibeart Boyd. Device. Quarterly Or and gules, a sun between three thistles counterchanged.

Conflicts technically with Jack Nimble ("Quarterly Or and vert, a sun counterchanged."). (02/1987)

Aine Aislin Stirling. Name and device. Per chevron sable and argent, a chevron counterchanged between in chief a plate between in fess a decresent and an increscent argent and in base a thistle, slipped and leaved proper.

As Hund has noted, since all changes are to the secondary charges, this is in conflict with the device registered in June, 1988, for Gwenhwyfar Trelowarth ("Per chevron sable and argent, a chevron counterchanged between a dove displayed argent and a wolf's head, erased and sinister facing, sable."). (03/1989)

Aine of the Hounds. Device. Per bend azure and ermine, in bend an Irish wolfhound's head erased and a rotweiler's head, couped and sinister facing, proper.

After a long and difficult discussion, the force of opinion was that the use of two different varieties of dog's heads in a single group of charges reduced the identifiability of each to the point where the device was unacceptable. (05/1989)

Aislinn Columba of Carlisle. Device. Barry of eight Or and sable, on a chief triangular sable, a wolf passant to sinister argent.

Since the difference between barry of six and barry of eight is negligible (Determination of Difference, p. 8, Dl), this conflicts with the Society device of Barry Goldman ("Barry of six Or and sable."). (12/1986)

Aislynn Aelfbearn. Name and device. Or, a pale and on a chief gules, three tankards, lidded with boar's heads, Or.

Unfortunately, the members of the College who commented that the byname is against the ban on claims of non-human descent in NR12 are technically correct. As she indicates no changes whatsoever may be made to her name, the submission as a whole must be returned. If this had not been the case, we would have modified the name to the form which was originally returned at Kingdom level ("Ulfbearn") since Laurel staff has been able to document the use of th "Ulf" instead of "Wulf" as a protheme in Old English sources. (07/1988)

Alain de Trois Rivieres. Device. Per fess enhanced wavy purpure and azure, two seawolves combattant between a mullet and three spears issuant from base, points conjoined in fess point, Or.

A complex line of division such as wavy is permitted for fields in which the divisions are of the same tincture category only in cases where the contrast between the tinctures is good and the line of division is not obscured by overlying charges. This device meets neither criterion: the contrast between purpure and azure is almost the poorest imaginable and the sea-wolves overly the line of division to such an extent that it is only by examining closely that it is possible to determine that it is not a plain line. (11/1987)

Alan Lothinlarsson fra Jorvik. Badge for Kauthiflugarstaddir. Or, a housefly rampant guardant to sinister proper, garbed and capped in a jester's motley lozengy vert and gules (Musca domestica).

A number of commentors had negative comments about the lack of period style in the fly and the household name, but when it comes down to it, the real problem is contrast. (After all, we do have lions playing bagpipes in the Society, don't we?. . .) The fly is proper an cannot be blazoned otherwise sine the body is blackish but the eyes are distinctly "fly green" and the wings are grey-white. Furthermore, motley may not be of two colours (it could be a colour and a metal). Were fly entirely sable and the motley better in contrast (e.g., argent and gules), then the badge would be more acceptable. However, we would like a bit more evidence on the proper formation of the place name, particularly the "rogue fly" component. (12/1989)

Alan of Darkdale. Name only.

Under the old rules, this would have been a conflict with the Alan of the Dale (or Alan a'Dale) of the Robin Hood tales, since it adds only an adjective (the difference is precisely that between "Mountain" and "Black Mountain" and between "of the dewy White Rose" and "of the Rose" used as examples of conflict in the old rules). Under the Addition of One Phrase in the new rules, this is still not clear although both names have fewer than three phrases since the only difference is the addition of the adjective before the noun, which is not considered an independent phrase (V.3, p.6) is added by the addition of "Dark", the article and preposition specifically do not create difference. Addition of a surname here would carry it clear under both sets of rules. (11/1989)

Alan of Gravesend. Device. Argent, a chevron gules, overall three piles in point counterchanged, the center one charged in chief with a cross of Calvary Or.

There was a general feeling in the College that this was non-period in style, being excessively "op-artish" in appearance. It is also overly complex. As Treble Clef put it, "The field is the first layer. The chevron is the second. The piles are the third, and so the cross is the fourth layer, which is not allowed.". (08/1987)

Alan Quentin Garretson. Device. Argent, a bend sinister gules between a fleur-de-lys sable and a two-headed turtle vert.

Conflict with Helene of Glen Laurie ("Argent, a bend sinister between a garden rose gules, slipped and leaved vert, and a squirrel sejant to sinister gules.") (03/1988)

Alanna of Ravenwood. Device. Argent, fretty, a raven volant to sinister sable within a bordure azure.

After comparing the emblazons, it is clear that Crescent is correct in citing as a conflict the badge of Katherine Marie Yvonne Jette ("Argent, an eagle volant to sinister, bearing upon its back a woman sejant to sinister, arm upraised and maintaining a flaming torch, all sable, within a bordure azure."). The two primary charges are so close in outline that the verbal differences between the two are visually negligible (the mass of the woman on the badge occupies the space of the upper wing on the device). Thus, although the two are blazoned quite differently, the only significant difference between the emblazons is the fretty which is not adequate difference between a Society device and Society badge. (12/1986)

Alaric Dimitrievich Razvedcheckov. Device. Per chevron azure and Or, in sinister chief a demi-dragon Or.

Unfortunately, Crescent and Silver Trumpet are correct in noting that, under the current rules, this conflicts with the fieldless badge of the Middle Kingdom "A demi-dragon argent.": since it is fieldless no difference can be given for field tincture or absolute position on the field. (08/1989)

Alaric Kelson Palamon. Device. Per bend sinister vert and azure, a pile issuant bendwise sinister from dexter base gules, fimbriated, overall a hawk striking Or.

While it is true that our rules allow ordinaries to be fimbriated, the overall effect of this device was of a field peculiarly tierced of three colours, with the bird overall. The fimbriation here is naught but "thin line heraldry" and it is difficult to see how it could be drawn with proper thickness without diminishing the identifiability of the bird. (06/1988)

Alaric Liutpold von Markheim. Name only.

This submission was postponed on the June letter to allow further discussion by the College of the principles involved. Ultimately, the appropriate decision seemed to be to protect registered Society household names. (For a fuller discussion of the issues and a formal statement of precedent, see the section of the cover letter entitled "On the Protection of Household Names".) As House Markheim has been formally registered by the College (in August, 1979, as listed under the name of Waldt von Markheim in the Armorial), it is entitled to protection. (09/1987)

Alaric Liutpold von Steinman. Change of device. Gules, an eagle displayed, wings inverted, on a chief embattled argent, three crosses formy gules.

Conflict with Stephanie of Ean Airegead ("Gules, a dove migrant to chief and on a chief embattled argent, three tulips gules."). A number of us also felt rather strongly that this was visually in conflict with the arms of Poland (Gules, an eagle displayed argent, armed and crowned Or."), since the Or details are frequently omitted from period and modern depictions of the arms. (12/1988)

Alaric of Phoenix Fens. Badge. Gules, in fess a harp and a lion rampant Or.

Hund and the others who called this in conflict with the familiar arms of Richard the Lionheart ("Gules, two lions combattant Or.") are correct: even under the old rules these famous royal arms would deserve additional protection and the only change here is the substitution of the harp for one lion. As we do not consider alternatives at the Laurel level, the mention of an alternative badge is somewhat superfluous, but it may be noted that the addition of a bordure to the current design would produce new conflicts such as Grey ("Gules, a lion rampant within a bordure Or."). (01/1990)

Alasdair MacDhonnchaid. Device. Argent, a thistle, slipped and leaved, proper, on a chief a demi-sum issuant from the line of division Or, all within a bordure counter-company vert and argent.

There are several problems with the device. First of all, a bordure should not surmount a chief in this manner. Secondly, the bordure countercompony of vert and argent adds an unacceptable level of complexity to the device since the vert potions of the bordure fade into the azure and the argent fades into the argent of the field, leaving an effect of isolated rectangles of tincture. Unfortunately, simplifying the device by merely removing the bordure would not resolve the difficulty since it would then conflict with Sandilans ("Argent, a thistle vert, flowered gules, on a chief azure an imperial crown Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 860). (05/1987)

Alasdair of Kerry. Device. Azure, a horse salient to sinister and in chief two estoiles argent.

Conflict with Boris of Woodland ("Azure, a horse rampant to sinister between in chief a label throughout argent and in base a scimitar fracted in chevron inverted Or."). (01/1987)

Alasdair Stuart Campbell. Badge for Argyllshire Highlanders. A boar's head erased close between three claymores in triangle argent.

The consensus of opinion in the College was that the conjunction of this badge, which differs by only a single point of difference from the badge of the Campbell chiefs, with the name Campbell and Argyll was presumptuous. Moreover, the name is in direct conflict with that of the actual regiment which is now known as the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders (originally they were solely the Argyll Highlanders and under that name gained great fame in various parts of the British Empire). (03/1988)

Alastar MacCrummin the Scot. Name and device. Argent, vetu ployé azure, a triangular trivet azure, enflamed proper, in chief two pheons inverted argent.

After much discussion, we decided that the use of the epithet "the Scot" was inadvisable with the given name of three of the most famous kings of Scotland. As he did not allow any changes to his name, we could not drop the offending epithet. This device seemed to display too many anomalies to be considered consonant with period style: charging a chapé or vetu is extremely bad practise in itself and limiting the charges to the upper portion of the shield disturbs the balance of the device, the trivet is such that it cannot be clearly identified without depicting it in trian aspect and the flaming of only the legs and upper portion of the outer edge of the trivet is peculiar to say the least. (This is without considering the fact that the submittor's concept of flames proper are "Or, fimbriated gules", even on the argent field: that could be corrected by correct depiction of the flames.) (10/1988)

Alberic Cordeau. Device. Sable, an armadillo rampant to sinister Or between four bezants in cross.

We were compelled to agree with Brachet and Treble Clef concerning the conflict with Ogle ("Sable, five bezants in cross."). (09/1988)

Alberic of Winter Hills. Badge for Winter Hills Holdt. Sable, a pithon erect to sinister, its dexter wing inverted and sinister wing elevated, argent.

There are three distinct problems with the badge. First of all, it is demonstrably non­period style and definitely a non­standard pithon. Secondly, as Crescent has pointed out, it is a commonly available piece of jewelry which is almost certainly in the public domain and arguably should not be reserved for use to one individual. Finally, if the pithon is drawn in a standard heraldic manner in the nearest heraldic position, there is a conflict with the device of Ferall von Halstern ("Sable, a bearded pithon erect guardant, wings displayed, within a bordure embattled argent. Note: the submittor's personal name was stated in the letter of intent to have been registered, but we have no record of any submission passed under this name. (12/1986)

Albion Marcus Montelammartine. Name and device. Per chevron azure and Or, in chief a winged lion passant guardant, maintaining in its dexter paw a sword Or, all within a bordure compony Or and azure.

The citation from Withycombe (p. 9) used in the letter of intent to support Albion as a given name in period does not do so: what is actually said is that "another possibly connected name is Albion, e.g., Sir Albion Richardson KC, b. 1874". That is clearly out of period and, given the use of "Albion" to denote England even in Roman days, this must be considered an impermissible usage. He might do better to use a documented Latin form of the root name such as "Albanus", which Withycombe documents as early as 1201 (p. 9): it would go better with the second given name. The surname also has problems since it is not properly formed in either Spanish or French. If he wants proper Spanish for "of the Mountain by the Sea", he should use "de Monte del Mar". If he wants something closer to the submitted sound, he could use the actual French place name "Montmartin sur mer", suggested by Crescent. The use of a bordure compony where the bordure used one or both of the tinctures of the field has been banned by consensus of the College since last summer. It probably should be pointed out to the submittor that some members of the College were distinctly twitchy over the use of the winged lion of Saint Mark with the name Mark and "by the sea" in view of the associations of Mark as patron saint of Venice. (05/1988)

Alcestis of Phoenixgate. Name only.

Since Alcestis is the lady whom Hercules rescued from the underworld (in classic Greek mythological sources she is often referred to as the only "normal" mortal to have returned through the gates of death), using that given name in conjunction with the beast that ancient myth had dying only to rise again seemed to be too close to a claim to, if not immortality, the ability to rise from the dead. (11/1986)

Aldonza Dulcinea. Name and device. Argent, a bend sinister between a horse passant to sinister and a cat sejant to sinister sable.

Her badge was passed under the name of Aldonza Pandora since the proposed Society name is clearly in conflict with the heroine of Cervantes' Don Quixote: both names are used for the tavern girl whom the Don chooses as the object of his chivalric adoration: the one name is her actual given name, the other her "nom de guerre" in his imaginary world. The peasant Aldonza Lorenzo becomes in his fantasy the aristocratic Dulcinea del Toboso. The device conflicts with Helene of Glen Laurie, cited in the letter of intent ("Argent, a bend sinister between a garden rose gules, slipped and leaved vert, and a squirrel sejant to sinister erect gules: the maximum difference which may be derived from changes to a single group of secondary charges is a major and a minor point (DR9). (12/1986)

Aldred d'Inconnu. Device. Azure, on a bend sinister between a bunch of grapes and a goblet Or, a bendlet couped azure.

Conflict with Richard Andreivitch of Rus ("Azure, on a bend sinister Or, an estoile sable."), Blair Dubois ("Azure, a bend sinister between a cat sejant guardant and a dove close Or."), etc. (12/1988)

Aldwin Greenleaf. Device. Quarterly purpure and ermine, on a cross moline nowy argent between four unicorn's heads erased, counterchanged argent and purpure, a rose gules.

While the secondaries have been simplified, the field has been made considerably more complex than in her previous submission, at the cost of materially reducing the identifiability of the cross, which has lamentably low contrast with half the field.When this is taken in conjunction with the overall complexity of the device (four tinctures and three types of charge with one group of charges in two tinctures), this crosses the threshold of acceptability. (03/1990)

Aldwin Yale of York. Badge for House Rising Star. Per bend sinister sable and Or, a compass star and a partisan counterchanged within a bordure embattled gules.

Withdrawn at request of the Aten Principal Herald. (08/1988)

Aldwin Yale of York. Name for House Rising Star.

The household name conflicts directly with that of House Rising Star registered to Cameron of Caladoon in 1979. (09/1988)

Aleea Baga. Name only.

The submittor marvellously documented the elements of her name with a scholarly article from Names (the journal of the American Name Society) on Mongolian personal names. (Indeed, this article on an area for which we have so few sources was so good we might have reproduced it, at least in part, if the photocopy supplied with the forms had been better: if someone in the Eastern college has access to this article from the June, 1962 issue, we suspect many in the college would be grateful for a copy.) Unfortunately, while the examples support the usage of such elements in personal names in period, all the examples show the adjective preceding the noun and we must conclude that this is standard practise in Mongolian, at least for names.Thus the form of the name should be "Baga Aleea". Unfortunately, the submittor did not wish to allow any changes to the name so it could not be fully registered. (01/1990)

Aleen du Varnay. Blazon correction. Or, a rose gules, barbed and seeded proper, pierced by a sword fimbriated sable, all within an ivy vine in annulo vert.

What appears on her original emblazon sheet and was reduplicated on the emblazon sheet on the letter of intent is not an annulet by any means. A note included in the paperwork stated "should be more rounded, but she displays it correctly on her banner". Unfortunately, we can only register what we see and the emblazon matches the current blazon better than it does the proposed modification (several commentors indicated that they had a hard time devising a reasonable emblazon which would have a true annulet around the central charges if the relative proportions were maintained). (03/1987)

Alejanda Isabel Iglesias Domenench de Mac Murray. Change of name from Alejandra Isable Murray.

The submitter was appealing a modification of her name to register her device in November, 1988. Apart from a number of animadversions on the lack of expertise of the College of Arms with regard to Spanish naming practice and some statements designed to remedy this lack, the appeal consisted largely of documentation for "Iglesias" from the eighteenth century and "Domenech" from the mid-seventeenth century together with documents to show that these names were uses in the submitter's family in more recent times. While it is understandable that the submitter is proud of her Spanish heritage and wishes to incorporate allusions to this in her persona, we still need documentation of the usages here. It might be possible to give the benefit of the doubt to "Domenech" which is notes as Catalan and the name of somebody who entered the Order of Santiago in 1648, on the grounds that those who gained this honour were frequently of mature age and thus the name may be assumed to have been used prior to 1600. The same cannot be said to be true of Iglesias for the documentation there dates back no farther than 1768. Moreover, the submitter seems to be under a misapprehension as the usages of Spanish names in period and, to a lesser extent, in the present day. She is concerned that the name, as approved would make her the mother of her lord (who bears the surname MacMurray). That is certainly not the case. The name as approved would be correct for a late period Spanish woman married to a Scot. The submitter's argumentation states that the usage "de MacMurray" means "belonging to Mac Murray" and is necessary to indicate that she is married to (i.e., "belongs to" a Mac Murrary). In point of fact, as Brachet has noted, there is considerable evidence that the adoption of the husband's name upon marriage is a relatively recent phenomenon in Spain, occurring only i the last century or s. Even then, the use of "de Mac Murray" is something of a linguistic solecism, arising from a misunderstanding on the part of some Spaniards of the nature of the family name (there are documents in both Latin America and Napoleonic Spain which testify to clerks interpreting the names of exiled Scots as geographic entities). As the submitter notes, the patten of given name + Father's surname + conjunction + mother's surname is quite common of modern Spain, although there is some degree of doubt as to its common use in period. For most of the period, documents show a given name with a surname, often patronymic in nature, or a given name with a geographically derived byname, e.g. "Juan del Enicina" of "Lucas Fernández". In some cases, particularly where the individual was of high rank, both a patronymic and geographic byname would be used (e.b., "Pedro López de Ayala"). The use of the conjoint form seems to have been a later development, perhaps originally designed to show descent or inheritance from the mother when the matrical line was the more significant (a process similar to that of armorial quartering). Clearly, this occurred in period, although not so commonly as today, when it is the norm in middle and upper class Spanish families. However, we have not been able to find a single period example of the format given name + father's surname + conjunction + mother's surname + husband's surname, even if the preposition is dropped from her husband's surname. In short, the name she proposes might work in modern Spanish (although some purists might have problems with it),but it does not seem to be period style for Spanish names. (09/1989)

Alejandro Arquero. Device. Sable, a dragon segreant argent, in dexter chief a rose Or, seeded gules.

Conflict with Alexander Greylorn ("Sable, a dragon segreant incensed of icy breath and a chief rayonny argent.") and Alfhild the Mad ("Sable, a dragon rampant argent, armed Or, in chief two lymphads sailing to sinister, sails furled, flags flying and oars in motion, all Or."). (06/1989)

Alejandro the Far Traveller. Device. Gules, on a pale bretassed argent three broken spears sable, ribboned gules.

Conflict with the badge of the Barony of Southdowns ("Gules, on a pale bretassed argent, a raven striking gules.). (10/1986)

Aleksei Rurikov. Name only.

Crescent is quite correct in indicating that the surname here is correctly formed to show descent from Rurik and the submittor's documentation indicates that it is in fact his intent to show his descent from Rurik, the original leader of the Rus. Unfortunately, this is tantamount to claiming membership in the House of Rurik, rulers of Russia from Kiev and Moscow for more than seven centuries, right down to the end of the sixteenth century. Rurik is in the same relationship here as Roman Yurievich was to the House of Romanov: logically we should protect "Rurikov" as we do "Romanov". (01/1988)

Alessandra Raffaela di Luciano. Device. Azure, a swan naiant, wings elevated and addorsed, argent within a bordure Or, semy of escallops inverted azure.

Conflict with Sheryl of Thespis, cited on the letter of intent: "Azure, a swan naiant argent, crowned Or." Sheryl's device has the swan in precisely the same posture and the echo is particularly striking. (10/1988)

Alexander Baird. Device. Sable, a pall inverted of Wake knots cojoined Or, between three torteaux, fimbriated Or.

The primary issue here, as Crescent clearly indicated, is whether the pall of Wake knots could be considered acceptable for heraldic use in the Society or should come under the long- standing ban on "knotwork". The issue is not merely whether the charge or charges can be blazoned, as Crescent implies, but whether the charge or charges can be readily identified by the casual observer to be what they are. Commentary in the College, which was substantially opposed to dropping the ban on knotwork, reflects a reality here. While the conjoint charge can be easily blazoned, it cannot be readily identified without already being aware of the blazoning. Viewed at a distance, the central design element is as likely to be interpreted as a pall invected with some peculiar internal diapering as it is to be interpreted correctly as a conjoining of otherwise identifiable knots. When the separated knots are placed in a standard heraldic position, their familiar outline renders them identifiable. When this outline is diminished, as it is here, by reduction in size and conjoining, they are no longer clearly identifiable. This is the case with virtually all "knotwork", not matter how easily blazonable, and that is the most cogent reason for not permitting it in the Society. (09/1988)

Alexander Chulannan. Name only.

It was the consensus of the commentors that the byname, which was presented in the letter of intent as a variant of "Cullinan", "O Cuileannáin" and "Cullinane", was not proved to be a valid variant. The forms presented did not have an aspirated initial letter and in a noun in apposition after a masculine noun such aspiration would be unlikely. Moreover, the switch to the internal "a" is not demonstrated (the old Irish forms of "cuilean" end in a simple "en" as do some later forms indicating that the "a" does not become dominant, particularly in the penultimate syllable). As the submittor allows no changes to the name, we have to return the name as a whole. (12/1988)

Alexandre Lerot d'Avignon. Device. Purpure, on a pale between two snakes glissant palewise argent, a wolf rampant sable.

Conflict with Orin of the Argent Lions of Mightrinwood ("Purpure, a pallet between two lions rampant addorsed argent. ") and Luerann Damask ("Purpure, on a pale endorsed argent, three roses, barbed and seeded proper. "). (03/1987)

Alexandre Lerot d'Avignon. Name for House d'Avigne.

Since the adjective "avigne" would not be preceded by the preposition "de", the name is incorrectly formed. Given the "Avignon Papacy" we felt that the change made to his personal name would not be acceptable for the household name. Unlike an individual, a house could be "avigne" so a household name like "Hotel Avigne" would be acceptable: this substitution was not made automatically so that the submittor could decide if the household name and personal name should "match". (03/1987)

Alfred of Mercia. Name only.

While Alfred the Great was not crowned King of Mercia, by the Peace of Wedmore he clearly became overlord of Mercia with the Ealdormen of Mercia clearly under his rule. (02/1987)

Alfric Northwind. Badge. Azure, fretty, overall a compass star argent.

Conflict with the badge of the Barony of Rivenstar (SCA), Azure, a rivenstar argent. There is a CVD for the addition of the fretty to the field, but there was a clear consensus among those attending the meeting that there was not another for the difference between a rivenstar and a standard compass star. (06/1990)

Alfric Rolfson. Device. Azure, on a fess engrailed to chief and invected to base argent, a drakkar sable, sailed gules.

Under both sets of rules this is definitely clear of De Verthon ("Azure, on a fess argent, a bee volant en arriere sable.", as cited in Papworth, p. 73) since there is a major change to the line of division of the fess and multiple changes to the tertiaries. The case for Anita Beaumaris ("Azure, a fess invected between five natural seahorses, two, two, and one argent.") and Stighull Malston ("Azure, on a fess engrailed argent, three lozenges gules.", as cited in Papworth, loc. cit.) is by no means as clearcut as it sounded when presented in the letter of intent. Whether changing one side of an ordinary to another similar line of division would count as a "full weight" minor charge under the old rules is definitely a matter for discussion. As Silver Trumpet has noted, the old rules would grant a minor for the difference between invected and engrailed, but that would apply where both sides of the ordinary differed: in this case only one side changes from each potential conflict. In the case of Stighull Malston, any difference derived from the fess might be enough technically under the old rules since the lozenges change in type, number and (partial) change in tincture would give a full point and only a major and minor were required. This would not be the case with Anita's armoury since there is only a minor for addtion of the tertiary under the old rules and a major for removal of the secondaries. Visually, since the fess here is in a sense both a fess engrailed and a fess invected, there is a very real problem under the old rules with both devices. Under the new rules, Anita's armoury is quite clear: no difference is required from the line of division since both the addition of the tertiary and the addition of the secondaries count full weight. The problem with Stighull Malston still remains, however: we would be inclined to grant difference between an ordinary invected and an ordinary engrailed on the grounds that the two were distinguished in period armoury and have traditionally be distinguished quite well in Society armoury. However, we cannot in conscience grant difference where the ordinary involves both lines of division. (02/1990)

Algrin the Dark. Device. Per bend sinister sable and Or, a tree eradicated counterchanged.

Unfortunately, Seraph is correct in citing the badge of the Barony of Madrone as a technical conflict ("A madrone tree eradicated proper."). (10/1988)

Alienora an Coille. Device. Ermine, in pale a chevron wavy and a Catherine wheel gules.

Conflict with Iathus of Scara ("Ermine, a cog wheel gules."): there is no way to call a full point of difference between the two types of wheel and the differences in position are derivative. (06/1988)

Alina Meraud Bryte. See Gavin de Haga for household name. (11/1989)

Alisane o Mynyddoed Taranllyd. Device. Sable, a saltire raguly overall a unicorn's horn palewise, all within a bordure argent

There was almost unanimous agreement amongst the commentors that so much of the argent alicorn lay on the argent saltire that it would be unidentifiable. (03/1987)

Alisaundre Oliphant. Name for Maison Oliphant.

The name is in direct conflict with the Order of the Elephant, a period Danish chivalric order which was founded in 1462 is still in existence today. For those who are interested, Friar's New Dictionary of Heraldry (p. 134) gives its badge as a gold and white elephant with a black mahout, on its side a Greek cross, and on its back a red tower. (In other words, it is clear of the submitted badge for this lady under both rules.) (04/1990)

Alix de Perigueux. Device. Azure, a pile inverted embattled between two fleurs­de­lys Or.

Technically, this does not conflict with the arms of France under old rules or new, but the use of the gold fleurs­de­lys on the blue field, especially in conjunction with one of the favourite period feminine names in the French royal family. Under the current rules, this is a conflict with Flaxney ("azure, a fess between two fleurs­de­lys Or." cited by Dolphin, as the position changes in the fleurs are totally due to the change in ordinary. While this might clear if Laurel's proposal to the College on extending section X.2 of the rules to cases where there is a single group of identical secondaries is accepted, the submittor should be warned that many will interpret this design as a pretense to French royal status. (05/1990)

Allan Grayson of Eaglescliff. Device. Per bend sinister Or and argent, a bend sinister azure surmounted by a triple-headed eagle displayed counterchanged.

There are two serious problems with the device. First, the complex counterchanging involving three colours is not period style. The parts of the eagle on the field are azure and the portion of the bird on the bend is divided per bend sinister Or and argent: the general effect is to make the charge overall unrecognizable at any distance. In any case, if it this were not the case, as Crescent and Treble Clef both have commented, the triple-headed eagle has been banned from use in the Society for nearly nine years because of its close association with the aspirations of the Holy Roman Empire (it appears in at least one period armorial as the imperial arms once Jerusalem has been reconquered). (05/1988)

Allen Stuart MacClure. Device. Sable, on a fret argent, a unicorn sejant vert.

As Brachet has noted, this is in conflict with the arms of Blackmister ("Sable, a fret argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 879). Also, as drawn, the green unicorn lay almost entirely on the lathes of the fret so had good contrast, but were it properly drawn overall as most Society heralds would try to draw it, it would violate the rule of tincture with the field. (08/1988)

Alma Jolene Eamon. Name only.

The submittor's own name documentation for all elements was a rather dubious "baby name book". Members of the College did their best to document all elements of the name, but met with real success only with the common Irish given name "Eamon". Unfortunately, as Withycombe notes, "Alma" seems to have become popular as a given name in the nineteenth century after the Battle of Alma in the Crimean War. Several commentors alluded to the use of the name for the Queen of the Body Castle in Spenser's Faerie Queen, but this does not really demonstrate the use of the name in period since it is a clearly allegorical usage ("alma" is widely used in late medieval writings as the common Latin word for "soul"). Both Spenser and his audience would have understood the reference to indicate that the soul was master of the body (a nice Platonic view!): the fact that there is no evidence for the Spenserian usage having generated actual use of the name in the early seventeenth century only confirms this. The form "Jolene" apparently is a twentieth-century formation from popular name elements. While several commentors noted similarly pronounced diminutive forms from Joel documented as independent elements in period (see Reaney, Dictionary of British Surnames, p. 198, under "Jolin"), it seemed doubtful whether the submittor really wanted this masculine form for her given name. (01/1988)

Almaric von Mainze. Name and device. Chevronelly azure and argent, a lion rampant reguardant, maintaining in its dexter forepaw a sword inverted, Or.

Unfortunately, there was an almost unanimous consensus that the name is in conflict with that of Alaric von Mainz, registered in December, 1988. As Star put it, "These two names would be hard to distinguish in a small room, much less at an outdoor event." The device conflicts with that of William MacQueen of MacQueen ("Per bend argent and azure, a mountain lion rampant proper."): while there is a major point for the difference in fields, we could not see granting a cumulative major for the changes to the lion, particularly since the sword is virtually invisible, since it lies almost entirely on an argent portion of the field. (06/1989)

Almina Inez Martyn Dorand. Name only.

The given name Almina was not adequately documented as an actual period form. The nearest related form would seem to be "Mina" which is only documented as an out-of-period diminutive of Wilhelmina. In any case, if the given name is in fact a valid Arabic feminine name, this name would consist of four languages: Arabic + Spanish + English + French (since the spelling of "Dorand" actually derives from French rather than Spanish of English). Since the lady allowed no changes to her name whatsoever, the submission must be returned in its entirety. (02/1987)

al-Sahid, Canton of. Device. Sable, a tower within a laurel wreath, all within a bordure Or.

Conflict with Shire of Scorched Earth ("Gules, a tower within a laurel wreath all within a bordure rayonny Or.). (08/1987)

Alys Katharine of Ashthorne Glen. Device. Vert, on a bend between two fleurs-de-lys Or, three Catherine wheels vert.

Conflict with Brendan MacUilliam "Vert, on a bend between two trefoils Or, three Celtic harps palewise vert."), College of St. Brigid ("Vert, on a bend between two straight-armed Saint Brigid's crosses Or, a laurel wreath vert.") and David of Moorland ("Vert, on a bend Or, three Moor's heads couped sable."). (08/1989)

Alys Meghan Cattewynne. Badge. Gules, semy of cat's faces Or, a rose argent, barbed and seeded Or.

Despite Laurel's well-known prejudice in favour of semy of cat's faces, we had to agree with Brachet that this does infringe on the white rose of York. (06/1989)

Alys of Bath. Name only.

As Vesper has noted, this name is in conflict with that of a very famous Chaucerian character: "Alison, wyf of Bath". (Alison is a period derivative of "Alis" or "Alis".) (12/1988)

Alyssa de Maris of Ravenstar. Name only.

Although the given name was stated to be a variant of Alice, noone could document this particular variant. In both look and sound it is closer to the flower "Alyssum", which both in Greek and Latin refers to the plant which the ancients felt cured hydrophobia. In fact, in classical Greek there is an adjective, whose feminine form is identical to the proposed given name, which means "curing madness due to hydrophobia". (12/1987)

Amalia Silvia. Device. Per saltire gules and Or, an acorn, slipped and leaved, proper between in chief two mullets in fess and in base a crescent argent.

While the leaves are on the metal portion of the field and create no problem, the predominantly brown acorn (only the nut itself is Or, the cup and slip are brown) fades into the gules portion of the field. Note also that the two mullets in chief create a rather unbalanced effect. (11/1986)

Amanda Blacchester. Device. Argent, semy of trefoils slipped vert, a swan statant close sable.

Conflict with Irving de Rosamonde MacChlurain ("Ermine, a swan elevated and displayed, dismembered sable, collared Or, holding in its beak a thistle proper."): the visual effect of the trefoils and ermine spots is so close that at most a minor point of difference can be derived from the change and the visual echo is strong. Several commentors also adduced Brianna the Black Swan ("Bendy sinister wavy of ten gules and Or, a swan naiant sable."). This is not only visually but technically clear: there is a major point for the difference in tinctures of the field and, under the current rules (DoD A4c), the semy is treated as the addition of charges and so counts as another major point of difference in addition to the difference in posture between close and naiant which traditionally would count as at least equivalent to a minor point of difference. (01/1989)

Amarantha Randolph. Name only.

The letter of intent cited the given name as a construct from the Greek and stated that it was "consistent with late period naming practice during the reign of 'Gloriana'", implying an argument from the Spenserian usage of "Gloriana" in support of this name. Unfortunately, "Gloriana" is an allegorical usage and may be considered unique (it alluded to Queen Elizabeth as the Faerie Queen). Amarantha is indeed derived from the Greek for everlasting, but in period "amaranth" seems to have had two primary meanings. The first, still used today is for an actual family of flowers (including pigweed and tumbleweed!), as well as for a legendary flower which never dies. As a "flower name", this requires some serious documentation that the name, as such, was used in period. The second period usage of "amaranth" is equally difficult, since it refers to a type of gem. While such names were occasionally used in allegory and some came into popular usage (e.g., Margaret, derived from the Latin word for "pearl"), such gem names were not nearly as common in period as they are today. (01/1988)

Ambiorix Draconis. Name and device. Purpure, a dragon's head erased Or.

Unfortunately, the name Ambiorix seems to be a unique name for one of the greatest of the Gallic leaders who appear in Caesar's Gallic Wars. Indeed, his fame was only exceeded by that of Vercingetorix and it is arguable that Ambiorix, chief of the Eburones, who led a major revolt against Roman power in the 50's B.C. was a greater leader as he was not compelled to surrender to Caesar as was Vercingetorix. Also, the proper formation for the byname would have it in the nominative ("Draco"). Such a byname is perfectly legitimate and would be suitable both for a Romanized Gaul or a Roman. The device, unfortunately, conflicts with the badge of Sarkanyi Gero ("A triskelion of dragon's heads Or, tongued gules."): no difference is created by the languing, which could just as well have been left to artistic discretion and the only other modification is the addition of the conjoined dragon's heads in base. (11/1987)

Ambrose Mavrothakis. Name and device. Argent, a sinister glove bendwise sinister gules, grasping a garden rose bendwise, slipped and leaved, sable.

The device seemed acceptable, but the submittor allowed no changes whatsoever to his name and there are real problems with the byname. In the first place there is some real doubt as to the submittor's intent. The transliteration provided uses a "theta" at the beginning of the second element, but a "delta" appears in the Greek spelling provided in parenthesis next to it and these would not have the same linguistic value in medieval or modern Greek. Generally speaking, this is a medieval formation and the use of "mavro" to reflect the modern pronunciation of the medieval/modern Greek word for black is so common that only the most pedantic would object that the period pronunciation would produce the spelling "mauro" (the adjective is cognate with the imported English word "Moor" for a black). However, his forms indicated that he wished a Cretan form of a byname meaning "Blackrose", while the Xeroxes and the letter of intent point to a desired meaning closer to "Black Rosethorn". Unfortunately, this construction does not seem to provide either. Greek, classical or medieval, does not generally form bynames by simply concatenating a series of noun adjectives in the manner German does. When compounds are formed, they usually contain two identifiable elements (e.g., Chrysogonus, Paleologus) with contraction kept to a minimum. In this case, it is proposed that three forms "mavros", "rhodon" and "akis" coalesce to form "Mavrothakis" in which "rhodon" (meaning "rose"), which is the primary substantive on his initial forms, is reduced to the sort of dental glide which is commonly introduced in medieval Greek between a terminal vowel and an initial vowel in a compound. Actually, this byname sounds and looks like a number of epithetic family names which Laurel herself encountered in Crete, but the presence of the Blackrose on the gentle's device indicates that the meaning is as important to him as the sound. If changes to the name had been permitted, we would have attempted to construct a period Greek version of "Blackrose", but this was not possible. (03/1988)

Amee de Jardyn. Device. Per chevron sable and azure, a chevron and in base an escallop inverted Or.

Conflict with the device of Chesley of Headless House ("Per chevron sable and azure, a chevron between three fleurs-de-lys Or."). (01/1987)

Amos MacAlpin. Device. Per bend sinister vert and azure, on a tankard argent, two halberds in saltire sable.

Conflict with Pia Dragonslayer ("Azure, on a two-handled mug per pale Or and argent, a dragon segreant vert bearing a sword sable."). (07/1988)

Amos MacAlpin. Device. Per bend sinister vert and azure, on a tankard argent, two halberds in saltire sable.

This submission had previously been returned for conflict with Pia Dragonslayer ("Azure, on a tow-handled mug per pale Or and argent, a dragon segreant vert bearing a sword sable."). Star argues that a minor can be derived from the tincture of the field and the tincture of the mug and there is no disagreement on this point. He also argues that a minor can be derived from the difference between a one-handled and two-handled mug. We cannot agree as this is the sort of artistic difference that frequently is not even blazoned. Finally and most critically, Star argues that a major point should be derived from the changes to the tertiaries. Since the mug is not an ordinary, DR10 requires changes of type, tincture and number for this to be even considered for a major point of difference. As the tertiary in Pia's device is partially sable, these three changes are not present. Even if we were willing to grant that the changes of tincture of field and charge equate to a full major point of difference, there would be technical conflict problems. Moreover, since the changes to both sets of tinctures are of the lowest possible contrast with the green fading into the blue and the gold into the silver, the visual similarity between the two devices is particularly striking. (02/1989)

Amron al-Tashali. Device. Or, in bend sinister a hooded veil affronty and a scimitar bendwise, a sinister gore, all sable.

While Silver Trumpet is correct that the gore is usually considered by definition a secondary charge since it issues from the flanks of the shield, in spirit this is "slot machine heraldry". To this anomaly is added the marginally identifiable "hooded veil", which was only identifiable after reading the blazon (like Star, we took it at first to be a form of helm). While we sympathize with the submitter's selection of motifs, if Amron is a Tashali nija type, the device is just to anomalous in style to register, under old or new rules. (12/1989)

Amyergorod, Shire of. Device. Pean, s sword inverted, the blade within a laurel wreath argent, all within a bordure embattled Or.

Although the fact that the hilt of the sword is a trickele was blazoned on the letter of intent, this artistic license and can be omitted. Unfortunately, as the name of the group was returned in June, 1989, the device must be returned as well. (holding names may not be generated for groups.) (09/1989)

Amyergorod, Shire of. Name only.

The letter of intent indicated that the submittors desired a name which meant "Honor City" in Russian. As several commentors noted, "Amer" does not mean "honor" in Russian. We believe that Crescent is correct in supposing that this is a misreading of the note in the Russian dictionary that cited "honor" as an American spelling of the word (the abbreviation would be "Amer"). Courtesy of Shofar, an analysis of several period styles for name formation for alternatives with the correct meaning have been provided. Perhaps the closes of these would appear to be "Chestnogorod". (06/1989)

An Tir, Crown Prince of. Device. Chequy Or and argent, a lion couchant, queue fourche, sable, gorged of a coronet argent.

Note that the submitted device is not sufficiently different from submitted for the Crown Princess since they differ only by the type of gorging, which is at most a weak minor (by DR1c the minimum difference permissible between devices where permission to conflict has been granted is a major point). This also is in conflict with several devices cited by commentors. Given the extremely low contrast field, which appears to be argent in many lights, it visually conflicts with William the Silent ("Argent, a natural panther passant guardant sable."). It also conflicts with Houri the Savage ("Argent, a lion rampant sable, orbed and langued gules.") since virtually no difference can be derived from the addition of the gorging and none whatsoever from the orbing and languing. (11/1987)

An Tir, Crown Princess of. Device. Chequy Or and argent, a lion couchant, queue fourche, sable, gorged of a wreath of hearts and roses argent.

This is not sufficiently different from that submitted for the Crown Prince. This must be returned for the same conflicts cited for the proposed device for the Crown Prince. (11/1987)

An Tir, Kingdom of. Badge for Lists Office. Sable, a scroll unrolled bendwise argent and overall a sword Or.

Conflict with the device of Morimoto Koryu ("Sable, a crescent argent surmounted by a ken blade Or."). Since he is a resident of An Tir, perhaps a permission to conflict might be obtained. (11/1986)

An Tir, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Carp. Gules, a carp hauriant embowed Or.

Conflict with Beatrice Delfini ("Per chevron argent, ermined gules, and azure, a dolphin hauriant embowed Or."). The fish on both pieces of armoury are virtually identical, leaving only the difference in the field. (08/1987)

An Tir, Kingdom of. Badge. Chequy Or and argent, a lion's head cabossed sable.

There is a strong visual conflict with Lenore of Lynxhaven ("Or, a lynx's head cabossed sable, orbed Or.") (09/1986)

An Tir, Kingdom of. Guild of the Black Kettle. Device. Argent, a demi­lion rampant queue­forchee sable crowned gules maintaining in dexter forepaw a wooden spoon proper and in base a kettle sable.

The crown is reserved to the arms of Kingdoms, Principalities and Royal Peers and may not be used, even with royal permission, by other individuals or groups. (09/1986)

An Tir, Kingdom of. Title for Imprimatur Pursuivant.

While modern slang usage has tended to broaden the usage, the Latin term "Imprimatur" (i.e., "let it be printed.") is associated far too strictly with the episcopal power of censorship for us to be comfortable with its use in the Society. Even today, books of a religious nature published with the approval of the Roman Catholic authorities will have a "Nihil Obstat" and an "Imprimatur" and failure to obtain such approval for theological teachings can result in ecclesiastical sanctions. Neither the specifically religious overtones of the term nor the hint of censorship seem appropriate for a Society heraldic title. (05/1987)

Ana Ashford. Name for House Ruthendale.

The letter of intent implied that this was derived from Ruthven, which it would not normally be. As there is a Rutherford and Rutherglen documented, this would have been acceptable, but we were reluctant to change the household name unilaterally, given the confusion as to the lady's intent (does she want Ruthvendale or Rutherdale?). (07/1987)

Ana Isabel Barrios de Perez. Badge. Argent, a domestic cats paw print sable.

Submitted under the name Ana Isabel Barrios y Perez, this is the registered form of the submitter's name. The badge conflicts with Igor Medved (SCA), Argent, a bear's dexter pawprint azure (with only one CVD for tincture of the primary charge), Eric Bearsbane (SCA), Argent, on a bear's pawprint sable, a flaming sword proper (only one CVD for removal of the tertiary), and Rodrigo de los Lobos (SCA), Argent, on a wolf's pawprint sable, a crescent argent (same count as Eric Bearsbane). It has been previously ruled that there can be no difference given for type of pawprint (LoAR 21 February 1988, p. 11). (06/1990)

Anastacia Marie Travarra. Badge. A plate surmounted by a sprig of belladonna.

Chevron is quite correct in noting that, with the plant drawn large, as on the emblazon, this is visually in conflict with Morgana of the Marshes ("Argent, a sprig of belladonna proper, in canton an increscent azure."). If the belladonna were drawn smaller so that it lay on the plate entirely, this would then conflict with Sumer Redmaene ("Purpure, on a plate a rose gules, seeded Or.") and others. (12/1986)

Anastasia Aleksandrovna. Name only.

Although the father of the famous twentieth-century Alexandra, daughter of the last Romanov tsar, was in fact named Nicholas, her mother's name was alexandra and her grandfather's name was Alexander. While there is evidence that the "-ovna" ending is only used with the father's name (i.e., metronymics or general ancestral names are not commonly used in Russian),the general use of metronymics in the Society in contexts used in Russian), the general use of metronymics in the Society in contexts where the mundane world might not use them would seem to justify the extreme nervousness this name induced in many of the members of the College of Arms. (05/1987)

Anastasia Elisabeth Fairfax. Device. Argent, a violet within a bordure purpure charged with four decrescents argent.

This is clear of Kateryne of Hindscroft ("Argent, a violet purpure within an orle of hearts azure.") since the number, type and tincture of secondary charge differs (for a major and minor) and the tertiaries add the necessary additional minor. The instincts of those who called this conflict were correct, however, since both these devices are in conflict with and appear to be cadet arms of those of Alyanora of Vinca ("Argent, a periwinkle proper."). Unfortunately, when the present Laurel passed Kateryne's arms at her very first meeting, noone called the conflict and the Laurel files were still in transit from California. . . (02/1989)

Anastasia von der Wilgenhalle. Device. Vert, two lambs dormant respectant and a weeping willow tree eradicated argent.

Conflict with Ioseph of Locksley ("Vert, a tree eradicated argent."). (07/1988)

Anastasia Winogrodzka. Badge. A cross of ermine spots conjoined vert.

As this is a fieldless badge, it conflicts with the arms of Blake ("Argent, a cross fleury vert.", as cited in Papworth, p. 608) and Dawbney ("Or, a cross fleury vert.", ibid., p. 616). With the best will in the world we could see no more than a minor point of difference between the cross of conjoined ermine spots and the cross fleury. (05/1989)

Anastasia Winogrodzka. Badge. A Cross of four ermine spots vert.

this was originally returned in May, 1989, with the following commentary: "As this is a fieldless badge, it conflicts with the arms of Blake ("Argent, a cross fleury vert.", as cited in Papworth, p. 608) and Dawbney ("Or, a cross fleury vert.", ibid, p. 616). With the best will in the world we could see no more than a minor point of difference between the cross of conjoined ermine spots and the cross fleury." White Stag has appealed this return on the grounds that the cross of four ermine spots is a distinct charge from the cross fleury (as illustrated by at least seven widely variant depictions which White Stag's excellent spots adds the dots of the ermine sports around the center of the cross (in the depiction used on the badge, this comes out to a sort of attenuated set of lozenges conjoined to form a voided square overlying the center of the cross). While not denying that there could be legitimate differences in the depiction of a cross of ermine spots, there was a fairly strong focus in commentary on the fact that the College has to consider the submitted emblazon and that emblazon is almost identical to a cross fleury, save for the frou-frou at its center. This being the case, this has to be considered in conflict with the cited devices, under both the old rules and the new, although they are farther apart under the new rules. (12/1989)

Anastassia Mikhailovna Donskoi. Device. Azure, two axes in saltire argent, the shafts Or, between in fess two wolfhound's heads addorsed erased argent, in chief a cross flory argent surmounting four hearts conjoined in cross Or.

The charge combination in chief is unidentifiable at any distance. The cross, which lies almost entirely on the hearts Or, is metal on metal in fact and disappears into the Or to such an extent that it cannot be determined what it is. The hearts in cross are so ill-defined at that size (and so obscured by the overlying charge) that at first glance they appear to be some sort of obscure four petalled rose. It was the general consensus that simplification was in order. (01/1987)

André d'Aquitaine. Device. Per bend azure and vert, a bend argent between a sun in splendour and a saddle Or.

Conflict with Megan of the Shore ("Per bend azure and vert, a bend and in sinister chief a seagull volant to sinister argent."). (02/1988)

Andreanna Innes. Badge. A Lacy knot lozengewise Or.

The bulk of standard heraldic works (e.g., Boutell, Brooke-Little's Heraldic Alphabet, Franklyn's Shield and Crest, etc.) show the Lacy badge in precisely this orientation so this must be considered to be a direct conflict. (05/1988)

Andrée Diane Chartier de l'Oise. Device. Azure, an osprey rising, wings elevated and addorsed, and on a chief argent, three bunches of grapes azure.

Conflict with the arms of Knowles ("Axure, a hoawk seizing a partridge argent, on a chief of the last three bolts of the first.", as cited in Papworth, p. 310). (05/1989)

Andree Nadine de Valois. Name only.

Unfortunately, as Crescent has noted, there is really no way to be "of Valois" without giving the impression of claiming a relationship with the Valois dynasty of French royalty. If the lady wishes to be from this region (it is a region, not a city), she could be from one of the period towns or, as suggested by Crescent, use the name of the river from which the region takes its name ("de l'Oise"). It should also be noted that the citation in Withycombe offered in support of Nadine (p. 225) suggests that the name is an out of period French formation derived from a Russian form, which bears the appearance of a diminutive. (12/1987)

Andrew Fletcher. Name and device. Per pale sable and Or, in chief three saltorels couped counterchanged.

As Silver Trumpet has noted, the politician Andrew Fletcher cited in the letter of intent is of some importance in Scottish history (the 1911 editionof the Encyclopedia Britannica, probably the best one to have appeared, contained a column and a half devoted to him). Even though he is out of period (1655­1716) he is important enough to protect and this is a direct conflict under both rules. As the submittor specifically forbade formation of a holding name, we have to return the device submission as well. (01/1990)

Andrew Wigin MacAlister. Name and device. Gules, ermined Or, on a bend argent, a natural panther salient reguardant sable.

The name conflicts both with the registered Society name of Andrew MacAlistair and the name of Andrew Wiggin, the leading character in Orson Scott Card's Ender's Game and Speaker for the Dead. The device conflicts with Robyn of Mania ("Gules, on a bend argent, a raven displayed palewise, wings inverted, sable, grasping in its beak a rose, flower to sinister, gules, slipped and leaved vert."). (07/1989)

Andro Haldane of Menteith. Name and device. Per bend sinister embattled azure and argent, two compass stars counterchanged, on a chief argent, three card piques azure.

The letter of intent says that the spelling of the given name is derived from an entry in Black which documents the form as a surname in the fourteenth century. Unfortunately, as this is a known prefix derived from the Greek "andros" (as in "androgyny") and early Scots name forms used as surnames frequently are in oblique cases or are specifically varied for surname use, we need documentation of its use as an actual name. (The substitution of the "o" at the end of the name is not a usual variant of the nominative form.) Unfortunately, we could not substitute "Andrew" and register the name or even assign a holding name and register the device since he had forbidden any changes to the name, even the formation of a holding name. (01/1990)

Andros Leonthalasios. Device. Argent, a lion headed merman affronty, head to sinister, proper, tailed vert, maintaining a sword and shield Or, all within an orle wavy azure.

A substantially similar submission was returned in 1983 for overuse of proper and the use of an orle wavy crested. The latter problem has been corrected, but as Lymphad noted, the problem with the poor contrast and overuse of proper has not been addressed. The submittor, as is his right, appealed the return from kingdom level to Laurel. Unfortunately, we are compelled to agree with Lymphad: the only portion of the beastie which has adequate contrast with the field is the tail (vert). The head is Or, the weapons are a darker Or (bronze) and the body is light flesh tone, none of which show up well on an argent field. Note that the orle needs to be drawn much wider than it appeared on the emblazon sheet submitted. (08/1988)

Aneirin y Peabodie. Name and device. Gyronny of six per pale sable and argent, on a chief gules a griffin segreant to sinister Or.

Whatever the derivation of the family name Peabody (or Peabodie), it is clear that it is not a Welsh noun which would use the common article. As the submittor was so adamant about refusing even minor changes to his name, we felt compelled to return the submission as a whole rather than assign a holding name. Note that we have reblazoned the device from the field "per fess" to reflect the realities of the proposed device as depicted on the emblazon sheet. This shows the gules area in chief in precisely that proportion which would have been used in period for a chief which had to accommodate a beast rampant and the appearance of a chief as the primary charge is increased by the proportions of the gyronny below. (10/1987)

Aneirin Ynis Peaboadie. Name and device. Gyronny of six per pale sable and argent, on a chief gules a griffin segreant to sinister Or.

"Ynis" was stated to be a name from the Mabinogion, but the nearest name from that source which we could find is "Ynyr" and no indication of the tale or translation was given to guide us. "Ynys" generally means "island" in Welsh and is not a given name. Unfortunately, the commentors caught a technical conflict not found at the time of the device's original submission to the College: Durnhardt of Altenau ("Checky sable and argent, on a chief gules a water bouget Or.") (06/1988)

Aneirn Yryn Peaboadie. Name only.

The name had previously been submitted as "Aneirin Ynis Peaboadie" and been returned by Laurel because of the use of "Ynis" in an inappropriate manner with the note that the closest period given name form we could find was "Ynyr". This resubmission modifies the first given name unacceptably by dropping the final "i". It also uses a totally undocumented form "Yryn" as its second element. As the submittor again allows no changes to his name, the submission must be returned. (11/1989)

Aneirn Yryn Peaboadie. Device. Gyronny per pale of six sable and argent, on a chief gules a griffin segreant to sinister Or.

Check name. Note that the name was returned in November, 1989. A previous return of this device for conflict with Durnhardt of Altenau ("Chequy sable and argent, a water bouget Or.") was appealed on the grounds that the field division as blazoned by the submittor ("Per fess gules and gyronny per pale of six sable and argent") is a valid period division and that the reblazon alone creates the technical conflict. Unfortunately, there is a long­standing precedent in the Society that the blazon used does not affect a conflict between two emblazons. (That is what we mean when we say the picture, not the words used to describe that picture, are what is protected.) In period heraldry and in most modern heraldic circles, the field division shown here would be considered tantamount to a field with a charged chief since it is customary to expand the dimensions of the chief to accommodate the size of the charge placed upon it. In other words, a chief with a lion passant will be narrower than one with a lion rampant. This phenomenon appears commonly through period rolls of arms and is even commented on by period and modern authors (usually in discussions of the size relationships of ordinaries and their diminutives). In this case, the depiction is identical to that which would have been used for a plain field with a chief charged with a rampant beast. That being the case, this is a conflict with Durnhardt under both old and new rules: there is a major point or visual difference for the difference in field division. However, the minor given under the old rules for the change in type of tertiary would not have cleared the conflict even under the old rules since both are Society devices and there is a definite conflict under the new rules. (03/1990)

Angela von Braun. Device.

Azure, ermined Or, on a bezant a peacock feather proper. For the purposes of DR10, it is difficult to deny that the roundel, which is as simple geometrically as a cross or pale and is almost universally categorized as a sub-ordinary, should be considered equivalent to an ordinary. However, this does not resolve the problems for this device for the contrast is unacceptable between the bezant and the tertiary charge, which is largely a coppery colour with only a central blob of blue and a sort of "orle" of green running inside its outer edge. Even if the contrast were better, the problems with identifiability of the tertiary charge would limit the amount of difference that could be derived from modifying it, thus bringing it into conflict with Tamar the Gypsy ("Vert, a bezant charged with a wyvern statant erect vert."), Gunther Hiller the Short ("Vert, a bezant charged with a cross patty azure."), Artemis Rafael ("Pean, on a bezant an owl close gardant upon a stump proper, issuant bendwise to dexter from the stump a rose sable, seeded, slipped and leaved proper."). (11/1988)

Angelica Paganelli. Device. Gules, on a bend sinister between two angelica blossoms argent, seeded Or, three goblets sable.

Under the current rules this conflicts with Stephen Alexeivitch Adashev ("Gules, on a bend sinister argent between a staff entwined of two snakes and a Russian Orthodox cross argent, three pinecones proper."). (07/1988)

Angharad ferch Owen ap Geoffrey. Name only.

Conflict with Angharad ferch Owain, wife of Gruffudd ap Cynan and mother of Owain Gwynedd. The addition or removal of a single adjective or adjectival phrase, such as a patronymic, is not adequate to difference a name (NR7). Note that the addition of a single secondary patronymic in Celtic languages such as Welsh or Gaelic contributes little difference since in colloquial usage the name formation tends to be a given name plus a single patronymic even if a further patronymic appears in formal documents. (01/1987)

Angharad verch Rhuawn. Device. Sable, a rowan branch Or, fructed gules.

Brachet is correct in citing a visual conflict with Grane the Golden of Hippogriff Tower ("Sable, three stalks of wheat as in a garb Or."). It also falls afoul of the badge for the Order of the Golden Branch registered to the Principality of the Mists ("A branch palewise hung with bells, within a bordure engrailed."). [A note on process description: this last conflict was noticed when a member of the Laurel staff objected "You can't register the Golden Bough" to be answered "The Mists already has!".] (12/1987)

Angrim the Unreasonable. Device. Azure, on a pale between two bears rampant combattant argent, each maintaining a sword Or, a tower azure.

Technical conflict with Cormacc na Connacht ("Azure, on a pale argent, a sword inverted gules."). (06/1988)

Angus MacDougall. Device. Or, a castle gules between four torteaux, three and one.

After much consideration and a lot of picture comparisons, we were forced to the conclusion that the visual difference between the triple-towered castle as usually depicted in mundane heraldry and the castle depicted here (with two-towers) is not enough to produce a clear minor under the old rules. Thus, under both old and new rules the addition of the torteaux is all that differences this from the arms of Grzymala cited from Woodward (p. 359) by Silver Trumpet: "Or, a castle triple-towered gules, the port open, the portcullis sable." On the other hand, we have traditionally allowed more difference for a tower, as opposed to a castle, as the two are depicted significantly differently in mundane heraldry (see Woodward, Plate XXXII) and thus this would not be a conflict under either set of rules with the arms of Castillo (Woodward, P. 744), also cited by Silver Trumpet: "Or, a tower-triple towered gules." (12/1989)

Angus of Blackmoor. Device. Or, a bend sinister azure between a unicorn's head couped and two hearts sable.

Conflict with Sabrina de la Bere ("Or, a bend sinister azure between a half-bloomed garden rose gules, slipped and singly thorned proper, and a leopard couchant sable."). (01/1987)

Anleifr Raedwulfson. Device. Paly of six ermine and vert, on a chief sable two axes in saltire argent.

Schwarzdrachen is correct in noting that this is in conflict with the mundane arms of Savory ("Paly of six argent and vert, a chief sable.", as cited in Papworth, p. 559). There is a minor point for the addition of the ermine spots to a portion of the field, but the addition of the tertiaries here cannot really be said to create an additional full point of difference. Not only are the axes on the periphery of the field, but are in a position which is tradition in mundane heraldry for marks of cadency added to fields to which a chief has been already added in previous generations. The visual echo between the proposed device and that of Savory when sketched out is too strong for them to be entirely clear (note that both share paly of six in the same basic tinctures with a sable chief). (05/1987)

Ann Corwin. Device. Argent, a cat couchant sable, and on a chief azure a rainbow proper.

Conflict with variously Caitlyn Fitzrobert ("Argent, a natural leopard couchant sable within a bordure azure, goutty d'eau."), Robin Freawine ("Argent, a natural leopard dormant sable and in chief an ivy vine wavy fesswise throughout vert.") and Edlyn of Meadowburne ("Argent, a lion dormant sable, gorged of a collar Or, a chief counter-ermine."). (02/1988)

Ann Marie du Moineau Chateau. Name for Kunnungheim.

Actually, Habicht and Brachet are correct in noting the existence of the mundane surname "Cunningham" and the place name from which it is derived. This is not merely a question of assonance, but one of appearance, the more so since Black (p. 192) adduces at least one period exemplar of "Kunningham". For the linguistically curios, "him" and the Old English "ham" which passes into such place names as Cunningham, Lewisham, etc. not only look and sound alike but are also cognate, i.e. derive from the same root element and, in this case, have the same meaning. (03/1989)

Anna van Heusden. Device. Pean, a lion dormant between three roses proper.

There are two problems with this device. First of all, under the new rules, gules may not be placed on pean so the roses are "colour on colour". Secondly, there is a conflict with Ellen of Caer Seiont ("Pean, a domestic cat dormant guardant argent."). (05/1990)

Anne Corwin. Device. Per chevron azure and argent, in pale a rainbow and three roses, slipped and leaved, one and two, proper.

Unfortunately, the standing precedent in the College (stated by Baldwin of Erebor, February, 1985) dictates that the name Corwin may not be used in conjunction with roses of any tincture. While the submittor almost certainly intends no allusion to Corwin of Amber, this ban does exist and there seems to be no strong feeling in the College in favour of dropping it. (11/1989)

Anne de Junius. Hame for Hadrian House.

This is in conflict with the famous palace built by the emperor Hadrian near Tivoli. While this is commonly referred to in modern guidebooks as "Hadrian's Villa", it is also called "Domus Hadrians" (i.e., "Hadrian's House") in period and modern sources. This site was not only known at the beginning of our period, it was also quite famous in the Renaissance since excavation of the site began under Pope Alexander VI and many of the works of art with which Cardinal Ippolito d'Este decorated the Villa d'Este in the mid-sixteenth century came from this site. (03/1989)

Anne McHenry. Device. Azure, a chevron argent between two crosses bottony and a thistle, slipped and leaved, Or.

Conflict with Thorstein fra Agnefit ("Azure, a chevron throughout argent between two gouttes d'Or and a bear statant erect argent."), Angela of Stony Oak Forest ("Azure, a chevron between two acorns and an oak leaf argent."), Writington ("Azure, a chevron argent between three crosses crosslet fitchy Or."), etc. (12/1988)

Anne the Quiet. Device. Per bend sinister embattled argent and gules, in dexter chief a tree eradicated gules.

Technically, this conflicts with the badge of the Barony of Madrone )"A madrone tree eradicated proper."): no difference can be derived from either field tincture or position of a single charge here since one of the pieces of armoury is fieldless. (09/1989)

Annick-Maryse Zoe Genevieve La Fee. Name and device. Gyronny argent and sable, a sea-unicorn erect azure between in pale an increscent and a fleur-de-lis counterchanged.

There were multiple problems with the name, so many that we felt that a modified form acceptable to the submittor could not be devised without consultation. The form "Annick" does not appear in the copies of Yonge that we could examine. Similar forms such as "Annika" are diminutives which are currently not registered by the College. The form "Maryse" was documented only from Evelyn Wells who is a notoriously poor source and we were unable to find support for it in French sources, either as an independent name or as a form of "Marie". Finally, the form "La Fée" means "the Fairy" and has previously been returned as a claim to non-human origin. Although the submittor indicated that this was a name of geographic origin (from "Feez" which we could not find --- "Fez" would not produce the same forms), the form with the simple article seems always to be associated with the fairy folk, as Crescent has noted. The device is really not period style with three unrelated charges floating on a complex field. Note that the two secondary charges are rendered almost unidentifiable because of their small size and the counterchanging. (04/1989)

Annke MacAiodh. Badge. Vert a seadragon erect Or.

Conflict with the device of Niall Kilkierny ("Vert, a winged sea-lion rampant Or."). (04/1987)

Anora Frayne of Winward. Badge. Purpure, on a rose argent, a cross crosslet purpure.

As the famous white rose of York is a fieldless badge, there is a clear conflict here. (12/1986)

Ansteorra, Kingdom of. Title for Odalisque Herald.

There was a very strong consensus in the College that the meaning and associations of the term "odalisque" might cause offense both to the populace and those asked to bear it and generally rendered it inappropriate for use in the Society. (01/1989)

Antadina Exeter du Nordlac. Change of device. Azure, three snowflakes in bend within a double tressure Or.

After comparing the emblazons and considering the matter at some length, we concluded that this device conflicts with the Badge for Fairhaven registered by Hrorek Halfdane of Faulconwood ("Azure, a fret within a double tressure Or."). There is a clear major point for the number of primary charges, but the visual similarities between the fret and the snowflake, particularly a snowflake drawn properly, rather than as an escarbuncle of spears as the snowflakes were depicted on the emblazon sheet, were so strong that we felt there was infringement. Perhaps Chevron would be willing to grant permission to conflict?. (01/1987)

Anthea of Northeton. Name only.

Unfortunately, as the submittor's own documentation suggests, the given name apparently occurs first in the poetry of Herrick and other pastoral poets of the seventeenth century. One of the hallmarks of these poets was to imitate the Augustan poets of imperial Rome in using allegorical pseudonyms for the objects of their poetic devotion. In this case, the pseudonym is derived from one of the epithets of the Greek goddess Hera ("the flowery one"). As Withycombe makes clear (p. 27), the use of Anthea as a given name derives from its use in the pastoral poets and thus must be considered to be distinctly post-period. (The "grey area" alluded to in the letter of intent does not really exist: on a case by case basis objects and/or usages which are first documented after 1600, but may be legitimately supposed to have existed before that date may be granted some "extra slack". A classic case of this would be a name for which the earliest documentation is a marriage record of 1608: it may be supposed that the person who bore that name was born before the turn of the century!) (03/1988)

Anthony de la Croix. Device. Purpure, on a pale Or a tau cross formy purpure, all within a bordure Or.

Conflict with Custance nic Raibart Macconnachie ("Purpure, on a pale Or three frets conjoined gules, all within a bordure Or."). (05/1989)

Antoine de Bayonne. Device. Vert, a winged natural dolphin naiant and a chief invected argent.

Conflict with Lassarina Kieren ("Vert, a dolphin naiant and on a chief invected argent three mullets vert."). (05/1989)

Antoine le Rêveur. Device. Sable, a compass star gules, fimbriated argent, within a bordure of flames proper.

Although we must admit that bordures of flame have been registered before, Hund is correct when he points out that what is depicted on the emblazon is in fact a bordure fimbriated (actually a bordure rayonny gules, fimbriated Or). It seems inconsistent to ban fimbriated bordures as non-period practise when they are plain and not to do so when they are more complex. Moreover, the additional fimbriation of the compass star here (it is even thinner on the full scale emblazon sheet than on the miniature) can only add to the impression of "thin line" heraldry. (11/1988)

Anton von Hagenstein. Device. Per bend sable and argent, a cross patty argent and in bend three roses gules, all within a bordure counterchanged.

Conflict with Guillym Avery of Royse, cited on the letter of intent ("Per bend sable and argent, a mushroom erased argent, and three cinquefoils in bend abased gules, pierced Or."): the change in type of the charge in chief is simply not visually enough to carry this clear, even taken with the addition of the bordure. (04/1988)

Anton von Hagenstein. Device. Per bend sable and argent, in bend sinister a Maltese cross argent and three roses in bend gules, all within a bordure counterchanged.

As Brigantia noted, this is not an appeal of a previous return since the device has been changed to include the insignia of the Knights of Malta as fully one half of the field. Like Green Anchor, we do not find this acceptable. (05/1989)

Antonia Ambrosia l'Illiria. Name only.

"Illiria" is, by the submittor's own documentation, the Italian form for the country of Illyria, not for a resident of that country. She may be from Illyria or be an Illyrian (in the latter case the Italian would be "Antonia Ambrosia Illirica"). In the normal course of events, we would simply have made the minor modification to her name, but her forms forbade this. However, since the Western forms specifically indicate that a holding name will be formed to register armoury, we felt at liberty to form a holding name by dropping the inappropriate epithet. (03/1987)

Antonia Leonora Dragonsrun de Beaumont. Name for Chateau de Beaumont.

There is no doubt in our mind that this qualifies both as a famous surname and a famous placename. The family of the Vicomtes de Beaumont (direct descendants of John de Brienne, Emperor of Constantinople) played significant roles not only in French history but also in English: Louis de Beaumont was Bishop of Durham in the first third of the fourteenth century and Henry de Beaumont who served in the Scots Wars under Edward I and became first Baron Beaumont. Indeed, even today this title, derived from Beaumont in Maine, is held by the Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal of England. (04/1988)

Antonio di Casa d'Aqua. Badge for Casa d'Aqua. Vert, a millrind Or.

Conflict with U.S. Navy Judge Advocates Corps ("A millrind Or."). (11/1987)

Aonghais Dubh MacTarbh. Badge for Clann Creachainn. On a strawberry leaf Or, a gemstone gules.

There are several problems with the badge. The first is that the foliage depicted is not recognizable as a strawberry leaf, even a "warped" one, as it was described by Brigantia. Several commentors thought it resembled military "scrambled eggs" and certainly this is closer to three oak leaves than one strawberry leaf. Moreover, leaving aside the identifiability of the gemstone (which could, as Green Anchor noted, be as well blazoned as a "cartouche gules"), there is no real method of ensuring its precise position on the foliage, if this is a single leaf, and this position is essential to the design. Clearly, His Grace desires to register a portion of his ducal coronet for the use of his household. While it is true that precedent indicates that a single strawberry leaf is not reserved to those of ducal rank, precedent also dictates that a piece of jewelry is not as such registerable: "We all recognize that beautiful pieces of jewelry; there are people making a living out of selling reproductions of it; in some senses it is copyright and in others it is in the public domain, and you cannot register it." This ruling seems as valid now as when Karina of the Far West first issued it ten years ago. (10/1989)

Aquaterre, Shire of. Device. Per fess wavy vert and berry wavy argent and azure, in chief a laurel wreath argent.

Conflicts with the device of Antonio di Casa di' Aqua ("Per fess wavy vert and argent, in pale a millrind millrind Or and two bars wavy azure."). Visually, the only difference is the tincture and type of charge in chief. The most difference that can be extracted from this is a major and a minor point since the visual weight of the millrind/laurel wreath Is that of a secondary charge. (09/1986)

Aquel of Darkstead Wood. Badge for House Skold. Vert, a skold proper.

Commentary in the College generally divided between the "old timers" who were around for the previous bouts on this badge and household name and the newer members of the College. In general, those who had not been exposed to the hot debate of past years, did not find it overly offensive. In and of itself, it is no more offensive than the scourge registered elsewhere in this letter or fetterlocks, both of which suggested "leather and bondage" to more than one member of the Laurel staff. However, since the brideskold can appear in various tinctures and forms, there can be no "proper" and a specific form must be specified (e.g., an open helm affronty argent, armed with a stag's attires, belled, Or). (02/1987)

Aran the Silent. Device. Azure, a bend cotised argent, overall a griffin's head gules.

Given the depiction on the emblazon sheet, we suspect it was Master Charles' intent to appeal to the exception clause specifically written to AR4. This should have been made clear in the letter of intent. Unfortunately, the ruling is quite specific on the circumstances under which this leniency may be invoked: "Exceptions may be made for designs where the underlying charge(s) are inherently large, taking up most of the shield in any reasonable emblazon." In this case, if the cotises and bend were drawn in the usual Society proportions, the overlying charge would significantly overlap the azure field, breaking contrast. Note that this also runs into conflict problems with the mundane arms of Fortescue ("Azure, a bend between two cotises argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 204). (12/1987)

Archibald Bowyer. Device. Chevronelly argent and azure, three pheons gules.

Conflict with Archer ("Argent, three pheons gules.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1020). (09/1987)

Arden MacIlhatton. Name only.

As a number of commentors noted, the current rules demand that, to take advantage of the mundane name allowance, a name must be in the same relative position it occupies in the mundane name. In this case, she wishes to use her middle name as a given name. This ruling has been repeatedly affirmed under several Laurels. In this case, separate documentation for the name is even more important since "Arden" is well known as a period place name. (04/1989)

Arenvald Kief af Kierstad. Device. Gules, a sinister cubit arm in armour bendwise sinister, maintaining in the hand a hammer bendwise Or.

Conflict with Francis Boyd the Smith ("Sable, a dexter gauntlet bendwise sinister grasping a hammer bendwise Or."). (02/1987)

Arenvald von Hagenburg. Device. Per chevron chequy Or and azure and sable, in base a dragon segreant Or.

Silver Trumpet and Dolphin are correct in calling this a technical conflict under the current rules with the device of Brian the Inquisitive ("Per fess rayonny argent, ermined gules, and gules, in chief a dragon rampant Or."). (06/1989)

Argento di Rocco. Name only.

The letter of intent itself says "Argento is Italian for silver. It seems reasonable to use Argento in a language which used Bianca." Unfortunately, the analogy with "Bianca" is flawed: the latter is a descriptive adjective, the former is a common noun and NR10 is very specific in stating "common nouns may not be used as given names unless the submitter proves to the College's satisfaction that the particular name was used as a given name in period." Note that the context of this name only increases the problem since the name as a whole differs by only one letter from "argento di rocca" the idiomatic Italian term for native silver. (03/1988)

Arian of Shadowvale. Device. Sable, mulletty argent, a wave issuant from base, cresting to sinister, argent, charged in base with a fret couped sable.

As noted by Crescent and others, the wave crest has, by consensus of the College, been barred from general use in Society heraldry since 1983. Given the strong feeling on the part of the commentors that this usage is not acceptable style and the lack of indication of period usage in the citation from Woodward (which is from the section on "curious" Continental partitions), there seems no reason to change this precedent. (06/1987)

Arian Rose of Nairn. Name and device. Vert, a winged lion rampant to sinister, between its forepaws a rose, all within an orle argent.

The name had previously been returned by Gold Falcon because the precise given name itself was not documented in period and "arian" was a common noun in Welsh and a non-given name proper noun in English. On behalf of the submittor, Lanner argued eloquently that "creative spelling" in period would allow this to be a variant of "Ariane" which does seem to be documented in period, that the fact that "arian" is a common noun in one language should not prevent its use as a "creative misspelling" in another language and that the name could be considered as an adjective documenting the period given name Rose. While the Laurel staff was receptive to the idea of "Arian" as a variant spelling, the current rules are quite clear in demanding that common nouns may not be considered constructed names (which is what an undocumented variant in essence is). Were the form clearly used as a given name in another language, its use as a common noun would not be a problem (consider the usage of "Bjorn", for example). However, the names do differ and therefore no extra lenience can be allowed here. Finally, since "arian" in the sense of silver is Welsh and a noun (the adjective form is "ariannaid"), it cannot modify Rose which is English. Note that this name is also too close to "Aron Rose of Nairn" to register, even with permission (the letter of intent mentioned permission to conflict, although no such permission was included with the submission packet). Since the submittor clearly allowed no changes of grammar/spelling, we felt we could not create a holding name so that the entire submission had to be returned. (08/1989)

Arianne Lightheart of Whitehold. Device. Per bend azure and ermine, to dexter in fess three mullets of four points azure, a base sable.

It was our feeling that this design, taken in its entirety, was excessively modern. To derive this particular emblazon, the line of division must be at a rather more shallow angle than usual and the base must take up literally the bottom third of the shield. Note as well that, although the mullets are blazoned on the letter of intent as being in base, they are in fact at the very center of the vertical axis of the shield, being in the dexter flank and fess point, and are not arranged in the "standard" manner for three charges placed below a bend or in the lower portion of a field divided per bend. Moreover, Hund is correct in noting that the mullets azure, at the scale required by the design, are insufficiently distinguished from the ermine spots of the field. (12/1988)

Arianrhod Ravengarre. Name and device. Vert, a delf and a lozenge, voided and interlaced, argent.

Arianrhod was the Welsh moon goddess and, failing evidence for human use of the name in period, may not be used in the Society. From the badge of Thorvald Rodericksson ("A mullet of eight points, concave, voided and interlaced, Or."), there is a major point for the tincture and a minor for the very pronounced concavity of the charge (equivalent in visual importance at least to the difference between a cross patty and the "normal" cross). However, given the visual similarity of the primary charge to a number of depictions of a snowflake in Society heraldry and mundane art, this appears to infringe on Tiphaine of Snowcroft ("Vert, a snowflake between three terns volant to sinister argent."). (08/1987)

Arianwen de Lynn. Device. Quarterly azure and gules, a hind courant and a bordure argent.

Conflict with Liesel von Blauen Donau ("Azure, a winged stag springing argent, winged, attired and unguled Or, within a bordure argent."). There is only a minor point of difference between the fields and the difference in posture between the deer courant and a deer springing as depicted on Liesel's device was not so pronounced that the cumulative changes to the deer could be considered to equal a clear major and minor point of difference. (02/1987)

Arianwen Ravengarre. Device. Argent, a delf voided and interlaced with another delf, voided and set saltirewise, vert.

This is indeed a conflict with the fieldless badge of Thorvald Rodericksson ("A mullet of eight points concave voided and interlaced Or."): the complexity of the voided and interlaced charges diminishes the visual impact of the concavity to negligible status. As several commentors noted, rendering ordinaries in a slightly concave manner was a standard artistic variant in mediaeval heraldry so that the the proposed device could legitimately be depicted in the mediaeval manner with concave lines without a differing blazon. (02/1989)

Aric McBride. Device. Per pall sable, azure and ermine, two winged unicorns combattant, that to dexter argent, that to sinister sable, in chief two mullets argent and a compass star elongated to base Or, two and one.

While we grant this gentle the right to have his twin conflict by a mirror (although some may thing it discourteous to so confuse the populace). However, this does not exempt the submission from the limits on complexity and this exceeds those limits under both sets of rules: five tinctures and at least four sets of charges, if you blazon the chief triangular as such to avoid the ambiguities of the two types of mullets in a group with the unicorns. Even without the two different types and tinctures of mullets in the same group in chief this would be dicey. As it is it falls over the edge of permissibility. (12/1989)

Ariel Blackswan. Device. Per pale gules and azure, a base wavy Or, overall on a plate argent, a swan naiant to sinister sable.

Although not so blazoned on the letter of intent, the emblazon shows the plate overlying the base which is not period style, making this submission look as if it had some weird tripartite field division. That being so, this is in conflict with Anne of the Golden Mantle ("Vert, on a plate a swan naiant couped on the fess line sable"), Rhithryn yr Gwlad yr Hav ("Azure, a plate charged with a cauldron and a domestic cat in its curiosity sable."), etc. Note that, even were the plate moved to a more normal position above the base, this would be uncomfortably close to Rhithryn et al. (09/1989)

Ariel of Glastonbury Tor. Device. Azure, a domestic cat sejant Or.

Conflict with Mary Margaret of Derby ("Azure, a domestic cat passant to sinister Or."), Jordre Pargon of Windhover's Reach ("Azure, a snow leopard sejant argent, spotted sable.") and Jerimia von Braun ("Azure, two domestic cats sejant respectant, tails sufflexed and crossed in saltire, Or."). (12/1988)

Arielle of Amberwood. Name only.

Unfortunately, the "coined" placename was previously constructed by Aislynn of Amberwood and registered by her for House Amberwood. (12/1988)

Arlis Behrendsdohtor. Device. Azure, on a pile inverted throughout between two domestic cats sejant affronty argent, a domestic cat dormant sable.

Conflict with Andrew Robertson ("Azure, on a pile inverted throughout between two abalone shells argent, a sea otter statant erect proper."). Also conflict with Rowena d'Anjou ("Azure, on a pile inverted throughout between two fleurs­de­lys argent, a swan naiant affronty, wings elevated and addorsed, head to sinister, sable."). (11/1986)

Armand le Papillon. Device. Per bend sinister sable and vert, a bend sinister bevilled Or between two goblets argent, filled with flames Or.

The bend sinister here is not a true bend sinister bevilled as depicted in standard texts (one commentor reblazoned it as a "shazam throughout"). If it were, it would be perilously close to Sheelah Lockhart ("Per bend sinister azure and vert, a bend sinister bevilled between a cross crosslet and a harp Or."). (07/1989)

Armuin of Dunvegan. Name only.

Unfortunately, by the submitter's own documentation "Armuin" is a byname meaning "steward" or "hero": the given name in the patronymic MacRailt Armuin is "Railt". As the submitter allowed no changes, we could not modify this to the documented masculine form "Armin" (which is equivalent to "Herman" or "Armand"). In any case, as the submitter is female and wishes a Scots name, that form might not be pleasing to her. (09/1989)

Arnevet bat Gideon. Name and device. Azure, a chevron argent between two plates and a hare statant reguardant argent.

Since the Rules require that any common noun be specifically documented in use as a given name before it may be used. The use of animal names in general in period Jewish life is demonstrated by the documentation, but not this particular name and, as Batonvert has noted, this is considerably less likely than some. The device conflicts with Angela of the Stoney Oak Forest ("Azure, a chevron between two acorns and an oak leaf argent."), Beorn Collenferth ("Azure, a chevron between a harp, an ax and a sabre­toothed tiger statant argent.") and others. (12/1986)

Arnulf Adler. Badge. On an eagle displayed, wings inverted Or, maintaining a sword fesswise proper, three fleurs-de-lys sable.

This still conflicts with Gayton ("Sable, an eagle displayed Or."), the conflict for which it was returned by Master Baldwin in 1985. Being fieldless, it now also conflicts with Gilbert of the Glens ("Azure, an eagle displayed grasping a sun in both claws Or."): the addition of the tertiaries is a minor point but the visual difference in the position of the wings and the change in the minor charge grasped in the bird's talons do not carry the weight of a clear major point of difference. (02/1987)

Arnulf Adler. Badge. An eagle displayed, wings inverted, Or, semy-de-lis sable, perced on a sword fesswise proper.

The current rules are quite clear in stating that a semy on a charge (as opposed to a field) constitutes tertiary charges (see DoD Definitions). Thus only a minor point of difference can be technically derived from the addition of the semy here and the original conflicts still stand. Moreover, as Brachet has pointed out, this now conflicts visually with Lyde ("Azure, an eagle displayed double-headed erminois."). (04/1988)

Arrienne Lenorra Ashford. Badge for House Ashford. Per chevron argent and azure, in chevron a dagger inverted sable and a rose, slipped and leaved, proper and in base a tree couped throughout argent.

This is by definition two complex for a badge since it involves is three unlike charges floating on a divided field (this would be illicit for a device in fact!). (07/1987)

Artan Skulcrusher. Device. Per pale argent and gules, a chevron between two mullets of four points elongated to base and a tower all counterchanged.

Conflict with Steffan of Castle Isle ("Per pale argent and gules, a chevron throughout and in base a castle counterchanged. ") (03/1987)

Artemas Maximus. Name for House Maximus.

"Maximus" is a Latin adjective, which must agree with the noun it modifies "in language, number, case and gender " according to NR4a. The masculine Latin adjective agrees with the English neuter noun in neither gender nor language. Additionally, the meaning of the proposed name, "the greatest household", seemed more than a little pretentious. (12/1987)

Artemidiore du Coeur Sincere. Device. Sable, a stag rampant between in chief an increscent and a decrescent and in base a fleur-de-lys argent, all within a bordure gules, enflamed Or.

There are several problems with the device. First of all, the name is a theophoric name derived from Artemis, the goddess of the moon and the hunt (and witchcraft) whose symbols are the stag, the crescents and (in her occult manifestations) fire. This is "Just Too Much". Secondly, the arrangements of the charges struck a number of commentors as coming perilously close to "slot-machine heraldry". Finally, the bordure, which was blazoned as "of flame" at the time of submission, now has a narrow gules bordure with a flamed mass of Or inside rather than properly drawn flames. (07/1989)

Artemisia, Region of. Title for Talon Herald.

Under the current rules this conflicts with the Order of the Serpent's Talon. (09/1988)

Arthur ab Idwal. Device. Per chevron gules and sable, a chevron between two owls close respectant guardant and a bee volant Or.

Conflict with Meghan of Tara Hill ("Per chevron gules and sable, a chevron Or between two winged rams combattant and a sun argent.") and Mariposa de los Montoyas ("Per chevron sable and gules, a chevron between three butterflies Or, wings voided."). Note that only a minor point of difference can be derived from merely reversing the tinctures of a partitioned field, even when these are a metal + colour combination (Determination of Difference 4.B.1.c.) (02/1987)

Arthur Blackmoon. Device. Sable, on a sinister hand appaumy couped Or, a decrescent moon sable.

As no difference can really be derived from the a sinister hand versus a dexter hand, this is in conflict with the badge of the Kingdom of Atenveldt for its Hospitallers ("Gyronny azure and gules, a dexter hand appaumy couped Or.") and with Barbara of Vandelalven ("Per gyronny argent, azure, gules and sable, a dexter hand appaumy, couped at the wrist and fingers spread, Or, charged with a flame gules."). (06/1989)

Arthur Blackmoon. Badge. On a sinister hand appaumy couped Or, a decrescent moon sable.

This is functionally identical to the submitted device and would have had to have been returned, had that passed, since there must be at least a minor degree of difference between items of registered armoury, even those for the same person. As it is, being fieldless, it conflicts with the conflicts cited for the device. (06/1989)

Arthur Fitzwilliam the Scholar. Device. Party per pall azure, vert and sable, in chief an eagle displayed and in base a dolphin hauriant and a three headed dog rampant Or.

Three different charges on a field party per pall have been ruled previously to be too complex by definition to be registered in the Society (AR 6c). (02/1987)

Arthur of Oxford. Device. Or, an antelope rampant gules, in chief a chevron ployé sable.

We had to agree with the commentors who held that the bending of the chevron was so much a period artistic variant that negligible difference can be derived from the modification versus a plain chevron. This being so, the device runs into problems with all three of the potential conflicts cited on the letter of intent: Berton ("Or, a chevron sable."), Patrick Stuart MacNab ("Or, a chevron sable between a sword fesswise and a boar's head erased gules.") and Warin Redhawk ("Or, a chevron sable, bezanty, and in base a hawk displayed gules."). (08/1989)

Arthurus Theodore de Beár. Name only.

There was an overwhelming feeling that the name, as submitted, conflicted with the noted social and literary figure Theodore (Teddy) Bear. The name Arthurus de Beár would have been acceptable, but the submittor allowed no changes whatsoever to the name. (08/1988)

Arval Benicoeur. Badge. A cross patoncy per saltire sable and Or.

Under the current rules, which allow no difference for field for fieldless badges, this is identical to his registered device. Since some minor difference is required between items of Society heraldry even with permission (permission to conflict with oneself is assumed), this ironically cannot be registered, although it is already effectively registered since it could not be used by anyone else! (06/1989)

Arwen Evaine ferch Rhys of Gwynedd. Badge for the League of Freebooters. Argent, on a delf sable two femurs in saltire argent, all within a bordure indented azure.

The general consensus in the College was that the charged delf appeared to be arms of pretense of Newton ("Sable, two shin bones in saltire argent."). Note that the letter of intent gave the submittor's name as Arwen Evaine ferch Rhys ap Gwynedd, but it is registered in the form given above. (03/1988)

Arwen Evaine ferch Rhys of Gwynedd. Badge for League of Freebooters. Sable, three boots argent.

Conflict with the arms of Elis ("Sable, three legs couped at the thigh argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 964). (02/1989)

Arwen Evaine ferch Rhys of Gwynedd. Badge for League of Freebooters. Sable, three boots argent.

This was originally returned for conflict with the arms of Ellis ("Sable, three legs couped at the thigh argent."). Writing on behalf of the submittor the Dragonship Haven Pursuivant argues that the distinction of terminology supports the view that period heralds made a distinction between legs and boots and that the latter were groped with articles of clothing. He further argues that the fact that the usual depiction of a leg is in the embowed condition guarantees that the leg was viewed as clearly different from a boot which is not usually so depicted. After much consideration (and evaluation of so many pictures of heraldic legs and boots that some accused Laurel of adopting foot fetishism!), we have come to the conclusion that the two cannot be considered adequately different enough to carry this clear of Elis under either set of rules. It is not only Papworth and other "modern" sources that group boots with legs and it is clear that there was a conceptual linkage between the two. Moreover, at least one family (Hussey or Hosy) appears to have depicted the same armoury with and without boots on the feet: Papworth (p. 964) shows the blazon as "Or, three boots sable.") and just below "Or, three legs couped at the thigh sable." (The device almost certainly cants on "hose".) We do not usually allow a full point of difference between a hand couped at the wrist or at the elbow and a gauntlet and that must be considered the analogous situation. Certainly, comparisons of the "heraldic boot" and the "heraldic leg" are similar enough in depiction that the two cannot be considered to be fully distinct charges. (11/1989)

Arwen Meriel ferch Meirich. Device. Vert, on a pale azure, fimbriated, a triquetra argent.

Under the old rules, this was clearly in conflict with Elspeth of the Wood ("Vert, on a pale azure, fimbriated, an oak tree Or."). Under the new rules, there is on difference for the type and tincture of the tertiary, but we have to agree with those who felt that the modification of tincture of fimbriation should contribute no difference here. Indeed, in view of the minimal visual impact of fimbriation, even when drawn properly, it is very difficult to imagine a situation where the addition of fimbriation or the change of the tincture of fimbriation should contribute to difference. (In many cases, the addition of fimbriation is secondary to a significant change in category of tincture that already contributes difference.). (11/1989)

Asa Birdfoot. Device. Or, on a chevron throughout between three bird's footprints in pall, toes to center, vert, a chevronel argent.

While the secondary charges are well-drawn to fill the field in the medieval manner, they are not identifiable as bird's footprints (we are dubious whether anything could be): a significant proportion of the commentors and Laurel staff thought they were caltraps before the blazon was read. (11/1987)

Asa of the Wood. Badge. Azure, a gondola Or within an orle of plates.

What was depicted on the badge was not a gondola and we were not entirely sure what the submittor intended (the stated persona of "reclusive Norse craftsman" gave not a clue!). One theory was that it was the sort of short haul ferry boat seen in southeast Asia, another that it was a sailless cabined dhow, still another that it was intended to depict the papyrus boats from Egyptian tombs (which is what the actual drawing most closely resembled). To register this, we will either have to have an emblazon with a properly drawn gondola or some indication of what specifically the submittor intended by the illustration. (05/1989)

Asa of the Wood. Device. Azure, on a bend sinister wavy Or between two plates, an otter couchant affronty proper, maintaining in its forepaws a plate (Lutra canadensis).

There were several problems with this device. Firstly, it conflicts with Geoffrey le Gentil ("Azure, a bend sinister wavy between a moon increscent and a fish naiant argent."). Secondly, as Star has pointed out, placing the plate on the beastie's tummy adds a fourth layer. Thirdly, there is some doubt about the identifiability of the otter in this position. Finally, there is a great deal of doubt whether this is an acceptable heraldic position: the degree of tortuous reblazonry involved in the attempts of the College to describe this adequately hint strongly that it is not. (05/1989)

Asa Thorfinsdottir of Byrum. Change of device. Per saltire sable and gules, a drakkar sailing to sinister under full sail Or.

Conflict with Shire of Selviergard ("Per fess gules and sable, atop the line of division a drakkar, mast stepped and oars in action, and in base a laurel wreath Or."), O'Donnell ("Gules, a galley, her oars in action, Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1089) and MacDonnell ("Sable, a galley, sails furled and oars in action, Or.",as cited in Papworth, p. 1089). It is also, as Brachet noted, perilously close to Tommaso di AMalfi ("Sable, a lateen-rigged lymphad under full sail to sinister Or between three mullets of eight points argent.") and Judith de Beaumont ("Gules, between in pale two mullets a lymphad under full sail Or, the sail bearing a mullet gules."). (11/1988)

Asbjorn Berbeinn. Badge. A quatrefoil vert environed of and maintained by a dragon volant in annulo, head to chief, argent.

Visual conflict with Coleen of Lionsgate ("Sable, within a wingless legless dragon in annulo9, head to chief, a mullet within a mullet pierced, all argent."): no difference can be derived from the field since this is a fieldless badge. (11/1988)

Ascelyn Fraser Sommerhawke. Change of device. Per pale sable and argent, two hawks rising respectant counterchanged.

Conflict with Mathilde Meyer ("Per pale azure and argent, two geese respectant enraged.") (09/1988)

Ashlin of Foxbridge. Device. Argent, a pale sable surmounted by a winged fox sejant gules.

From the letter of intent, it appeared that the name was previously registered, but we could find no trace of any submission at Laurel level under this name. Further information from Beacon is required (and a submission fee, if the name has not previously been submitted). Also, on the letter of intent the device was inaccurately blazoned as "Argent, a fess sable surmounted by a winged fox statant gules." Normally, since no correction was issued to clarify the disparity between the blazon and emblazon for the commenting heralds, this would be placed in the "pending" file. However, in the interests of the submittor this is not being done since the commenting heralds have already determined that the device conflicts with the device of Lin the Baker ("Argent, on a pale sable a garb Or.") as well as the mundane arms of Blake ("Argent, a pale sable, overall a bend gules."). (01/1987)

Aspasia Jeanne Cartier. Device. Azure, a bend sinister Or between an increscent and a standing balance argent.

Conflict with Barbara Cabelleus ("Azure, a bend sinister Or between in chief an open book argent, leathered Or, and in base a horse trippant Or."), Blais Dubois ("Azure, a bend sinister between a cat sejant guardant and a dove close Or."), Richard Andreivich of Rus ("Azure, on a bend sinister Or an estoile sable."), etc. (09/1989)

Assar merch Morgan ap Megryg of Coyty. Name only.

The submittor's documentation recounts a fairly familiar story of the last lord of Coity of pure native stock after the Norman Conquest (or so the geneology says), Morgan ap Megryg. When a Norman noble sought to seize his lands, he appeared with his daughter Sar and gave the attacker the choice of marrying his daughter and peacefully inheriting the castle or of fighting for it. Needless to say, the Norman took the latter course. Note that the lady's name thus would be "Sar ferch Morgan ap Megryg of Coity". Since the geneology later gives what appears to be the same name as "Assar", which s otherwise undocumented in precisely this spelling, it is a reasonable supposition that the submittor's proposed name and the actual name from her documentation are equivalent. (05/1989)

Astrith Ulfsdottir. Name Change to Astrith Wolfsdottir.

At the time her name was approved in November, 1982, Laurel modified the submitted form of Wolfsdottir to Ulfsdottir so that both name elements would be in the same language as the rules require. The appeal is based on the fact that the name Rosewitha Wolfsdottir was thereafter submitted. However, in the case of Rosewitha a "special case" exemption was successfully claimed on the grounds that her mundane father's mundane given name was legally "Wolf". Moreover, since that time both my predecessors have with great consistency upheld the rule that both elements of a patronymic name must be derived from the same language or a language combination that would demonstrably have occurred (e. g. , "mac" plus an English given name form in the Lowlands of Scotland). (03/1987)

Atalanta di Milano. Device. Azure, a stag's head erased argent, collared gules, armed, within an orle of fleurs-de-lis, on a chief embattled Or, three four-petalled roses proper.

The use of the fleurs-de-lis in orle here on the azure field creates precisely the appearance of a field azure, semy-de-lis Or, upon which the stag's head has been placed. As this field is not permitted in the Society due to its close association with the royalty of France, the submission must be returned. There was also a general feeling that the device could be simplified quite a bit. Note that the roses on this device are not standard roses which would have five petals and barbing between each petal: they appear more like red dogwood blossoms (was this what the submittor intended?). If she really wishes red roses, they should be properly drawn. Several of the commentors still felt uncomfortable with the use of Atalanta and a stag's head. However, the bulk of opinion was that this did not pass the boundaries of presumption if this is the only allusion to the myth of Atalanta in the device. (04/1989)

Atenveldt, Kingdom of. Name for the Order of the Oleander.

As was noted at the time this submission was pended from the July, 8, meeting, this particular submission has been the subject of much dispute between subjects of the Kingdoms of Atenveldt and the Outlands (with some side commentary from Caid). As many current members of the College were not actively involved in commentary at that time, it is perhaps useful to quote the summary of the history included with the notice of "pend", even though it is somewhat lengthy: "In February, 8, the name was submitted inconjunction with a badge by two private citizens of the Outlands, a submission which was promptly (and hotly) disputed by the then Aten Herald who demandeda retraction of the submission on the grounds that the name belonged to Atenveldt. Much discussion ensued before the name submission was returned in May, 8, when the badge submission could not be registered because of conflict. Since that time, further commentary and controversy have ensued, raising the issue of the "property rights" in this name, with Aten's own account in his letter of intent muddying the waters as he associated the name with both Caid and Atenveldt from the beginning (thus raising the issue of whether any rights to the name must be given equally to Caid). Public and private correspondence to the Laurel Office over the past few months has included the following allegations, many of which are extremely contradictory: That the effort at registration from the Outlands was in response to "misuse" of the honour as originally intended by those who created it in recent courts at Estrella. That the request from Atenveldt is an attempt to guarantee that the award would be associated with the war "to the chagrin of many fighting ladies". That it has always been given jointly by the Queens of Atenveldt and the Caid. That it has never been given by the Queens as Queens, but merely as representatives of the founders of the honour. That it has been given by the Queen of Atenveldt only with no "right" of input from the Queen of Caid. That it is an "order", as indicated by the name usedin the submission from Atenveldt, albeit a non­armigerous Order. That it is not an order, but an award, as evidenced by the fact that records of the recipients are not maintained and it does not appear in any O.P. Since it appeared that wider issues were involved in this controversy, involving definitions of when an order becomes actively an order (and whether it can be retroactively so declared), what the rights of the Crown in "expropriation" of heraldic material are, what fealty may involve in the heraldic arena, etc., it was decided to put the broader issues to the Board of Directors at the October Board meeting and to pend the submission until the Board responded. In October the Board opted to postpone consideration of the issues, feeling that it had not had enough time to consider Laurel's document (and, no doubt, already heavily burdened with heraldic input on the Rules for Submission adopted at that meeting). At the January Board meeting, which Laurel attended, the Board formally referred the issue of the Order of the Oleander and the associated issues back to the College of Arms. In the wake of this action, Laurel carefully considered the evidence presented by all parties at the time of the original submissions and, in response to queries by Laurel, evidence and commentary presented by a variety of interested parties over the months since. On the basis of this material, we have been forced to the conclusion that the name of the Oleander has become so notorious and controversial that it cannot be registered to anyone at this time. We realize that some may feel that there is insufficient precedent for refusing registration on the basis of Society history. On the other hand, there is ample precedent for finding against a submission because of its historical associations in the mundane sphere. It seems unreasonable and unwise to dismiss our own history as being of lesser value and less likely to carry the seeds of offense. Indeed, experience tends to indicate that the contrary is true: events that occur entirely within the context of the Society can have as long an effect and carry an odour of infamy just as strong as that of mundane events. In some cases, Society events carry a heavier effect upon Society life since many members are relatively ignorant of mundane history outside their own lifetime while Society history becomes the matter for campfire legend. In this case, the potential for offense is admittedly limited largely to a geographically restricted group of the membership, i.e., those who reside in the kingdoms regularly participating on a large scale in Estrella War. However, this is by no means an insignificant proportion of the Society membership. Moreover, those who are involved feel very strongly about this indeed and there are not merely one or two factions but a multiplicity of opinions, some of whom find offense in the very concept of an honour defined merely by gender. No compromise appears possible between the parties and it is clear that the use of "the Oleander" is causing the same sort of disruption/offense usually associated with the sort of mundane items which have been refused registration because of their mundane historical associations. Given this, we simply cannot in good conscience register the name of the Oleander. (02/1990)

Atenveldt, Kingdom of. Order of the Royal Officer Corp of Atenveldt.

We had to agree with Brachet that this was far too broad a name to restrict to one Kingdom. It was also extremely unclear why this was being considered an Order. By definition admission to an Order is permanent. Once one has been admitted to this group, does one remain a member, even if one departs from the Kingdom or becomes inactive? If not, then this is not an Order, properly so-called, but a sort of royally chartered fighter's guild. Note that Green Anchor is quite correct in noting that the submitted spelling of the name (using "Corp") does not have the meaning desired, since it is only used for a dead body. (07/1989)

Atenveldt, Queen's Guard of. Badge. Azure, in pale a crown of four greater and four lesser points Or and a rose argent, barbed and seeded proper, all within a bordure Or.

As has been noted by the vast majority of the College of Arms, the use of the crown is reserved to royal peers, kingdom arms and principality arms. It has been specifically ruled as long ago as 1981 that a badge containing a coronet or crown may only be registered by royal peers and may only be used by royal peers. In the case in question, it was specifically ruled that a royal peer's badge containing a coronet could not be worn by other members of his household. In this case, although the Queen may display a badge with a coronet, she would be the only person who could do so, i.e., none of her guard could in fact wear this badge. (05/1989)

Athelwulf Wulfsson. Device. Potenty gules and argent, a wolf rampant reguardant within a bordure sable.

The device of Philip Dymoke was incorrectly stated in the letter of intent: the field is not argent, as stated, but rather potent, which reduces the degree of difference considerably, since Philip then bears "Potent, a wolf rampant sable." In this case, there is a major point for the addition of the bordure, a minor point for the partial change in colour of the field, and a weak minor for the difference in the position of the beast's head. On points this is marginal, but the identical pattern involved in the field makes the visual resemblance overwhelming. (01/1987)

Athor of the War Scyldings. Name only.

Athor is a documented alternate spelling of the name of the Egyptian goddess Hathor and thus may not be used without evidence that the name was in fact used in period as a human given name. While there is a tendency in modern sources to apply the term Scylding to the Danes in general, when distinguishing them from the other "Viking" peoples, the term more properly applies to the early Danish royal house (as the submittor's own documentation notes) and it is in this sense that it would be most commonly interpreted by a member of our Society. (02/1988)

Atlantia, Kingdom of. Badge for Guild of Archers. An annulet argent surmounted by a bow fully drawn with an arrow proper.

This was pended from the July meeting because the emblazon sheet was untinctured and the blazon indicated proper tincturing for the bow and arrow proper. This was pended for instructions from Triton on the tincturing of the details like fletching and receipt of a fully tinctured emblazon sheet. Triton has informed us that the Atlantian Guild of Archers desires a silver arrow so we are returning this in anticipation of submission of a corrected badge from Triton. (02/1990)

Atlantia, Kingdom of. Title for Phoenix Pursuivant.

This name is in conflict with Greece's Order of the Phoenix. Note that the mundane custom of naming heraldic officers for the major orders (e.g., Bath Herald, Garter King of Arms, Toison d'Or Herald, etc.) requires that we allow heraldic titles and the names of Orders (Society and mundane) to conflict. (11/1986)

Attilium, Stronghold of. Change of designation from Canton.

Withdrawn at request of Triton Principal Herald. (01/1989)

Aubrey Gawen. Name and device. Azure, a cross moline throughout Or, overall a falcon's head, couped and sinister facing, argent.

In view of the obscuring of the underlying cross there is no doubt there is a conflict with the badge of John the Rhymer ("Azure, a falcon's head couped reversed argent."). Technically, there is also a conflict with Braham ("Azure, a cross moline Or."). (01/1989)

Audrey fitzWilliam of Treville. Device. Gules, a fess cotised between two escallops inverted and a sprig of lily of the valley, all argent.

Conflict with Normanville ("Gules, a fess cotised argent."), as well as several other mundane cotes which difference by adding charges about the fess cotised just as this device does. (05/1988)

August Arenvald. Device. Paly bendy Or and sable, on a bend gules an eagle rising palewise, wings addorsed and inverted Or.

Conflict with Dubhadessa of Kilkenny ("Ermine, on a bend gules a hedgehog passant fesswise Or."): there is a major for the field, but only a minor point for the type of tertiary, since the change of posture is derived from the change in type of charge. (01/1987)

Aurelia Dawen. Device. Vert, two six-legged weasels passant respectant argent and a demi-sun, issuant from base, Or.

There was a considerable consensus in the College that the hexapodal weasels were not consonant with period style. (08/1989)

Aurelia of Great Faringdon. Device. Chequy gules and argent, a compass star of eight greater and eight lesser points Or.

Conflict under both rules with Paul of Sunriver ("Azure, a compass star Or."). (01/1990)

Auryn Beaumaris. Name only.

Not only does this name come perilously close to that of Evron Beaumaris the Gallowglass, as Dolphin noted, but it falls afoul of the ban in NR10 on the use of common nouns as names. As Vesper noted in her letter of intent, "aur=" and "eur-" are linguistically equivalent in Welsh. This being the case, this name is identical to the Welsh noun "euryn" meaning "gold jewel". Gruffudd does list this as a name, but without any exemplars, which usually means that it is a modern usage invented to expand the name pool in Welsh. (11/1988)

Auxrutiene of Lithuania. Name only.

Since no documentation was provided for this unusual name it must be returned. (02/1987)

Aveline Courlandon. Device. Or, a monkey rampant azure, wearing a Phrygain cap gules, on a sinister gore vert, a heart argent.

The combinations of tinctures and charges push complexity levels under both the old rules and new. (There are five tinctures and three types of charges, even without counting the cap as a separate charge.) Moreover, as noted by more than one commentor, the monkey is touching the fore in such a manner as to make it clear the intended effect is to have the monkey "lift the golden curtain" to reveal the heart behind. This is not a period heraldic design. (12/1989)

Aveline Durand. Device. Per saltire argent and gules, four roses counterchanged, barbed and seeded proper.

Vesper did an elaborate defense of this device against that of Hrothgar of Farley ("Per saltire Or and gules, four escallops, points to center, counterchanged."). This was not necessary since complete difference of charge applies here! However, as Seraph noted, the device does conflict with that of Comte de Montauban ("Per saltire argent and gules, in each quarter two roses in pale counterchanged.", as cited in Fabulous Heraldry, p. 36). (07/1988)

Avelyn of Brodick. Device. Gules, ermined Or, a thistle, slipped and leaved, argent.

Conflict with the badge of Theresa de Foxton ("Per bend embattled sable and gules, a thistle slipped and leaved argent."). (07/1987)

Avram Moishe ha Cohen. Name and device. Azure, a menorah Or between three Stars of David argent.

This submission, name and device both, occasioned a great deal of controversy in the College as to the point at which a name with religious connotations used with religious symbolism reached the point of either presumption or excessive religious symbolism.Crescent has adduced evidence that the term "Cohen" was not used with the article as was the name of the priestly tribe of Levi. Commentary indicates that the term "Cohen" could best be translated as "high priest". When the name was fully translated into English forms from the transliterated Hebrew (Abraham Moses the High Priest), it caused major twitches which were transformed into major convulsions when the device which combines the colours associated with the Zionist movements and the two most recognizable symbols of the Jewish faith (the menorah and the Star of David). (04/1989)

Avram the Jew. Name only.

After much consideration, we decided that this does conflict with that "Abraham the Jew". (There was a lot of discussion of the patriarch Abraham at this meeting. . .) (04/1989)

Ayesha al Qadi. Name only.

The title "Qadi", in several transliterations, does mean "judge", but has also been used in the Society as an approved alternate for "Count" so may not be used unless the lady actually has that rank. Note that the paperwork indicated that she had a device registered under the name Catriona MacLean, but neither the name nor the supposed device could be found in our files. (12/1987)

Ayesha al-Azha. Name only.

Although this was not mentioned on the letter of intent, the submittor indicated that she intended the byname to mean "of the Serene Wind", citing The Arabian Nights as a source. Unfortunately, none of the commentors could confirm this formation as a legitimate "real world" byname and the formation seems to actually be "Ayesha the Divine Wind". In either case, failing actual evidence for this as a period byname of clearly human and non-unique nature, we are very nervous about adding "the Divine Wind" to the given name of Mohammed's wife. (11/1988)

Ayesha Menseyah. Name only.

The only documentation provided in support of the statement that "Menseyah" was a legitimate Arabic epithet meaning "the Forgotten" were a few lines of hand-written Arabic and a business card from the "Abdul", the Arabic gift shop proprietor cited as the source for the translation. Since noone in the College could come up with any supporting documentation for anything similar from medieval Arabic, some more substantial documentation must be required from the submittor. (07/1987)

Aylwin of Stone's Leah. Device. Argent, on a bend sinister azure between two cinquefoils vert, three escallops argent.

check name. Conflict with Rory O'Rourke ("Argent, a bend sinister azure between two four-leaved shamrocks vert.") (12/1988)

Aziza al-Kashani. Device. Azure, in pale a rose Or, barbed and seeded proper, and a crescent, surmounted on each horn by a mullet, argent.

The fact that the device was submitted on and appeared on the letter of intent on a roundel form initially confused the eyes of Laurel staff who psychologically processed this as a badge. (Brachet was quite correct in noting that, what the ears hear notwithstanding, the eyes will tell conflict checkers that this is a badge: more than a decade of training to this effect creates a strong psychological impulse!) This being the case, this must be considered to conflict under both sets of rules with Manelson ("Azure, a crescent argent, enclosing a sun Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 595) and Cossington ("Azure, a rose Or.", ibid., p. 859). In this case, the added mullets are not even true tertiary charges, but merely an artistic embellishment of the crescent. (01/1990)

Baile na Scolaíri, Shire of. Device. Purpure, on a pile inverted throughout between in chief two lanterns Or, an open scroll vert, overall a laurel wreath counterchanged Or and vert.

At the time the device was returned in July, 1988, it was noted that, not only was this barred from registration since the name was at that time not acceptable, but also that "Many in the College felt that this device bordered or went beyond the limits of good style for groups and certainly this would be improved if there were only two tinctures involved. In any case the lanterns in chief should be much bigger (which might involve making the laurel wreath slightly smaller)". This resubmission does not resolve those problems and the feeling in the College is, if anything, now stronger that this is not appropriate period style for a group device. (08/1989)

Báili na Scolaíri, Shire of. Name only.

The documentation supplied was a statement by a professor of languages at Illinois State University that this was the proper form of the name. Unfortunately, all our sources for Old Irish and modern Irish indicate that the proper form for the nominative of the noun for town or city is "baile" with a a terminal "e" and no accenting of the diphthong. The ending in "i" is found only in the oblique cases which would not be appropriate after the lingua franca "Shire of". (Note that the nominative form "baile" is pronounced "baili".) Unfortunately, since they would allow no changes whatsoever to the name, we could not amend the grammar to register it. (02/1988)

Báili na Scolaíri, Shire of. Device. Per chevron throughout purpure and Or, an open scroll vert within a laurel wreath counterchanged Or and vert, in chief two lanterns Or.

The name of the group was returned on linguistic grounds in February, 1988, and there must be a name to which the group device can be registered (holding names cannot be generated for groups). Many in the College felt that this device bordered or went beyond the limits of good style for groups and certainly this would be improved if there were only two tinctures involved. In any case the lanterns in chief should be much bigger (which might involve making the laurel wreath slightly smaller). (07/1988)

Balatair le Rodeur. Name and device. Per pale gules and sable, on a bend sinister Or a fleur-de-lys palewise sable.

By the submittor's own evidence "Balatair" is not a given name, but rather is described from a descriptive: traveller. He needs a given name. Under the current rules the device conflicts with the badge of Hermann Otto Koehlermann ("Sable, a bend sinister Or."): there is a minor point of difference for the change of half of a low contrast field and another for addition of the tertiary charges (see DoD 4.B.7). (08/1987)

Balfour Ackersley. Name only.

By the submittor's own documentation, Balfour is a family name derived from a place name and therefore is not eligible for use as a given name in the Society without evidence that it was so used in period. (02/1988)

Balin of Canterbury. Device. Gules, a shakefork argent surmounted by a dragon passant Or.

There is a clear visual conflict here with Candace of Dragonstower ("Gules, two towers sable, fimbriated, overall a dragon passant Or.") In point of fact, the two devices are technically clear of one another since the towers and the shakefork are primary charges and therefore the difference of type and tincture count full value. (Contrary to Crescent's assertion, primary charges should not be "demoted" when a charge is placed overall: in mundane usage it is the charge overall which is considered to have been added for cadency, just as are the secondaries around the primary charge. The blazon represents reality: the primary charge will remain the charge which lies closest to the center of the field in the plane closet to the field. Under certain circumstances, charges overall can be held to have equal weight, but this will not "demote" the original primary charge, if the two are drawn in proper proportion.). (04/1987)

Balkor MacDuffer. Name only.

Balkor is not really a valid "made­up" name, the more so since it is a spelling variant of the common noun "balker" (which has two major period uses according to the OED: one who made balks or a person who stood on shore to signal fishermen of the location of shoals of fish). By the submittor's own documentation "duffer" is an occupational term, of the sort not usually used to form patronymics, and appears to be out of period slang, being first attested by the OED in 1756. (11/1986)

Barak ben Canaan. Name only.

The name was submitted as an appeal from Aten who had returned the name for conflict with the character Barak Ben Canaan in the novel Exodus by Leon Uris. Opinion in the College was virtually unanimous that Mistress Marta had acted correctly in calling the conflict. (03/1989)

Barak Elandris Hanno von Halstern. Badge. Sable, a triangle and in chief a roundel argent.

Crescent has been quite eloquent on the subject of our responsibility for respecting the religions of others and I would normally agree with him that use of an abstracted symbol of an ancient or medieval religious group, so long as it be not excessive, should be permitted. Unfortunately, this is an abstraction of the "sign of Tanit", one which actually appears to have been made in ancient formal and informal graffiti. The overwhelming association of Tanit (or Tanith) both in Greek and Roman sources is with the sacrifice of children. This association is frequently the one single thing that the layman knows about Carthaginian religion (a "National Enquirer" remnant from World History or Vergil class, no doubt). This is, moreover, not merely malicious propaganda on the part of the Romans: it is supported by the archaeological evidence, indeed the documentation supplied by the submittor includes photographs of some of the hundreds of pots in which were discovered the burnt bones of young sacrificial victims (though I am certain that Crescent did not realize what the pots were: it is the context that makes them particularly identifiable). Though less common in later periods, the cult of Tanit continued under the Roman occupation and human sacrifices seem to have continued on a sporadic basis in the hinterlands down into the age of Augustine. (08/1987)

Barak of Cardiff. Device. Azure, on a compass star Or, an annulet azure, a chief Or.

Conflict with Paul of Sunriver ("Azure, a compass star Or."). (08/1988)

Barbara of Cambion. Name and device. Argent, a cross bow palewise between three crossbow quarrels palewise inverted, one and three, all within a bordure embattled sable.

By a perverse trick of fate, this was submitted later in the same month as the almost identical device of Matthew of Scarborough, registered elsewhere on this letter: "Argent, a drawn crossbow palewise between in saltire four crossbow quarrels palewise inverted, all within a bordure embattled sable." These are so close that this could not be registered even with permission to conflict from Matthew. (01/1989)

Barbara of the Crossroads. Device. Sable, a bend sinister between a fleece Or and a sword bendwise sinister argent.

Conflict with Harold of Gryphon Wald ("Sable, a bend sinister Or between a sword inverted bendwise and a quill pen bendwise sinister argent.") and the badge of Hermann Otto Koehlermann ("Sable, a bend sinister Or."). (08/1988)

Barbara of the Crossroads. Device. Sable, a bend sinister between two fleeces Or.

Under the old rules, this still conflicts with the same items that her submission did when her name was registered in August, 1988: Harold of Gryphon Wald ("Sable, a bend sinister OR between a sword inverted bendwise and a quill pen bendwise sinister argent.") and the badge of Hermann Otto Koehlermann ("Sable, a bend sinister OR."). Under the new rules, which would allow one difference for the type of secondaries and another for the tincture, it would be clear of the conflict with Harold, but the conflict remains with Hermann since there is only one difference for the addition of the secondaries. (12/1989)

Barbary Elspeth Ham. Badge. Sable, a griffin statant, wings elevated and addorsed, Or.

Conflict with Brice ("Sable, a griffin passant Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 982). (11/1988)

Barnabas Greycloak of Winterwood. Device. Argent, a red-winged blackbird close and sinister-facing proper, on a chief wavy sable, a mullet of eight points between a crescent inverted and a crescent argent (Agelaius phoenicus).

There was some disagreement in the College as to whether the three disparate charges on the chief were such a great solecism that the submission as a whole had to be returned. Ultimately, we decided that the lack of symmetry as well as the lack of identifiability involved here pushed this over the edge (we certainly would not allow the collocation of charges in fess on the field where they would be larger and presumably more identifiable). Here it is the spirit of the law which must prevail and that is clear from the theoretical portion of AR6c "There should not be a variety of tiny charges or details indistinuishable from a distance." (07/1989)

Barry McFadyen. Device. Barry of six gules and argent, three trees eradicated vert within a bordure argent.

The bordure was added to clear the original conflict with Bross ("Argent, three trees vert.") which it would have done, had it been any other tincture than argent or gules. In this situation, the bordure which is of the tincture of half the field. Makes the gules traits look like barrulets couped floating in the middle of the field: this is why AR1c prohibits such a usage. A bordure in a contrasting tincture (vert would tie in well with the trees) would resolve this problem, assuming no new conflicts. (05/1989)

Batu Bator the Ursine. Name and device. Gyronny Or and argent, a winged bear rampant, wings addorsed and elevated, sable, grasping in his sinister forepaw a mace gules.

Since Bator or Bahadur appears to be a title in Mongolian usage (somewhat similar in rank to our knights), it is not permitted for use in Society names. According to Star, Batu is a legitimate Mongolian given name, although it has not been established that it was a unique name used only by the grandson of Genghis Khan and it should be. The device runs afoul of the prohibition on fields gyronny of two metals (AR2b). (12/1986)

Bealdgar Thurbeornsson. Device. Or, a pall inverted between three owls azure.

Conflict with Walter Kempe of Falconholde ("Or, a pall inverted between two crescents and in base five roundels in annulo gules."). (07/1987)

Bear the Wallsbane. Change of name from Barak Elandris Bear of the Axe.

Brigantia has argued that, since "Bear" is documented as a variant form of the Old English "Beorn" used as a protheme, based on a citation in Searle (p. 85) and "Beorn" can be documented as an independent name, the name should be allowed. He also cites period Swedish sources which show "Bior" as a form for the documented name "Bjorn" with the Latin form "Bero" as evidence for the use of "Bear" as a separate name. Unfortunately, as this is a common noun, under NR10 compelling evidence for this name used in period as a given name must be provided. As we have often commented before, the fact that a name with meaning is used in one language does not mean that it will be used in another. For instance, although the actual meaning of "Athelstan" is "noble stone", we would not allow someone to register "Noble Stone Jones", even though Old English is the same language pool as Middle and Modern English! While there is a great deal of evidence that a number of primitive cultures have used totemic animals for names derived from transferred epithets, the use of names like Arthur, Bjorn, Ursula, etc. do not necessarily demonstrate that "Bear" would be used in English. It is notable that Reaney shows all the family names of "Bear" and its variants as deriving from geographic locations or from an epithet like "the Bear" and does not even posit a patronymic origin. (08/1989)

Beatrix von Wertenberg. Device. Sable, a saltire gules fimbriated, overall a lion queue-fourchee rampant Or.

Conflict with the badge of Burke Kyriell MacDonald ("Sable, a cross patty Or, voided gules, overall a lion rampant guardant Or. "). Note that the stated verbal permission from David Morgan of Clai Morgan means nothing: the motto of the College of Arms is "Non scripta, non est. " (03/1987)

Beatrix von Wertenberg. Device. Sable, a saltire gules, fimbriated argent, overall a lion queue fourchy rampant to sinister Or.

There are several problems with this device. First of all, the foreparts of the lion are dismembered and the hindparts not, in a distinctly non-period manner. Secondly, although the miniature emblason does not reveal this, the argent banding of the saltire criss-crosses at the centre of the saltire so that the saltire is distinctly filled or voided not as the original blazon has it. In fact, what you appear to have is "Sable, a saltire gules surmounted by another parted and fretted argent, overall. . .". This is not period style and forms excessive layering. Unfortunately, if the saltire is drawn properly fimbriated, it is then visually in conflict with Brak of the Eagle's Eyrie ("Sable, a saltire gules, fimbriated and overall an eagle's sinister wing argent."). (12/1987)

Beatrix von Wertenberg. Device. Sable, a saltire gules, fimbriated argent, overall a lion queue forchy rampant to sinister Or.

Unfortunately, White Stag's appeal of the original return for conflict with Brak of the Eagle's Eyrie ("Sable, a saltire gules, fimbriated and overall an eagle's sinister wing argent.") is based on a misconception. The fimbriated saltire is not a field treatment as indicated on the letter of intent which refers to the lion and the wing as "principal charges overlying a treated field". The primary charge in both cases is the fimbriated saltire. While the charge overall certainly has significant visual weight, the addition or change of a charge overall to a pre-existing coat is a recognized form of indicating cadency (see the examples in Gayre, Heraldic Cadency, chapters XIV and XV) so the modifications to the charge overall should not be sufficient in and of themselves to establish difference between two coats. Were the field in fact a simply treated field (e.g., sable, masoned Or), not only two full major points of difference for type and tincture of charge but also complete difference of charge could be claimed. In this case, however, both device appear to be first degree cadency from "Sable, a saltire gules, fimbriated argent." and suggest that Brak and Beatrix are "brother and sister". The beautifully coloured exemplars from White Stag only make that visual infringement more striking. (04/1988)

Beatrix von Wertenberg. Device. Sable, a saltire argent, voided gules, overall a lion queue forchy rampant to sinister Or.

White Stag has once more appealed the return of this device for conflict with Brak of the Eagle's Eyrie ("Sable, a saltire gules, fimbriated and overall an eagle's sinister wing argent."). The most recent return in April, 1987, had rejected the previous argument that the two devices shared only a "field treatment", noting that Society usage, like the mundane, does not consider the saltire here a "field" treatment", but rather the primary charge. In his appeal, White Stag makes an issue of blazon, stating that there is a difference between a saltire fimbriated and one voided because in the case of fimbriation the metal here would be narrower than is the case. Long-standing Society precedent holds that there is no difference between an ordinary or its diminutive. The same thing holds true here: even if period blazon practise were reflected in this distinction, if one had to use calipers to tell whether an ordinary was fimbriated or voided, then no difference could be derived from the issue and there is no point to quibbling over blazon. On this pass through the College of Arms, there seemed to be considerable feeling for acceptance of the arms, although the reasons expressed varied widely. The strongest arguments, however, boiled down to two premises: that charges overall were not used in period for cadency or, if used, were not commonly so used and that, even if they were used for cadency, this should not affect the way they are perceived or counted for difference in the Society. In his extensive (and somewhat heated) appeal, White Stag noted several items of heraldry with overall charges where the base coats were borne by individuals with different surnames from those bearing the differenced coat. Unfortunately, as the same can be said of the base coats themselves, this does not prove that the charges overall were not used for difference. Crescents equally lengthy arguments also took issue with the concept that charges overall were used in period for cadency difference, in particular holding that the reference to Gayre in the April return did not support Laurel's contention. Indeed, the reference was made at the time to direct those interested to a readily available volume on cadency which devotes some time to the issue of categories of differencing in an accessible manner. In fact, the examples shown there for differencing by adding one or a few charges (a distinction being made from geratting) do not show many examples of differencing by placing items overall and those that are used in the chapters cited are primarily ordinaries and symbols of office. This reflects a medieval reality. Superimposing a charge overall was a relative rarity in period heraldry, unlike Society heraldry. In the vast majority of cases where a charge is placed overall, it appears to be for cadency purposes (less often in the later end of our period for purposes of augementation). The commonest charges placed overall are bends, quarters or cantons, inescutcheons, labels, other ordinaries and symbols of office (a bishop's crosier, marshal's baton, etc.). These charges which became recognized brisure marks were recognized as such because they were used in this manner so often, not because a committe of heralds sat down in 1312 and decided to consider them such (that is why the theoretical brisure systems which were written down by heraldic theorists in later eras differ so!). That these over time became associated with cadency to the point that many books (like Gayre and Woodward) devote entire separate sections to their use in this manner is a result of their common use overall, not a cause. The question of whether charges overall should be considered primary or secondary (and thus granted the full weight of any changes made to them given the current limitation on difference derivable solely from secondary charges) is thornier. Crescent is undoubtedly correct: over the course of Society heraldry, charges overall automatically became the primary charge and in earlier days addition of such a charge was sometimes considered sufficient difference from mundane coats. As we gained more and more knowledge about the way heraldry worked in period, more and more feeling in the College opposed such an extreme view, the more so since it was all too often open to abuse. There is no doubt that the use of charges overall, like so many Society heraldic usages which were uncommon or restricted in use in period (e.g., fimbriation) presents some difficulties for us in considering difference. Indeed, on occasion in the past the decision on whether the charge was a primary, a secondary or even a tertiary in terms of design importance has hung on the size of the charge as it appeared on the emblazon sheet (those calipers again!). Often, decisions involving charges overall seem to involve a "gut feeling" that they should be sufficient difference from all but the most elaborate and famous underlying charges, but that they are not sufficient to difference two Society devices. As much of the College's history shows, it is usually difficult to quantify a "gut feeling". In this case, the criterion we have had to use is the way that the two devices will be perceived by the observer. Both devices are identical save for the type and tincture of the charge set overall. All the difference is derived not merely from a single design element. In a similar situation (modifications to secondaries set around the central design element), it has been held that adequate difference between Society devices cannot be derived from cumulative changes to the same charge or set of charges. We feel the same situation applies here. We would suggest to the lady that the best path for her, failing permission to conflict, would be to modify the tincture of the field or the saltire. (09/1988)

Bebinn of Elvegast. Device. Azure, three chevronels Or, in chief two lily flowers argent.

Conflict with Ashpoole ("Azure, three chevrons Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 549) and Trent ("Azure, three chevrons Or, in chief two roses argent.", ibid., p. 552). It is also uncomfortably close to Meagan ferch Rhys of Glynebwy ("Azure, a chevron cotised Or between three wolves statant argent."). (07/1989)

Belisarius of Anatolikon. Name only.

This name made us very twitchy. As Brachet notes, there is an excellent case for Belisarius being a "famous and unique name". Additionally, although the "Anatolikon" was a deme in the later Roman Empire, the root meaning of the Greek word "Anatolikos" has to do more with the rising of the sun and was very early on generalized to mean "Eastern" or coming from the East. Belisarius was general of the East at the time of the Hippodrome Riots of 532 and, given the popular Greek idiom of the day, would have commonly been referred to at that period as "Belisarius Anatolikos" (in reference to his command). (07/1987)

Benén Mactire. Device. Per bend sinister sable and azure, a wolf's head cabossed argent between three acorns Or.

Conflict with Fandrel Silverfox ("Sable, a fox's mask argent.") (06/1989)

Beornheard of Wearmouth. Device. Checky vert and Or, a triquetra gules.

Since no difference is granted for the field this conflicts with two fieldless badges: Charles Stewart O'Connor's ("A triquetra gules.") and that of Ceridwen MacAoudhegain ("A triquetra environed of a pair of hames tied at the top and bottom gules."). (07/1989)

Bérengar de Clisson. Device. Ermine, on a bend cotised azure a lion's gambe erased Or.

Silver Trumpet's late­breaking citation of Pope Innocent VII ("Or, on a bend cotised azure, a comet Or.") is correct. Under the new rules, it is definitely a conflict. Given the manner in which we usually depict comets in the Society, this is a particularly striking visual echo. (05/1990)

Bergelmir Sigurdsson. Name and device. Azure, on a pale raguly argent, two ravens close sable.

The name Bergelmir appears to be a unique name, that of a particular frost giant, the grandson of Ymir, and therefore the name does not seem suitable for use in the Society. The device conflicts with Henrik Edward Alredson ("Azure, mulletty of four points, on a pale raguly argent, a beacon sable, enflamed gules."). (11/1986)

Berhtrad Athalbrand von Strassburg. Change of device. Quarterly azure and gules, on a bend sinister between an opinicus statant and a crescent argent, a sword sable.

Pennon's reference to this being a change of field from his previous device and some blazoning issues appear to have diverted a number of commentors. In point of fact, the device has now been modified from a field quarterly with a single charge in the dexter chief quarter to a field with two different charges in the azure quarters, presenting a strong impression of quartering. Given that the charge overall is a charged bend (sinister) which appears as a device for indicating cadency or pretense with already complex marshalled coats, this really does give the impression of a differenced marshalled coat. We felt this would be true given the spirit of the old rules. It is unambiguously stated in the new rules: "Charged sections must all contain charges of the same type to avoid the appearance of being different from each other." (04/1990)

Bernice of Brittany. Badge for George the Vagabond. Ermine, a bezant enflamed gules within a bordure vert.

After a comparison of the emblazons we were compelled to agree that there was too great a visual resemblance to Boncoeur ("Ermine, on a sun gules, a heart Or. ").

Registration of a device or badge using the field of Brittany to a lady with the byname "of Brittany" bothered several commentors, despite the fact that this was designated for an alternate persona. (03/1987)

Berthrad Athalbrand von Strassburg. Badge. Quarterly azure and gules, a cross swallowtailed quaterpierced argent, surmounted by a lozenge counterchanged.

This submission was returned by Pennon for overly modern design and complex counterchanging. The submittor appealed to the College of Arms. Almost to a man/woman the College supported Pennon's original return. [Gnomic statement from Laurel staff: "We do not register quilt patterns."] (06/1989)

Bethoc of Atholl. Name only.

The name conflicts with that of Bethoc, daughter of Malcolm mac Madadh, Earl of Atholl, ancestress of the members of Clan Chattan in Badenoch (Moncreiffe, The Highland Clans, p. 61 and inside back cover). (10/1988)

Bianca Coniglio. Name.

This was inadvertently omitted from the letter for the October meeting. The name, as it stands, is in conflict with Lewis Carroll's White Rabbit (Bianca means "white", Coniglio means "rabbit"). The addition of an attributive preposition to make the commoner family name form "Bianca del Coniglio" would resolve the problem, but the submittor has specified that no change should be made without her permission. (12/1986)

Birgit av Birka. Name and device. Azure, a horse of eight legs passant to sinister and a chief bevilled Or.

As Dragon herself has commented, the Old Norse form of the byname should be "af Birku" (the noun must be placed in the dative). The byname is properly constructed for modern Norse whose reformed orthography uses "av" for the preposition and which resembles English in having almost entirely dropped the declension of nouns. However, to give the meaning she desires in modern Norse, she would have to use "Birgit fra Birka". Unfortunately, she allows no changes whatsoever to her name so the name as a whole must be returned. As for the device, the more the issue of the acceptability of the Sleipnir for Society armoury is discussed in the College of Arms, the more the commentors seem to feel doubts about the propriety of the usage. The submittor has provided a substantial amount of evidence for the use of the image on grave art, but all of this supports the conclusion that the beast has too strong a religious/magical connotation. (We ignore here the theories of some scholars that, in a couple of the cases she adduces, the depiction of the horse with eight legs is in fact an attempt to depict a team of two horses!) Additionally, the unusual use of the "bevilled" chief (we could not find a period example) seems designed to give the effect of lightning, thus joining Thor to Odin in the device. (02/1988)

Bjorn Kathrynson. Device. Per pale sable and gules, a winged bear rampant Or.

Technical conflict with Orly ("Sable, a bear rampant Or."): there is a minor point for changing half a low contrast field and another minor point for the addition of the wings. (12/1986)

Bjorn Kathrynson. Device. Per pale sable and gules, a winged bear rampant Or.

Vesper appealed the original return of this device for conflict with Orly ("Sable, a bear rampant Or.") on the grounds that the two minors, one for change to half a low contrast field and another for the addition of the wings, were so strong that they should be counted as the equivalent of a major and a minor point of difference. It was specifically asked "whether this is a valid application of the principle that occasionally two large minors may be sufficient to clear a conflict with mundane arms." The phrasing here implies that such a principle has and should be accepted by the Laurel Office and the College of Arms. It has not been and should not be. If the principle is not valid then the question of an application of the principle is moot.

Crescent and Elmet, however, raised another issue, i.e., whether the addition of the wings is indeed a minor point of difference or should be counted as a major point of difference. After consideration of the rulings in similar situations, we have concluded that the determination of difference depends not only the proportion of the charge which is modified but also on the "pattern of recognition" involved. In other words, if the modifications create a beast which has a separate identity of its own, either in period or modern heraldry (e.g., a lion as opposed to a sea-lion), it is feasible for the modifications to produce a major point of difference. If the modifications produce a beast which is clearly derivative (e.g., a winged sheep), then the difference created will be minor. In this case, the beast will always be "processed" as a bear with wings so that the difference created must be considered minor. (06/1987)

Bjorn MacGregor. Device. Barry of six gules and sable, three boars passant in bend within a bordure Or, fleury sable.

By the current rules a barry field may not consist of two colours (AR2a). (07/1987)

Björn of Nidaros. Device. Or, fretty gules, a ram rampant argent, within a bordure purpure.

There is insufficient contrast betweent the ram and the field which is predominantly Or. Although the letter of intent indicated that the submittor would accept a ram purpure, this must formally be submitted (with properly coloured forms) so that the College may consider it for conflicts. (05/1988)

Bjorn Strongarm of Illiton. Device. Sable, a cross gurgity nowed and pierced of a lozenge argent, within each hook of the cross a plate.

Conflict with Follye ("Sable, a cross moline argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 620). The basic nature of the design here requires that the "plates" be treated less as secondaries than as artistic adjuncts to the cross and thus it is impossible to get a full point of difference for their presence. The cross is not a standard cross gurgitee, but rather a cross moline with one "hook" of each arm amputated so that only a very weak minor difference, if any, can be derived from the modification of the cross. Note that, although the name appeared on the letter of intent as "Bjorn Strongarm", it was registered in the form above. (07/1989)

Bjorn Tannasson. Device. Argent, a drakkar sable, the sail emblazoned with a boar's head erased argent, between three Thor's hammers gules.

There is a long­standing precedent in Society heraldry which considers charged sails as being equivalent to arms of pretense and therefore forbidden for Society usage: "You may not charge a sail if the resulting sail conflicts with existing arms." As the sail here appear identical to at least one mundane items of armory, this device must be returned. (The passage of the arms of Eisenmarche cited by Star in the letter of intent is a special case: the armorial display on the sail there was a special case: the arms of the Society, which the Board has specifically stated may be displayed by any group.) Note that removing the boar's head from the sail with several mundane coats mentioned which involve a ship sable on an argent field. (12/1986)

Bjornsborg, Barony of. Badge. A bear passant erect reguardant argent, maintaining a berdiche palewise proper.

Conflict with Mylles ("Sable, a bear erect argent, chained and muzzled Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 57) and the "bear and ragged staff" badge of Warwick, which is one of the most famous of the mediaeval badges. (11/1988)

Bjornsborg, Barony of. Badge. A sprig of alamosa bendwise sinister argent, leaved Or.

While this does not conflict with the arms of Aspine ("Azure, an aspen leaf Or."), the conflict for which it was originally returned, it does conflict with Alice of Kent (Vert, a sprig of linden fructed bendwise sinister argent."). No difference can be derived from the field and there are at most two minors for the differences in the sprigs. (04/1989)

Black Lake, Shire of. Badge. Barry wavy argent and sable, a tower gules.

Since the Society traditionally treats chaussé and chapé as specialized field divisions, Silver Trumpet is technically correct in citing a conflict with Edwin FitzLloyd ("ermine, chaussé raguly vert, a tower gules."). (10/1989)

Black Rose, March of the. Device. Argent, a Maltese cross between four roses, each within a laurel wreath sable.

Since each rose/laurel wreath collocation is essentially a single charge visually, this device is constructed on the pattern of a single primary charge and four identical secondaries. This being so, this is in conflict with Dorothea of Caer Myrddin ("Argent, a cross patty sable."). (08/1987)

Blanche Cecile d'Etoile Noire. Device. Argent, a chevron rompu between two mullets of six points sable and a wyvern passant vert.

Conflict with Salt ("Argent, a chevron rompu between three mullets sable.", as cited in Papworth, p. 459). (11/1987)

Blatha an Oir, Barony of. Name for Order of the Silver Falcon.

Under both old and new rules, the addition of the adjective would not be adequate to clear this from the Falcon Herald, a British heraldic title. (05/1990)

Bohemond de Nolrville. Name change (from Bohemond the Black).

The placename Black Village in French would be "Villenoire", using the period analogues of Villehardouin or Villeneuve. An alternative would be Norville (North Village). The submittor indicated that he would accept corrections to grammar but not to spelling (!!!) so we have no alternative but to return the name as a whole. (09/1986)

Bors of Lothian. Device. Per fess vert and gules, on a fess embattled counter-embattled Or a raven displayed sable.

As Green Anchor has noted, this is in conflict with the flag of Ethiopia which may be blazoned either "Tierced per fess vert, Or and gules." or "Per fess vert and gules, a fess Or." As this is a territorial flag, two full points of difference are required (DR1a). (03/1989)

Brad of Cambria. Device. Per pale indented argent and gules, a heart counterchanged.

Conflict with Thomas Heath ("Argent, on a heart gules a unicorn passant reguardant argent."). Under our current rules, counterchanging along the line of division provides only a major point of difference from Society armoury, although it is sufficient difference from mundane armoury. (01/1988)

Brain MacBrand. Household name for Clan Darkwood.

Under both sets of rules, this is a direct conflict with the Barony of Darkwood. (12/1989)

Bran de Tintreak. Badge. On a compass star sable, a plate charged with a tower sable.

Unfortunately, this is four layers and therefore technically too complex for a device, let alone a badge. (01/1987)

Bran de Tintreak. Badge. On a compass star sable, a roundel voided of the field, containing a tower sable.

The submission was returned in January, 1987, for excessive complexity, i.e., for having four layers, counting the field on which this would be placed. This submission does not change the design at all, but modifies the blazon. Several commentors stated that this should be passed, if it were reblazoned to be X. Unfortunately, we register the emblazon, not the blazon. It is clear that what the submittor wishes is not what he, or any of the commentors, has blazoned.The roundel is not "on" the compass star, but is rather placed "overall", as is clear from the fact that the rays of the star float in mid-air, as it were, with their joins to one another covered by the roundel. Moreover, the roundel is not "voided of the field": as Crescent has noted that would resemble an annulet. This charge is a "roundel tinctured as the field": its tincture cannot be stated because this is a fieldless badge and there is some question in our minds whether a charge overall can or should be totally derived from an unspecified field. Traditionally, the tinctures of all charges on a fieldless badge are specified. Finally, this is not, as some commentors have indicated, tantamount to a compass star "eclipsed": the usual depiction of a sun, or any rayed entity, eclipsed has a roundel placed on that entity with the edges of the roundel not extending beyond the point where the rays join one another, i.e., the eclipsing, which is generally of the same category as the field on which the charge is placed, does not break tincture because the edges of the underlying charge lie between the roundel and the field. This is not the case here.The situation would be different if the submittor would adopt one of the suggestions made by the commentors for modifying the badge without changing its basic design. In particular, placing the tower within a true compass star pierced would reduce the layering to two levels without sacrificing the concept involved. (01/1988)

Bran Gwyn ap Caw ap Maelgwn. Device. Azure, chaussé, a raven close argent.

He had permission to conflict with Roane Fairggae of Lochlann ("Argent, on a pile throughout azure, a seal haurient argent."). However, as Seraph pointed out, both devices can be considered "on a pile" and therefore the two differ only by a single minor for type of tertiary charge which is less than the permitted difference allowed with permission to conflict under DR1c. Note that this also conflicts with Richard Corwin of Oldcastle ("Argent, on a pile throughout azure, a sun Or."). [Editorial Note: yes, Roane and Richard do conflict with one another --- even the College nods sometimes.]. (05/1988)

Bran Haroldsson. Name only.

The name conflicts with the already registered Society name of Regin Bran Haraldssonn. (05/1988)

Bran macDomnhail. Device. Azure, a chevron between two stags combattant and a thistle, slipped and leaved, Or.

Conflict with Roderic of Cenydd ("Azure, a chevron Or between a label and a stag's head erased Or.") and Quentin Wrenguard ap Rhys ("Azure, a chevron Or between two doves volant palewise argent and two ram's erased combattant Or."), as well as the mundane arms of Abborne ("Azure, a chevron Or."). (03/1989)

Bran map Lludd o Bannauc. Name and device. Argent, three triangles, voided and conjoined one and two, azure.

While Brachet has noted that both Bran and Lludd may have been used by humans in period and Bran the Blessed was not the son of Lludd, the relationships seemed just too strong. Bran is the grandson of Beli and Lludd is the son of Beli and apparently Bran's maternal uncle (the geneological material at the beginning of the tale of Branwen in the Mabinogion makes it clear that Bran's mother Penarddun was the daughter of Beli). Both are stated to be kings of the island and Bran is specifically stated to have been "raised to the throne of London", implying that he was directly or indirectly Lludd's heir. Note as well that the locative would have to mutate to " o Pannauc". The device is "thin line heraldry" and at least one member of the College was perturbed by the "three in one" significance of the conjoined triangles. (04/1988)

Bran Trefonin. Device. Gules, on a plate indented a raven rising to sinister, wings displayed, sable.

Conflict with Edwin Bersark ("Gules, a roundel so drawn as to represent a round shield battered in long and honorable service argent.") and Conroy der Rote ("Gules, on a sun argent a falcon's leg couped a la quise proper."). (08/1989)

Bran Trefonin. Badge. On a plate indented a stag's head couped at the breast proper.

Conflict with Conroy der Rote ("Gules, on a sun argent a falcon's leg couped a la quise proper."). (08/1989)

Brandaidh Edana of the Vineyards. Name and device. Per bend wavy argent and azure, a dragonfly bendwise azure and a dragonfly bendwise inverted Or, all within a bordure wavy counterchanged.

The exception for mundane names in the Rules for Submission applies to the actual mundane name, not to a supposed variant or to a translation. In this case, her mundane name, according to the forms, is Brandye and we would have used that to form a holding name if the submittor had not specifically forbidden any changes to the spelling of her name. Since no holding name could be formed, the submission as a whole had to be returned. (09/1987)

Brandon Dubhchad. Name only.

There were two issues involved in the submittor's refutation of the original return from the Middle: the existence of Brandon as a place name, not a given name, in period and the non-documentation of the form "Dubhchad". The former was discussed at some length in the College. While the Rules clearly agree with Crescent in that documentation is required for period use when a name is demonstrably a place name in period (which Brandon is, as early as 975!), the consensus of opinion in the College was that it would be reasonable to add Brandon to the handfull of out-of-period names (Fiona, Corwin, etc.) that are accepted in Society use since only an "a" and "o" separate it from the acceptable "Brendan" and the pronunciation of the two names in the dialects that predominate in modern America are nearly identical. However, the fact that "Dubhchad" has not been documented as a period name was not addressed at all in the submission and must be. Perhaps he would accept the similar "Donnchad" (which may be what is intended, to judge from the meaning assigned to "Dubhchad" in the paperwork). (07/1987)

Branstock, Shire of. Name and device. Gules, on a chevron Or, an oak tree eradicated proper pierced by a sword fesswise sable, overall a laurel wreath counterchanged.

By the submittor's own documentation, "Branstock" is the name of a specific mythological item (although it grew in the hall of King Volsungr, not in Odin's hall as the letter of intent stated). It was a great oak in the midst of Volsungr's hall which grew through the roof of the hall and shaded it, thus being a distinctive feature of that distinctive building. Odin pierced it with his sword Gram to the hilt and only Sigmund was able to pull it out. (That is how Sieglinde recognized Sigmund.) The derivation of the name is closely associated with this legend (it means "sword ­tree"). Clearly, this is a variant of the same northern folk myth which gave rise to the sword in the stone of Arthurian legend. If we would not be willing to register the Shire of Excalibur or the Shire of Valhalla, we cannot register this name. As has been previously noted, holding names cannot be given for groups so this device could not be registered, even if it were unexceptional. In this case, the depiction of the "Branstock" on the chevron is inappropriate, even if the name were permissible. (04/1990)

Branwen filia Marcus. Device. Azure, a raven volant argent maintaining in his beak an acorn, slipped and leaved, a demi-sun issuant from base Or.

This device is identical, save for the negligible addition of the acorn, to that returned in 1983 for conflict with Jean de la Grand Anse ("Azure, in pale a dolphin naiant argent and a sun Or."). Conflict as well with the Osric Stanislaus Ivyarovich of Pripyat and Zhjest ("Azure, on a sun issuant Or, a drakkar in sail to sinister proper, sailed gules."): there is a major point for adding the bird, but only a minor point for the removal of the tertiary charge. (01/1987)

Branwen filia Marcus. Name only.

Many commentors made note of the care with which the submittor had recourse to original source material in the preparation of her appeal and this is indeed commendable. Unfortunately, the distinction which she wishes to make between period Latin and medieval Latin in its use of the genitive with a patronymic indicator does not seem to be valid and is not in fact supported by her documentation. Working with parallel texts (i.e., with the English next to the Latin), the lady may not have realized that all the names which she cited are non-declinable names, generally borrowed from non-Romance languages (some Semitic, some Germanic, some Celtic). Even in classical and post-classical Latin, Semitic names which do not end in consonant vowel combinations which can be readily assimilated to Latin forms are regularly treated as non-declinable and therefore cannot appear in the genitive even in the "purest" sources. Thus even in sources which predate the Vulgate David and Ioseph are treated as indeclinable. When dealing with native German or Celtic names which, like the Semitic Ioseph or David, did not end in Latinate syllables, literate clerics of our period tended to do one of two things: either the noun remained in the original spelling (or as near to it as the Latin orthography allowed) in which case it remained indeclinable or a Latin suffix was appended (to form Iosephus and Davidus), but in the latter case the suffix was then declined to the appropriate case. By the latter medieval period the Latin case system had definitely fallen into disarray and, as was the case with French and German, had very nearly vanished from popular use (the simplified forms are the "dog Latin" to which you hear late period writers referring). However, as was the case with English, German and the Scandinavian languages, the possessive (i.e., genitive) was the last case to fall into disrepute and, in the case of Latin as with German, it never ceased to be used for this sort of construction. Note that all the examples were from non-Romance languages: there are none from the normally declinable vulgar languages, let alone from Latin itself and we cannot really ignore the fact that "Marcus" is Latin and at that a simple second declension Latin noun of the sort that was most familiar to even schoolboys in our period (and for some time after). Even in the passages provided by the submittor, this is the case. On the same page from Gildas as the cited indeclinable forms appear the declined forms "Annaniae filio" and "filius Ioiadae". Immediately before the genealogical passage from Nennius is a relationship reference to "mater Fausti sancti". All this having been said, however, after considerable searching through the Laurel library and Laurel's personal library, we may have found a way whereby the lady may preserve the essential sound of the name she desires while still following a documented period exemplar. According to Reaney, the Curia Regis Rolls for 1207 show one Rogerus filius Markes. In this case, the patronymic name is clearly an English genitive in "-es" (and incidentally demonstrates the sort of cross-cultural phrase formation that did occur although our current rules militate against its use in our Society). Perhaps this option could be suggested to the lady (we could not make this change to her registered name since she did not allow any changes to her appeal submission). (03/1988)

Breandan Sebastian. Device. Per pale sable and Or, a single-headed chess knight, sinister facing, within a wreath of pin oak foliage, all counterchanged.

Unfortunately, even when properly drawn, the wreath is too evocative of the laurel wreath required for groups. (08/1988)

Breichiol map Lludd o Fannauc. Device. Argent, three triangles conjoined azure.

White Stag has produced ample and elegant documentation for this device, producing parallel examples of voided and conjoined geometric figures fro period heraldry and thus disposed of the stylistic objections for which this submission was originally returned. Unfortunately, Monsho has adduced the logo of the Rengo Shiki Company which is identical save for the tincture of the triangles. In his response to commentary White Stag stated that, since this is a trademark, it "must be considered a badge" and therefore sufficient difference exists. However, DR1b specifically indicates that a major and a minor point of difference are required "from all other mundane and fictional arms, badges, trademarks, and flags." [Italics ours.] Moreover, as Crescent has noted, the special difference regulations for mon in the current rules specify that only a minor point of difference can be allowed for tincture between mon and a device or primary mon which are both colour on metal (DR8). Even were that not the case, however, the only difference here under the "normal" difference count is for tincture which will produce only a single major point of difference which is insufficient. (12/1988)

Brenainn O'Murchadha de Ros Comain. Badge for The Brothers Martial of the Cross Damaçon. Four swords conjoined in cross those in pale blades to center, those in fess hilts to center.

Since White Staff's article was cited as the source for the use of the swords as a single charge (a cross Damaçon), it should be noted that White Stag in his commentary indicated that the charge was not attested armory not in the standard heraldic works, being derived from Lehrer's Symbols, Signs and Signets. (White Stag did not, however, feel that this debarred them from use of the "charge".) The identity of the swords is not so subsumed in the "cross" here that we can avoid considering them as separate charges. Therefore, we must consider the badge for conflict against other pieces of armory which include swords rather than those with crosses. Since this is fieldless badge, no difference can be derived from the field and so this runs into technical problems with Yseult of Brocelainde ("Argent, four scimitar blades in cross azure.") and Marcus Gladius ("Tierced per pall vert, sable and gules, overall a gladius inverted proper."). (03/1989)

Brendan O'Carroll. Device. Vert, a hunting horn, within its loop a horse rampant, Or.

Monsho appears to be correct in calling this a conflict with the German Post Office insignia of "Vert, a posthorn Or." It would seem impossible to draw the horse large enough for it to be clearly visible and identifiable. (12/1987)

Brenna Lowri o Lanbedr. Device. Azure, on a pile invected Or between two estoiles and a crescent argent, a raven's head erased sable.

There was strong feeling in the College that this is not period style since there would be no space for the crescent beneath a pile properly drawn. It is also a tad complex, involving four types of charges and five tinctures. (11/1987)

Brenna Lowri o Lanbedr. Device. Barry dancetty fleury counterfleury Or and azure.

Unfortunately, both as a device and as a badge, this conflicts with the arms of Loveday, cited on the letter of intent ("Barry dancetty Or and azure."). Field only armoury must draw their difference from other field only items from more than one category of difference: here there is only one (modifying the line of division) and there is some doubt whether that one should carry a full major point of division, given the minimal visual difference that the fleurettes add to the already busy field. (09/1988)

Brenna o'r Glan-y-mor. Name only.

As Crescent notes, the name is in conflict with that of the registered household of Tzipporah bat Deborah (note that this is listed in the Armorial under her former name of Eleanor de Mont Saint Michel). Perhaps Vesper could be persuaded to intercede with her for permission to conflict? (05/1988)

Brenna the Disinherited. Device. Purpure, a crab tergiant and in chief a roundel argent.

The device conflicts visually with that of Allyn O'Dubhda ("Purpure, a scorpion argent."): in both cases the "insectoid" creature (from the medieval point of view) is the dominant element and the visual similarities between the crab and the scorpion create enough visual confusion that the two cannot be considered clear. Conflict as well with the Shire of Malagentia ("Purpure, a moon in her complement within a laurel wreath argent."): for purposes of difference a moon in her complement and a plate are functionally identical. (01/1987)

Brenna the Disinherited. Badge for House Disinherited. Gules, an cross nowed and fleury surmounted by an annulet argent.

Neither the household name nor the badge are really period in style. The terminations of the cross are not really fleury either although that is the nearest blazon from standard heraldry. (01/1987)

Brenna the Disinherited. Badge for House Disinherited. Gules, a cross gringoly surmounted by an annulet argent.

Although we have preserved the blazon used by Æstel, in reality the addition of the "annulet" of the same tincture as the underlying charge converts the cross into a "Celtic cross gringoly" (a distinctly Society sort of creation!). It would thus conflict with Merkelbach as cited on the letter of intent ("Gules, a cross gringoly argent."). (07/1988)

Breuse Hartswood. Device. Vert, ermined Or, a double-headed eagle issuant from a pair of antlers Or.

Considerable time was devoted at the Symposium to a discussion of the style of this device and the question of the identifiability of the antlers as they are used here. Although the bird was blazoned on the letter of intent as a phoenix, it does not have the flames which typify the phoenix. The lack of internal definition in the emblazon, which troubled Lymphad, is not really a problem in itself, since it is typical of much early armoury. However, it creates a further problem with the identifiability of the conjoint charge. The antlers are not really identifiable as such (several commentors took them for flames or a poorly drawn laurel wreath). This being so, this device does run into conflict problems with the arms of Jessica Llyrindi of Northmarch ("Gyronny sable and gules, a phoenix Or issuant from flames proper."). (06/1988)

Breuse Hartwood. Device. Per bend vert and sable, a bend argent between a cross crosslet flory and a phoenix Or.

Conflict with William of Monmouth ("Per bend vert and purpure, a bend argent between a demi-sun issuant from sinister chief and a compass star Or."). (04/1989)

Brian mac Chael ui Cennéidigh. Name only.

Unfortunately, the name seems to conflict with that of the Irish king Brian mac Cennéidigh, also known as Brian Boru. (03/1988)

Brian MacBrand. Badge. A bobcat rampant reguardant chequy sable and argent, pendant from the sinister rear paw an increscent sable, fimbriated argent.

It was our conclusion that fimbriation of the small and peripheral crescent was excessive, particularly for a badge. Note that this is uncomfortably close to Blackburn, cited on the letter of intent ("Gules, a lion rampant chequy argent and sable.", as cited in Papworth, p. 78). (05/1989)

Brian MacBrand. Badge. A bobcat rampant reguardant chequy sable and argent, pendant from its rear claw a crescent inverted argent.

We had to agree with Brachet that this is visually in conflict with the cited arms of Blackburn ("Gules, a lion rampant chequy argent and sable."): the dominant impression is the leonine body and claws and the striking tincturing of the beast. (12/1989)

Brian MacBrand. Device. Per chevron inverted sable and gules, in pale a mullet of eight points, elongated to base, gules, fimbriated argent, and a crescent inverted sable, fimbriated argent, all within a bordure compony argent and sable.

This was appealed to Laurel from a return on stylistic grounds by Pennon. It was the consensus of the College that the combination of the stylistic solecisms was truly excessive. When the issue of the use of compony bordures was discussed in 1987, the consensus seemed to be against its use in this sort of context, despite supporting mundane precedents, and this consensus does not seem to have changed. Additionally, although the "grandfather clause" might be adduced in the case of the fimbriated star from his lady's device, it is less clear whether it could be applied in the case of a crescent based on that of an early fighting instructor (Cariadoc of the Bow) and there was strong feeling that the two together were excessive fimbriation. Finally, as drawn, the "field" is not truly per chevron inverted, but is really a wide pile. As such, it is not only colour upon colour, but should not have a crescent between its point and the base of the shield. (07/1989)

Brian MacBrand. Device. Per chevron inverted enhanced sable and gules, in pale a compass star elongated to base gules, fimbriated, and a crescent inverted argent, all within a bordure compony argent and sable.

It was the consensus of the College that the combination of the stylistic solecisms was truly excessive. When the issue of the use of compony bordures was discussed in 1987, the consensus seemed to be against its use in this sort of context, despite supporting mundane precedents, and this consensus does not seem to have changed. Additionally, although the "grandfather clause" might be adduced in the case of the fimbriated star from his lady's device, it is less clear whether it could be applied in the case of a crescent based on that of an early fighting instructor (Caridoc of the Bow) and there was strong feeling that the two together were excessive fimbriation. Finally, as drawn, the "field" is not truly per chevron inverted, but is really a wide pile. As such, it is not only colour upon colour, but should not have a crescent between its point and the base of the shield. While this submission, submitted as an appeal over a return by Pennon, addressed the problem of the fimbriated crescent, it did not sufficiently address the problem of the bordure compony and sought to avoid the problem of depiction of the field with a charge beneath by reblazoning and slightly redrawing it. However, now it is more a "chief triangular" which still breaks tincture and does not resolve the problem of an argent and sable compony on the compony portion of the field. (12/1989)

Brian O'Briain. Name only.

After much discussion, we determined that the name conflicted with the previously registered name of Brian O'Riain under both sets of rules. Certainly, the two look and sound enough like each other to cause confusion, as required by the old rules. Some felt that the wording of the new rules gave more latitude here but after many repetitions of both names, we determined that the byname was not significantly changed in both sound and appearance: they differ in appearance by only the addition of the "b" and in sound by the plosive which is partially "absorbed" by the following "r". (11/1989)

Brian of Leichester. Device. Per pale gules and argent, on a roundel a tower, all within an orle counterchanged.

Conflict with Armilda Astyages of Lydia, as cited on the letter of intent ("Per pale gules and argent, a swan naiant within an orle counterchanged."). Brigantia counted a point and a half for the difference between the swan and the roundel plus an extra minor for the tertiary. However, DR7 is quite clear that the primary charges on both coats must be "themselves uncharged" for a major and minor point to be derived from the simple change of type of primary charge. (03/1988)

Briana Etain MacKorkhill. Badge for Clithan Hold. Argent, a garb vert within an annulet sable within an orle of crosses crosslet, bases to center, vert, all within a bordure sable.

The household name was insufficiently documented and none of the commentors could deduce its origins. The badge is just too complex for a badge (it would be slightly more acceptable as a device, although still "busy"). (09/1988)

Briana Etain MacKorkhill. Name and device. Quarterly embowed counterembowed argent and vert, in bend a maunch and a sprig of two strawberries gules, slipped and leaved vert.

There exists a serious disparity between the version of the name given in the letter of intent and that shown on her forms: the former shows Briana Etain MacKorkhill, the latter shows Briana MacKorkhill of Clithan Hold. We need a determination of the submittor's intent before the name can be registered. (For the benefit of others in the College, it would have been nice to have a specific citation for Briana from the Faerie Queen documentation included a biographical notice on Spenser to show that the volume was period, but the precise location of the reference to a human Briana was not given.) The maunch is a not heraldic representation and it is merely a matter of faith that the charge is intended to be a sleeve. Also, the arching of the lines of division is such that this appears definitely to be quartering, albeit seen through a funhouse mirror. (12/1987)

Briana Etain MacKorkhill. Device. Gyronny of six argent and vert, three bunches of two strawberries, two and one, gules, slipped vert, and three maunches, one and two, argent, all within a bordure counterchanged.

The difficulties experienced by the commentors in blazoning this properly reflect the lack of period style in this device. After much effort, noone could find any definite period exemplars of alternating charges on a gyronny in a "pinwheel" effect such as this. (09/1988)

Brianna of Silverwood. Name only.

As Wyndalyn Leanb na Doinneann, who is commenting in the College for the Outlands, has pointed out, the byname is in conflict with the registered name of her household. She has granted permission to the lady to bear a name which varies "Silverwood" so long as it is not identical, but the forms indicated that the submittor would not allow even minor changes to the name. With a blush, the Laurel staff must apologize to Wyndalyn for having missed the conflict in the cases of the previously registered names of Gideon of the Silverwood (August, 1987) and Raymond Silverwood (July, 1988). (11/1988)

Brianna of the Horses. Device. Per pale sable and argent, a horse's head cabossed counterchanged.

Conflict with Tara nic an Fhleisdeir ("Per pale sable and argent, a domestic cat's head cabossed, orbed vert, pupilled of the field."). (08/1987)

Brianna Vivina O'Choda. Device. Chevronelly Or and purpure, on a chief Or, two panthers statant reguardant addorsed and incensed sable.

AR2d indicated that "neutral tinctures may be used with any metal, color, or fur, except either of the component tinctures. While it is stated that the component tinctures may be used in simple cases, the underlying stricture is that a simple case only exists where the identity of the overlying charge is clearly identifiable. This is not the case with the Or chief placed on the field which is largely Or at the point where it intercepts with the chief. The appearance of the device, when coloured, is of "Or, two chevrons purpure and in chief two panthers sable." with two peculiar bendoid objects issuant from the sides of the shield above and parallel to the sides of the upper chevron. (05/1987)

Brid Ce ile De. Name only.

There are several problems with this name. Bríd is indeed documented by O Corrain and Maguire as an Irish form for Bridget (Gaelic Personal Names, p. 36). However, neither the documentation provided by the submittor nor a considerable amount of research in modern and Old Irish sources could support the form of the byname. The Old Irish form from which the modern English term "Culdee" is ultimately derived would have been "céle Dé". This term was applied to Irish anchorites and some other monastic followers in early Ireland and literally means "companion of God". This certainly is an epithet that applies to St. Brigid who, whether or not she was originally a Celtic goddess, from the early days of Irish Christianity to the present day was considered second only to Patrick in the extensive Irish hierarchy of saints. Just to make the situation worse, Brigid is often referred to as Brigid of Kildare and that place name is very similarly pronounced in Old Irish ("cille dara" or "church of the oak"). (10/1988)

Bridget O Fearghail. Badge for Household Phantasia. Sable, in bend sinister a compass star and a mouse rampant reguardant argent.

There was general agreement that this badge is not period in style (the blazon cannot really represent the design which features a reasonably sized mouse scrunched into dexter base and a very small star in sinister chief. Moreover, the juxtaposition of the mouse and the name Phantasia seemed "too much" (even if [Mickey] the mouse did not wear a magician's hat!). (11/1986)

Brig Kieran. Device. Per fess argent and azure, in chief two unicorns couchant respectant, horns crossed, azure, armed and crined Or, and in base a crescent argent.

Conflict with Margaret Penistone of Ravenglas ("Per fess argent and azure, in pale an oak tree eradicated vert and a crescent argent.") (10/1986)

Brighid O'Mainnin. Device. Per chevron vert and azure, a chevron enflamed Or between a dragon dormant to sinister, wings elevated and addorsed, argent and a sword proper between two ravens respectant argent.

There were just too many anomalies in this device for us to consider it period style. The chevron is neither a standard rayonny nor the Society-legal "ordinary enflamed" that has been seen in the case of bordures, etc. previously. The beast in chief is neither a true couchant or dormant, but rather more of a non-heraldic "stalkant, head to base". Moreover the three tiny charges of two types and two tinctures packed into the compartment below the chevron are very difficult to identify accurately. (08/1989)

Bright Hills, Shire of Device. Vert, an acorn between and conjoined to three oak leaves argent, all within a laurel wreath, in chief a chevron inverted Or.

Withdrawn at request of Triton Principal Herald. (11/1988)

Brigit ni Fergus Ua Liatháin. Name only.

The submittor indicated that she wished a Gaelic name and she has gone a long way towards producing a solidly Irish name. The given name is fine. However, the form of the primary patronymic is given as an anglicized nominative after the patronymic particle "ní", when what is required is the properly aspirated Irish genitive: "Fhearghuis". By the same token, since the given name in the patronymic is in the genitive, the particle modifying it must be as well ("uí"). Therefore, the name as a whole should be "Brigit ní Fhearghuis uí Liatháin". Unfortunately, as the submittor forbade changes in spelling and grammar, we were unable to make these minor changes to register the name. (11/1989)

Bronwyn Anchoret Selwyn. Device. Gules, an anchor argent entwined with a grape vine proper.

The grape vine has insufficient contrast with the field: the brown vine and green leaves are almost invisible, although the grapes themselves, carefully placed on the anchor, show up reasonably well. If you consider the vine a major design element, the device must be returned for breaching the Rule of Tincture. If you consider it a minor artistic detail, then it cannot contribute the full point of difference needed to carry it clear of John of the Rudder ("Gules, an anchor Or.") or the mundane arms of Zachert ("Gules, an anchor argent, the ring Or."). (01/1987)

Bronwyn Anchoret Selwyn. Device. Gules, an anchor argent, environed of a grape vine vert, fructed purpure, between two escallops, all within a bordure Or.

Viewing the emblazon, it was the sense of the meeting that the identifiability of the vine, which is an essential portion of the design, was seriously diminished by amount of green which lies on the field. While the two grape bunches do lie on the anchor in the emblazon, the identifying leaf portions of the vine lie almost entirely on the gules field. Additionally, the vine adds an extra level of complexity of tincture and design that is, as Green Anchor put it, "awfully busy". (04/1989)

Bronwyn Dawntreader. Device. Barry wavy argent and azure, a unicornate seahorse erect and sinister facing sable.

Conflict with Judith Darkwater ("Barry wavy argent and sable, a seahorse naiant to sinister azure."). There is a major point for the position of the horse but under the current rules the permutation of tinctures here only yields a minor point (see Rules XIII.B.7). (09/1986)

Bryan Mikhail Woodroffe. Badge for House Shadowstaff. On a roundel enflamed gules, a compass star within the horns of a decrescent argent.

As no difference can be derived for field, this technically conflicts with Boncoeur ("Ermine, on a sun gules, a heart Or.") and, even more obviously, with the badge of Drstha Maida of the Lowara ("Argent, upon a sun gules a dexter hand appaume couped argent."). In the latter case, the only real visual change is in the tertiaries. (05/1988)

Brynach MacCallum. Badge. Azure, a bear's head erased argent, wearing a three-horned fool's cap gules, doubled vert, belled Or.

In this badge the hat is not merely "artistic detail", but rather a major portion of the design. As a result, gules and vert cap must be considered colour on colour. We would suggest his making the cap entirely "lozengy gules and Or", as the motley was in his device. (04/1988)

Brynja of Burrhyll. Device. Azure, three geese naiant in pall, heads conjoined at the center, within a bordure potenty argent.

It was the consensus of those who saw either the miniature emblazon or the actual emblazon sheet that the geese were functionally unidentifiable largely because of their unusual posture. Note that the bordure on the emblazon sheet was much too narrow. (11/1987)

Cadwallader the Crazed. Badge. Quarterly azure and argent, and eagle's head couped and sinister facing sable.

While the technical point count carries this clear of David Davidson of Renwick ("Quarterly azure and argent, a raven's head, erased and sinister facing, sable and in chief two mullets of eight points counterchanged."), a comparison of the two emblazon sheets show they are visually far too close together, especially since the two heads are in identical postures and much of the line of the neck lies on the low contrast portion of the field. (10/1989)

Caellyn y'Vearn Fitzhugh. Augmentation. A linked chain bordurewise Or.

At the time of the August meeting this submission was pended, despite the strong conviction of most of the College that it infringed on the proper usage of the reserved annulet of chain of the chivalry. Since it involved a "constitutional issue", i.e., in the event of conflict between the will of the Crown and the decision of the College, which takes priority. As the Board of Directors at its January meeting has now decided that the College may not be compelled to register that which is in violation of its existing rules, this submission is now formally returned. (02/1988)

Caer Daibhidh, College of. Name and device. Argent, on a pale azure, a plate indented within a laurel wreath overall counterchanged.

The device appears acceptable, but there are two problems with the name. The lesser is the mix of two languages with the Welsh noun and Gaelic modifier. If they desired the name to be all Welsh, it should be "Caer Ddafydd", as suggested by Brachet. If they wish it to be a parallel Gaelic form, it should be "Cathair Dhaibidh", since "cathair" (pronounced "ca-hir") is the Gaelic form cognate with "caer" (both are derived from the Latin "castrum"). Note that the forms adduced by Habicht, while they do appear in Scottish placenames, are anglicised forms and appear to be from either "cathair" or from "carn" (referring to a cairn or pile of stones). These difficulties could be resolved easily by revision of the name, but the name also conflicts with the registered name of College of St. David since in both the Welsh and the Scots, although the spelling is quite different, the pronunciation is essentially the same: "David". Since the names are not identical, permission to conflict might be possible. (11/1988)

Caerthe, Barony of. Badge for the Order of the Black Lion. Or, a lion sejant erect sable, its dexter forepaw gules.

The name of the order conflicts with the title of the Black Lion Principal Herald of An Tir. The badge conflicts with Gilles of Lennox ("Or, a domestic cat sejant, paw extended, sable."). It is also visually too close to Barker ("Or, a lion rampant sable.", cited in Papworth, p. 84). (08/1989)

Caesaria Almy. Device. Per pale wavy argent and Or, two doves rising addorsed, wings elevated and addorsed, azure, in base a sprig of ivy vert.

One of the requirements for the use of a complex line of division with two tinctures drawn from the same class is that they have "sufficient contrast". Although the rules do make allusion to fields which are all "light", in most cases fields entirely divided of Or and argent do not support most complex lines of division. In this particular case where the wings of the birds, lying along the line of division, distract the eye from its nature, it is difficult to determine which line of division has been used. (07/1987)

Caesius Cottidiensis. Change of name from Arnulf of Asgeirgaard.

Caesius, which is a cognimen or nickname, would have been preceded by a praenomen or given name and a gentile or clan name in the classical period. However, such two element names as this were relatively common in the late medieval and Renaissance period amongst those who would emulate the classical learning, whilst lacking it. Specifically, Caesius came to be regarded as equivalent to a given name (like Vergil and Ovid, etc.) due in part to the Caesius Bassus to whom Persius dedicated one of his works. On the other hand the byname "Cottidiensis", just is not a classical or medieval adjective of origin. It is true that the suffix "-ensis" is associated with geographical origin, but it is attached to a common noun or place name. It is not attached to an adverb, as it is here ("Cottidie" means "daily"). The concept of Daily City would have no meaning in Latin (or indeed, insofar as I can tell, in any of the period Western European languages). If he wants to cant on Daly City, he might do better to play on the meaning of the Irish name "Daly" which derives from a place of assembly. (08/1987)

Caid, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Acorn. Azure, an acorn within a bordure embattled argent.

After a comparison of the emblazons, we had to agree with the Brachet meeting that this was just too close visually to the badge of the Barony of Dragonship Haven ("Azure, a hawk's bell within a bordure embattled argent.") to pass without permission. (01/1990)

Caid, Kingdom of. Title for Chief Herald.

Withdrawn at the request of the Crescent Principal Herald. (02/1990)

Cairbre Poc Airgead. Device. Per pale sable and argent, two stags combattant counterchanged.

As Crescent has noted, Society precedent indicates that complete difference of charge cannot exist between two quadrupeds. Therefore, there is a conflict with Whipslade, as cited in the letter of intent ("Per pale sable and argent, two lions combattant counterchanged.") (08/1987)

Cairistiona nic Cailean. Device. Argent, a triple-headed thistle proper and a chief azure.

This would seem to be a clear visual conflict with the arms of Spear cited in the letter of intent: "Argent, a thistle with three heads stalked and leaved vert, flowered gules." so unusual is the tricapitate thistle that the arrangement overrides any minor difference added by changing the tincture of part of the thistle to purpure. Note also that this change of tincture is severely weakened because of the small portion of the plant affected and the indifference with which heads gules and heads purpure are interchanged in Scots heraldry (in this context many period Scotsmen seem not to have perceived any difference between the two tinctures.). (05/1987)

Cait Aine O'Domnaill. Name only.

Unfortunately, the diminutive form cannot be registered and, as noted by several commentors, the name has some problems with the registered name of Caitlin MacDonnell. Note that the appropriate spelling of the surname should be "O'Domhnaill" as for the other names on this letter. (08/1989)

Caith of Heliodor. Name only.

Caith is stated to be the original form of the modern given name Keith (which is his mundane name). All testimony indicates that this is a modern usage from a Gaelic geographic surname (see, for instance, Withycombe, p. 187). Although there is some evidence for a modern usage of Heliodor as a name for a South African beryl, in period this was a Greek given name: Heliodorus. The structure "of" + unmodified common noun does not seem to be period in English. He could be Keith Heliodorus or Keith of House Heliodor or some similar structure. As we were uncertain of his preference and he had specifically stated on his forms that "of Bryn Gwlad" was acceptable, we have used this to form a holding name pending information from him on his preference in the matter of bynames. (02/1987)

Caitlan Cambeul. Name only.

Unfortunately, the name conflicts with the previously registered name of Katharine Campbell. (11/1988)

Caitlin Angharad FitzHenry. Device. Per chevron sable and gules, a chevron argent between two plates, each charged with a rose gules, barbed and seeded proper, and a dragon sejant Or.

The blazon states that the beast in base is sejant, but the emblazon depicts something between statant and couchant. Additionally, the charges in chief actually appear to be much closer to "roses proper, fimbriated argent" and are uncomfortably close to the "Tudor rose", particularly when taken with the name FitzHenry, as Brachet has noted. (Even more so, when taken with the dragon, for the Tudors were a Welsh dynasty and the dragon was one of their badges as for the Tudors were a Welsh dynasty and the dragon was one of their badges as well.) Finally, if you consider the charges in chief to be unified charges, as they appear, rather than a secondary charged with a tertiary, as they are blazoned, there are technical conflicts with Ram the Reticent ("Per chevron sable and gules, a chevron between two ram's heads respectant and a ram's head cabossed argent.") and Wilhlem of Greyland ("Per chevron sable and gules, a chevron between in chief two lions rampant addorsed and in base an eagle displayed argent."). (04/1987)

Caitlin Anne Caimbeul. Name only.

Unfortunately, the name conflicts with that of Katharine Campbell, registered in March, 1988. (10/1988)

Caitlin Diolun of Armagh. Badge for House Diolun. Vert, an armadillo statant Or.

After considering the comments of those who saw in this a conflict with the badge of Xena Baxter Wynthrope ("Vert, a hedgehog statant Or."), we have come to the reluctant conclusion that the armadillo is not a full major point of difference from the hedgehog as it is usually depicted in armoury. The usual distinguishing feature of the hedgehog is its spines and this beast is smooth, but otherwise their profiles are extremely close. (05/1989)

Caitlin Greyhawkes. Device. Per bend sable and azure, a bend argent between three crosses bottonny in bend and three manatees naiant fesswise in bend Or.

Conflict with Kubista der Bohnestiel ("Per bend sable and azure, a bendlet argent, in sinister chief in pale a flame proper Or and a plate."). (11/1988)

Caitlin Innes. Device. Argent, ermined, a rose azure, barbed vert, within a bordure invected azure.

Unfortunately, Crescent is correct when he states that this lovely device technically conflicts with the badge of Angharad of the Blue Rose ("A rose within a triangle azure."). (10/1988)

Caitlin Mairi nic Fhioghuin. Device. Argent, vetu vert, overall a thistle, slipped and leaved, counterchanged, flowered purpure.

There was solid feeling in the College that placing a charge in such a way that it overlapped the "drapery" of the vetu was distinctly non-period style. Additionally, if the size of the thistle is reduced to a size allowing it to rest on the argent "lozenge", conflicts intervene (e.g., Webster "Argent, a thistle vert, flowered gules.", as cited in Papworth, p. 895). (07/1989)

Caitlin O hArrachtain. Name only.

Direct conflict with Caitlin ni hArrachtain whose device was passed in May, 1983. (09/1987)

Caitrin O'Sullivan of Killarney Lake. Device. Argent, on a lozenge azure, a greatsword palewise argent, all within a bordure engrailed azure.

Conflict with Kareina Talvi Tytar ("Azure vetu, a long-haired domestic cat dormant argent".): the difference between a lozenge and a lozenge throughout (which is what the vetu essentially is) is not sufficient to carry this clear. (01/1989)

Caitriona MacDhonnachaidh. Device. Per pale wavy Or and sable, a quill pen palewise above an ink pot sable and a sword palewise inverted Or.

As noted by several commentors, this is technically three disparate charges on the field and so must be considered "slot machine heraldry". (02/1990)

Calgaich MacPhee. Per pale vert and argent, a goose migrant palewise counterchanged.

Unfortunately, although he had permission to conflict with the arms of Stefan den Strassenrauber, the conflict for which his device was returned in July, 1986, there was another pre­existing conflict, unfortunately not discovered at that time: John of Ean Airgead ("Vert, a chimney swift migrant palewise argent."). There is a major point for counterchanging along the line of division, but the cumulative between the birds are worth a minor point at best (in this position the primary difference is in the tail configuration). (12/1986)

Calidan Blackwolf. Name only.

The name was stated on the letter of intent to be "similar to" the name Caliban used in Shakespeare's Tempest. However, not only is this not a valid alternate, but there is some evidence that the name "Caliban" may be too famous and unique for use in the Society. In any case, as White Stag has noted, Caliban was only half-human. Additionally, the composed given name created problems for a number of commentors since it is so close to the name of the planet "Caladan" from Herbert's Dune Cycle. (11/1988)

Callum MacLeod. Name and device. Argent, masoned sable, a ford proper and overall a bull's head cabossed sable.

Unfortunately, since the given name is a form of Malcolm, the name conflicts with that of Malcolm MacLeod, first independent chief of the MacLeods of Raasay (Moncreiffe, Highland Clans, p. 173). While we cannot agree that the use of the bull's head cabossed (the badge of the MacLeods) is per se an infringement when used as the primary charge with the name MacLeod, the use of the charge overall here, overlying a base does appear to be non-period style, the more so since the ford is not drawn properly but rather as a "base wavy azure charged with four barrulets wavy argent". (11/1987)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Calon Lily. Or, a fleur-de-lis purpure.

This was apparently returned for a mismatch between blazon and emblazon in October, 1982, and never resubmitted. This is a tragic omission for, as Silver Trumpet noted, it now conflicts with the badge of Parlan MacFallon ("A wolf's head jessant-de-lys purpure."). With the best will in the world we were not able to erase the strong visual similarity and pull a full major point of difference from the addition of the wolf's head since the fleur-de-lis is distinctly a major component, if not the major component of Parlan's badge. (05/1989)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Calon Lily. Or, a fleur­de­lys purpure.

This submission, blazoned identically but emblazoned somewhat differently, was returned in May, 1989, for conflict with the badge of Parlan MacFallon ("A wolf's head jessant­de­lys purpure."). This return has now been appealed with the statement that the fieldless allowance of the new rules should carry this clear under the new rules. Whether that would be the case is somewhat irrelevant for, as a number of commentors have noted, there are several conflicts from Papworth under the new rules (e.g., Holt: "Or, a fleur­de­lys purpure."). The issue now hinges on whether the submittors can legitimately claim that theirs is a hardship case, that through no fault of their own, i.e., through heraldic misfeasance or nonfeasance, the submission was not processed correctly and resubmitted in a timely manner. Since previous returns involving this order have been involved so many heated charges of prejudice, it is perhaps useful to cite the relevant portion of the appeal in full to avoid misunderstanding of this return: This badge was originally submitted and returnedOctober 1982 and never resubmitted as acknowledged bythe Laurel Queen when she returned this badge in the LOAR of May 1989. After discussion with members ofthe College of Arms at the Caidian Symposium, we felt that we should appeal Laurel's action as she herself seems to indicate an apparent Heraldic malfeasance. In addition, members of the Calontir College were informedby the Laurel who made the original decision, Master Wilhelm, that had it been submitted he would have approved the badge. This seems to support the idea ofHeraldic malfeasance. I have no idea why it was never resubmitted and apparently neither do the previous Gold Falcons. Before analyzing the appeal for hardship, it is perhaps advisable to quote the passage from the May, 1989, letter of acceptances and returns quoted above: This was apparently returned for a mismatch between blazon and emblazon in October, 1982, and never resubmitted. This is a tragic omission for, as SilverTrumpet noted, it now conflicts with the badge of Parlan MacFallon. . . Note that Laurel never implied heraldic malfeasance in her comments. The tragic omission referred to the fact that a piece of armoury which conflicted had been registered in the meantime. Thus, the fact that Master Wilhelm would have registered the armoury if it had been promptly resubmitted is irrelevant: hardship pleas can insulate a submission against changes in the rules, but generally do not allow registration of an item when a conflict has been created by passage of new armoury in the interval between the original return and resubmission. As Silver Trumpet, Laurel Designate and others have noted, no real evidence for heraldic malfeasance has been presented. While it is heroic of the former Gold Falcons in question to assume blame for the failure in order to register the submission, it is not clear that any herald ever failed to perform as the Principality/Kingdom desired. When the submission first came before the College, Laurel searched the Laurel files for any correspondence with regard to this submission. None was found. No complaint that a submission was forwarded from the Principality in the days when Calontir was yet part of the Middle and lost by the then Dragon Herald (who now lives in Calontir!). No hint that the Principality Herald (now Badger) spaced a resubmission when it had been presented to him by the coronet of Calontir. No recollection in commentary from either Badger or Green Anchor (whose tenures as Gold Falcon straddled the end of Principality and beginning of Kingdom status) that they had been directed to resubmit the badge but had failed to do so. No hint in The Mews that the issue had ever been considered or raised by any member of the Calontir populace in the period between 1982 and 1989. All this at a period when the level of activity from current and former members of the Calontir heraldic bureaucracy was high. (For example, the former precedence herald of Calontir, now Lanner, served for more than three years as Morsulus Herald in charge of maintaining the Armorial and Ordinary and lists of Society Orders.) (The old rules specifically stated that any hardship appeal had to be made within three years of the original submission "after which time no special consideration will be given".) As Silver Trumpet has quite rightly noted, if an individual submittor had waited seven years to resubmit and came to the College with a submission that would have passed seven years before but now conflicted, we would sympathize with them, but reiterate the principal of priority. This is the case here. No clear evidence has been presented of active malfeasance or nonfeasance on the part of the heralds which frustrated the will of the Principality. Clear and unambiguous conflicts now exist. The badge must be returned. (05/1990)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Cross of Calontir. Gules, a cross of Calatrava within a bordure Or.

Crescent has provided compelling evidence from illustrations of the regalia of the Order of the Knights of Calatrava that what the Society calls a Cross of Calatrava is merely an artistic variant of the cross flory. This being so, this badge is in conflict with the mundane arms of Delamore ("Gules, a cross flory Or."). (05/1989)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Purple Crusilly. Purpure, semy of crosses of Calatrava Or.

Although the name is clearly designed to play against the "Purple Fretty" of the Middle Kingdom, which is also given to groups, it has the same technical problem: as Star puts it, "a noun, . . . we need a noun". As the Complete Difference of Charge rule cannot apply between variants of crosses, this conflicts with the mundane arms of Percivall ("Purpure, crusilly Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 675) under the current rules which allow only a minor point of difference for this sort of change when applied to a semy. (05/1989)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Silver Hammer. Sable, a hammer argent.

Conflict with both the arms of Tubal­Cain as cited in Fabulous Heraldry ("Sable, a hammer argent, crowned Or.") to which it is functionally identical and Martell ("Argent, three hammers argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 901). While the latter would have cleared under the old rules, the former would be a conflict under both rules as the crown could produce no more than a minor point of difference (it is analogous to a maintained object or the gorging on an animal). Note that Brachet is correct under the old rules in citing a conflict with the Hammer Pursuivant registered to Meridies: unfortunately, this does not appear to have been cited in commentary at the time the name of the Order was registered in May, 1989. (05/1990)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Badge. Purpure, a falcon striking Or.

Unfortunately, this lovely badge technically conflicts with the device of John Aquila of Eaglesdown ("Purpure, an eagle close to sinister Or."): the only real difference is one of posture. (12/1987)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Badge. Purpure, semy of crosses of Calatrava, a bordure Or.

We were reluctantly persuaded that this is in conflict with Percivall ("Purpure, crusilly Or."), cited on the letter of intent. There is clearly a difference for addition of the bordure. Whether another is to be derived from the difference between the Cross of Calatrava and a cross crosslet in this context is the key issue. After drawing up the device of Percivall in the most "plain vanilla" version of the cross crosslet and comparing the emblazons, we were persuaded they were not. While significant changes to the type of charge involved in a semy can produce difference under Part X of the rules, this must be taken in the context of the underlying assumption that the charges will be immediately identifiable and distinguishable from one another. (This is implicit in the test of charges' shapes in normal depiction being significantly different: "significant" means "having significance".) For instance, mulletty is immediately distinguishable from semy­de­lys or from semy of annulets. In this case, the clause of Part VIII which applies to reduction of identifiability comes into play: "Identifiable elements may be rendered unidentifiable by significant reduction in size, marginal contrast, excessive counterchanging, voiding, or fimbriation, or by being obscured by other elements of the design." In this case, the reduction in size reduces the identifiability of the two charges to the point where they both become primarily identified "crosses with cross bars of some sort at the ends of the arms". (05/1990)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Name for Order of the Cross of Calontir.

When the badge for this order was returned in May, 1989, the sentence dealing with the name was inadvertently omitted. In considering this order name, there was considerable debate among Laurel staff whether the presence of the separable "of Calontir" should be considered a true "change of adjective" for the purposes of clearing this from such famous modern orders as Finnland's "Order of the Cross of Liberty", Britain's "George Cross", etc. Ultimately, we decided that, as we would not consider the "Order of the Garter of Great Britain" to be clear of the "Order of the Garter of Calontir", we could not consider this such a change. The suggestion was, however, made that the use of an adjective like "Calon", which has passed into general Society usage would emend the difficulty, while keeping the desired flavor ("Order of the Calon Cross"). (08/1989)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Name for the Order of the Golden Swan of Calontir.

The name of this order, without the Kingdom designation, had previously been returned for conflict with the mundane Order of the Swan. The resubmission/appeal indicated that the name should be considered a "hardship case" since the name was originally used in 1980 (although not submitted) and our knowledge of the mundane had increased since then, that the return does not accord with period practise since there could be more than one Order of the (??) Swan and that the addition of the Kingdom designation rendered the name different from the mundane designation. The "hardship case" argument is really not applicable here. The intent of that lenience was to allow for heraldic misfeasance or non-feasance and the rules specifically state that it applies only where "a submission may unreasonably be delayed in processing, through no fault of the submitter". In this case, the primary reason for non-submission seems to have been not heraldic error but internal disagreement on the appropriate name for the Order (Gold Falcon himself notes that the Order "has had a number of names over the years".) The point that the Order of the Black Swan (of Cynagua) was registered despite the existence of the Companie du Cigne Noir, founded by a Count of Savoy, and that the prior existence of that group did not inhibit the Margrave of Brandenburg from founding the Order of the Swan a century later is well-taken. However, the Cynaguan registration was clearly made in ignorance and we have long since held that registrations made in error, while protected, do not create a precedent. The issue of whether the existence of "parallel conflicts" in the mundane world should stand as precedent for permitting apparent conflicts with regard to Society heraldry is a thornier one. In the mundane world of the Middle Ages, heraldic jurisdiction was frequently narrow, as has often been noted before, and it was possible for the same arms to be borne by assumption or grant by a knight in Provence and one in Scotland with little disturbance on most occasions to either. (Although there are instances recorded of "challenge matches" in the course of great international gatherings or wars to dispute the possession of such arms "for chivalry".) The Savoyard group, as Gold Falcon himself notes, had a "limited existence" and almost certainly was totally unknown to the Margrave at the time he selected the insignia (and hence by derivation the name) of his Order a century later. The Society, on the other hand, transcends national boundaries and chronological limitations (within its period): as members may have personas which range from sixth-century Wales to sixteenth-century Italy so too their knowledge of armoury and honours will transcend the narrower geographical and chronological limitations of knowledge which may have existed in the mediaeval era. The final point was the thorniest in some respects: i.e, whether the addition of a geographical designation should legitimize a name which would otherwise conflict. On at least one occasion in the past it had been ruled that this would be the case and there was considerable feeling in the College that the present submission should be granted lenience based on that precedent. The problem with this is that everyone concerned knows that in popular use (and frequently in formal usage as well) the geographic designator is not used unless it forms an irremovable part of the name (e.g., Order of Meridian Majesty). As we properly consider conflict not with the formal designation of "The Most Noble Order of the Garter", but with the popular use form "Order of the Garter", we must consider how the name will be used in determining whether an addition will create any difference. In this case, sadly, we are convinced that the geographical designator will be, to all intents and purposes, invisible, and should not be considered in determining difference. The populace call it "the Golden Swan", the heralds call it "the Golden Swan" and, except perhaps as a footnote in Orders of Precedence, that is what it will remain. As the Order of the Swan appears as a period knightly order in a number of standard heraldic and historic works (of the first eight dictionaries or general references tried by the Laurel staff, it appeared in six), this is not acceptable. (06/1988)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Name for the Order of the Golden Swan.

Under our current rules, there is no conflict with the Order of the Black Swan (Principality of Cynagua) since the adjective is changed, not added. However, it is unfortunately in conflict with the Knights of the Swan (Flanders) since all that differs is the addition of the adjective (NR24a). (10/1987)

Camber of Ambrii. Name only.

Several problems with this name presented themselves. Despite the twitches of a great number of members of the College at a name which appeared to be "Camber of Amber", the name does not appear to be a direct conflict with any character in either the Deryni or Amber worlds. On the other hand, as Kraken pointed out, the only period evidence for the use of the name appears to be the eponymous ruler of Wales ("Cambria") cited by Pennon. All the linguistic evidence points to the name being a backformation from the placename, which itself is a Latinized form from "Cymru", the Welsh name for their own land. Apart from this probably fictional character, the primary exemplar for the name is the Deryni saint of Katharine Kurtz' fiction. (The "Camber Eben" whose name was registered some years ago in the Society, when he was about two years old, had the mundane given name "Camber", presumably Deryni derived.) By the submittor's own documentation, the form in Geoffrey of Monmouth is "monte Ambrii", the "Ambrii" being a genitive from a supposed form of "Ambrius", which would not follow the English preposition "of". Again it is interesting to note that this locale appear to come into existence first in Geoffrey of Monmouth and to be a confusion with Amesbury for Geoffrey indicates that there is Cloister of Ambrius at Mons Ambrii where a monument to the warriors fallen at Salisbury was erected (this being done by Merlin's moving the Giant's Ring to England, a late explanation for Stonehenge), that this was the burial place of both Aurelius Ambrosius and Uther Pendragon, and also that this was the site of the treacherous murder of the British by the men of Hengist. (This last story also appears in Nennius, but without any locale specified.) This collocation of unique names and locales is just too much. (11/1988)

Canus Michaelius of Amnderron. Name only.

The proper Latin nominative form of Michael is "Michael". Like a majority of the Hebrew masculine names borrowed into Latin, it is a third declension noun which forms a genitive in "-is" so the form "Michaelius" is not at all correct. The adjective "canus" should follow the given name. The submittor gave it as meaning simply "grey", but the meaning is not that simple since it describes the colour of white hoar-frost and is frequently applied to the grey-white hair of the aged. Thus the most common meaning for the adjective, when applied directly to an individual, as in this case, is the transferred meaning of "old, aged" (i.e., having a hoary head of hair). Finally, we were not able to find any support for the statement that Amnderron was a hill fort in the Scottish Highlands and, if this was intended to be a manufactured Gaelic name, it fails for it does not follow the standard patterns for Gaelic place name formation. (12/1987)

Caoimhghin MacAodhagáin. Name only.

Unfortunately, this name conflicts with the already registered name of Caoimhin McKee the patronymic in the latter name is the anglicised form of the Gaelic patronymic "Mac Aoidh". ("Aodhagáin" is the diminutive form of that genitive.) (08/1989)

Caomhgin Liccere. Device. Azure, a pile wavy Or, between two columbines argent.

Conflict with the Barony of Namron's Order of the Heart of the Sable Storm ("A pile wavy Or."). As this is a fieldless badge, there is only the major point for the addition of the columbines. (09/1986)

Carados ap Caradoc of Pembroke. Device. Paly sans nombre and per saltire sable and argent, a cross formy fitchy gules.

Conflict with the mundane arms of M'Clean ("Ermine, a cross paty fitchy gules.", cited in Papworth, p. 611), Scudamore ('Or, a cross paty fitchy gules.", cited in Papworth, p. 615) and the badge of the Barony of the Angels ("A cross crescenty fleury fitchy gules."). In the latter case, since no difference is derivable from the field, there is only amajor point for the change in type of cross. (05/1989)

Cariadoc of the Bow. Badge. Azure, a candle argent, enflamed, within a mascle Or.

Conflict with Rurik the Axe-Finder ("Azure, a candle palewise argent, enflamed at both ends Or.", as reblazoned elsewhere on this letter). There is also a visual conflict with Jervaise de Guienne ("Azure, on a lozenge throughout Or a mascle azure."). (05/1988)

Carmella Belfiore di Firenze. Name only.

This was accidentally dropped from the printed copy of the January letter of acceptance and return through a buffering problem. The given name "Carmela", like several other names derived from the Virgin, is geographical in origin. While it is a common name in the Spanish-speaking world today, so are "Lourdes", "Loretta" and a number of out-of-period names derived from place names associated with the Virgin. While Mount Carmel is indeed a location in the Holy Land and the Carmelite nuns did exist in period, the use of the name appears to date to the modern period (to the late nineteenth century according to Dunkling and Gosling, New American Dictionary of First Names, p. 62). (02/1989)

Carole de Vielier d'Amberview. Name only.

Although the lady gave permission for changes to her name, in this case changes would have been made to all three name elements and this seemed excessive to us, particularly as there was no armoury involved. The argument from plausibility for "Carole" as a period name was not strong enough to permit passage of the name in the light of reasonably strong evidence that the feminine forms developed after the end of our period (we could find no Latin or German feminines derived from Karolus or Karl, for example). In that situation, her mundane name of Carolyn would have been substituted. Although a couple of alternatives from Reaney were listed in the letter of intent, since the lady is a musician, we suspected that she would prefer another possibility "le Vieler" (from the Old French word for a violist or fiddle player), which may be what she was striving for in the first place. Finally, although there are some examples of the use of "de" with period English placenames, we felt very uncomfortable with using the even more closely associated elided form with the fantasy-style name Amberview. The successive changes would have produced Carolyn le Vieler of Amberview. (07/1987)

Caroline Forbes of Oxfordshire. Badge. Azure, on an open book, a boar's head couped gules.

Conflict with Yale University ("Azure, an open book argent charged with Hebrew letters sable."). So famous are the arms of Yale (thousands of people who have never seen New Haven wear Yale tee shirts!) that this must be considered a clear conflict. (05/1987)

Caroline Forbes of Oxfordshire. Device. Per bend sinister wavy azure and argent, an open book argent and a boar's head couped sable

Conflict with Alycia of Hound's Hall ("Per bend sinister embowed counterembowed azure and argent, a domestic cat's head cabossed argent and a talbot's head erased sable."). The modification of the lines of division here is worth no more than a minor point of difference and, given the variations in depiction of "wavy" in the Society, a weak one at that. (05/1987)

Carolingia, Barony of. Badge for Carolingian Rapier Company. Azure, a pall of three rapiers in pall, their tips crossed, Or.

Conflict with Pawlett ("Azure, three swords conjoined in point argent, hilted Or."). The modification of the mode of conjunction is a distinction, not a difference, and the visual resemblance is very strong. (08/1987)

Carolus von Eulenhorst. Name for House Pheon.

Since the designator is "transparent", this conflicts with the Order of the Pheon registered to the Kingdom of the East. (03/1990)

Carolyne von Schonberg. Device. Azure, on a pile inverted argent, three feathers bendwise sinister in pale azure and in chief a scimitar argent.

As noted by several commentors, what is drawn on her emblazon is neither a proper pile inverted nor a field per chevron nor a true point pointed. If it were drawn properly as a pile inverted, there would not be space for the scimitar in chief. If properly drawn as a point pointed, there would be inadequate space for three quills in pale. Even with a field per chevron the quills would be cramped for space except in a more usual one and two orientation (and even that would be tight!). (02/1987)

Carrefour, Shire of. Device. Argent, a saltire between in fess two helms respectant sable and in base a laurel wreath vert.

Conflict with Sylvanus Andere ("Argent, a saltire between two oak trees eradicated in pale sable."). (01/1987)

Caryn O'Hirwen. Name and device. Per pall azure, vert and sable, an abacus argent.

As Crescent noted, the form of the given name is a period spelling for "carrion" and so may not be used without evidence for this spelling in period. We could not substitute her mundane given name of "Karen" because she forbade any grammatical or spelling changes to the name. Therefore the submission as a whole had to be returned. (Parenthetical note to all the commentors who noted the "binary" nature of the abacus: it probably was intentional since her forms indicate that she selected the charge because she is a mathematician.) (12/1988)

Cassandra Cernakova. Badge. Purpure, a crescent argent.

Conflict with Vivienne of the Moon, cited on the letter of intent ("Purpure, in pale a sprig of three lotus blossoms and a crescent argent.", as reblazoned above). (03/1988)

Cassandra de la Tour. Device. Gules, a tower argent and in chief three fleurs-de-lys Or.

Conflict with Prunier ("Gules, a tower towered with a single tower argent."), Doncaster ("Gules, a tower triple-towered argent."), etc. (09/1988)

Cassandra Louise Marchand. Device. Argent, a swan volant, wings displayed, sable within an orle of pansies purpure, slipped and leaved vert.

Conflict with Bridget of Perth ("Argent, an arrow inverted sable within a chaplet of violets proper."). It should also be noted that a wreath of pansies has previously been ruled to be too close to the queens' wreath of roses to be registered to one who is not entitled to a wreath of roses (April, 1985). (06/1989)

Cassandre de la Tour. Device. Gules, a tower argent and in chief three fleurs-de-lis Or.

The submission was originally returned in September, 1988, for conflict with Prunier ("Gules, a tower towered with a single tower argent."), Doncaster ("Gules, a tower triple-towered argent."), etc. Vesper has appealed this on the grounds that, since Papworth blazons them other than as simple towers, they must be significantly different from a plain tower and that this is supported by illustrations from Elvin which distinguish between the two types of towers cited in the citation of conflict and the type of tower illustrated in the submitted device. Unfortunately, as a number of commenters have noted, Papworth was given to blazoning a number of details that period heralds would have considered merely artistic variants. (He was after all a product of his time and blazons of the late Victorian period, like much of their furniture, were generally overstuffed.) Elvin, too, writes in a decadent age and is much given to making distinctions of form that did not appear in period. As has often been said before, Elvin can be a useful tool, but should not be relied on for period blazon and difference distinctions since his concern was to provide as many distinctions and interesting depictions as he could. In point of fact, as Silver Trumpet has noted, Brault indicates that towers and castles were often drawn interchangeably (Early Blazon, p. 141) and this seems a far better guide to period practise than Elvin. (Indeed, it was the evidence of Brault and several early rolls of arms that blazoned towers as towers singly towered, but showed a plain tower that led Laurel to the original decision.) (05/1989)

Cassiopea of Stonemarche. Name and device. Chequy argent and gules, a talbot sejant sable.

Withdrawn at the request of the Brigantia Principal Herald. (10/1988)

Castillos del Oro, Los, Stronghold of. Device. Azure, chapé ployé barry wavy argent and azure, a chevron ployé, in base a castle, overall a laurel wreath, and a chief embattled all Or.

This is far too "busy" for the period style we are trying to emulate. Additionally, charges should not overlie chapé lines of division; this submission has two that do, the chevron and the laurel wreath. Would they consider something simpler, along the lines of "Barry wavy argent and azure, a pale ..."? (06/1990)

Catalina de Almería y Tiermas. Device. Sable, a fly agaric mushroom proper between four escallops Or (Amanita muscaria).

As the mushroom is capped gules, this violates the rule of tincture. It is also technically in conflict with William MacBruithin the Wilde ("Sable, a sharpened wooden stake bendwise sinister surmounted by a mushroom proper (Laecaria ochesopurpurea)." (12/1987)

Catalina de Almería y Tiermas. Device. Sable, a fly agaric mushroom proper between four escallops Or (Amanita muscaria).

After all the discussion, we have to agree with Crescent that the primary criterion for determining whether a charge proper has sufficient contrast is the visibility of the portion of the charge which identifies it. In this case, this is the cap of the mushroom which is the typical identifier of the fly agaric mushroom (while Laurel is violently allergic to fungi herself, she has done some mushroom gathering!). By the same token, in the case of Hieronymus the Sarabite, cited on the letter of intent, the same mushroom, enflamed Or, was returned for insufficient contrast because the stem faded entirely into the Or flames, making it difficult to identify the charge as a mushroom at all (as opposed to a poorly drawn gules center to a conventional flame proper). In any case, White Stag errs in stating that "complete difference of charge" should be accorded two different types of mushroom proper: unless the tinctures are completely different only a weak minor point could be derived. In this case, that cannot be done since the mushroom on the device of William MacBruithin the Wilde is gules ("Sable, a sharpened wooden stake bendwise sinister surmounted by a mushroom proper."). (04/1988)

Caterina Leonora di Forza d'Agro. Device. Vert, a woven, round bottomed basket with handle Or.

There is a clear visual conflict here with Adayand Amiatai ("Vert, a bezant eclipsed by a decrescent vert voided Or."). In appearance both devices have a partially voided bezant on a vert field. (05/1987)

Caterina Leonora di Forza d'Agro. Device. Vert, a woven round-bottomed and handled basket within a bordure Or.

Conflict with the badge of Kendric de Morlaix ("Vert, a crescent within a bordure Or."): the resemblance in shape is too strong for complete difference of charge to exist. (12/1987)

Cathelon O'Horan. Name only.

The documented form of the name is "Cathalán". As far as I can determine, Irish orthography followed pronunciation and, while the substitution of "e" for the second "a" has some plausibility, we were not able to document the substitution of "o" for "á" in the standard diminutive suffix "-án". As the submittor allowed no changes whatsoever to his name, we could not make the correction. (05/1989)

Catherine Adrienne de Steele. Device. Per fess argent and sable, two mortars and pestles conjoined at theirs bases at the line of division and counterchanged, on a chief embattled vert three aspen leaves argent.

There was a general consensus that the two mortars conjoined were neither period style nor identifiable, even at close range. Three pestles counterchanged would be far better heraldry. (12/1986)

Catherine Adrienne de Steele. Household name for Maison de Steele.

It was our feeling that this name was just too close to that of Maison de Stäel. As the salon of Madame de Stäel was of exceeding importance both in literary history and the political history of France on the eve of the Revolution, this seemed an unfortunate choice of household name. (07/1989)

Catherine Blackrose. Device. Per chevron argent and sable, two roses and a griffin rampant counterchanged.

Conflict with the arms of Knight ("Per chevron argent and sable, three roses counterchanged.") (12/1986)

Catherine de Leon. Name and device. Sable, a demi-lion Or maintaining a garden rose, slipped and leaved, argent.

Unfortunately, there are several Queens and Princesses in the genealogy of Castile after the union with Leon, the most notable of whom was that Catherine cited in the letter of intent who married Henry VIII of England and is generally referred to in English as Catherine of Aragon. From the time of the union in the early thirteenth century the arms of both kingdoms appear on the royal arms of Castile and both were included in the titles assumed by the members of the royal family so that, even abroad, the "infantas" would be referred to as a princess "of Castile and Leon". Although we are inclined to feel that the precedent alluded to by Crescent (by which an armorial item was returned for conflict with a crest) is not necessarily a desirable one, under the current order this does conflict with the crest of the Earl of Normanton ("A demi-lion Or."). Technically, Crux Australis is also correct in calling conflict with the arms of Belgium ("Sable, a lion rampant Or." in its earlier form, the crown on the modern arms being an addition to the earlier coat). (10/1987)

Catherine Elspeth d'Aix La Chapelle. Device. Argent, a Latin cross couped azure surmounted by three pallets sable, all within a bordure gules.

There was a general consensus that the three pallets made the underlying primary charge unrecognizable, the more so since the sable of the center pallet faded into the azure of the cross, thus blurring the outline. Using two pallets placed in a position that would allow identification of the primary charge or possibly substituting bendlets or scarpes would resolve the problem. (01/1987)

Catherine Marie Elisabeth d'Evreux. Device. Vert, a peacock in his pride and on a chief Or, three roses proper.

This is technically in conflict with Elspeth Trelawny MacNaughton of Lochawe ("Vert, on a saltire Or a tower gules and on a chief Or, three roses gules, barbed and seeded proper."): as the primary charge is itself charged only a major point of difference may be derived from the change in type and the addition of the tertiary charge adds only a minor point. In point of fact, the addition of identically charged chiefs to both devices gives the appearance not of direct cadency but common membership in an order, household or fraternal organization (the mundane analogue for this would be the use of a chief bearing the arms or badge of a martial order). (02/1989)

Catherine of Anjou. Name only.

This was pended from the September meeting for further comment on the issue of restricted royal names. At the time the submission was pended it was noted that the prohibition on the use of such names in personal names was still in force and in the past had specifically been held to include forms such as "l'angevin" which is directly equivalent to "of Anjou". At the same time, in the past names associated with royal houses in modern times have been permitted, where there was no other reference to a member of the dynasty in question in the armoury or the remainder of the name. At that time, it was noted as well that there was no doubt that the house of Anjou was a significant dynasty nor that the name was used for prominent females in the line. General comment favoured continuation of the restriction on royal names with their being a wide range of opinion on precisely where the dividing line should fall. Some felt that the restriction should be sweeping ("the Lochac twitch"). Others felt that it should be limited to the actual contemporary names of ruling houses (which would allow a number of names which are closely bound to royal dynasties in modern historical works). A substantial number of those who commented felt that the current "middle-of-the-road" approach was the most appropriate. In the case of this submittor, however, the issue becomes moot since commentary during the period when it was pended has revealed the existence of a prominent Catherine in the line of Anjou who was not noted at the time when the submission was originally considered. Our apologies to the submittor for the delay caused by this oversight. (02/1989)

Catherine of Dover the Scholar. Device. Azure, a bend between two herring bendwise counternaiant argent.

Conflict with Ian McAngus ("Azure, a bend between a mullet of eight points and a tree eradicated argent."), Susanna von Braun ("Azure, a bend between an Easter lily reversed, slipped and leaved, and a unicorn rampant argent.") and Benton ("Azure, a bend argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 184), all cited in the letter of intent. (01/1988)

Catherine of Silver Tree. Device. Gules, a bend Or between a tree and a wolf dormant argent.

Conflict with the arms of Chalon ("Gules, a bend Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 190) and the badge for the Armorer's Guild of Ostgardr ("Gules, a bend Or, between a hammer bendwise and a bickern argent."). (06/1988)

Catlin Båkersdatter. Name only.

There are several problems with the byname. As Compline has noted, there is significant doubt about the use of occupational surnames formed with the feminine patronymic particle in period Scandinavian languages and the submission gives no evidence to support this. Even were this not the case, however, there would be linguistic problems. Prior to the orthographic reforms of 1917, Norwegian did not use the Swedish å (Marm and Sommerfelt, Norwegian: A practical course for beginners and students, p. xii). The Swedish form for "baker" appears to be "bagare" and "daughter" is "dotter". As best we can determine, the Old Norse form would have been "bakaradottir". (04/1988)

Catlin nic Brian. Name and device. Vert, a unicorn's head couped argent, horned Or, within bordure argent, semy of roses gules.

As Brachet noted, the byname, which uses the Irish feminine patronymic particle, should follow Irish grammar: "ni Bhriain". This makes the sound and appearance, as well as the meaning, of the name too close to that of Caitriona ni Bhriain. Also, under the current rules this does technically conflict with the cited device of Beryl de Folo ("Vert, a unicorn's head erased argent, on a chief argent, a helmed death's head between two roses vert."): as the tincture of the horn does not really contribute difference, the current rules require that the totality of difference be derived from the type of secondary charge (a major point) and the number and tincture of the tertiaries (minors). This is not quite enough to clear the technical conflict. (10/1989)

Catlin Ravenlock. Device. Per chevron argent and azure, a chevron between three bats displayed counterchanged.

Conflict with Dominic Tremayne ("Per chevron azure and argent, a chevron between three fleurs-de-lis, all counterchanged."). (03/1989)

Catrin of Llanbadarn. Device. Azure, on a plate three bayleaves palewise in fess vert, all within a bordure engrailed charged with four lozenges vert.

AR10.d.: "To avoid the appearance of arms of pretense, certain charges within armory may themselves be charged with no more than one tertiary charge. . . Examples, include inescutcheons, lozenges, cartouches, roundels, etc." (04/1988)

Catrina Cassanelli di Mantova. Device. Argent, in pale a catamount dormant sable and a decrescent Or, fimbriated sable, all within an orle of ivy slipped vert, leaved gules.

At the February meeting this was pended until the July meeting both because of an erroneous blazon and because of a desire to solicit comment on whether fimbriation should be limited to ordinaries and subordinaries. Although the opinion of the College was somewhat split, it did not seem that the fimbriation of the crescent was enough per se to cause the submission to be returned. However, it was felt that the fimbriation in an already relatively complex design (with the orle of foliage in two tinctures) added an unacceptable complexity to the design. In the confusion before Pennsic, this item was omitted from the July letter. (09/1987)

Catriona Liosliath of Dunideer. Name only.

Unfortunately, the fact that the name was registered previously in the Society is more or less irrelevant with regard to "Liosliath": at the time when the name of Liosliath of Donnelly was registered (1975), the forms did not even have a space for name documentation! Leslie is derived from the lands of the Barony of Leslie. As early as the end of the twelfth century, the lands of "Lesslyn" were the subject of a land grant. Black (p. 425) shows spellings of "Leslie", "Lescelye", "Lesallyn", "Lechelyn", "Lecelin", "Leslei", "Lesli", "Lesly", "Lessely" and "Loussily", but nothing like "Liosliath". We could not find the place name cited. The linguistic evidence from Gaelic provided by Brigantia might support an Englished form "Dundeer", but not "Dunideer". Under Dundower in Black (p. 229), were able to find similar sounding placenames like "Dunidouir"and "Dundener". Although she gave permission for changes to her name, we felt too uncertain to make changes to her name. However, she might wish to consider a simpler version of the name using the documented surname forms and one of the documented place names. (04/1988)

Catriona Ruadh. Name and device. Or, fretty vert, on an escutcheon sable, a harp Or, all within a bordure sable.

After much debate and many exercises in pronunciation we determined that the name does conflict with that of Caitrin nic Ruaidhri, cited on the letter of intent. While the new rules are more lenient on variants and translations of names, they do still require that there be a significant change in the sound of such names. That change is not present here (dropping a patronymic particle that can be added or subtracted at will is not a major change). With regard to the device, we had to agree with the many commentors in the College who found it included an inescutcheon of pretense, the more so since it is an actual coat (Landschaden: "Sable, a harp Or."). The depiction definitely indicates that the submittor did not have a sable field and orle in mind and, as noted by Brigantia, that would make such a difference in depiction that we do not feel justified in making the change without consultation with the submittor. (Not to mention the stylistic problems with an orle fretty!) (04/1990)

Cayla Estelle LeMee. Name only.

No documentation for the name was provided with the forms other than "See ILO A & R". The implication on the letter of intent was that the name had previously been registered, but we could find no reference to it in the Laurel files. (01/1987)

Ceallach Macrae. Device. Argent, a fret vert, fretted with a sword palewise sable.

Conflict with Cearach ni Rúadhágan ("Argent, on a fret vert a rose gules, barbed and seeded Or."). (01/1989)

Ceallaigh of Castle Lost. Name and device. Or, chausse ploye purpure, a rose purpure and two daggers inverted in chevron Or.

This was accidentally dropped from the printed copy of the January letter of acceptance and return through a buffering problem. The submitted form of the given name is the genitive form (the nominative would be "Ceallach"). Unfortunately, the submittor allowed no changes whatsoever to the name so that the whole submission had to be returned. While counseling the submittor on a resubmission, it might be advisable to point out that the charges chausse here is really something of a solecism. (02/1989)

Cecelia Constanza de Castellón. Device. Or, a rose bush vert, flowered, within a bordure gules, charged alternately with bezants and crosses crosslet Or.

It was the consensus of those commenting that the bordure, semy of two separate charges in alternation was too complex for use in the Society. While such a usage does indeed occasionally occur in the Iberian peninsula (and thus accords well with her name), even there it is usually done in conjunction with a bordure compony so that the alternation of the charges is made more obvious by the differentiation of the bordure tinctures (the most famous of these examples is the bordure adopted by several Spanish families which alternates the lion of Leon and the tower of Castile). (08/1988)

Cecelia Constanza de Castile. Name only.

Conflict with Constance of Castile, daughter of Alphonso VII of Castile and wife of Louis VII of France. The submittor allowed no changes whatsoever to her name. (12/1987)

Cecilia of Sternfeld. Badge for House Dormant. Gyronny sable and vert, a snail argent.

After a comparison of the emblazons, we were compelled to agree that this conflicts visually with the device of Peridot of the Quaking Hand ("Azure, a snail guardant argent"). It should be noted, however, that Crescent errs when he says that snails have no faces: after examination of a number of Society badges and devices featuring snails, we have been forced to the conclusion that in Society heraldry they do. (Thus illustration 597 in A Pictorial Dictionary of Heraldry as used in the Society for Creative Anachronism is not correct: although it gives an excellent depiction of a "natural" snail, it does not match the "SCA heraldic" snail.) Note that many commentors felt that the use of the French adjective alone for a household name did not follow period style and that the adjective should modify some noun other than house (House of the Sleeping Snail?). (11/1988)

Cedric MacShannachan. Device. Bendy Or and gules, a winged unicorn salient, wings elevated and addorsed, argent.

Conflict with Arianwen of Urquart ("Vert, a horned pegasus salient argent, armed and ungules gules."). It also conflicts visually with the badge of Margharita di San Gimignano ("Per bend gules and ermine, a winged unicorn rampant, wings addorsed, argent, armed, crined, ungules and chased, Or."). The poor contrast virtually eradicates any visual difference to be derived from the cumulative tincture change in the details and the difference in position of the hooves (the latter lie entirely on the ermine field and are nearly invisible). (02/1989)

Cedric Meurdoch. Device. Purpure, an antelope rampant to sinister argent.

This is lovely, but conflicts with Jamie MacRae ("Purpure, a winged stag rampant to sinister argent."). At most one point of difference for type of charge can be derived here. (02/1987)

Cedric of Drachensheim. Device. Azure, on a bend argent between two dragons passant Or, three crosses crosslet fitchy gules.

Conflict with Evard ("Azure, on a bend argent, three crosses crosslet fitchy gules.", as cited in Papworth, p. 234) and Jean-Marc de Folleville ("Azure, on a bend argent between a mace erect and a barrel palewise Or, three fleurs-de-lys palewise azure."). The fact that Boutell cites a dragon Or as the attributed ancient arms of the Kingdom of Wessex bothered some. Note that the submittor's name previously submitted name (Cedric of Wessex Manor) was returned for conflict in May, 1988. (08/1988)

Cedric of Drachensheim. Household name for Wessex Manor.

There was a strong feeling that this name claimed too much "heraldic space" and was in conflict with the Saxon house of Wessex. (08/1988)

Cedric of Wessex Manor. Name only.

There really is a conflict with Cerdic, king of Wessex. It is clear that Scott's use of the name "Cedric" was derived from a fairly common type of reversal of an "r" and a following consonant (idiomatic English does this sort of thing all the time and Scott was not as careful as he could be about such things, for instance, the place name "Ivanhoe" actually is "Ivinghoe"). In Ivanhoe Cedric stands as the inheritor of the old Saxon values and the intent is definitely to echo and appeal to the legendary founder of West Saxon power, who was said to be the first "King of Wessex" and was in fact the theoretical ancestor of the later kings of Wessex, such as Alfred the Great and, ultimately, Edward the Confessor who came to represent the romantic image of the Saxon. (05/1988)

Celdae the Seeker. Change of name from Colleen of Lion's Gate.

On the letter of intent, Æstel indicated the Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum showed "Cel" as a documented variant of the protheme "Ceol". It was also stated "'-dae" is not specifically documented, but we consider it a possible spelling variant of the Anglo/Saxon deuterotheme '-daeg' (alternate spellings given include '-dag', '-dai', '-dei') meaning and pronounced 'day'". Unfortunately, the photocopies presented in support of these contentions came solely from the index and were all cross- references which do not show how the elements were actually used in compounds. Given period examples from the sources in our library, such as Celwulf and Celestan, the contraction of the protheme seems reasonable. However, there is a considerable body of evidence to indicate that "dæg" appears primarily as a protheme (Batonvert lists it only as a protheme in her article for the Proceedings of the Caerthan Heraldry Symposium) and would only lose its final consonant when used as a protheme. As Lion's Blood has noted, based on her conversations with Professor Stevick, only in the very late texts do you find any words ending in an ash. Even in those texts, "dæg" would not appear without a following letter to produce the vowel modification indicated by the letter ash. Given the lack of documentation provided for "dæg" as a deuterotheme, we would be a trifle nervous even about changing the name to the form "Ceoldæg" suggested by Lion's Blood (an option not available to the College since the lady specifically forbade any changes to her name). As the name stands now it would more plausibly be interpreted to be a variant of the Latin word for the Celts ("Celtae"), given the tendency of insular Latin to muddy "t" and "d" in pronunciation during several portions of our period. (03/1988)

Ceol Hardfellow. Device. Gules, a bend sinister between a Jerusalem cross and a scroll fesswise Or.

Conflict with Saskia van Voorhees ("Gules, a bend sinister between a candle argent, enflamed Or, and an open book argent."): only a major and minor may be derived from cumulative changes to a group of secondary charges. (12/1986)

Ceole Seabhac. Device. Azure, a harp, perched atop it an owl close argent.

We had to agree with Silver Trumpet and others that there was a conflict with the Caidan Order of the Harp Argent, cited on the letter of intent ("Azure, a harp within a bordure embattled argent."). There is definitely a difference in type of secondary charge, but as the difference in position derived largely from the essential nature of the bordure, no additional difference can be derived from its position. (05/1990)

Cera Campbell. Device. Or, an iris purpure and a chief sable.

Conflict with Gwynaeth de Sancta Maria de Petra Fertilis ("Or, issuant from a rock fracted sable, an iris purpure, slipped and leaved vert."). (08/1989)

Cerian Firethorn. Name and device. Ermine, a Saluki rampant gules, gorged Or, on two flaunches azure, one charged with a hawk's lure inverted and the other with a hawk's lure, both Or, winged argent.

The evidence from Gruffudd and other Welsh sources indicates that Cerian is a modern Welsh construction: it appears to be either a compounded form from Ceri + Ann or a diminutive from Ceri, which appears to be a modern name derived from the river in Dyfed. Since the submittor indicated that no changes could be made to the name, the submission as a whole had to be returned. This being so, it might be possible to suggest to her that the overall effect would be much more period if both lures were oriented in the same direction. (03/1987)

Cerridwen ni Morna. Device. Argent, two unicorns combattant sable and on a point pointed sable, a harp Or.

Conflict with Robert of the Mountains ("Per chevron Or and sable, two pegasi salient respectant and a tower counterchanged."). In appearance this is a variant of a field "per chevron argent and sable" (in fact, this is how White Stag blazoned it) charged with a group of three charges, which diminishes the amount of difference that can be derived from the changes to the equines and the change of type in the charge in base. (12/1987)

Cerys o Aberystwyth. Name only.

Unfortunately, all evidence points to the given name as a modern formation from a Welsh endearment (equivalent to an English name of "Darling"). The documented form Ceridwen or possibly the neoclassicist name Charis would be viable alternates. (In either case, she would probably do well to use the lingua franca preposition: "of".). (11/1987)

Chagatai Buran. Name only.

By the submittor's own documentation the given name was that of one of the sons of Genghis Khan. Such names, e.g. Genghis, Temujin, etc., have in the past been returned as unique names failing documentation to demonstrate their more general use in Mongolian society. No such documentation has been provided. (05/1987)

Chantal de Chambois. Name only.

Although the letter of intent noted a usage of "Saint Chantal", the name is in fact a place name: by the submittor's own documentation the name of the saint was "Jeanne Françoise Frémiot, Baronne de Chantal". (Laurel can confirm this since her mother went to convent school with the Order of the Visitation which was founded by the Baronned de Chantal.) Either the name must be documented as a given name in period (its use as a given name appears to be very modern) or a new given name must be adopted. (11/1989)

Charles Cedric Morton. Device. Potent argent and gules, a tyger passant sable.

Conflict with the badge of the East Kingdom ("A tyger passant azure."): according to precedents set by Master Baldwin and enshrined in DR2, no difference may be derived from the field. (02/1987)

Charles Farquhar Gordon. Badge for Clan of the Silver Thistle. Sable, a rose within six thistles, slipped and leaves, slips to center and leaves conjoined in annulo argent.

The name does conflict with the Scots Order of the Thistle, as Dragon surmised. The badge conflicts with the fieldless white rose of York: this is all the more striking, as the Brachet meeting correctly noted, because of the manner in which thistles and other badges for the other kingdoms of the united kingdoms have been united with the rose in coinage and other insignia in precisely this manner. (09/1989)

Charles Joiner. Device. Per fess dovetailed azure and Or, in pale an oak tree and a fir tree inverted conjoined at the trunk and counterchanged.

The general feeling among the commentors appeared to be that the conjoining of two different types of tree, taken together with the inversion of the pine tree, was too far outside period style. (08/1989)

Charles of the Red Oakes. Device. Sable, on a pile inverted throughout between two fleurs­de­lys argent an oak tree eradicated gules.

Technical conflict with Rowena d'Anjou ("Azure, on a pile inverted throughout between two fleurs­de­lys argent a swan naiant affronty, wings elevated and addorsed, head to sinister sable.") (12/1986)

Charles Richard Marshall. Change of name from Richard Corwin of Oldcastle.

Unfortunately, the name is still really too close to the extremely famous period Richard Marshall, son of William Marshall. (05/1989)

Châtaignie the Meek. Name only.

The letter of intent stated that the given name was a manufactured form composed of a French adjective meaning chestnut ("châtaigne") and a feminine name suffix "-ie", supposedly on the analogue of the period name "Blanche" to refer to the colour of the submittor's hair. Unfortunately, this just does not work linguistically. "Châtaigne" is not an adjective, as is "blanc/blanche", but rather a noun which refers to the nut itself. The feminine adjective form would be "châtaine" and, if one follows the analogy of "Blanche", no feminine suffix "-ie" would be added to this adjectival form. Thus the proper form would have to be "Châtaine" and, since "Châtain" is a documented period surname, it would then be necessary to show that this name was actually used in period. As it is, only one or two given names have been shown to be even probably derived from hair colour in period France (the only certain example is "Blanche") with the vast majority of such epithets remaining epithets or developing into family names. (02/1988)

Chauncey Carlisle Almy. Name only.

Withycombe clearly states that Chauncey is out of period as a given name: it only came into use in the late seventeenth century in America to honour Charles Chauncey, second president of Harvard University. The surnames are acceptable: Almy or Almey is specifically documented as the surname of a seventeenth­century immigrant to Rhode Island born about 1611 whose father bore the same surname and died c. 1624). (03/1990)

Chendra Rhudd ferch Arianwen. Device. Per pale Or and gules, two lions queue forchy, rampant and addorsed, within a bordure counterchanged.

Alas! The tinctures of the field and charges on this lovely device were reversed on the letter of intent so this is in conflict with Blayney ("Per pale Or and gules, two lions rampant addorsed counterchanged.", as cited in Papworth, p. 149): the minor differentiation in the tails is not enough to carry this clear, the more so since the primary difference here is the addition of a bordure, the standard mark of cadency in Scotland. (07/1989)

Cheryl of Hastenholm. Device. Azure, a winged bull between three compass stars Or.

Visual conflict with Anthony of Hag's Head ("Azure, a chimera passant argent between three mullets Or."). (11/1986)

Chiara Francesca Arianna d'Onofrio. Device. Barry wavy azure and argent, on a lozenge azure between four dolphins embowed uriant counterchanged, a pegasus rampant argent.

Under AR1c, the use of one of the component tinctures on a field which otherwise would be neutral is forbidden except in the simplest of cases. This is not a simple case. Similarly, the small counterchanged secondaries are hardly identifiable because of the extra complexity added by the counterchanging. Also in this case, where the charged lozenge is an addition to a device which would stand on its own, there is a distinct appearance of an inescutcheon of pretense. (10/1987)

Chiara Giovanni. Device. Ermine, in saltire a quill Or and a quill gules.

The Or quill on the ermine field is "metal upon metal" under our rules. (08/1989)

Chlotifer der Affe. Name only.

While the protheme "Chlodo-" is, as stated in the letter of intent, not uncommon in Frankish and Old German sources, the suffix "ifer" or "fer" cannot really plausibly be considered a variant of the deuterotheme "-vert" or "-bert". It is rather a Latin suffix meaning "bearing" or "carrying". Its commonest use as a given name element is in Christopher ("bearing Christ"), while it appears in a number of bynames such as "aquilifer" (which is derived from the Roman soldier who carried the eagle of a legion). As the suffix is documented as a Latin form (and not as a Germanic one), it must normally be combined with Latin elements and not Frankish or Gothic prothemes. (08/1988)

Choji Saburo no Yamakido. Name only.

While "Saburo" was documented as a given name, no documentation was provided by the submittor for "Choji" as a family name. (Members of the College have been able to document it as a given name.) For some years now we have not registered honorifics or clan associations in the context of Japanese names, although they were certainly used in period. The clan name was apparently formed by compounding entries from a Japanese dictionary, but Ibis has been able to document "Yamakado", which is identical in meaning and nearly identical in sound. We would suggest that the submittor adopt either the name "Yamakado Choji" or "Yamakado Saburo." (11/1988)

Chrisogone Thomas of Portsmouth. Device. Plumetty gules and argent.

Conflict with Cheveney ("Lozengy argent and gules.", Papworth, p. 972), Fitzcolum ("Lozengy gules and argent.", ibid.) and Ceba ("Plumetty argent and azure.", Woodward, p. 72). (01/1989)

Christian du Glaive. Badge. Sable, a lion rampant to sinister argent.

Opinion was mixed as to whether Cromwell should be granted extra protection as a "ruling house" and thus be considered in conflict with the proposed badge. Some agreed with Vesper that "usurpers should not be given the same protection we give to rightful kings". It was, however, Laurel's position that, since we are interested in avoiding confusion or offense, it is not necessarily the de jure situation but the de facto which should be considered. Although he (like Caesar) on several occasions refused the title of king, as Lord Protector Cromwell exercised virtually all the powers of the monarchy and this fact was recognized by time of his death since the Protectorate became an inheritable estate, precisely as did the royal estate had been previously. In any case, as several commentors noted, the point is somewhat moot since the badge also conflicts by reflection with the Duchy of Aosta one of the Italian sovereign houses. (05/1988)

Christian Richard Dupre. Per chevron azure and gules, two fleurs-de-lys between a compass star elongated throughout in fess Or and a caltrap argent.

The emblazon cannot really be reconstructed from the blazon given: the style is so far from period style that it cannot be expressed in the traditional vocabulary. In fact the compass star and caltrap have more visually than the fleurs-de-lys, although the fleurs-de-lys are in the position usually assigned to a primary charge. The compass star attempts to be "throughout" in the upper compartment of the field (i. e. , the lower ray touches the line of division), though this is not period style. Similarly, the caltrap's longer arms are "throughout" in the lower compartment. This is not period style. (03/1987)

Christiana la Légiere. Device. Per bend sinister Or and vert, a point dexter and a gore sinister, overall a merlin close perched on a gloved fist fesswise sable.

As noted by a number of heralds, this is just not period style. The use of the unusual single dexter point and the gore produces an unbalanced effect in the underlying charges and indeed visually this appears more like "Vert, a bend sinister enhanced and a sinister gore Or, etc.". When this latter blazon is used, it becomes clear that the overlying charges would, under our rules, be colour on colour, although the elaborate blazoning disguises that. Moreover, the sable charges overlying the gore are a practise that has previously been disallowed: neither flaunches nor gores seem to have been surmounted in this manner in period. (05/1989)

Christiana MacGrain. Badge for Domus Comitas. Sable, in pale a mask of comedy and a goblet Or.

The badge conflicts with the device of Hal of the Mask ("Sable, a tragic mask Or, featured sable."). The proposed name for the household is not grammatical (the correct medieval Latin would be "Domus Comitatis") and there is considerable doubt as to its appropriateness as a household name, if it is spelled correctly. While the meaning is technically that given by the submittors, the almost identical "Domus Comitatus" would refer to the house of the royal "comitatus", the personal retinue of the early medieval kings that led to the feudal order. Though the two terms are distinct, they are perilously close in in sound (and are derived from the same root meaning of good fellowship). . . (01/1989)

Christiana of Ean Airgead. Device. Purpure, a chevron argent between three crosses moline in fess and a heart argent.

Conflict with Thalassa Ilona of Soilka ("Purpure, a chevron Or between in chief two scimitars conjoined at the point proper and in base a flamed tulip proper.") (06/1988)

Christiana Sinclaire. Device. Gules, on a pale between in bend two swans statant, wings elevated and addorsed, argent, a swan statant, wings elevated and addorsed, gules, in sinister chief a cross fitchy at all points argent.

This was pended at the May meeting because on both the letter of intent and the blazon on the forms the swan on the pale was blazoned as sable, while on the emblazon sheet it was shown as gules. Failing advice to the contrary, we must assume that the emblazon holds priority which brings it into visual conflict with Marion du Rouge ("Gules, a pale argent, three doves migrant counterchanged."). (09/1987)

Christina of Islay. Device. Azure, three bezants, each environed of an arrow embowed in annulo, the flethcing of each arrow to centre.

Although the arrows were blazoned as the primary charge on the letter of intent, the arrangement of the arrows would be so peculiar ("in triskelion"???) that the eye naturally processes the bezants, which are in a standard position for three primary charges, first and considers the arrows to be adjuncts of the bezants. This being so, the device conflicts with the mundane arms of Bisset ("Azure, three bezants two and one.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1048). (05/1989)

Christopher Amber. Device. Per pale sable and Or, two mullets in bend counterchanged.

According to DoD C.2 "Changes in number and placement where all charges change position on the field count as a major and a minor point.". Thus this submission is in conflict with Reinhard Bergen der Kuhn, cited on the letter of intent ("Per pale sable and Or, a mullet pierced counterchanged."). (05/1988)

Christopher Amber. Device. Per pale sable and Or, in bend two mullets counterchanged, on a chief gules, issuant from the line of division a sea-serpent ondoyant Or.

We had to agree with White Stag that the truncated sea serpent issuant from the line of division of the chief is not really period style. Added to the relatively unbalanced arrangement of the mullets on either side of the divided field, the chief itself with its "moving" charge adds an undesirable degree of complexity and lack of balance to the design. (02/1989)

Christopher Amber. Badge for the House of Serpent's Keep. On a table-cut gemstone fesswise vert, a sea-serpent ondoyant emergent Or.

This household badge combines two charges which are difficult to impossible to readily identify at a distance: the gemstone and truncated sea-serpent. In the case of the submission from which the sea-serpent was derived, there was some sense to the "emergent" since it was emerging from a line of division (however solecistic we might think the practise). In this case, it is not emerging from anything and so there is little or no logic to the incompleteness of the serpent. (08/1989)

Christopher Amber. Badge. Per pale sable and gules, a mask of comedy Or, issuant from the dexter eye two gouttes de sang.

Conflict with Hal of the Mask ("Sable, a tragic mask Or, featured sable."). (03/1989)

Christopher Kirk Dracovis. Name only (see PENDING for device).

Latin just does not form epithets in this manner, as noted by several commentors. If a Roman wished to say that someone had the strength of a dragon, he would probably make it an adverbial noun phrase like "viribus draconis". I could find no classical or mediaeval epithet that directly paralleled this. The usual approach, if one wished to indicate that one was like a legendary monster (or even a common beast) in his characteristics was to use the simple form of the name as an epithet. Thus, in this case, the submittor would be Christopher Draco. (Such epithets were most common instead of other surnames, not used as augments to those surnames in the post­classical period from which the remainder of the name derives.) (03/1990)

Christopher MacShawn de Galbraith. Device. Sable, a cross enhanced to chief and to dexter, between to sinister a mallet fesswise and a sword palewise enflamed proper.

Although this cross has been used in modern heraldry, we were unable to find any use of the extremely unbalanced design in period heraldry. This is just not "period style". (03/1989)

Christopher Morgan MacCathalain. Device. Per pale ermine and azure, ermined Or, a chevron counterchanged.

Conflict with Addington ("Per pale ermine and ermines, a chevron counterchanged.", as cited in Papworth, p. 376) and Blondell ("Per pale ermine and sable, a chevron counterchanged.", ibid.). (07/1989)

Christopher Storm of Kintail. Device. Sable, on a bend sinister ermine, a heart gules pierced with a thorn bendwise sinister and a claymore bendwise, the latter surmounting the field, both Or.

This is not period style. The thorn lies entirely on the ermine bend sinister which breaks tincture. Also, the sword which surmounts both the field and the bend and pierces a tertiary charge on the bend is not period style. (06/1988)

Chrystal Ariana MacRuari. Device. Per bend wavy sable and gules, a serpent throughout bendwise wavy Or.

Conflicts with the device of Rhiannon of Starfire Retreat, registered in January, 1987, both technically and visually ("Per bend wavy sable and purpure, a bend wavy Or, in chief a compass star argent.") Visually, this serpent is virtually identical to a bend wavy. (02/1987)

Chrystofer Kensor. Device. Azure, a wolf rampant to sinister holding a halberd argent, hafted Or, within a bordure argent.

Conflict with Thomas Wakefield ("Azure, a winged wolf rampant to sinister, wings addorsed argent, the head environed of a nimbus Or, within a bordure argent."). (09/1987)

Chrystofer Kensor. Device. Azure, a wolf rampant to sinister, maintaining a halberd argent, hafted Or, within an orle argent.

Although this was omitted from the letter of intent, the original submission, which had a bordure in place of the orle, was returned in September, 1987 for conflict with Thomas Wakefield ("Azure, a winged wolf rampant to sinister, wings addorsed argent, the head environed of a nimbus Or, within a bordure argent."). It is by no means certain that the cumulative changes to the wolf suffice to carry this clear of the original conflict, particularly in view of the visual echo between the bordure and the orle. In any case, since complete difference of charge does not apply between charges within an orle, this now conflicts with Joseph of Windhover's Reach ("Azure, a sword argent, hilted sable, the hilt winged Or, within an orle argent."). (09/1988)

Chrystofer Kensor. Badge. Argent, three ogresses, in chief three billets in fess sable.

As noted by several commentors, this is visually a pawprint, albeit a highly stylized one. As such this is in conflict with the device of Igor Medved ("Argent, a bear's dexter pawprint azure.") and the badge of Rodrigo de los Lobos ("Argent, on a wolf's pawprint sable, a crescent argent."). We really do not count difference between variant types of animal pawprints so we cannot really count difference for the artistic stylization used here. . . (07/1989)

Ciaran mac Meara Ui Briune. Change of name from Ciaran mac Meara.

On the letter of intent it was stated "The clan name Ui Briune is documented as a 9th century spelling from Donncha O'Corain, Ireland before the Normans, Gill Irish History Series." As no photocopies were provided of the precise context in which the citation appears, we cannot make the assumption that the form is from a period source or that it would have been applied to individuals. In most cases, the form beginning in "ui" (which is plural) refers to the clan as a whole rather than to an individual and is not properly used in a personal name. (04/1989)

Ciarán O'Meara. Name only.

The name is in direct conflict with the previously registered name of Ciaran Mac Meara. (10/1989)

Citadel of the Southern Pass, Barony of. Name for Order of Companions of Thermopylae.

We were compelled to agree with Vesper and the other members of the College who found this name presumptuous. (04/1988)

Citadel of the Southern Pass. Name and badge for Order of the Flor Australis. Azure, a sunflower, slipped and leaved, Or between two piles, issuant from base, argent.

The paperwork for the submission gave the name of the Order in several places as "Flor Australis", although "flor" does not exist in Latin. As the adjective is Latin, we have to assume that they intend to use the Latin form of the noun, which would be "flos". Brachet is correct in citing as conflict the device of Christine the Accursed ("Azure, a chrysanthemum slipped and leaved Or."): the visual similarity of the two flowers is just too great. The device of Lisa of Toad Hall ("Azure, a sunflower proper.") is not a conflict for Lisa's flower is not slipped and leaved. (09/1987)

Cler Hélène Mareschal. Device. Per chevron inverted azure and purpure, on a chevron inverted Or, three crosses paty gules.

Conflict with Claryce Orfevre ("Per chevron inverted azure and purpure, a chevron inverted Or between a unicorn's head argent, horned and maned and a phoenix Or."): there is a major point of difference for the deletion of the secondary charges and a minor for the addition for the tertiaries. (03/1989)

Coileáin Olafsson. Device. Gules, a sword inverted proper between in fess two daggers proper, all within a bordure parted bordurewise indented sable and Or.

The bordure is a period usage, as noted by several commentors who adduced a number of examples of bordures and other ordinaries parted in this manner. Those who commented on the non-period usage of two types of almost but not quite identical charges are correct: essentially you have daggers and swords (which do not differ in type) used in the same grouping for effect. This effect is even more striking since mundane heraldry frequently arranges three swords in fess or in pale with the center sword going in one direction and the outside swords in another. While the problem could be resolved by making the outside blades proper swords, depicted as is the central blade, this would not remove the problem of conflict. In the case of three swords, a number of mundane blazons use "in pale" rather than "palewise" to define the orientation of the charges (e.g., Walsheof: "Gules, three swords in pale points upwards argent, pommels Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 1109). This being the case, one has to consider as conflicts not only Walsheof but several other similar mundane devices. Note that Brachet is correct in noting that the difference between swords and swords inverted is not that great visually when there is a mixed group: Papworth contains blazons for the arms of Rawlins, both of which appear to derive from Glover's Ordinary, which are identical save for the reversal of orientation: "Sable, three swords in fess argent, two with their points in base and the middle one in chief." and "Sable, three swords in pale argent, two erect points upwards between them one downwards.", while a blazon from the time of Edward IV reads as "Sable, three swords in pale argent, two with their points in base and the middle one in chief."When this is compared to blazons for the same individuals which omit the orientation of the swords entirely, leaving it to default to "in fess", it leaves the precise orientation of the devices with a gules field very much open to doubt. . . (01/1990)

Coille Dubh, Barony of. Name and device. Argent, an oak tree eradicated and on a chief sable three laurel wreaths Or.

Under NR 20, this name conflicts by direct translation with the Shire (formerly Barony) of Myrkwuud which also means Dark Forest. Since the names share only meaning and not assonance, it might be possible to gain permission to conflict from Mirkewoude. Since holding names may not be generated for official groups, the device must be returned. (02/1987)

Coille Stormeil, Canton of. Name for the Silver Spoons Cooking Guild.

Conflict with the Order of the Silver Spoon registered to the Principality of the Mists. (08/1989)

Coinneach Aindrais MacLeod. Device. Azure, a saltire Or, overall two woves combattant argent.

Conflict with Hyndman ("Azure, a saltire Or.", cited by Papworth, p. 1057). (08/1989)

Coinneach MacKenzie. Device. Azure, a chevron embattled between two suns and a lion rampant, all Or.

This return was omitted from the July, 1988, letter through a file error during the word processing merge that assembled the letter. Conflict with Bayne ("Azure, a chevron embattled Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 374). (08/1988)

Colin MacLachlan. Name only.

Unfortunately, this is a direct conflict with the Reverend Colin MacLachlan who was notorious for the leading role he played during the slaughter of the Lamonts in 1646 (Moncreiffe, The Highland Clans, p. 160). (09/1987)

Colm Llewelyn. Device. Per fess sable and Or, a sword inverted proper, its blade entwined by the slips of two roses counterchanged.

The blade of the sword lying almost entirely on the Or portion of the field, is virtually unidentifiable even when (especially when?) entwined by the stems of roses. (03/1989)

Comar gyr Mirand. Badge for House Vexillarius. Azure, a mountain of three peaks, the centermost enhanced, and in chief three mullets, one and two, all argent.

The household name is acceptable, but cannot be registered without a badge and the proposed badge is in direct conflict with Aliena of the High Reaches ("Azure, in honor point an estoile of four greater and four lesser points above in base three mountain peaks, the centermost enhanced, argent."). (11/1986)

Conflicts technically with Kaidu ibn Yesugai ("Azure, on a bend sinister Or, between two mameluk rosettes argent, au arrow inverted sable, fletched gules."). Note that DR10 says "at most" a major point may be derived from tertiaries. In such a case as this, where there are prominent secondaries, we should not even consider making that allowance unless there are three clear differences in the secondaries: since the primary tincture of both sets of tertiaries is sable, there are only two: type and number. (12/1986)

Conn MacNeill. Device. Gules, on a pile raguly between two cups Or a sword inverted sable.

Conflict with Ardis Bluemantle, cited on the Letter of Intent ("Gules, on a pile embattled Or, a salamander tergiant erect Or, enflamed gules."). In this context the differentiation between raguly and embattled tends to diminish to the non-existent and the visual echo is clear. (09/1987)

Conn of Cathanar. Device. Vert, a hound's head couped and on a chief argent, three trefoils vert.

Conflict with Bryan mac Dhugaill an Boghadair ("Vert, a crossbow bent palewise and on a chief argent, three shamrocks slipped vert."). (03/1988)

Connor MacNicol. Device. Sable, two bendlets disjointed, the upper portions enhanced, gules, fimbriated argent.

This submission raised a number of questions: whether this new treatment for bends should be accepted for Society use, how it should be blazoned and, if acceptable, whether it was too complex to fimbriate. We had to agree with Crescent that the overall design was conceptually simple (although some of the Laurel staff also agreed with the heralds in Aneala who saw a resemblance to a freeway entry sign. . .). Under recent rulings there is no doubt that two plain bendlets could be fimbriated in this design. The issue of the proposed treatment is less clear. No clear evidence has been presented for the period use of this treatment, although Crescent is correct in stating that it is conceptually similar to bevilled, which has been ruled "Society-compatible". On the whole, we are inclined to feel that the usage is compatible with Society practise, although it is also clear that the limbs could be disjointed with the lower or upper limbs elevated and so these must be specified. (While this is similar to a bend bevilled, it is not identical: if the upper edge of the lower portion of the bend bevilled is extended, it runs through the center of the bend, not along the lower edge as is the case of the bend here.) However, after much consideration we concluded that the addition of the fimbriation here adds an unacceptable degree of confusion to the visual effect which seriously reduces the overall identifiability of the unusual bend. (06/1989)

Connor O'Brian. Name and device. Per pall gules, Or and sable, in fess a wolf's head erased sable and an apple Or.

The name is in direct conflict with Connor O'Brien, King of Munster, who was known for his patronage as far afield as Germany (MacManus, Story of the Irish Race, p. 253). Unfortunately, although the device was acceptable, the submittor forbade creation of a holding name so the entire submission had to be returned. (03/1988)

Conor MacColl. Name and device. Gules, a Celtic cross ermine, its annulet in the form of a serpent, vorant of its own tail, Or.

Whether or not this was sufficiently different from the recently passed name of Connor MacNicol caused a considerable amount of soul-searching amongst the Laurel staff. It was our conclusion that this would have not have the criteria of the old rules which specified that a name conflicted if "it looks and sounds enough like the other name to cause confusions": both in spelling and in sound, the two names are very close (only a syllable is added). In considering the new rules, we had to consider the intent of section V.4 (Difference of Phrases) and whether the subsections there should be considered to be restrictive (i.e., define all the types of changes that are insufficient) or merely amplifying (i.e., indicate types of conflict which may not be obvious). Based on both on our intent and the discussions with Badger at the time we thrashed out the various rules, we decided that the notes on spelling variants, translations, etc. were amplifying in nature and not override the primary definition of sufficient difference: "There must be a significant change to both the sound and appearance of one word to be considered significant." In this case, we felt that was not the case, although "MacColl and "MacNicol" device from different first names. Although we have retained the blazon of the letter of intent above, it does not really represent the design submitted. The cross was essentially a cross patty with its inner corners rounded, fretted with a serpent in annulo. A true Celtic cross has the "annulet" clearly conjoined with the limbs of the cross, not fretted with it. Thus this must be considered for conflict as "Gules, a cross patty ermine, fretted with a serpent in annulo Or." As such it conflicts with Norton ("Gules, a cross patty ermine.", as cited in Papworth, o. 613) under both the old and new rules. There is essentially one clear visual difference (or a major point under the old rules) for addition of the serpent. While Master Erasmierz argued manfully that the "engrailing" (i.e., the melon scoop out of the inner corners) should carry this clear under the old rules by a least a minor point of difference: after examining the emblazon sheet and the depictions of crosses patty in various reference works and Society devices, we were forced to the opinion that this modification was well within the boundaries of "artistic license" and did not provide difference under either the new rules or the old. (11/1989)

Conradin Starkwindt der Graue. Device. Vert, a chevron argent, overall a winged lion rampant counterchanged Or and vert, a chief embattled argent.

The complex counterchanging of the lion renders it virtually unidentifiable. (04/1990)

Constance Eleanor Beauchamp. Name and device. Barry wavy and per pale azure and argent, a bordure vert.

The name conflicts with that of Eleanor Beauchamp, daughter of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. In 1435 she married Edmund Beaufort, one of the leaders of the Beaufort party, whose own aspirations to the throne triggered several of the major political convulsions of the mid-fifteenth century. As the submittor will not allow even minor changes to her name, the submission as a whole must be returned. (12/1987)

Constans Erikson. Device. Quarterly purpure and azure, a compass star within a bordure embattled Or.

Conflict with Paul of Sunriver ("Azure, a compass star Or.") (02/1987)

Cordelia Tosere. Device. Chevronelly azure and argent, an annulet purpure.

Check on name. Unfortunately, this is technically in conflict with the British 29th Independent Brigade Group ("An annulet argent.") as cited by Silver Trumpet. (02/1989)

Cormac macCliuin O'Domnaill. Name only.

The first two elements of the submittor's name were previously submitted to Laurel and returned in November, 1982, since there was no documentation at all for "Cliuin" as an Irish word for "wolf", as it was stated to be both at the time and on this letter of intent. Additionally, the forms used at that time were improperly formed in Irish. At this point, no documentation to support the stated meaning of "wolf" has been presented and we have not been able to find any Irish, Gaelic, Manx or Welsh word or name with that meaning that is anywhere close in sound. As this seems to be important to the submittor from the notes on his submission forms, we have felt it inappropriate to change the name. Perhaps it could be pointed out to the submittor that MacLysaght (Surnames of Ireland, p. 48) notes an anglicised form "MacClune" from the Irish form "Mac Clúin". However, this does not come from "wolf" but from the Irish word for a knee ("glún"). If he wished an Irish patronymic with the "wolf" meaning, he might try "O Faoláin". (08/1989)

Correus Dracontius. Device. Vert, on a lozenge argent, a dragon's claw bendwise sinister couped vert, enflamed to sinister chief proper.

The lozenge is drawn as fesswise throughout and is therefore neither a standard lozenge nor vetu. If the lozenge is drawn properly, there is a conflict with the device of Meelen of Catcott ("Pupure, on a lozenge argent a forget­me­not blossom proper.") (09/1986)

Corwin Falcone. Device. Per fess argent and sable, on a fess between a sword fesswise reversed and a caltrap counterchanged, a bar counter-compony argent and sable.

At the meeting when this was considered (held at Pennsic), there was a representative mix of College of Arms members, local heralds and interested non-heralds and a consensus that the central charge, whether it be blazoned as a charged fess or a parted fess fimbriated, was too complex to readily identify "on the field". (08/1987)

Corwin Wealdboren. Device. Sable, a pall between rose and a fleur­de­lys and in chief a raven volant, all argent.

In the first place, it has been previously ruled that you may not use a rose, especially a white rose, in conjunction with the name Corwin (February, 1985). Even if you could, three different object around a pall are by definition too complex (September, 1985). Finally, this device conflicts with Tristram of Tir Ysgithr ("Sable, a pall between a fleur­de­lys and two coffins argent."). (11/1986)

Corwyn Sinister. Device. Vert, on a bend sinister between two oak leaves bendwise sinister argent, a raven rising, wings elevated and addorsed, sable.

Conflict with Leslie the Brown ("Vert, on a bend sinister argent a Hermit thrush close proper."). (11/1988)

Côte du Ciel, Shire of. Device. Gyronny sable and gules a bear rampant argent, maintaining in its dexter forepaw a laurel wreath Or, all within a bordure Or, charged with a ribbon gyronny gules and sable.

The bordure was blazoned as "voided counterchanged" on the letter of intent, and the blazon above is the nearest approach to a "legal" blazon that we could find, but in fact the emblazon shows a bordure counterchanged delineated with Or as any competent heraldic artist would do to pick up the metal of the wreath. As several commentors noted, the "voiding" or "fimbriating" of a bordure is not permitted under the rules and the counterchange of two colours upon one another is not permitted (a bordure counterchanged is only permitted when the two tinctures involved are from different classes). (05/1988)

Crisiant Angelus. Name for Household Silver Towers.

The household name conflicts with the Order of the Silver Tower, registered to the Barony of Settmour Swamp. (02/1990)

Crystal Moor, Shire of. Device. Argent, Per chevron inverted gules and argent, in chief a crystal point argent within a laurel wreath Or and in base a bine branch and an oak branch, crossed in saltire at their bases, fructed proper.

There are a number of stylistic problems with this device. First of all, the field is not a proper field "per chevron inverted" which would have the line of division issue from the sides of the shield, not its upper corners. It should be considered either a very flattened pile or an overly exaggerated chief triangular. In either case, it is not a period depiction. If the field division were drawn correctly, it would have to be considered almost classic "slot machine heraldry" and therefore not period style. The crystal point is, as a large number of commentors noted, unidentifiable as such and therefore may not be used. Finally, the two types of branches crossed in the base of the device are a solecism akin to crossing a sword and dagger in saltire and, what is more, come perilously close to an overuse of proper. In other words, as a whole, this is not period style. (02/1990)

Cú Dub MacArtuir. Device. Sable, semy of decrescents, a pale issuant to base from a chevron throughout Or.

As Treble Clef has correctly noted, this is merely a reblazoning of a Tir rune throughout and runes are symbols not permitted for use in Society devices (AR10c). (01/1988)

Culvanawd MacLeod. Name only.

Brachet's doubts concerning the actual use of the name "Culcanawd" by real humans in period, despite its use in the Mabinogion, are well-founded. Like many other Welsh names,this one has a meaning ("slender awl") and appears in a context that makes it almost certain that this is a "joke name" or personification, as suggested by Brachet. Brachet did some heavy linguistic analysis to come up with alternate components which might be used to manufacture a period-style name, but the submitter unfortunately allows no changes whatsoever to his name so we cannot implement any of them. (12/1989)

Cwen Tegan of the Far Pines. Change from holding name of Gretchen of the Far Pines.

It is extremely unfortunate that the local herald took unilateral action to change her name (this is why "holding names" below Laurel level are probably to be discouraged). However, she still cannot be Queen Tegan of the Far Pines. "Cwen" is the standard Anglo-Saxon title for Queen approved for use in the Society and was actually used in Old English in the specific sense of the ruler's wife (and in at least one case in the sense of a queen regnant). Therefore, I must reaffirm the ban on the use of "cwen" as an element in Society names. (Note that, although the paperwork had nothing to bar it, we felt that, given the history of this case, it was inappropriate to simply drop the "cwen" from the proposed name and register "Tegan of the Far Pines" without consultation with the submittor. ) (03/1987)

Cydonia of Essex. Device. Argent, in fess three holly leaves palewise vert, fructed gules, within an orle of holly leaves vert, fructed gules.

Under both sets of rules this conflicts with the arms of Aernest ("Argent, in fess three holly leaves conjoined in fess vert.", as cited in Papworth, p. 6). Note that the use of the same charges in differing sizes in this manner is dubious style. The overall effect is not period. [At least one member of Laurel staff wanted to call conflict with the paper tablecloth from their office Christmas party.]. (02/1990)

Cymber of the Darkwater. Badge for the Oleander. A Gothic miniscule "o" sable, entwined in dexter base by an oleander blossom gules, slipped and leaved proper, distilling a goutte de sang.

No submission for the Oleander can be registered at this time. For a complete discussion of the issue, please read the return of the name of the Order of the Oleander under the Kingdom of Atenveldt above. (02/1990)

Cynthia Braithwaite of Sevenoaks. Device. Bendy sinister of seven gules and Or, on a cross fleury azure, an acorn Or.

Conflict with Alexander Shanasie ("Pean, on a cross fleury azure, a chalice Or."). (01/1987)

Daarginds, Shire of. Name only.

Name withdrawn at request of Star Principal Herald. (03/1987)

Dafydd of Falconmont. Device. Per fess gules and vert, in bend sinister a lightning bolt Or, overall a gyrfalcon close argent.

Conflict with Manfried von Falkenmond ("Quarterly gules and vert, perched atop a crescent Or, a falcon hooded and jessed argent.") There is a point for the difference between the lightning bolt and the crescent, but no more than a minor for the field partitions since both are of an identical colour/colour combination and the hooding and jessing contributes negligible difference. A comparison of the emblazons confirmed that the technical conflict is also a definite visual conflict. (01/1987)

Dafydd the Silvertongue of Deverell. Device. Azure, in dexter chief a compass star, elongated to sinister and to base, the elongated rays surmounted by the upper and dexter elongated rays of a compass star at the honour point, the greater points elongated in cross argent.

The device is not period style, combining as it does the unusual perversion of the compass star with an extraordinarily unbalanced design. Additionally, as Brachet has pointed out, there is a Society conflict with Jed Silverstar ("Azure, a mullet of four greater and eight lesser points between four piles issuant in saltire argent."). That he has been using this device since he has joined the Society is interesting history, but does not entitle him to any exemption on style for there does not seem to be any evidence that he submitted previously (his forms note that these are new submissions). This is extremely sad for, if he had submitted even as late as the time he was knighted (1975), the problems of style and conflict would not have prevented registration of his device. (09/1988)

Dafydd the Silvertongue of Deverell. Device. Azure, in dexter canton a compass star elongated to base, the rays to sinister and to base surmounted by the upper and dexter rays of another compass star elongated to base, on a base wavy argent, a bar wavy azure.

While the problem of conflict has been addressed, the unbalanced and non-period use of the two compass stars remains. Separating the two stars (or at least conjoining them in a recognizably heraldic manner) would resolve the problem. (03/1989)

Dafydd the Silvertongue of Deverell. Device. Azure, in dexter canton a compass star elongated to base, the rays to sinister and in base surmounted by the upper and dexter rays or another compass star elongated to base, on a base wavy argent, a bar wavy azure.

Master Erasmierz appealed the previous return of this device for non-period style on several grounds, reblazoning it to emphasize his points ("Azure, a compass star surmounting another in dexter chief, both elongated to base argent, a ford proper.") Apart from the fact that the ford was not actually a ford since the tinctures were not evenly divided, there were some problems with this blazon. As noted by Hund and others, it does not clearly indicate the precise interrelationship of the two stars, which is critical to the design. If the usual Society practices were followed, the stars would be more directly overlying one another (and would probably produce a query from a heraldic artist as to the correctness of the tinctures involved). Ignoring the issue of blazon, however, there was a considerable amount of feeling in the College that the device just did not meet the demands of period style in terms of balance, static design, etc. either under the new rules or the old. While it is true that charges in canton do appear alone on arms, particularly where there is cadency involved, and while it is true that both period and Society armoury allows charges overall, the design as a whole has to be reasonably balanced and static. Seventeen years is a long time for a single individual to have used a device and we understand his attachment to it. However, while we sympathize with the submittor's affection for the design and his long use of it, we cannot feel that long-time unregistered use of a name or device automatically proves its compatibility with the standards of our Society, as Master Erasmierz suggested: that would undermine the very point of registration by the College of Arms and the attempt to create Society-wide standards for armoury. Almost every herald has had experience of long-term use of a name or piece of armoury that is found objectionable by many, but remains in use because the "owner" does not care or is so personally popular that the populace regards it as a forgivable anomaly. Others have encountered names or devices that have been used for long periods in remote or socially anomalous areas of the Society without registration (e.g., KKK insignia, SS insignia, devices almost identical to that of the reigning king or the senior knight, etc.). . . Use alone does not make an item acceptable any more than the rank of the submittor does. If they did, the very underpinnings of equitable registration of submissions, used since the early days of the Society, would be in question. (11/1989)

Dagmar Omarsdottir. Name and device. Argent, a staff of Aesculapius vert, flowered gules at its tips, issuant from a mound, at each flower supping a hummingbird hovering vert, overall two gores azure.

The rules specifically state that a patronymic suffix shall be in the language of the father's name or in English. Thus the combination of "Omar", which is Persian, and "dottir", which is Norse, is not acceptable, whatever the submittor's persona story. ("Dagmar bint Omar", while unlikely, would be registerable.) The consensus in the College was that the device was just not period style. Specifically, the complex central charge, with its unusual variation of a standard charge (the staff of Aesculapius), the addition of the ruby-throated hummingbirds and the mount and the gores add an unacceptable degree of complexity in type and tincture of charge. Moreover, the gores give a non- period effect of paper shades drawn away from a diorama or diptych and are extremely three dimensional in effect. (06/1989)

Dain of Aragon. Name only.

As Batonvert has commented, this name appears, both in Tolkien and in period Scandinavian sources (such as the Prose Edda), only as a non­human name, specifically as a name for Dwarves. This being so, it cannot be used in the Society without some documentation for this name in period. The Aragornish echo of the byname only reinforces the already existing difficulty presented by the given name. (09/1987)

Dairine Mor O hUigin. Device. Per bend sinister purpure and argent, issuant from the line of division a demi-unicorn argent and another inverted purpure.

White Stag made a stirring presentation in support of this being derived from practises which are more prevalent on the Continent than in England. Unfortunately, a majority of the instances cited on the letter of intent were undated or (at least apparently) dated after our period. Even so, we are perfectly prepared to agree that lines of division derived from counterbalanced indentations in the form of simple charges, such as lime leaves, trefoils, etc. are not incompatible with Society heraldry. However, the only instance adduced which was even vaguely parallel to this animate form was the much simpler arms of Helckner and the earliest date adduced for that depends on Randall Holmes (1688). Given that the usage here is at least one or two levels of complexity deeper than that involved with Helckner, this is just too complex. (07/1988)

Daman Borrendöhl. Name only.

No meaning was given for the byname, nor copies of the source cited in the letter of intent for the name elements in the byname so that the College could judge on the viability of conjoining these elements. (12/1987)

Damhnat Bean-Toruidhe. Name only.

We could not document the form Toruidhe which was given as meaning "rogue" or "scoundrel". The nearest appropriate noun from Gaelic seems to be "toraiche" which means a pursuer (it is the source for the English proper noun "Tory".) As she would not allow any changes in spelling or meaning, we were compelled to return the name as a whole. (02/1987)

Damian von Blauwald. Device. Quarterly en enquerre sable and azure, an eagle displayed argent between three crosses patoncy, one and two, argent.

There are numerous stylistic problems with this under both rules and conflict problems as well under the old rules. The field division quarterly en enquerre has been banned by the College as non­period since 76 and no new evidence has been presented for its use prior to the late seventeenth century. Moreover, even if it were allowed, it would not be allowed in low contrast colours since that would make it unidentifiable. Even if it were allowed in such low contrast colours as sable and azure, these would not be allowed where the charges overlie and obscure the line of division to such a degree. Finally, under the old rules, which limit the difference allowed for the low contrast field division, this would conflict with the sovereign arms of the Este rulers of Modena ("Azure, an eagle displayed argent."). (02/1990)

Damiano Vitale de Fonda. Device. Gules, a wyvern sejant, wings displayed, within an orle of estoiles Or.

Brigantia expressed fine and fiery outrage at the fact that this submission conflicts under the new rules with the device of Susanne of Woodwose Hall ("Gules, a tree eradicated within nine estoiles in annulo Or."). This somewhat obscured the fact that it would also have conflicted with Susanne under the old rules since the change in position of the secondaries is hardly worth a minor and the putative difference in number no difference at all: thus application of the "point and a half rule" would not suffice to carry the two devices clear. (The submission does not meet the requirements for complete difference of charge under either the old rules or the new.) Moreover, under the old rules this would also be in conflict with the device of Geoffrey Mandragora cited in the letter of intent ("Gules, a wyvern displayed Or charged with a rose sable."): there is a major for addition of the secondaries and a minor for removal of the tertiary. At the time Badger and I were working on the rules, we discussed at some length the conditions under which complete difference of charge should be held to apply. Based on commentary, in the end we decided to preserve the status quo ante and not expand the scope of the rule significantly. Brigantia's initial proposal seems to be too broad and the second too vague. We therefore put on the table another discussion for modification of the rules in this area (based on a concept discussed with Badger in the wee hours late last summer) for discussion by the College and action by Master Da'ud. See the cover letter for details. (04/1990)

Damien of Blackwood. Device. Per bend gules and sable, two salamanders conjoined in annulo counterchanged, enflamed Or.

The effect is of salamanders fimbriated rayonny and these are too complex to fimbriate. Additionally, this is a visual conflict with Rutik Siegfriedason of Ringstad ("Per bend gules and sable, on a roundel counterchanged fimbriated a compass star throughout Or."). (09/1986)

Damien of Briarwood. Device. Per bend sable and gules, two salamanders conjoined in annulo counterchanged, enflamed Or.

Aten appealed the return of a similar device (the field tinctures were reversed) in September, 1986. While the modification of the field tinctures does clear the visual conflict cited at that time, the question of the acceptability of the collocation of charges here is not so easily resolved. Aten quite properly noted that salamanders are normally enflamed so that his would be an anomaly for Society heraldry. In asserting that using flames would not be an anomaly for Society heraldry. In asserting that using flames for a salamander should not be interpreted as fimbriation, however, several erroneous analogies are made. As a phoenix is not enflamed, but is a bird rising from flames, it is not a parallel situation. The citation of the badge for the Order of the Salamander registered to the Barony of Bhakail ("Gules, a salamander tergiant displayed bendwise sinister sable, enflamed Or.") as proof that salamanders tergiant can be enflamed is valid, but neglects the unusual posture of the salamanders in Damien's device and the reality of the Bhakail badge. In the latter case a single beastie in a relatively standard position is placed on large goutte of flame (almost a cartouche rayonny bendwise sinister): both beast and flames are clearly identifiable. In this case, the recognizability of the salamanders is materially diminished by the unusual posture and the visual confusion created by the counterchanging. Moreover, the proportion of flame to beast is much diminished (and must be in order to maintain the central "island" of the field). The reason for the ban on "excessive fimbriation" is not merely a desire to be "more authentic" but a realization that fimbriating complex charges makes them more difficult to identify. Indeed, in this case the visual effect to several people who viewed this was of an eccentric annulet enflamed, not two animate objects biting each other's tails enflamed. More than one person, looking at the emblazon felt that this was in conflict with Hida Korin ("Sable, an annulet gules enflamed within and without between three mullets of four points Or."). (05/1987)

Damien of Briarwood. Device. Per bend sinister sable and gules, on a sun Or, two lizards tergiant statant in annulo sable.

Conflict with Kourost Bernard of the East Woods ("Sable, a sun eclipsed Or."): there is a minor for the change in half the low contrast field and at most two minors for change in type and number of the things on the sun (and even this is pushing it in view of the annulet effect of the two lizards). This also conflicts with Dernley ("Sable, a sun in splendour Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 1100) and Sonnemaer ("Gules, a sun Or.", cited in Woodward, p. 306). (07/1989)

Damon Hawke. Device. Sable, on a triangle Or, another sable.

Hund is correct in citing a technical conflict with Morgan of the Grey Mists ("Sable, on a triangle throughout between three crosses couped Or, a tree proper."): for conflict purposes, there is no difference whatsoever between a triangle voided and a triangle charged with another. (06/1988)

Danica Katherine of Harveston Vale. Device. Gyronny azure and argent, a mullet of four points counterchanged argent and vert between in bend sinister two sprigs of vine palewise vert.

The vines were blazoned as morning glory but there were no flowers or other identifying marks. This is visually in conflict with the badge of Morberie of Tor Denly ("Gyronny argent and azure, a mullet of four points counterchanged.") Moreover, placing charges only on two of the argent compartments of the field creates a very modern, unbalanced effect. (11/1986)

Daniel de Bonne. Name only.

A large number of commentors pointed out the extreme aural and visual similarity to one Daniel Boone. Although a "holding name" alternative was mentioned on the letter of intent, holding names are not issued in the absence of armoury and the alternate does not seem to have been considered in and of itself to a degree sufficient to allow its passage. Note that if he wishes the name Daniel the Good or Daniel Good, this is acceptable in English. Note that "bonne" as a noun does not refer to the abstract good (which is the masculine substantive "bon") but rather is a feminine and means "maid" (as in upstairs parlourmaid). (06/1988)

Daniel O'Neill. Change of name from holding name of Daniel of An Dun Teine.

As Crescent has noted, this is in direct conflict with the name of Daniel O'Neill. While it is true that the English Civil War and the Restoration are "outside our period", this favourite of Charles II is not exactly obscure to those familiar with those eras. (04/1989)

Danya Avrama Bethoc. Name and device. Argent, a cubit arm couped palewise aversant holding a tambourine proper, on a chief gules three butterflies argent.

The name Danya was documented as a feminine name solely from Kolatch, which is notorious for its lack of interest in drawing distinctions between traditional and modern names. In fact, the only actual instances we could find of Danya were as a modern Russian diminutive of Daniel and we do not register diminutives without evidence of their independent existence in period. Since the human flesh is a "light" tincture, it has insufficient contrast with the argent field, as do the metallic disks which differentiate the tambourine from an annulet of dark wood. (01/1987)

Danyal Barham Ravani. Device. Azure, a goldfish urinant Or and in chief a natural rainbow proper, fimbriated Or.

The rainbow is too complex a charge to fimbriate. Moreover, the natural rainbow is by definition a colour plus metal and therefore neutral charge (see the Glossary of Terms under "proper".) (02/1987)

Daphne of Ered Isen. Device. Sable, a sword inverted surmounted by a retort fesswise gules, fimbriated Or, distilling from the retort a goutte d'Or, on a label Or a coronet sable between two roses gules.

The label charged with two different charges in two tinctures is just too complex. Since her original submission, which had a label gules fimbriated Or, was returned with the suggestion that a plain label would be acceptable, we would feel bound to permit this cadency from her father's device, which would undoubtedly be considered overly complex itself by "modern" Society standards. (05/1987)

Daphne of Ered Isen. Change of device. Sable, a sword inverted surmounted by a retort fesswise gules, both fimbriated Or, distilling from the retort a goutte d'Or, on a label Or, a ducal coronet sable between two roses gules.

Aten appealed at great length the previous return of this submission, citing copious examples of charged labels apparently under the impression that the return in May, 1987, had been for use of an undocumented practise. Unfortunately, that was not the case: the precise wording of the return was as follows: The label charged with two different charges in two tinctures is just too complex. Since her original submission, which had a label gules fimbriated Or, was returned with the suggestion that a plain label would be acceptable, we would feel bound to permit this cadency from her father's device which would undoubtedly be considered overly complex itself by "modern" Society standards. The appeal does not really address the question of complexity: apart from the excessive fimbriation, there are five different types of charges and three different tinctures. Note that too the examples of "non-royal" use of charged labels adduced from period by Aten all were used with extremely simple armoury (the most complex consisted of three identical charges on a plain field) with all charges on the label identical. Moreover, all the examples used the labels as claims of pretense, which is not the case here (and would be questioned were it the case). (11/1989)

Dara Armand. Device. Azure, a pall between a fir tree couped and two increscents argent.

Under both sets of rules this conflicts with Collet ("Azure, a pall argent.", cited in Woodward, p. 5): there is only one difference here for adding the secondary charges. Similarly, it conflicts with Ailith ferch Dafydd ("Azure, a pall between a Celtic cross and two unicorns rampant argent."): there only the change of type in the single group of secondary charges. (03/1990)

Darcy Randolph. Name and device. Sable, a bat-winged wolf sejant affronty, wings displayed and inverted, in chief three mullets, two and one, argent.

The letter of intent cited Withycombe (p. 75) in support of the usage of the given name, saying it was "used since the fourteenth century as a given name". What Withycombe in fact says is "In the 14th C a branch of the family settled in Ireland, and Darcy was there adopted as a christian name. . ." Nowhere is a date given for this process: the only assumption that can be made is that it occurred after 1300. The device conflicts visually with Rhyance Llew ap Llewellyn ("Sable, a bat-winged lion sejant affronty, wings displayed, on a chief triangular argent a Celtic cross sable."): the distinctive posture and bat-winging of the beast overrode any differentiations between the lion and the wolf (the distinctive details largely lay on the wings and faded into the general argent blur). (01/1988)

Darcy Wilric. Name and device. Sable, a wyvern passant to sinister and on a chief argent, three towers sable.

As Brigantia himself noted, the documentation is unclear as to the period in which the family name of origin d'Arcy came into use as a given name in Ireland. We would like to give the submittor the "benefit of the doubt" as he suggests, but this is difficult when there is solid evidence for its use as a surname and none for its use as a given name in period (cf. NR10). (03/1988)

Daria de Tabriz. Badge. Or, a pavillion azure.

Conflict with Ah Kum of the Ger-Igren ("Per fess argent and vert, a Mongolian yurt azure. ") (03/1987)

Daria de Tabriz. Device. Per chevron Or and azure, three crescents, one and two, and a sun in splendour, all counterchanged.

Unfortunately, Brachet is correct in pointing out that under DoD11 this technically conflicts with Thomas Edmund de Ruislip ("Per chevron azure and Or, two swallows migrant in chevron and a sun counterchanged. "). (03/1987)

Darian Goldenhaired. Name and device. Vert, a Viking longship's prow and in chief two double-bitted axes in chevron proper.

Although this was not noted on the letter of intent, the documentation for the submittor's given name was Kolatch, a notoriously unreliable source. In fact, all evidence points to "Darian" being a modern creation like "Darren", "Darin", etc. The prow and axes proper have unacceptably poor contrast on the vert field: the only elements which show up clearly are theaxe heads. (08/1988)

Darien Tevarson. Badge. Azure, a compass star within a bordure argent.

Conflict with the device of Brandon d'Arindel ("Per bend azure and sable, a compass star of sixteen points elongated to base within a bordure argent."). (01/1987)

Darius of Hidden River. Device. Argent, on a bend sinister cotised gules, a leopard's head cabossed argent, marked sable.

Conflict with Kathryn Dhil Lorriel ("Argent, on a bend sinister gules, cotised sable, a Lady Banks rose, slipped and leaved, proper."). (10/1988)

Dark Horde. Badge. Per pale embowed and counter-embowed gules and sable, a lightning flash bendwise sinister within a bordure argent.

This badge submission specifically plays against their device which was passed in 1981, well before the ban on natural lightning bolts and, according to well-established precedent, would be allowed to claim protection under the Grandfather Clause. However, as Brachet has pointed out, this is virtually identical to a logo of the Grateful Dead and therefore must be returned for conflict.

NOTE: There seemed to be some confusion on the part of some commentors between the "Hardship Clause" and the "Grandfather Clause". The former is designed to aid submittors who have through no fault of their own had submissions delayed for a period of time in which the rules have changed. There is normally a time limit for such submissions to legitimately claim leniency under this clause. The Grandfather Clause, on the other hand, protects from future rules changes armory which has already been registered. Whatever my personal feelings on the subject, there have been many rulings in the past to indicate that, where a badge uses the primary charge(s) from a device which would not be licit were they submitted for the first time today, the badge gains an associative protection under the Grandfather Clause. (02/1987)

Dark Tower, Shire of. Name and device. Per chevron inverted argent and vert, in chief a tower sable within a laurel wreath vert and in base two dragon skulls respectant argent.

The name is not a suitable name for a Society group. It is not only in conflict with the Sauron's fortress of Barad-dur, which is generally referred to in the Tolkienic literature in its English translation ("The Dark Tower"), but also with the recent electronic game of the same name (suggested by the Tolkienic location, according to several of our game maven associates). The dragon's skulls were not identifiable, even at close range, although we appreciated the intent: perhaps they could consider some more identifiable skulls?. (01/1987)

Dark Tower, Shire of. Name only.

It was the consensus of the College that the innocent geographic intent of the submittor's to refer to a major local landmark (the Anaconda smokestack) was unfortunately irrelevant to the fact that the bulk of the membership of the Society would immediately relate the Dark Tower to that of Mordor. Given the fact that the stack was demolished in 1982, perhaps they would consider something like "Broken Tower" or "Vanished Tower" (barring other conflicts. . .) (06/1988)

Dashivé Luciana d'Avignon. Change of name from Luciana d'Avignon.

When the lady's device was accepted in July, 1987, the manufactured given name Dashivé was dropped because it did not accord with French naming practice, as had been stated on the letter of intent. The lady appealed this return, stating that "any relationship to an actual language is coincidental". This appeal was the subject of much discussion in the College, both in correspondence and at the meeting held at Estrella War. The consensus seemed to be that the College was not particularly happy with the name, but could "live with" the plausibility of the constructed name as the lady indicated it was actually pronounced (as "Déjavée" using French orthography). However, there was a strong feeling that this pronunciation could not be reconstructed from the spelling used, which produced a number of distinctly less acceptable renditions and that the name could only be accepted in a spelling which reflected the name was it is actually used. As the lady was present at Estrella War, Crescent consulted with her and the College was informed that she would accept an alternate spelling of "Déjavée". Shortly after her return from the War, the submittor withdrew this permission, demanding the original spelling or none at all. Given these circumstances, we feel we have no alternative to the return of the name as it now stands. (02/1988)

Da'ud ibn Auda. Change of badge. A dromedary statant distilling from its mouth two gouttes Or.

Unfortunately, the Laurel Designate is caught in a "Catch­22" situation here. The bulk of the College agreed that the gouttes were artistic frou­frou and did not create difference. Thus this still conflicts with the arms of Falwitz ("Vert, a camel statant Or.") that caused him to register the badge with a field originally. Under the old rules, there is no difference given for the field when a badge is fieldless so the submission would be heraldically identical to Falwitz. Under the new rules, difference can be derived from its fieldless state but two differences are needed. (04/1990)

Da'ud ibn Auda. Change of badge. An apple gules, slipped and leaved proper.

After due consideration, we had to feel that the attributed arms of Eve cited by Trefoil (from the Boke of Saint Albans where they are blazoned as "Argent, an apple proper") do deserve protection. As Trefoil noted, Eve is herself a major figure in period literature/art/iconography and these attributed arms appear in one of the major period heraldic works. (They also appear in the iconography of a number of late period art works.) This being the case, there is a definite conflict under both rules. Under the old rules, there is no difference between the two. Under the new rules, there is only the difference for fieldlessness. (Note that we were unable to confirm the apple in plain red as a trademark of Apple Computers Mac division, as cited in commentary. While Laurel staff recalled seeing advertisements for Macs which lacked the rainbow apple, the machines themselves still appear to preserve the traditional psychelic fruit.) (04/1990)

David de Kunstenaar. Badge for House Painter. Vert, an artist's palette Or.

Visual conflict with La Rana ("Vert, on a cushion Or, a frog sejant affronty vert, crowned Or."). Since the cushion on La Rana's device is in exactly the same orientation, it is difficult to tell the cushion and the palette apart at any distance. (Note: yes, his device also conflicts with La Rana: the College of Arms simply did not catch the conflict at that time!). (02/1987)

David de Kunstenaar. Badge for House Painter. Vert, an artist's palette Or.

While the submittor did document several forms of period palette, the square palette that he fought for so hard in the discussions of his device is the "defining instance" for Society heraldry. The palette that he wishes to use is in fact square/rectangular and thus does conflict with the device of La Rana ("Vert, on a cushion Or, a frog sejant affronty vert, crowned Or.") (06/1988)

David de los Caballos. Device. Gules, a horse rampant between six mullets of six points in orle Or.

Conflict with Lourana Moonwind "Gules, a decrescent moon within an orle of mullets Or."): the visual difference between the bullets of five points and the mullets of six points is so diminished by their size that it is negligible here. (03/1989)

David MacDougall. Badge. Per chevron inverted azure and gules, a chevron inverted tierced chevronwise argent, sable and Or.

Conflict with the badge of Joanne of Puffin Cliff, registered in August, 1987 ("Per chevron inverted azure and gules, a chevron inverted Or."). Note that the tinctures of the two metals were inadvertently reversed on the letter of intent. (12/1987)

David MacDougalls. Change of name from David MacDougall. Per fess azure and gules, a demi-plate conjoined to a base demi-sun Or, the whole charged with a hawk striking sable.

The submittor was appealing the dropping of the terminal "s" from his name when it was registered in August, 1987. The letter of intent indicated that the submittor contended that this was a valid variant form, but neither the letter of intent nor the submittor's paperwork gave any documentation supporting this statement. In this case, the weight of argument is very strong to indicate that the "mac" prefix and the "s" suffix are alternate methods of indicating a patronymic and are not used together. Intensive examination of Scots surnames in Black, particularly the entries for MacDougall, failed to show a single instance of the two patronymic indicators occurring together. The submittor was also appealing a return of the device at Kingdom level by Brigantia's predecessor, Dawyd z Gury. The consensus of commentary was to applaud Dawyd's conclusion that this device was not period style. Morover, it technically conflicts with the device of Stefan of Seawood, cited on the letter of intent ("Azure, on a sun Or, an eagle displayed sable."). (10/1988)

David Schmuel ben Rachon. Badge. A golden eagle's head erased, maintaining a red garden rose, slipped and leaved, proper (Aquila Chrysaetos).

As this is a fieldless badge, there is a conflict with Hugh Louis ("Per chevron dovetailed Or and sable, in base an eagle's head erased Or."): no difference can be given for the field or for position on the field so the differences are limited to the minor difference for the tincture of the bird and the addition of the rose. Similarly, this is excessively close to the badge of the U.S. 39th Infantry Regiment ("A falcon's head erased Or, holding in the gill an ivy leaf vert.", as cited by Silver Trumpet). Note that a request for reblazon of the device was included with the badge submission. As Crescent has noted, the reblazon had been a result of uniform reblazoning performed at the end of his tenure by the current Laurel's predecessor. While she would be amenable to arguments on the issue, the commentors could not make a reasonable judgement on this request without a depiction of the bird (the vast majority of the College were not commenting when it was registered in March, 1985). (03/1989)

Davita 'Aishah al-Balansiyyah. Name and device. Quarterly nowed argent and azure, four crescents in cross, horns to center, counterchanged vert and argent.

The bynames are acceptable but there is some doubt about the given name which was documented as being Scots feminization of the documented Scots form "Davit" for "David", citing Withycombe. While Withycombe does show "Davit" as a period English (not Scots) form, there is some doubt about the formation of a feminine in "a" from this form. If a form in "-a" were to exist, it would have to be derived from the Latin where "David" is generally an indeclinable noun. When it does decline, it is in the third declension (with a genitive in "Davidis"). Feminine forms in "-a" in classical and period sources are generally formed from masculines in "-us" on the analogy of first/second declension adjectives. Thus, this does not appear to be a linguistically valid period construct. The only reference we could find to "Davida" as a given name did mention it as Scots (Dunkling and Gosling, New American Dictionary of First Names, p. 94), but gave no date for the name, which generally means it is a relatively modern construct. There seemed to be a general consensus in the College that the introduction of the unusual field division was inadvisable. There could be no guarantee that the bowing of the line of division would be automatically reproduced as it was drawn on the letter of intent and the submission forms which is absolutely required for the design to work. (Indeed, at least one competent heraldic artist assumed the nowing would be at the center, as in a cross nowy.) Moreover, as Silver Trumpet has noted, the period nature of the "nowy" partition line is somewhat in question and should not be accepted at all without clear documentation of its period origin. Such documentation has not been provided. (01/1990)

Deirdre Kyle. Device. Azure, a bend sinister between a phoenix rising to sinister, wings addorsed, and a lute bendwise sinister and edge on, all Or.

Conflict with Blair duBois ("Azure, a bend sinister between a cat sejant guardant and a dove close Or.") (02/1987)

Deirdre Maire of Leinster. Device. Argent, on a chevron inverted cotised gules, three crosses fleury argent.

Conflict with Adelaide the Grey ("Argent, on a chevron inverted cotised gules, a fleam argent."). (07/1988)

Deirdre Marianne Steele of Cowdray. Badge. A mushroom per pale purpure and Or.

As this is fieldless, this technically conflicts with Deborah the Wanderer ("Purpure, a mushroom argent."). As noted above, the current rules do not allow a distinction to be made between fields on which a badge may legally be displayed and those on which it may not, so the conflict remains. (09/1986)

Deirdre Marie of Leinster. Device. Argent, on a pall gules, five crosses fleury argent.

Conflict with Alan of Northcrest ("Argent, a pall between three Maltese crosses gules. "). (03/1987)

Del Delson. Name only.

The forms (e.g., Dealla, Dela) cited in the letter of intent from Redin are all "weak" masculine nouns which would appear not to form this sort of name modification. In this case the "plausibility" of the construct is rendered somewhat irrelevant by the documented modern use of "Del" as a diminutive form. As Crescent has noted in discussing name documentation, arguments from plausibility must give way to actual evidence and, in this case, a theoretical radical usage must give way to actual diminutive usage. A very close form could be derived from the documented Old Norse given name "Dalli": Dalli Dallason (Geirr Bassi, p. 9). (06/1987)

Delbert of Swabia. Change of name from holding name of David of Aneala.

Noone in the College was able to document the protheme "Del-" as an identifiable separate element in German, Old English or any other Germanic language. He stated that he would accept Adalbert as an alternative. Unfortunately, even that is not really an option since Adalbert and Albrecht are variant of the same German name (Yonge, p. 410) and thus the proposed name conflicts with Albrecht von Swabia, the Clumsy (who is generally referred to without his byname). (03/1988)

Demelza Felinnoir. Name and device. Or, a lion passant between in pale two cinquefoils pierced sable, all within an orle wavy azure.

Several sources indicate that "Demelza" exists only as a place name in period. Indeed, the evidence of several sources on English and Cornish given names is that the name is first used as a personal name in the last thirty years or so as an attempt to add to the limited stock of Cornish feminine names. As she indicated that no changes could be made to her name, we felt compelled to return the submission as a whole. Note that several commentors stated that this was in conflict with Ghyslaine Felinnoir ("Or, a lion passant, in base an estoile, within a bordure rayonny sable."), citing the "secondary limit". In fact, there is no technical conflict, despite the clear echo of Ghyslaine's device (presumably intentional, given the common surname). DR9 clearly states "Changes to a single group of secondary charges are worth at most a Major and a minor point of difference" [italics mine]. Under the definitions for a "group of charges" the bordure and estoile on Ghyslaine's device and the orle and cinquefoils here are separate groups of charges and so the limit does not apply. (09/1987)

Demetrius il Condottierri. Device. Argent, a sea-lion sable.

Conflict with Sylvestre ("Argent, a sea-lion naiant sable, crowned gules."). (11/1988)

Demian O'Boirne. Badge. Azure, in pale a plate and a seal displayed erect, tail sufflexed, argent.

The consensus was "It's cute, but it ain't heraldry!" The seal has intentionally been placed in a posture where it is indistinguishable from a mullet (that this was intentional is clear from the original badge submission which blazons the posture as "erect, displayed, head to chief, tail sufflexed behind the body to sinister so as to form the shape of a mullet."). That this is the effect has been field-tested by Laurel staff on several non-heralds who knew nothing of the device. The fact that the non-standard position of the beasties can be blazoned in traditional heraldic language is irrelevant: a good herald can blazon almost anything, indeed in the East this used to be parlor game played by the heraldically minded during long trips or boring meetings, but it is not necessarily heraldic and/or identifiable in and of itself. A charge must be identifiable without the blazon and this is not. Vesper's appeal raised the interesting question of potentially differing standards of identifiability for charges on badges because of their theoretically short-range usage in the Society. Leaving aside fact that we are trying to encourage period usage of insignia, not the bookplate approach to heraldry, the fact remains that in the Society badges are - or should be - used to identify the individual, not the other way around. (As we said, it is cute and we really wish we could have given it the seal of approval [Ed. Note: we know, we have been very good for five months. . .]). (01/1987)

Denewynn von Alsenz. Device. Purpure, a bend wavy between four plates.

Conflict with Ruatha Anne ("Purpure, a harpy argent between four plates."): as the change in position of the plates derives entirely from the change in type of primary charge, there is only one difference: the change in type of primary charge. This is a conflict under both sets of rules. (01/1990)

Dennis Landhammer. Device. Or, a cardinal close proper.

Since the cardinal is red with some minor black markings on the face and only a single major can be derived for difference of type of bird, this is in conflict with several coats which feature red birds on an Or field: Fysher ("Or, a kingfisher close gules.", cited in Papworth, p. 305), Aquila ("Or, an eagle close gules." ibid., p. 301) and Cheeke ("Or, a cock gules, beaked sable.", ibid., p. 295). (09/1989)

Deorsa the Gentle Giant. Name only.

The term "giant" in and of itself may not lay claim to superhuman powers since the transfer from the non-human Giants of Greek myth to humans large in physical or mental stature seems to have been made in period. However, as several commentors (including C.S.Lewis fans on Laurel staff) pointed out, the "Gentle Giants" are a particular non-human race in the Narnia universe. They are both large and "gentle" in the sense of courteous, but have a fatal (literally!) taste for "human-pie". While we sympathise with the gentle's intent, we cannot consider the epithet appropriate for Society use. (11/1989)

Derbhiled ni Liadhnain. Badge. Purpure, three pallets argent.

The charges are pallets, not billets as blazoned on the letter of intent. As such, this conflicts with Thornton ("Azure, three pallets argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1014). (05/1990)

Derric Greywolf. Device. Or, on a bend sinister pean a wolf passant to sinister ululant argent.

The original return of this device for conflict with Maria del Gato ("Or, a bend sinister pean between two quills pens crossed in base azure and a cat sejant affronty sable.") was appealed on the grounds that a major point should be given for removal of the pens and another major point for removal of the cat. However, the pens and the cat are a single group of charges and at most a single major pint can be derived from their removal. The conflict stands. (03/1989)

Derric Greywolf. Device. Or, on a bend sinister pean, a wolf passant to sinister ululant argent.

Conflict with Maria del Gato ("Or, a bend sinister pean between two quill pens crossed in base azure and a cat sejant affronty sable."). (09/1988)

Deryk Balthasar Symonds. Device. Azure, a chevron engrailed Or between two trefoils slipped and a boar's head erased argent.

Conflict with Dudley ("Azure, a chevron engrailed Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 374). Given the conjunction with the name Symonds, this is also perilously close to the arms of Symonds ("Azure, a chevron engrailed between three trefoils slipped Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 425). (08/1989)

Deryk von Waldfrysk. Name only.

The submitter indicated that "Waldfrysk" meant "Frisian wood", but provided no documentation for this. As none of the commentors could document it and it is not usual German formation for such names, we had to return the name. (09/1989)

Desmond O'Brian. Name only.

Unfortunately, all the evidence points to the usage of the given name Desmond being a recent usage, derived from the use of the place name Desmond as a family name. Its popularity would seem to date from a relatively late date, perhaps influenced by the Fenian adoption of the long dead Fitzgerald Earls of Desmond as martyrs for Irish liberty under the Tudors. (12/1987)

Devon of Newcastle. Device. Argent, three crosses crosslet fitchy within an orle surmounted at its corners by three fleurs­de­lys in pall, all gules.

To guarantee the orle's depiction as drawn by the submittor, it is necessary to blazon them in this manner, but the orle­ fleur combination is clearly a unified orle variant. As such this is in conflict with Adamson ("Argent, three crosses crosslet fitchy gules.", as cited in Papworth, p. 670). The orle is suggestive of the royal tressure of Scotland. (04/1990)

Diana nic Luthais Maclean. Device. Sable, on a pile Or, a garden rose affronty gules.

Conflict with March of Grimfells ("Sable, on a pile throughout Or a spider's web throughout sable charged with a laurel wreath vert."), Barony of Grey Niche ("Sable, on a pile Or between in base two estoiles argent, a laurel wreath vert."), the arms of Royle ("Sable, on a pile Or three crosses patty of the first.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1023), etc. (11/1988)

Diana of the Tulips. Azure, five lozenges conjoined in fess Or between a compass star and a seal naiant to sinister argent.

Conflict with Percy ("Azure, five lozenges conjoined in fess Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 702). (12/1988)

Diana of the Tulips. Device. Azure, a fess of lozenges conjoined in fess, alternately argent and Or, between a compass star Or and a seal naiant to sinister argent.

As far as the commentors could determine, the alternate colouration of the lozenges in fess, as well as their exceeding small size, are not period style. Try a fess of larger lozenges in one tincture. (04/1988)

Diarmait ui Dunn. Name only.

Unfortunately, he allows no changes to his name so that the minor problems with the grammar of the patronymic cannot be corrected. "Ui" is Old Irish but is either a nominative plural or genitive singular form of the noun "ua". It is appropriately used to denote a family as a whole (the Irish equivalent of "the O'Connors", for instance). For an individual it would only be used in a context where the genitive is called for such as in a possessive (e.g.., "bean Sheáin Uí Briain" for the "wife od John O'Brian"). In a patronymic form it should be "ua", the nominative singular form. Moreover, if the Irish form is used, the aspirated genitive form of the given name would be required in the patronymic: "ua Dhyunn". If he wishes to use "Dunn" as it stands, he would need to use the Anglicized form "O'Dunn". (12/1989)

Diarmid O Lorcain. Change of device. Sable, a bordure erminois.

The submittor appealed the return of this device by Vesper for conflict with the mundane arms of Bass ("Sable, a bordure argent.") and the submission of his alternate device to the College (it was registered in December, 1987). After much discussion, we cannot agree with the contention of Crux Australis that the change from argent to erminois is worth a major and a minor point since two distinct changes are made: this is not a change from one tincture to another with a further addition of charges but rather a change from one recognized heraldic tincture to another (that one of the tinctures is a fur is interesting but does not add extra difference). (02/1988)

Diarmid O Lorcain. Name only.

The name was submitted as Diarmid Ui Lorcain with the note that this was the Old Gaelic form of O'Larkin. This does not seem to be the case. It is rather the genitive singular form of the patronymic, used to indicate possession by someone with that patronymic, or the plural nominative, used in many old sources for the clan in a collective sense (i.e., the equivalent of English usage of "the O'Larkins"). Since he permitted no minor changes to the name, the name had technically to be returned. (12/1987)

Diedre of the Wilds. Badge. Upon a quatrefoil saltirewise gules, barbed vert, a chalice Or.

Conflict with Catzius ("Argent, a rose gules, seeded Or, barbed vert.", as cited in Papworth, p. 889): no more than a weak minor can be derived from the difference between the goblet Or and the seeding Or. (04/1988)

Dimitri Mikhailovich Kirusov. Device. Sable, a drinking mug argent, on a chief gules, three bezants.

The exemption from the "Rule of Tincture" extended to a chief in some periods of mundane heraldry is not permissible in Society heraldry. Thus the gules chief on the sable field is "colour on colour". (03/1988)

Dirk MacMartin. Device. Per pale azure and Or, a billet surmounted by a lozenge fesswise surmounted by a lozenge palewise between eight mullets in annulo, all within a bordure counterchanged.

The primary charge was shown in the blazon on the letter of intent as an estoile, on the emblazon on the letter of intent as a compass star and on the emblazon sheet provided by the submittor as the collocation of charges shown in the blazon above. What the submittor has provided is four layers, even though the surmounting charges are of the same tincture. The device cannot really be pended because it is not at all clear whether the submittor would prefer a compass star, an estoile (which would have six wavy rays) or neither of these. (03/1987)

Dmitri Yaroslavich Tsepesh. Name only.

It was the consensus of the commentary in the College that the byname "Tsepesh", which means "Impaler" and is associated with Vlad the Impaler, prototype for the Dracula legend, is offensive in itself, offensive in its association with Vlad/Dracula and should not be registered. Unfortunately, simply deleting the epithet brings the name into clear conflict with Dimitri Yaroslavich Aryelov and so the name must be returned. Note that the analogues noted with Scots practise to support the difference of the two names with a different byname (Ian Bruce MacRae and Ian Bruce Robertson) may not be valid. In Scots practise the "use name" in each case would most likely be Ian MacRae and Ian Robertson. In Russian practise the usual mode of reference for both would be with given name and patronymic so that both would commonly be referred to and addressed as Dimitri Yaroslavich (this is extremely confusing to Western readers, as anyone who was exposed to in Freshman English Anna Karenina or War and Peace will testify, but the Russians do not seem to have a problem with it). (12/1987)

Domhnall MacRuadhri. Name only.

Unfortunately, Vesper is correct in citing conflict with Donal Artor MacRorie, registered in September, 1987. (07/1988)

Dominic Sentre. Device. Argent, ermined azure, a swan displayed, wings addorsed, sable, membered Or, and a base engrailed azure.

Conflict with Irving de Rosamonde MacChlurain ("Ermine, a swan elevated and displayed, dismembered sable, collared Or, holding in its beak a thistle proper."). The visual echoes are simply too great, particularly in view of the almost negligible difference in the tincture of the ermine tails. (10/1987)

Dominic Sentre. Badge. Gules, on a compass star Or four daggers in cross conjoined at the pommels sable.

Conflict with Seth the Seeker ("Gules, on a compass star throughout Or a unicorn's head couped at the shoulders sable, armed and crined gules."). (10/1987)

Dominic Tremayne. Device. Azure, two chevronels between two fleurs-de-lys and a sword argent.

Conflict with Latham ("Azure, two chevrons argent." as cited in Papworth, p. 541) and Brayton ("Azure, two chevrons between three mullets argent.", ibid., p. 547). (06/1987)

Dominique Charité d'Angleterre. Device. Per saltire Or and azure, four lilies in cross, bells outward, within an orle flory counterflory, all counterchanged.

As noted by several commentors, the orle flory counterflory is visually too close to the reserved tressure of Scotland, a decision reaffirmed as recently as September, 1989 (in the case of Mirielda Grey). While Master Erasmierz is correct in noting this is not identical to the Scots tressure, its "visual weight" is essentially the same and there was a fairly strong feeling at the time this charge first was presented that it was visually tantamount to the reserved charge. (11/1989)

Donal Artur of the Silver Band. Device. Argent, on a bend azure between two ermine spots sable, three suns Or.

Visual conflict with Exall ("Ermine, on a bend azure, three estoiles Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 238). (10/1989)

Donal Ian MacGregor. Change of name from Ian of Shadowlands.

As noted by several commentors, the name now not only has problems with the Ian MacGregors for which the name was originally returned, but with the addition of Donal now also with the father of the (in)famous Rob Roy who also bore that name. (02/1989)

Donal MacMurtrie. Badge for Clan MacMurtrie. Three mullets in fess gules.

This was pended at the June meeting for further conflict checking after the removal of the belt with which the badge was originally encircled. Unfortunately, it now conflicts with the mundane arms of Burchell ("Argent, three mullets in chief gules.", as cited in Papworth, p. 993). (09/1987)

Donal MacMurtrie. Household name for Clan MacMurtrie.

As has been mentioned during the ongoing debate on the protection of household names, the current ruling precedent is that of Wilhelm von Schlussel, made in June, 1982: "Household names may not be the surnames of actual families or clans, as that would imply that the head of the household was the head of that family or clan." (Although there have been occasional lapses in the consistency with which household names have been checked for such conflicts, this has remained the ruling precedent.) Unfortunately, so much attention was focused on the potential precedent surrounding the original badge submission, which featured a belt surrounding the badge in the Scots manner, that the question of the name was not raised until this Laurel meeting. MacMurtrie is in fact a period Scots surname and appears in Black (Surnames of Scotland, p. 547). Our apologies to the submittor for not mentioning this sooner; he should be assured that, if he cannot reserve the use of the name, noone else can either! (05/1988)

Donal O'Niallain. Name only.

Even under the new rules, this name conflicts with that of the king of Ulster whom English sources usually call "Donald O'Neill". He played a major part in the politics of early fourteenth­century Ireland and was one of the signatories of the famous letter of the Irish nobles to Pope John XXII in 1318, which complained of English murders of Irish clergy. (For a short quote from this letter in an accessible source, see MacManus' Story of the Irish Race, p. 331­332.) (05/1990)

Donald Armstrong. Device. Sable, in saltire two poignards inverted, surmounted by a rapier inverted, all within an orle argent.

We were compelled to agree with Crescent and other commentors who felt that the difference between the types of bladed weapon was a distinction rather than a difference and a distinction that would not have been made normally in period heraldry. There is also a conflict with Agelos Evienece, cited by Brachet ("Sable, in pale a wolf's head caboshed and two swords in saltire within an orle argent."). (04/1988)

Donald Thomas Maxwell. Device. Azure, a dove rising, wings elevated and displayed, argent, on a chief Or a rose between two crosses crosslet gules.

Conflict with Bellingham ("Azure, an eagle displayed argent, holding in the beak a sprig vert, on a chief Or a rose between two crosses crosslet gules.") and with Francesca of Bright Angel ("Azure, a dove rising, wings displayed, argent."). (01/1987)

Donnabhan Keegan Bothwell. Device. Per bend embattled sable and gules, in sinister chief a thistle argent.

This was misblazoned on the letter of intent as having a field "gules and sable". This is in fact in conflict with the badge of Theresa de Foxton ("Per bend embattled sable and gules, a thistle slipped and leaved argent."). (05/1988)

Doran Campbell. Device. Gyronny Or and sable, a bend sinister gules, overall a boar's head erased argent.

We had to agree with Crescent that uniting the boar's head badge of the Campbell chiefs with their arms was overly presumptuous when taken into the context of the use of the Campbell surname (albeit the intent of the submittor in honoring Campbell forbears may have been laudable). (01/1989)

Dorren of Ashwell. Name for House Ashwell.

The town of Ashwell is an actual period town, one of no small size even in Domesday times (by the submittor's own documentation, it was of the same size as Bodmin, Tewkesbury and Barnstaple at the time of Domesday). As Seraph has noted, the manor was granted to Westminster Abbey by Edward the Confessor in 1066 and has a considerable history in the medieval period, even though no major battles or political events appear to have occurred there. Indeed, in the maps in Hill's Atlas of Anglo-Saxon England, it is ranked second in importance in Hertfordshire only to Hertford itself (pp. 136­139). (08/1988)

Dorren of Ashwell. Addition of designation of Ashwell Manor to already registered badge. Quarterly sable and argent, a cross of four mascles counterchanged.

There was a considerable feeling in the College that the problem with reservation of the actual placename cited at the time that the household name was returned in August, 1988, was not resolved by the change of the designator to "Manor". It must be admitted that, in general, a household designator (e.g., "House", "Clan", etc.) does not contribute to difference any more than an official group designator would. (08/1989)

Douglas Cameron of Skye. Device. Per fess azure and vert, a buffalo's head cabossed between three buffalo's hoofprints argent.

While footprints have been registered in the past, all have been more or less identifiable as such. There was a general feeling that buffalo hoofprints were not identifiable enough (even as being hoofprints) to be used as a charge in the Society. (08/1987)

Douglas Starwolf. Device. Purpure, two chevronels between two wolves combattant argent, collared sable, and a compass star, elongated to base, argent.

Conflict with Bawde ("Purpure, two chevrons argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 542). (08/1988)

Draco de Ense Argenteo. Device. Pean, in pale a sword fesswise and a sword fesswise reversed between in pale a dragon, couchant, wings elevated and addorsed, and a dragon couchant to sinister, wings elevated and addorsed, all argent.

Conflict with Draco of Nola ("Pean, a sword fesswise, point to sinister, between two dragons couchant, wings elevated and addorsed, argent.") cited on the letter of intent. The tinctures are identical: the only differences are the addition of one sword and the reversal of one of the dragons which tally to at most a major and minor point. In effect, the visual similarity is overwhelming. (05/1988)

Dragonship Haven, Barony of. Badge for the Order of the Yale. A yale rampant argent, semy of hurts.

This conflicts with one of the "Royal Beasts" of England, i.e., the animate badges which have been adopted by the Royal Family over the centuries (those who have visited Hampton Court will vividly remember these). The so-called Beaufort yale, which was freely used by Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII, and by her descendants, was "A yale argent, bezanty". Thus it appears even to this day serving as the supporter for her arms over the gate of Christ College, Cambridge, as well as on a number of other royal foundations. Since the semy on the beast is considered a scattering of tertiary charges, not a change of tincture as stated on the letter of intent, this also conflicts with Athena Catarina of Windcrest ("Azure, an antelope rampant argent."), cited on the letter of intent. (05/1988)

Dragonship Haven, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Yale. A yale passant hurty.

Conflict with the arms of Buggins ("Azure, an antelope passant argent, attired, tufted and unguled sable.", cited in Papworth, p. 57). The yale as depicted here and in several period manuscripts differs from the heraldic antelope chiefly in the orientation of the horns. (Compare, for example, the depictions of the antelope supporter of Edward, Duke of Buckingham, from a period manuscript and the yale from the Garter stall plate of John Beaufort, both shown in Dennys, Heraldic Imagination, pp. 148 and 165.) Even when taken together with the addition of the tertiary charges and the extremely minor changes to the tincture of horns, hooves, etc., the cumulative effect is not visually equivalent to a major point of difference. (02/1989)

Dragonspine, Barony of. Badge. A wingless dragon dormant in annulo, head and tail to base, purpure.

As this is a fieldless badge, it technically conflicts with Oweneth Weavewell ("Quarterly sable and vert, a dragon couchant in annulo, its dexter forepaw clutching its tail, argent."). (08/1989)

Dragonsspine, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Scales of Dragonsspine. Azure, two scalene triangles voided and interlaced in saltire Or.

It was the consensus of the commentors that the primary charge was visually not two triangles, but a heavy-duty paperclip (appropriate for a service award, but. . .) As Brachet commented, the scalene triangle is not a "defined shape" and it certainly is not a period heraldic charge. (04/1988)

Drakken Leira, Shire of. Name and device. Or, a pall wavy azure between a laurel wreath, a dragon's head couped and sinister facing and a griffin's head, all vert.

There was substantial agreement in the College that, the name was in conflict under both sets of rules with the previously registered Shire of Dragon's Lair. As documented, the name also violated the rules on grammar since the "drakken" was taken from Old English, while the noun it modified was in Old Norse. The device is unfortunately by definition too complex since it places three different types of charges around a pall ("slot machine heraldry"). (05/1990)

Drew Fortescue. Badge. Azure, a see­griffin erect argent, tailed Or.

Conflict with Gorke ("Azure, a sea­griffin argent, tailed Or."). From this blazon from Rietstap there is only a minor point for the change in the tincture of the tail. (09/1986)

Drisana Aminah Ayishah. Name only.

While the latter two names are documented as Arabic feminine names, the only documentation provided for the given name was from The New Age Baby Book, which claimed it was Sanskrit and meant "daughter of the sun". As no documentation was provided for its use by humans in period and the College could neither document it as a period given name nor rule out its use for Hindu divinities, we felt it had to be returned for lack of adequate documentation. (06/1989)

Drogo de Lac du Bourget. Device. Sable, two gussets argent and in chief three estoiles Or.

Conflict with Coningham ("Sable, two gussets argent."), cited on the letter of intent. Although White Stag blazoned the gussets as "debased", long Society precedent indicates there is no such heraldic charge (gussets themselves are a bit controversial as a period charge). If the gussets are drawn properly, as they must be, this is in conflict since only a single major point of difference can be derived from addition of a group of secondary charges. (12/1987)

Drogo the Forgetful. Device. Azure, a pall argent, overall a sun Or eclipsed sable.

This conflicts with Wendryn Townsend ("Azure, a sun in its glory Or"). Only a minor point of difference can be derived from the eclipsing of the sun, whether you consider it as using different tincture for part of a charge (analogous to using Or for the wings of an argent pegasus) or a permutation of the main charge (it is analogous to the example of the charge pierced versus unpierced). (09/1986)

Drogo the Forgetful. Badge. Per bend Or and sable, two roundels counterchanged.

Under DoD B.1.c only a minor point of difference can be derived from Payne ("Per bend Or and azure, two roundels counterchanged.") by the change to the field. Since it has been previously ruled that changes of tincture which are derivative from a change in the tincture of the field are diminished in force, we must conclude that this badge does in fact conflict with Payne. (07/1988)

Dryw Gabhalmhaoth. Name only.

The submittor stated that "Dryw" was a Welsh given name meaning "sight". Not only could this not be documented, but the word is the "Welsh" title for a druid as well as a Welsh term for wren (the two meanings are related). If the gentle wishes, he can use the documented period English form "Drew" from Old German "Drogo". As no supporting documentation was provided for the second name being the Gaelic equivalent of "Galmoy", we felt it necessary to return that portion of the name was well. (07/1987)

Dublin O'Guinn Silverwolf. Name only.

NR10 notes with regard to a mundane name used as a Society name under the mundane names exemption that "it must still be a recognized name. Some names, such as Moon Unit, are in the gray area between these rules and judgement will be exercised on appropriateness." In this case, Dubhlin is, both in period and today, perceived as a famous place name and is not a recognized personal name. (01/1987)

Dublin O'Guinn Silverwolf. Name only.

Æstel himself indicates the reason why this appeal must be returned: "The stated intention of NR12 is to make allowance for the submittor who bears what is now thought of as a given name but in period was only a surname." The cited examples of geographical names used as given names (most of which were only used as given names after our period) are commonly recognized as such: thanks to their use over the years names such as Neville, Mortimer, Gordon, Leslie, etc. now have as their primary identity a given name usage, although they may have originally been family names derived from place names. This is not the case with Dublin. Not only is Dublin not commonly used as a given name, it does not appear to have been used as a family name: neither Reaney (Dictionary of British Surnames) nor MacLysaght (Surnames of Ireland) show Dublin in any form as a family name. So far as we can determine, it is used solely as a locative and a very famous one at that. To gauge the effect this non-period usage will have on a gentle who would be introduced to the submittor for the first time, try substituting Berlin or Copenhagen or Brussels for the first element of the name. Clearly, the "modern" effect here is so disruptive that the leniency granted to mundane names which will not overly disrupt the medieval ambience of the Society cannot be allowed in this case. (11/1987)

Dughall MacDhomhnuill. Device. Or, a pall inverted gules between three frets sable.

Conflict under both old rules and new with Caroline Buxton of Talbot ("Or, a pall inverted gules between three talbot's heads sable."): there is only a single change, that for type of secondary charge. (05/1990)

Dun Carraig, Shire of. Badge. Argent, a sea­dog rampant gules.

Under both old and new rules, this conflicts with the device of Walther von Stralsund ("Vair en pointe, a sea­dog rampant gules."), registered in March, 1990. (04/1990)

Duncan Bruce of Logan. Device. Per chevron Or and gules, two hammers gules and a lion statant erect affronty Or, grasping in both forepaws a heart gules.

Conflict with Falan Bitor ("Per chevron argent and gules, three mallets counterchanged."). (11/1988)

Duncan Bruce of Logan. Device. Or, on a heart gules, a Thor's hammer Or, all within a bordure gules.

Brachet is correct in calling a technical conflict under the current rules with the device of Aislinn Gildara of Breemore ("Gules, on a heart Or a chaplet of heather vert, flowered purpure, all within a bordure Or."). The current rules require that only a single major point of difference be given for the counterchanging of the field and the charges. This is ironic since the proposed device is visually much closer to that of Wanda von Halstern ("Or, a heart gules surmounted by a spray of five daisy flowers slipped and leaved proper within a bordure engrailed gules."). However, under the current rules, Wanda's device is clear because the daisy flowers are in fact overall (when the device was passed the proper flowers appear to have been considered neutral despite the low contrast of the flowers themselves with the field). (06/1989)

Duncan Forbes of Glen Dee. Name only.

By the submittor's own documentation, the name conflicts with that early Forbes chieftain named Duncan to whom Alexander III of Scotland made official grant by charter of the lands of the Barony of Forbes. There is no doubt that his "use name" of Duncan Forbes is in conflict. (12/1987)

Duncan Gallowglass. Device. Or, on a bend sinister vert, three hourglasses palewise Or.

Conflict with Gyongyver a Vitezaszszony ("Or, a bend sinister vert, overall a hawk close sable, beaked and legged gules."). (11/1988)

Duncan MacConacher of Dunheath. Device. Argent, on a saltire azure between four pheons inverted sable, a caltrap Or.

Conflict with the flag of Nova Scotia ("Argent, a saltire azure charged with an inescutcheon of Scotland."). In some cases, the inescutcheon is totally on the saltire, some cases it "surmounts" it (i.e., laps slightly onto the field). However, as a territorial flag, it deserves extra protection against infringement and it is doubtful whether the difference between the Or caltrap and the predominantly Or inescutcheon is adequate to provide a full major point as is required here to give two major points of difference. (04/1988)

Duncan MacConacher of Dunheath. Device. Or, on a saltire between four pheons inverted sable, a caltrap Or.

Conflict with Rodney of El Dorado ("Or, on a saltire sable a unicorn forcené Or, crined, unguled, langued, armed and orbed gules.") and Christopher of Hoghton ("Or, upon a saltire sable a tower argent within an orle of eight mullets counterchanged."). In the latter case, as Brachet has noted, four of the mullets lie on the field, with the remainder on the arms of the saltire. (11/1988)

Duncan Macquarie. Device. Argent, a dragon passant coward within a double treasure flory gules.

There was general agreement that the double treasure was too close to the treasure of Scotland, especially when conjoined to the Red Dragon badge of Wales. (09/1986)

Duncan Macquarie. Device. Gyronny of twelve argent and sable, a dragon passant coward gules.

There was general agreement that this was visually in conflict with the badge of Bela of Eastmarch for the Company of Free Mariners ("Gyronny sable and argent, a dragon rampant gules, armed and webbed vert."). As several commentors pointed out, this is also technically in conflict with the flag of Wales ("Per fess argent and vert, a dragon passant gules."): DR1 requires two major points of difference between Society devices and "from the arms and flags of mundane royal houses or territorial entities". (03/1988)

Dunchadh Mac Aodha Mhoir. Device. Azure, a sword proper, cleaving a Viking helm Or, horned argent.

Conflict with Tolbert Regnault ("Azure, a sword proper, balanced on its point a pair of scales Or."). (02/1987)

D'vora ben Yitzhak ha Levi. Name and device. Gules, a pall arrondi dovetailed within a bordure argent.

By the submittor's own documentation, Yitzhak ha Levy is the Hebrew equivalent of the name Isaac Halevy. As it happens, Isaac Halevy was a important figure in modern Jewish history. His scholarly very very writings in the nineteenth and early twentieth century led directly to "Agudat Israel" (a worldwide Orthodox Jewish organization). As she would not allow even minor changes to her name, we felt a holding name could not be formed and the submission as a whole had to be returned. (08/1987)

Eachann MacAngus. Name only.

As "Eachann" is cognate with and directly translates "Ian", this is a conflict with the registered Society name of Ian MacAngus. (05/1988)

Eadgar de Cockagne. Device. Vert, on a band sinister argent between two cronals Or, a tilting spear gules.

Although they are a documented period charge, the cronals are clearly too close visually to the reserved crown/coronet to be accepted for use in the Society. There is also a conflict with Tav-Alandil ("Vert, a bend sinister argent between a hawk close and a lightning bolt, both Or.") and Dail y Eiliwriad o Cwm Cwymp Dwr ("Vert, a scarpe argent between an oak leaf and a castle of three stepped towers Or."). (02/1987)

Eadgith of Sevenoaks. Device. Vert, a goose statant to sinister argent.

Conflict with Katharine of Kells, cited on the letter of intent ("Vert, a goose passant displayed, wings inverted argent, plumed vert, grasping a pen in its beak, argent."): only one major point of difference can be derived from the cumulative changes of posture. (08/1989)

Eadmund FitzTonge. Name and device. Pean, a bull passant to sinister argent.

The device seemed all right, but since the submittor specifically barred any changes to his name we were compelled to return the whole submission. The citations from Domesday Book, as noted by Batonvert, were false analogies since those were generally in Latin and the forms presented were later "equivalents", sometimes made by folk less acquainted with the linguistic customs of the day. In fact, there is no real evidence that "Tonge" or any other place name was ever used to form a patronymic of this sort. As a family name, however, "Tonge" is perfectly licit. He could be Eadmund Tonge or, if he wishes a patronymic, form it on the similar sounding Cornish name Tanguy. (02/1987)

Eadred Breowan. Name only.

"Breowan" not does mean "brewer" in Old English as the documentation indicated: it is the infinitive form of the verb which, so far as we can tell, is never used unmodified to form a byname. The occupational surname "Brewer" in various forms does occur from the twelfth century on, but in rather different sounding forms (e.g., Bruwere) in Middle English. (08/1987)

Eadric Harreth of Mercia. Name and device. Azure, fretty Or, a fess Or, fretty azure, overall a hare sejant erect argent.

All the evidence we could find from out Old English sources indicates that the byname should be "Rethahara": all similar compounds we could find place the adjectival component of the compound before the noun in its "natural" position (e.g., "retheman" for a tax collector, "leofspel" for good news, "ealdriht" for an ancient right, etc.). Unfortunately, we could neither emend the byname, drop it nor form a holding name to register the acceptable (if a trifle hair-raising) device, since the submittor specifically forbade any modifications to the name or the formation of a holding name. (03/1988)

Ealasaid nic Pharlan. Name only.

The letter of intent spelled the patronymic as above, but the lady desired the proper form of "Pharlain" and the typo was only discovered after the letters went out. Unfortunately, when the name is pronounced properly in Gaelic, it definitely sounds enough like Ealasaid nic Phearsoinn to be confusing. (10/1987)

Ealasaid Ramsey of Skye. Name and device. Vert, a chevron ermine between two roses argent and an opinicus sejant erect to sinister Or.

Conflict with Jobber ("Vert, a chevron ermine.", as cited in Papworth, p. 377). (12/1987)

Ealhwynna MacDonald. Device. Per pale argent and azure, on a heart a mullet of eight points counterchanged.

Conflict with Anna Gertrude Leonhardt ("Azure, on a heart argent, a lion rampant azure."). Between Society armoury, counterchanging along a line of division contributes only a major point of difference, not automatic sufficient difference as it does with the mundane. (05/1988)

East Kingdom. Name for Order of the Guardsman.

This return was omitted from the July, 1988, letter through a file error during the word processing merge that assembled the letter. The earliest usage of the word "guardsman" which we could find in the OED was from 1817, well out of period. Additionally, we could not but agree with Brachet that this term was rather too general to reserve for the use of one kingdom (just as we would not wish to reserve "King's Guard"). (08/1988)

East Kingdom. Title for Azure Yale Pursuivant.

Technically, this does indeed technically conflict with the Yale Pursuivant. However, as Crescent has demonstrated that this title is held by Yale University, it might be possible to gain permission to conflict. (The title is used for the baronial pursuivant of the Barony of Dragonship Haven whose Baroness and many of whose members are employees or students at Yale.) (06/1989)

East Kingdom. Title for Oliphaunt Herald Extraordinary.

Unfortunately, the title conflicts with the Order of the Elephant. This Danish Order of Knighthood dates back into our period and even today is a highly prized honour in Scandinavia. (01/1987)

East Kingdom. Title for Silurian Herald.

Although this was not stated on the letter of intent, the supposed derivation of the title was from the Silures, a tribe who lived in the Welsh border areas in Roman times. Unfortunately, the word itself does not seem to appear in this form until after our period and is then associated as much with geological terminology (referring to the pre-historic "Silurian era") as with the historical. Furthermore, in more modern times the name is heavily associated with the distinctly non-human reptilian monsters who lived under the sea and attacked the human population of Earth in one of the more popular Doctor Who episodes ("fannish" friends have told us that Silurians are one of the most popular costumes at "cons" with a significant Doctor Who contingent). (03/1988)

East, Kingdom of. Title for Silver Buccle Herald.

Under both old rules and new, this is a conflict with the Buckler Herald registered to the Middle Kingdom. Given the geographic proximity of the two, it may also be practically unwise (Pennsic Pandemonium?). Perhaps they might be interested in using the unreleased title of Sycamore Herald, historically used for the herald of the territory now encompassed by the Principality? (04/1990)

Eastwatch, Shire of. Name and device. Argent, a tower sable, on its roof a beacon of flames proper, within a laurel wreath sable, a chief enarched azure, platy.

The name of the group technically conflicts with that of the Crown Province of Ostgardr. Unfortunately, holding names cannot be generated for groups. (08/1988)

Edmond Aubrey of Glastonbury. Name and device. Or, three griffins segreant vert.

Under both rules this conflicts with Eeffin ap Gwyddno ("Or, a griffin segreant vert.", as cited in Papworth, p. 782). (11/1989)

Edmund Jones. Device. Gules, a bicorporate lion within a bordure engrailed Or.

Conflict with Martel Slugslayer ("Gyronny of six sable and gules, a lion bicorporate Or.") as well as the mundane arms of Borne ("Gules, a lion rampant within a bordure engrailed Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 120). (03/1989)

Edmund Rohan. Name only.

This was a very difficult decision for us since most of the Laurel staff shares Vesper's prejudice towards "real" period surnames like "de Rohan". In this case, however, we were compelled to agree with those who felt that the primary identification of this surname in Society circles would be with the Rohirrim. That being so, the assonance and orthographic similarity between Eomund and Edmund simply seemed too great for this to be completely clear, even if one ignores the presence of the annulets on the device. Changing the given name to a more distinct form (e.g., Edward, which is the submittor's mundane middle name) might be the best way to avoid the problem. (02/1989)

Edward Ashwell of the Crossbow. Device. Azure, a drawn crossbow palewise Or, overall on a fess bretassy argent three estoiles gules.

With his usual scholarship White Stag has adduced several instances of charged ordinaries overlying charges on a field in support of the position that this design is not overly complex and is distinctly period style. It should be noted that two of the examples cited derive from the late Tudor period whose practises are not those for which Society heraldry strives (GP3). Indeed, even these Tudor examples do not provide an exact parallel to this construction, since the one has as its underlying charge ordinaries (pallets) and the other, which involves an animate primary charge, has an ermine ordinary overall (and we do not normally consider the ermine spots of the fur tertiary charges "within the meaning of the act"). The third, which is stated to be earlier, is cited only in its French blazon. Our rough translation of this, based on an examination of Brault and other sources runs something like: "Per fess argent and azure, a cross ancre counterchanged, overall a bend gules." Lovely, but it does not support the idea of charged ordinaries placed on non-geometric charges as a recommended method of difference in period. Note that, while Crescent is correct in his citation of the language of the rules, there appears to have been a more or less consistent feeling in the College that four layers exceeds the injunctions for armorial simplicity. In this case, where the charged ordinary significantly affects the identifiability of the primary charge and four tinctures combined with three different types of charge increase the visual "traffic" in the design, we reluctantly concluded that this was just too complex. (08/1989)

Edward Drakenfeld. Device. Per bend azure and gules, in bend sinister a blond mermaid erect proper, tailed vert, maintaining a trident bendwise argent, and three dolphin fish in bend naiant fesswise to sinister Or (Coryphaena hippurus).

We were compelled to agree with Brachet that the tail here had so little contrast that the charge's identity was in question. Making the tail of the mermaid Or or argent would resolve the difficulty. (10/1988)

Efron le Fey. Name only.

Although Brigantia has provided at least one period citation for the use of "le Fey", not every name usage which was permitted in period is allowed in the Society because of the associations that a majority of the populace would place on the name (e.g., Donald King of Exeter, which would be a reasonable designation in late period sources for a non- royal personnage). In this case, the feeling among the commentors and Laurel staff was just too great that the populace would interpret this byname as a claim to non-human origins. (05/1989)

Egan Blackwolf. Device. Purpure, a sheep and a wolf sejant erect addorsed reguardant argent and in chief a dagger inverted proper.

The "rule of thumb" proposed by Master Baldwin in his cover letter dated 29 September, 1985, "the use of three or more non­identical charges in what would conventionally be considered a "group" may . . . cause a submission to be returned as too complex", surely applies here. (09/1986)

Egil Ironwood. Device. Or, a gore and in sinister chief a triquetra sable.

Conflict with Regulus of Vinhold ("Or, two gores sable."). (12/1986)

Eileen Falconer. Device. Argent, in pale a falcon's footprint and a hawk's bell sable, a chief arched azure.

It was the consensus of the commenting heralds that the bird's footprint was not an identifiable charge. (05/1987)

Einar Haakonson. Device. Gules, a drakkar in full sail, charged on the sail with a mullet of four points azure, within a serpent in annulo, head to chief, Or, a base enarched indented argent.

Long-standing tradition, dating back to August of 1983, dictates that sails may not be charged in Society heraldry (save for a laurel wreath in group armoury) since this could be taken as a sign of pretense. (08/1989)

Einrich Armspittsbaine. Badge for Rolling Thunder. Sable, an annulet indented arrondy Or.

White Stag is quite correct when he notes that the character, real or rumored, of the group of submittors is irrelevant to the submission. They deserve precisely the same treatment as any other group submitting a household name and badge. The converse of this is that they must be held to the same standards. This being so, we must note that there are problems with both the name and the badge. The name "Rolling Thunder" is far too closely associated with several twentieth century themes for it to be considered truly compatible with the medieval ambience of the Society, even though both components are period. A large number of commentors have picked up on the 'seventies rock tour'. The name for this was apparently derived from the drag racing arena and is in current use today for a series of "hot rod" competitions which are heavily advertised (at least on the East Coast). We suspect that the title of the movie alluded to by Habicht was derived from one or both of these sources. As for the badge, the issue of whether the charge is too similar in concept to a "Shazam" is irrelevant: as Brachet has notes, it is in conflict with Kourost Bernard of the East Woods ("Sable, a sun eclipsed Or."). A comparison between the two indicated that the primary difference is the irregular line of division on the "eclipsing" here, as the "ryas" on the outer edge of the sun are only marginally different in appearance. Visually, the two are startlingly close. Note that the widespread use of unregistered (and unregisterable) emblem does not prove its suitability for Society use. Several people have mentioned the red on black badge of the "Abbey", which has caused stylistic grief to heralds and aesthetes in several kingdom; old timers in the East and Middle will also remember the badge of Duke Dagan's "Killer Elite" which was used for some time at Pennsic to the great distress of many until someone finally got the courage to tell the good duke that it was the badge of an SS regiment!. (03/1989)

Eirianwen o Caer Aranrhod. Name only.

It would appear that the form Eirianwen is a modern backformation on the analogy of the period name Arianwen used in forming the holding name. The byname is problematic. In the first place it would probably be mutated to "o Gaer Aranrhod". More importantly, however, Caer Aranrhod ("Castle of Aranrhod", the Welsh moon goddess) is the usual name for the Corona Borealis. Neither the abode of a goddess nor a constellation are usual places for a human to come from and these are the interpretations which the average Society member would put on the place of origin, not the obscure reef whose name is derived from the older legendary locations. (08/1987)

Eisental, Shire of. Badge. A compass star, elongated to base, quarterly azure and argent.

Since the current rules allow only a single point of difference for tincture differences of a single charge, this is technically a conflict with Paul of Sunriver ("Azure, a compass star Or.") and Rodema de Rohan ("Or, a compass star vert."). (09/1986)

Ekaterina of Settmour Swamp. Device. Or, three bears sejant affronty displayed gules within a bordure wreathed Or and gules.

As noted by many in the College, the situation here is analogous to that which exists for a bordure compony: you may not use as one of the tinctures on the bordure the tincture of the field. Note that some felt that the teddy bears displayed combined with the "candy cane" effect was a bit much. (08/1988)

Elaine Courtney. Badge. A heart per fess invected argent and gules.

Since no difference can be derived from the field this is technically in conflict with Malinda Angelanne von Hohen Staffen ("Per fess embattled azure and argent, a heart gules."): there is only a major point for the tincture of the charge (DoD A.1.b.1). (05/1988)

Elaine of Valynwoode. Name only.

Conflict with the Society name of Elaine of the Woods. In this "made-up" name, Valyn is adjectival and thus this conflicts under NR7: "the addition or removal of an adjectival phrase is not sufficient difference. ". (03/1987)

Elaine Wroth. Device. Vert, in bend a lozenge argent and a lozenge Or.

Conflict with the badge of Misty Windsprite ("Two lozenges conjoined in fess argent and Or."): no more than a single point can be derived from the cumulative changes of position. (06/1988)

Elaine Wroth. Badge for House Greenwood. Vert, a lozenge argent and a lozenge Or, conjoined in pale.

Conflict with the badge of Misty Windsprite ("Two lozenges conjoined in fess argent and Or."). The design resemblance is so striking that the difference in orientation is diminished here and no difference can be derived from the field. (06/1988)

Elasia O'Toole. Name only.

The submittor proposed the given name as a constructed feminine variant of "Elijah". While it cannot be documented as such a variant, it would be acceptable as a constructed name were it not for the fact that it is also a common noun in Greek. This form is used in Xenophon and other writers to indicate the act of riding, particularly a long ride or "march" (presumably from the action of the horses' hooves striking the ground). It is also a standard term used by the glossators to describe the striking of an impression from a die (as in coinage). We would suggest a similar sounding documented form such as "Alesia" (from "Alice") or "Elwisia" (from "Helewise" or "Eloise"). (01/1989)

Eleanor Deyeson. Badge. Argent, on a pile wavy azure, a sword argent, blade enflamed proper.

Conflict under both rules with the device of Christopher the Young ("Argent, on a pile wavy azure three dolphins naiant in pale argent."). Under the old rules at most a major point can be derived from the changes to the tertiaries and a major and minor are required.Under the new rules, two visual differences are necessary and the changes to the tertiaries produces only one. (02/1990)

Eleanor la Maladroite. Device. Quarterly gules and azure, a two-horned fool's cap conjoined to another inverted at their brims quarterly Or and argent.

Conjoined in this manner the fool's caps are totally unidentifiable. Some thought they were crescents and Crescent is perfectly correct in calling conflict with Wilby ("Gules, a fer-de-moline argent."), Brun ("Azure, a millrind Or.") and, given the fact that the current rules allow no difference for the field, the Society badge of Tristan Melinydd ("A millrind purpure."). (11/1987)

Eleanor Leonard. Change of device. Vert, upon a mullet of four points argent, distilling from its lower point a goutte d'eau, a mullet of four points vert.

There was substantial feeling in the College that this was in conflict under both rules with Yerek the Inert ("Sable, a mullet of four points voided argent."). As the goutte is little more than a piece of artistic frou­frou, the only real difference is that of field. (04/1990)

Eleanor Mabile. Device. Sable, a cup Or within a heart voided argent and a bordure Or.

Despite its simplicity, the voided heart must be considered "thin line heraldry" (yes, we know we registered one this summer: that was a mistake due to what Vesper so accurately calls "advanced rigor mortus of the brain". (10/1988)

Eleazar Valentine von Mindelheim. Per pale gules and sable, an eagle displayed within an orle Or.

Unfortunately, as Woodward (p. 249 ff.) makes clear, not only the two­headed eagle but also the single­headed was borne by the emperors at Constantinople in their famous bearing of "Gules, an eagle displayed Or." As this is only a major and minor from these royal arms, it must be returned. (10/1986)

Elemer Landshund. Device. Quarterly sable and argent, a compass star within a bordure gules.

Conflict with Alexandra of Elentil ("Sable, a mullet of eight points argent, a bordure gules, fimbriated argent."). (11/1988)

Elenore the Fair. Name only.

The name is in direct conflict with that of Elanor the Fair, daughter of Samwise Gamgee in the Tolkienic universe. It also conflicts with the Society name of Ellen the Fair. (08/1987)

Eleonora Vittoria Alberti di Calabria. Badge. Lozengy argent and purpure, a tower gules.

This conflicts with the badge of the Shire of the Isles, restored in November, 1989, as having been released in error: "Barry wavy argent and azure, a tower gules."It also conflicts with the device of Edwin FitzLloyd ("Ermine, chaussée raguly vert, a tower gules."). (01/1990)

Elffin of Mona. Device. Vert, upon a mount an oak tree, in chief an arc off five mullets of eight points argent, all within a bordure Or.

As noted above in the discussion on this gentle's name, the conjunction of the name with this device with its strong allusions to both the Druidic tradition of Taliesin and to the Tolkienic elven tradition was considered of too much". (10/1986)

Elfreda Hollowhill. Device. Per bend sinister wavy argent and azure, on a bend sinister counterchanged between a slip of holly vert and a flame Or, a scarpe wavy counterchanged.

Some members of the College felt distinct twitches at the use of an "elf name" with this family name. Ultimately, we decided that the name in and of itself was acceptable, but was unwise taken in conjunction with the holly, the flame and the water of the device. The visually confusing bend/bendlet counterchanged effect of the device also caused stylistic twitches: at first and even second glance it is difficult to determine precisely what is going on along the line of division. (06/1988)

Elinwy Corbin. Device. Purpure, in base a lymphad Or between two piles issuant from base purpure, fimbriated argent.

There were several stylistic problems with this device, all relating to the piles. Blazoned with two piles, they were neither truly voided nor truly fimbriated and, in either case, constituted "thin line heraldry". Had there been truly four piles, properly drawn, this would probably been acceptable and would have been definitely clear of the Barony of Bryn Madoc ("Purpure, a lymphad with flag and banners flying Or, sails unfurled and oars in action argent, within a laurel wreath Or."), since the piles would visually have been the primary charges. (04/1988)

Elisabeth de Rossignol. Badge. A hawk's lure Or.

Conflict with Fowler ("Quarterly azure and Or, in the first quarter a hawk's lure and line of the second.", as cited in Papworth, p. 973). Since the badge is fieldless, no difference can be derived from the tincture of the field or the derivative position of the charge on the field. (02/1989)

Elisabeth of Bedford. Device. Ermine, on a lozenge throughout azure, a bay piebald horse couchant proper, fimbriated argent.

There are several problems with this submission under both sets of rules. The previous submission had been returned for non-period style, most especially for insufficient contrast between the white portions of the beast and the argent field on which it had been previously placed (the legs were and are entirely white). While the fimbriation is virtually invisible on the emblazon sheet (and totally so on the miniature), a horse certainly is too complex an image to fimbriate under either set of rules. If the fimbriation is removed, however, the contrast here becomes extremely dicey as the head of the horse, its hindquarters and much of its lower body is dark brown and the mane and tail are black, both tinctures which have minimal contrast with the azure on which the animal is placed. While the legs would have adequate contrast, thus removing the problem with identification of position of the legs (and hence posture) in the previous submission, that would be the only portion of the animal that would show up. Moreover, the horse is now in a distinctly non-standard heraldic posture, as many commentors noted: it is not running nor walking nor lying couchant in the heraldic sense: what you have here is a naturalistic representation of the way in which a horse lies semi-upright with its legs sprawled. Thus the style still presents problems for low contrast and naturalistic representation (particularly since the horse is proper!) under both sets of rules. Other problems, not previously noted, seem also to exist. The question of the period nature of the "piebald" breed of horse has been raised by Trefoil and is a good one: the pinto pony of which this is a representation was bred from the European horse by the plains dwellers of America, and the first recorded instances of such horses appear to be well after period. Finally, even if these problems were not enough, under the old rules, this would conflict with the II Canadian Corps ("A lozenge azure"), since no difference can be derived for field (this conflict would not exist under the new rules). (11/1989)

Elisabetta da Camerino. Device. Argent, a piebald horse salient proper between a chief enarched and a base concave azure.

Although the submittor has indeed copiously documented the existence of piebald horses in period, as noted on the letter of intent, a piebald horse proper is still largely either brown or black and white. In this case, the horse was brown and white with black hooves, mane and tail. The white portions of the horse simply did not have adequate contrast with the argent on which it was laid (the hooves almost look like they are floating in mid-air with no legs attached). Although the submittor has provided some documentation for the enarched chief and base as separate elements, there is some doubt whether a base of this sort is period and certainly the "cat's eye" effect is distinctly modern. (08/1988)

Elisheva bat Simon Halevi. Device. Or, a lion sejant gules, maintaining in upraised paw a pitcher azure.

This device was returned in February, 1985, for conflict with Giles of Lennox ("Or, a domestic cat sejant, paw extended, sable."). The gist of the appeal is that the differences between the cat and lion are so significant heraldically that they constitute a strong minor point of difference (most notably, that the posture of the tail is distinctly different for a lion and a cat) and that the ewer is a secondary charge and its addition should be equivalent to at least a strong minor point of difference. Unfortunately, the consensus of the College was that the present state of the rules, which would rate the ewer as a tertiary with diminished weight, is correct. Moreover, the posture of the two beasts is essentially identical (the tail posture is not generally heraldically significant) and the distinction between a lion and a domestic cat under current rules can be no more than a minor point of difference. This does not seem to be adequate difference under our current rules. (12/1987)

Elizabeth Bruce MacDonald. Device. Sable, a two-towered castle between two unicorns combattant argent.

Conflict with Anne of the White Tower ("Sable, a tower argent."): at the most, a minor point of difference can be derived from the modification of the building. (04/1988)

Elizabeth Dougall. Device. Per saltire gules and counter-vair, in pale a quarter sun and a quarter sun inverted, both issuant from the line of division, Or.

Conflict with the badge for Tournaments Illuminated, mentioned on the letter of intent ("Gules, a sun, overall on two piles conjoined azure, two spears conjoined in fess throughout Or."). (11/1988)

Elizabeth Katherine of Sterling. Device. Per pall gules, sable and purpure, two arrows within a quiver argent, the quiver charged with a heart gules.

Note that the blazon said arrows and quiver are Or, but emblazon sheet shows argent. Per pall of three colours was disallowed for poor contrast under the old rules. This has been explicitly stated in the new rules in section VIII.2. v: "Elements evenly divided in three tinctures must have good contrast between two of their parts." (04/1990)

Elizabeth of Monmouthshire. Name only.

Conflict with Elizabeth, Countess of Monmouth, at the end of the Elizabethan period. (03/1987)

Elizabeth of Stirling. Name only.

Unfortunately, this is in conflict with Elizabeth Katherine of Sterling, registered in February, 1988. (11/1988)

Elizabeth of the Fields. Device. Argent, a bend coloured as a natural rainbow between a garden rose bendwise gules, slipped and leaved vert, and a heart gules.

This is a clear case of non-period style. Such rainbow tinctured charges as this have been banned from Society use for some years. (11/1987)

Elizabeth Stafford. Name only.

The daughter of Edward Stafford, the Duke of Buckingham executed in 1521 and wife of Thomas Norfolk, Duke of Norfolk under Henry and Edward, Elizabeth Stafford was the mother of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (executed in 1547) and grandmother of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk (executed in 1572). (08/1989)

Elizabeth von Zehrung. Name only.

It appears that her mundane name is Elizabeth Zehrung. Unfortunately, as Crescent has noted, the tendency to add the preposition "von" moderately randomly to already existing surnames is distinctly modern. Zehrung does not appear to be a place name (most nouns in "-ung" are abstractions from another noun or a verb), but rather to be a common noun referring to the act of consumption or, by extension, to the things consumed, i.e., provisions. As she prohibited any spelling changes to her name we could not add the necessary article. (Note that a holding name can be made since the Western forms specifically note that such a name will be made if necessary, giving the submittor the opportunity to forbid specifically the manufacture of a holding name.). (09/1987)

Ellida Grimmsdottir. Name and device. Sable, semy of increscents argent, on a pile ploye inverted bendwise argent, a wingelss wyvern passant reguardant to sinister, tail sufflexed, vert, belching flames gules, in sinister chief an increscent argent.

Unfortunately, the submittor's source in Magnus Magnusson's Vikings did not make clear that Ellida was not a name in itself but a prefixive adjective added to the individual's given name to make a "nickname form" similar to "Skallagrimmr". In this case, the name means "Ship­Grim" or "Grim of the Ship". Keeping the name as a patronym and adding another given name might not be advisable since, by the submittor's own documentation, Asgrim Ellida­Grimsson was the participants in one of the most famous incidents in the Njal's Saga: his foster brother Gauk Trandilsson had been having an affair with one of Asgrim's close kinswomen and Asgrim killed him in revenge. Simply adding another Norse given name would be taken by many to be a claim to be that kinswoman. As her mundane given name is "Helena", she might like to substitute one of the documented Old Norse forms for "Helena" for "Ellida": "Eilína" or "Elína" (Geirr Bassi). The device has several stylistic problems, the most serious of which is the fact that a single secondary charge is placed on a field strewn with the same charge (in the same tincture!). Such a differentiation is not period style: the size of strewn charges could vary widely in a period emblazon as necessary to suit the design. Also anomalous, but not enough of themselves to force a return, were the "ploye" pile (which is actually just a period variant depiction of a normal pile), the unusual position of the pile and the manner in which the monster and its flames are arranged on the pile: a very precise blazon is required to reconstruct the position and the device does not work without the precise position. (02/1990)

Ellin Berserkr. Name only.

This name occasioned a great deal of philosophical discussion at the War session, which echoed some of the positions advanced at the Symposium. The final upshot of the discussion was a consensus that, although the appearance and meaning were adequately different, the assonance brought this name into conflict with that of Edwin Bersark. Note that several local heralds and non-heralds felt that they would not have been able to tell certainly if Edwin Bersark or Ellin Berserkr were being summoned if they heard a reasonably competent herald shout the name across a tourney field. This seems an excellent touchstone for "aural conflict". (08/1987)

Ellisena de Bayonne. Device. Per saltire argent and Or, two winged sea­dragons erect respectant vert, in chief a cross crosslet fleury enhanced azure.

The visual differences between the "sea­dragons" here and the traditional period wyvern are negligible. This being so, I fear Brachet is correct in calling conflict with Pendragon ("Or, two wyverns without legs respecting each other vert, crowned gules." as it is cited in Papworth). As the beasties are also frequently shown without their crowns and the personage to whom these arms belong is peculiarly prominent (Uther Pendragon, King Arthur's father), the weight for protection falls with the mundane arms. (12/1986)

Elocyn Alexander. Name and device. Azure, on a lozenge argent, a domestic cat couchant guardant to sinister gules, gorged of a collar sable, resting in a bed of violets proper, and in chief two mice combattant Or.

"Elocyn" is not a valid variant of Alison: the modifications of the vowels in Middle English are not random and none of the documented forms of Alison do a substitution of "e" for "a" or "o" for "i" in this manner. The bed of violets is totally unidentifiable as such and the humanoid mice are neither rampant (as the combattant implies) or statant erect. (02/1987)

Elric of Wolfshead. Change of device. Per saltire argent and sable, an eagle displayed maintaining an axe fesswise, counterchanged.

Visually this is in conflict with Manfred Kreigstreiber, cited on the letter of intent ("Per saltire sable and argent, a falcon displayed counterchanged, beaked and taloned within a bordure gules."). Because of the arrangements of the tinctures here, the identity of the axe is almost concealed since the head lies on one of the field, most of the shaft on another and the butt on a third. (07/1987)

Elric Vibulenus of Bynthia. Name only.

Unfortunately, there was insufficient documentation for either "Vibulenus" or "Bynthia" and none of the commentors could document either form. Like White Stag, Laurel suspects that the area the submittor is thinking of is "Bithynia" not "Bynthia", but this is different enought that we did not wish to guess at this. (05/1989)

Elrik Skap-Vargr. Badge. Argent, a caltrap sable.

As noted on the letter of intent, this badge is in conflict with the arms of Barak ben David ("Argent, a caltrap within a bordure sable.") which has been submitted the month before and were registered in October, 1989, and the device of Robert Hellmanstahl ("Argent, a mullet of three points gyronny of six sable and argent."). Note that the device of Robert Hellmanstahl is actually sable and argent on an argent field: when it was passed, the view of divided fields and charges as absolutely entitled to "neutrality" with all fields was considered more prevalent than it is today. Note that the shape of the mullet is virtually identical to the caltrap here. (11/1989)

Elsibeth Merryweather. Device. Argent, on a chevron sable enarched between three red squirrels sejant to sinister proper, three acorns Or (Sciurus vulgaris).

Brachet is quite correct in commenting that the "enarching" here is merely one of the standard period methods of depicting a normal chevron and therefore there is insufficient difference from the mundane arms of Akaster ("Argent on a chevron sable, three acorns Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 485). Note that the tincture of the red squirrels proper is in fact brown, not gules. Note also that the tincture of the chevron was omitted from the letter of intent and would normally have been pended, but a majority of the commentors deduced the tinctures from the mundane conflicts cited and, since a conflict does in fact exist, it seems pointless to penalize the submittor by further delay merely on a point of protocol. (05/1987)

Elvira Gibbs. Device. Argent, on a bend azure, three mullets argent, in dexter chief a chess rook azure.

Unfortunately, as several commentors noted, the charge in chief is not the heraldic chess rook, which has two down-turned horns in chief (rather like the horns of a fool's cap). The charge is in chief is neither a rook nor a tower but something between the two. As we could not properly determine what the submittor actually wished, we felt compelled to return the device for consultation with the submittor. (11/1988)

Elwyn of Wyndehurst. Device. Or, three triangles in fess gules, the center one inverted and twice the height of the others, within a single tressure fleury vert.

This is distinctly non-period style. The tressure is drawn in a non-standard manner and the central motif, the three triangles, depend for their arrangement on a differentiation in size that is not at all medieval: charges in period generally expanded to fill the available space. The use of triangles as a primary motif is an anomaly, although one permitted in the past. Taken together with the non-standard arrangement, the modern size differentiation of the primary charges and the unusual rendition of the tressure, it is just too much. (01/1987)

Emer ni Caillaigh an Tirconnel. Name only.

All the evidence provided by the submittor and which could be discovered by Laurel staff indicates that this "Emer" is a unique personal name used only by the lady of Cuchullain who plays a significant part in Irish epic. It is symptomatic that O Corrain and Maguire, who usually mention the very least of Irish saints or historical figures to support the common use of names used by literary figures, mention only Cuchulainn's Emer (Gaelic Personal Names, p. 87). Note that the proper Irish feminine form for "Kelly" would appear to be "ni Cheallaigh" (see MacLysaght, Surnames of Ireland, p. 75). Also, since "Tirconnel" is an English form for the area of Ireland, the preposition "of" should be used here. (02/1990)

Emerald ferch Ddeulwyn. Name and device. Argent, a unicornate sea­horse erect vert within a bordure sable.

The passage in Withycombe alluded to in the letter of intent specifically states that Emerald is not related to the period Merouda. Also, Deulwyn appears to be one of the large number of place names cited in Gruffudd as a suggestion for a modern Welsh given name: no example of period usage is provided, although Gruffudd regularly provides specific exemplars for older names (the meaning given in Gruffudd for the name is "two groves" which is a typical Welsh place name). We would suggest she use the documented Cornish name Merouda with a period Welsh saint's name like "Derfael". The device conflicts with Angelique of Glen Laurie ("Argent, a winged unicornate hippocampus, wings addorsed vert, winged, armed and orbed Or."): only a weak minor can be allowed for the wings since they are virtually invisible on the argent field. (12/1986)

Emeric Wendel. Badge for House Oakenhearth. Quarterly vert and purpure, a pegasus salient, its wings elevated and addorsed, argent.

Conflict with Arianwen of Urquart ("Vert, a horned pegasus salient argent, armed and unguled azure."). Note that this was submitted under the name of Emeric Wendel the Diversified, which was stated to have been registered. This is not the case: his registered name is simply Emeric Wendel. (08/1987)

Emrys ap Gryffidd. Device. Vert, chausse Or, a griffin argent and a chief triangular Or.

As several commentors noted, this is in technical conflict with Alanna of Caer du Pard ("Or, on a pile throughout vert, a tower Or on the battlements a snow leopard couchant reguardant proper."). John Patrick of Islington. Device. Chequy gules and argent, a domestic cat's head couped sable.

This is, alas, technically in conflict with Elizabeth Karien of the Four Winds, cited on the letter of intent ("Checky argent and vert, a horse's head couped sable."). Were the field completely different in tincture, the two would have been clear, but under the current rules, a point and a half cannot be derived from the difference in type of two heads. (07/1988)

Emrys ap Llyr. Change of name from Turlough Mac Art.

Llyr does indeed appear in early Welsh genealogies, just as Mars appears in the early genealogies of Rome: he is the Welsh sea god and there is no doubt that the use of his name here will be interpreted as a claim to more than human descent. By the submittor's own documentation, which indicates that Manannan mac Lir of Irish tradition and Manawydan ap Llyr of Welsh myth are the same person, that the intent is to claim descent from Lir/Llyr. There can be no doubt that Llyr, as he appears in the Mabinogion is described sometimes in terms that would suit a Mabinogion mortal king, as is Beli, but it is equally clear that such heroes as Bran, son of Llyr and grandson of Beli, are not really considered as of wholly human descent. The supranatural overtones of the name are only reinforced by the use of the given name "Emrys" which is applied to Merlin in the Mabinogion as one of the Welsh names applied to Merlin. (12/1987)

Emrys Hawkwind. Badge. Sable, a chess knight within an annulet indented on the outer edge Or.

Although the tinctures were incorrectly stated on the letter of intent, Silver Trumpet correctly noted that this is visually a conflict with Kourost Bernard of the East Woods ("Sable, a sun eclipsed Or."). (02/1989)

Emrys of Gwyntarian. Device. Quarterly sable and gules, three lions dormant in pale within a bordure Or.

Conflict with Felicity the Gentle ("Gules, a lion dormant between two nightingales close within a bordure Or."): There is a major point for the substitution of the nightingales for two of the lions, but only a minor point for the field difference. The closeness to this device to the arms of the English royal family, particularly several of the cadet branches which used a bordure for difference, made many in the College rather uncomfortable and any redesign should attempt to diminish the strong visual suggestion of England here. (01/1987)

Enid Aurelia of the Tin Isles. Badge for House Aurelia. Sable, a square Roman candle lantern Or, candled argent.

Neither the name household name nor the badge are acceptable. The name clearly conflicts with the Roman gens Aurelia (House Aurelia), which was one of the great Republican and Imperial clans of ancient Rome (remember Marcus Aurelius?). The badge conflicts with Arthur of Lockhaven ("Azure, a lanthorn Or.") and, in addition, is in trian aspect which is not permitted in Society heraldry. (02/1987)

Enid Aurelia of the Tin Isles. Badge for Household Aurelia at Dorchester. Sable, a square Roman lantern Or, candled argent, enflamed proper, within a bordure Or.

There is a conflict with St. Nilus, cited on the letter of intent ("Sable, a sanctuary lamp suspended by chains Or."). As Targe herself said in the letter of intent, "the difference between the lamps is artistic, and thus negligible." This being the case, AR23 comes into play: the addition of a plain bordure is specifically noted as one of the marks of cadency which may not be used as sole difference between Society submissions nd mundane armory. The Laurel staff, like Crescent, felt rather queasy about differencing the name of a Roman imperial gens merely by addition of a place name ("House Plantagenet of Oslo"?). (03/1989)

Eoin mac Uilleam Caimbeul o Lochandubh. Device. Azure, a lymphad argent, a chief gyronny Or and gules.

Conflict with Baad ("Azure, a galley argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1089). The conjunction of the boat and the gyronny which are associated with the arms of the Campbell Dukes of Argyll created some serious twitches for a number of commentors. (08/1988)

Eraina of Golden Sand. Name only.

Unfortunately, linguistic considerations prevent our consideration of the given name as a valid variant of Eirene. Attempts to find some form closer to the submitted name proved fruitless. (03/1988)

Erasimierz Waspanieski Greyraven. Device. Or, crusilly conjoined sinister, voided in each arm of a delf, sable.

Note that this was submitted without the byname "Greyraven" with the note that the name was already registered. Technically, the name elements have been registered, but to drop the byname a name change submission (with fee) must be filed. The consensus of the commentary in the College was that this was not period style (except possibly for floor tiles. . .). The semy of conjoined elements is not really period and it is almost impossible to distinguish the identity of the rather unusual charge scattered on the field. (09/1987)

Erasimierz Waspanieski Greyraven. Badge for Greyraven. A mandrake's head affronty vert, jessant of a cross crosslet quadrate fitchy, pierced in its arms, gules.

There are several problems with this submission. The alternate persona designation requires a given name under NR9. This is an ancient requirement which predates the original registration of the submittor's name so that "hardship case" can hardly be pled here. Also, there is no fixed form for the mandrake in heraldry (the citations from Dennys' Heraldic Imagination provided by the submittor only reinforce this): what is depicted here is a variant of a wildman's head. It is also clearly in visual conflict with the device of John of Woodwose Hall ("Argent, a man's head couped affronty, crowned with leaves and antlers, all vert."). (09/1987)

Erasimierz Waspanieski. Device. Or, crusilly conjoined countervoided sable.

In his eloquent appeal, White Stag has demonstrated that the design element indeed existed in period, but not that it is appropriate for period heraldry. Note that the use of period design elements in Society heraldry is not mandated but rather allowed on a case-by-case basis. For such usages to be accepted, they must have a single identifiable form and must be compatible with period heraldic style. While White Stag's arguments raise "reasonable doubt" on the latter issue, there is not doubt that this design fails on the former count: no one single design could be derived from any blazon we could concoct to represent this. (04/1988)

Erasimierz Waspanieski. Badge. A mandrake's head eradicated vert, fructed and bound about the neck by a cord Or, jessant a cross crosslet fitchy quadrate, the limbs quadrate and quarterpierced gules.

White Stag addressed much energy to the discussion of the mandrake in period art and heraldry, but did not adequately address the issue of conflict with John of Woodwose Hall ("Argent, a man's head couped affronty, crowned with leaves and antlers, all vert."). As Brachet has noted, the situation is directly analogous to that of a beast's head jessant-de-lys, which is considered to be a charge in and of itself which is a modification of the beast's head generally worth a minor point of difference. Thus this badge differs at most by a two minor points of difference from John's device: a minor for the changes in the depiction of the head and another minor for the partial tincture change. (04/1988)

Erasmierz Waspanieski. Change of device. Gules, a mandrake, eradicated and displayed Or.

Alas! After all his excellent research, debate and artwork, this must be held in conflict with the badge of Migel Gnueyle de Normandie ("Gules, an old man statant affronty, maintaining sword and shield, Or."). The redrawn device, while now clearly distinct from the "tree conflicts", only emphasizes the resemblance. The addition of the charges held and the other changes to the device can at most produce a major difference (and some on the Laurel staff felt that was "pushing it"). It might be worth approaching Migel (late Eastern Crown Herald of the East) and asking for permission to conflict with his badge. . . (03/1989)

Eric Blaxton. Device. Azure, a sinister tierce argent, scaly sable, a chief counterchanged, overall a mullet of four points elongated to base counterchanged azure and argent.

Unfortunately, it was the consensus of commentary in the College that this design could not be considered period style: not only does it have the chief overlie the primary charge (and a tierce is a charge, not a field division), but has another charge overall superimposed upon both the tierce and the chief, which is not permitted. (09/1988)

Eric Blaxton. Badge. Argent, scaly sable, a mullet of four points elongated to base azure.

Unfortunately, Crescent is correct in attributing a conflict with the Society tinctureless badge "A mullet of four points distilling a gout.", even if he misattributed it (it is actually registered to Alaine the Novatrix, not Anton Winteroak). (09/1988)

Eric Blaxton. Device. Quarterly argent, scaly sable, and azure a mullet of four points elongated to base counterchanged azure and argent.

Unfortunately, as Crescent noted, this technically conflicts with the tinctureless badge of Alaine the Novatrix ("A mullet of four points distilling a gout."). [Irreverent (and somewhat bitter) comment from a member of Laurel staff: "Forget household names -- let's repeal protection of tinctureless badges. . ."]. (03/1989)

Eric Blaxton. Device. Quarterly argent, scaly sable, and azure, a mullet of four points counterchanged azure and argent.

This was originally returned for conflict with the tinctureless badge of Aline the Novatrix ("A mullet of four points distilling a goutte."). Master Erasmierz manfully appealed this return, arguing that the interior lines of the charge should be considered to carry and thus added a major point of difference which was enough to carry this clear under the old rules. Unfortunately, before the original return, we had consulted the emblazon for the tinctureless badge and determined that it was so small as to be an artistic detail, blazoned in the "old days" to please the submittor, but not really a secondary charge. That leaves the issue of the tinctures and interior lines, which gained some support in the College. However, long tradition and the old rules dictate that no difference be allowed for tincture in the case of tinctureless badges (or, more accurately, that tinctureless badges be considered to exist in all tinctures). As notes by Master Bruce, that is precisely why we stopped registering them! Under the new rules, there is still no relief for this device: while there is an automatic difference for the fieldlessness of the badge (X.4.a.i, p. 13), it is specifically noted that tinctures of charges will not be counted when considering tinctureless badges (X.4.d, p. 14). (11/1989)

Eric Gra-Ulfr. Name only.

The hyphen is not appropriate here, since the analogues used in the documentation is for prefixed adjective added to a proper name ("Ulfr" is a documented proper name as well as a common Old Norse name for a wolf). Moreover, it is by no means certain that the adjective "grá" would coalesce with a noun beginning with a vowel in this manner. Diaeresis seems to be avoided in the Old Norse bynames we have been able to find and the nearest example for this byname that anyone could find was the "Grávargr" which has already been registered to Horic Caithnes. (09/1988)

Eric of Novgorod. Device. Or, a pall azure, in chief a tyger salient, holding a goblet with his tail, gules.

Because of the "secondary limit" in the current rules, this conflicts with Winifred Corbeaunoir ("Or, a pall azure between three ravens rising to sinister, wings elevated and addorsed, sable."). (06/1989)

Eric Wulf of the Western Shores. Device. Per pale sable and argent, a wolf's pawprint gules.

This is unfortunately in conflict with the badge for Artemas Maximus, passed in December, 1987 ("Or, a bear's pawprint gules."): no difference can be derived from the change in kind of pawprint. (02/1988)

Ericus the Silverhand. Name and device. Sable, a Heneage knot clipped and frayed.

We can agree with the Ansteorran College that the submitted charge is not heraldically identifiable as any subset of a Heneage knot. We could accept something like this, with the arms a bit straighter, as a saltire, couped, parted and fretted (the rope markings would be diapering!). However, that would conflict under both rules with Ashton ("Sable, a saltire argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 6). (03/1990)

Erik Erikson. Name only.

The name has important period and modern conflicts. It is identical to that of the famous psychoanalyst who is familiar to many students of religious history and/or twentieth-century historiography as the author of the ground-breaking "psychoanalytic biography" Young Man Luther. It also conflicts with at least two period kings of Denmark who succeeded father's with the same name (thus proving that a patronymic formed from the same name as your given name was possible in period!). (08/1989)

Erik of Hallstead. Device. Argent, semy of trefoils vert, a unicorn rampant gules.

Crescent is correct in citing as conflict the arms of Cratford ("Argent, a unicorn salient gules."). (05/1988)

Erik Orinsson. Name only.

No documentation has been provided in support of the contention that "Orin" is a period given name, much less a period Norse name. (Previous registration is no proof of current acceptability, although documentation used to authenticate a name previously may be reused.). (11/1989)

Erika Arenvaldsdochter. Device. Per saltire sable and Or, a maunch counterchanged.

Conflict with Wightman ("Per fess Or and sable, a maunch counterchanged.", cited in Papworth, p. 978). (08/1988)

Erika Francesca Pacchioni. Device. Vert, a bend sinister argent between two sea lions rampant to sinister, the first maintaining three arrows, the second an ankh Or.

Conflict with Tav-Alandil ("Vert, a bend sinister argent between a hawk close and a lightning bolt, both Or.") and Dail y Eiliwriad o Cwm Cwy Dwr ("Vert, a scarpe argent between an oak leaf and a castle of three stepped towers Or."). (05/1987)

Eririk Arneir. Name only.

The previous name submission ("Erirk Arngeir") was returned because the given name was not a valid variant of Old Norse "Erikr". Neither is this variant. As noted by several commentors, it is not possible to simply reverse consonants and add in vowels on a random basis to make variants of documented names. In this case, the forms do not follow the requirements for name variants in Old Norse or any of its daughter languages. The names "Erikr Arngeir" or "Erik Arngeir" would be fine, but we cannot register either of those since the submittor allows no changes to his name. (11/1989)

Erirk Arngeir. Name only.

"Erirk" is not a "reasonable" variant of "Eirikr". The final "r" may drop off, but we have been unable to find any period example of the two consonants switching places as was done here. While this sort of switch is not uncommon in English among modern dyslexics, it would not generally have occurred in period languages where the spelling was strongly phonetic and the primary consonant sound at the end of the name was the "k". (07/1989)

Ernst der Dunkelwolf. Device. Barry indented Or and argent, a cross patty within a bordure sable.

The field multiply parted of two metals is not permitted under AR2a. Additionally, even were the field a "legal" division of Or and argent, this would conflict with both Dorothea of Caer Myrddin ("Argent, a cross paty sable.") and Alexander Barkov ("Or, a cross lozenged within a bordure sable."): neither device has more than a major and minor point of difference from Ernst's proposed device. (02/1989)

Eryl Ravenswing. Name only.

Brachet was unable to find any Welsh sources which supported the use of the given name in period. Indeed, evidence adduced (at second hand) from Davies indicates that the name was not invented until the last decade of the 1800's. (09/1988)

Eskalya, Barony of. Eskalyan Order of Merit. Name.

It was our feeling that this name conflicted with the Order of Merit which is one of the British Orders listed in the Society Armorial and Ordinary. (11/1986)

Estasia Caterina Tullia Peruzzi de Borgia. Change of name from Estasia de Fiorenza.

While the remainder of the name was acceptable, it was the consensus of opinion in the College that the use of the surname Borgia was "presumptuous". Unfortunately, the submittor allowed no changes whatsoever to her name so that the name as a whole had to be returned. (08/1988)

Estrill Swet. Device. Per bend sinister azure and vert, a bend sinister between a sun and three mullets of four points argent.

Conflict with Widsith Devoua of Exmoor ("Per bend sinister azure and vert, a bend sinister argent, in chief a Celtic broach Or.)". (12/1986)

Etain ui Mor. Name only.

The byname was stated to be a tribal designation meaning "of the Moors", but the documentation provided was not adequate to support this meaning for the word or this particular form. We would expect to find a genitive after the noun "ui" (="sons" or "folk") and "mor" is not a typical Irish genitive form. Moreover, in both Irish and Gaelic sources "mor" generally has the meaning "large" which has a quite different sense. (05/1989)

Étien de Nihil. Name only.

The name appeared with the given name properly spelled as Étienne on the submittor's paperwork, so we are not certain whence derived the peculiar form given on the letter of intent. The proper Latin for "of Nothing" should be "de Nihilo". However, this usage gave us severe twitches. Those who are familiar with period Western philosophical and theological thought will be aware that the ability to create "de nihilo", i.e. from nothing, was peculiar to God (indeed, the inability to do more than transform pre-existing matter into new shapes was one of the specific limitations which distinguished the Devil from God!). To use this byname seems to come rather close to either claiming to be able to create de nihilo or stating that you have yourself been created de nihilo (a claim which, in most versions of the cosmological myth, even Adam himself cannot make!). (05/1988)

Eugenius Magnus ap Llwyd. Device. Gyronny purpure and argent, a Bourchier knot counterchanged within a bordure sable.

There was a considerable consensus in the College that counterchanging the knot so complexly rendered it virtually unidentifiable. Making the knot a solid colour or simplifying the field division so that the knot was not cut into so many small pieces would remove this problem. (01/1990)

Evayne Addenbrook. Device. Azures, three pallets and three barrulets, fretted in sinister base, argent, in dexter chief in pale three roses in chevron argent, barbed and seeded proper, and a goblet Or.

This device is not period style. The overall arrangement of the charges is extremely unbalanced, with the focus of the primary charge abased to the sinister base and the remaining charges consequently diminished so in size as to appear like an excentric canton of augmentation. In point of fact, the roses are so diminished in size that they are nearly unidentifiable. (02/1989)

Evayne Addenbrooke. Device. Azure, three pallets and three barrulets fretted in sinister base, in dexter chief a rose argent, barbed and seeded proper.

While this resubmission laudably simplifies the device, it does not resolve the problem with the off-center "cross" which produces a distinctly non-period dynamically unbalanced design. Additionally, this now conflicts with the device of Maria Mindalova ("Azure, an almond flower proper."). Whether you consider the "cross" effect to be a primary or a secondary charge, it can add at most a major point of difference and the difference between an almond flower and an heraldic rose is at most a minor. (10/1989)

Ewen Blackpool. Device. Quarterly gules and sable, a unicornate wyvern erect argent.

Conflicts with Karina of the Far West ("Azure, a wyvern argent."). Since the Continental dragon is identical to the English wyvern, this also conflicts with von Drachenfels ("Gules, a dragon winged argent, inflamed proper.") (12/1986)

Falada of Englewood. Name and device. Argent, on a chevron inverted vert, platy, in chief three English ivy leaves in pall inverted vert .

We greatly regret having to return this submission, but we fear that all issues raised in the original returns have not been addressed by the appeal. As noted the question of allusion to "Bambi" is now moot, but the linguistic issues have not been truly addressed. Since "Fallada" has been documented as a surname, the given name cannot be treated as "made-up" and therefore must be demonstrated to be a period given name. The submittor has clearly shown "Valada" to be a period given name in Spanish. Unfortunately, the very documentation provided with the submission indicates that the initial "f" and "v" do not interchange in Spanish as they would have to here. Where the alternation does occur (as in Welsh and Greek, for instance) this is usually between vowels. In the case of Spanish, the weight of the evidence is that the alternation would be between "f" and "b" (as in Stefanos and Esteban): if a modification of "Valada" were to occur, one suspects that it would be to "Balada". As the lady was extremely adamant about any changes to her name (that no changes would be allowed was indicated at least four times on the forms we received), we felt unable to assign a holding name, although the device seemed acceptable. (04/1988)

Fara Steinhauser. Device. Sable, seme of unicorn's heads couped, on a lozenge Or, a unicorn's head couped sable.

Conflict with Konrad von Drachenruh ("Sable, on a lozenge Or, a dragon couchant sable."). (12/1986)

Fatimah iamar binte Noura. Name and device. Per bend sinister pean and erminois, a unicorn passant guardant Or and a winged demon rampant to sinister gules.

The only support provided for iamar was a statement from Elston Smith that it meant "moon" and was a girl's name as Rabi (breeze) was a boy's name. No evidence was proved for its use in period (or even its general use today). While Nour may have been a masculine name in period (there is some debate on this point), the evidence for Noura is slim (ELston Smith again) and the use of a metronomic in period would have been very unusual. There is no fixed blazon for a"demon" in heraldry, and depiction in period sources vary widely. The beast on the emblazon could reasonably be blazoned as "A pterodactyl courant erect", but we suspected that the submittor might not actually have a pterodactyl in mind. . . (04/1987)

Felding, Borough of. Name only.

There is a Catch-22 situation here. When Master Wilhelm approved a badge for the Borough of South Bank (like this group a Carolingian subset), he likened them to a guild, although he did seem to regard them as a "proto-group" as Brigantia noted. If it is considered to be an unofficial group, like a Specialized household, which has been the Carolingian tradition, then they cannot register a name without a badge. IF they wish to register the name as such without armoury, they must meet the standards for a Society group (e.g., a College since they are based at Wellesley) in which case they would have to meet at the administrative requirements for such groups and include a laurel wreath in their armory when they did register it. (11/1989)

Felding, Borough of. Badge. Barry wavy azure and argent, on a pile inverted throughout vert, a fox sejant guardant argent.

For a discussion of the name, see ACCEPTANCES under the heading of the Barony of Carolingia. The consensus of opinion in the College was that the visual similarity between the fox and the wolf as depicted in the Society was too great to allow difference lacking solid evidence that the two were distinguished as separate charges in period. Given the ambiguity of the the evidence by blazon on the letter of intent and the clear evidence provided by Silver Trumpet of period confusion between the two in Glover's Ordinary, we have no alternative but to return the badge. (05/1990)

Felecia de Miguelito. Name only.

As "Felecia" is stated to be her mundane name, the peculiar spelling of the given name might be considered acceptable, but the last name does not appear to be registerable under our current rules. Brigantia argues that even though standard patronymic forms in Spanish use the unmodified given name or add a suffix such as "-ez" to the name (e.g., "Miguel" or "Miguelez"), patronymics in "de" are known in French and Latin "and so should be acceptable in early Spanish". He also notes that forming patronymics from a diminutive is common in many languages. Unfortunately, as several commentors noted, no evidence has been presented that Spanish uses diminutives to form surnames or that "de" is actually used in patronymic forms. We would not allow the use of "cum" in place of "con" with a Spanish noun in forming a Spanish name and this would be a parallel usage. To this date the only occurrences of a surname in "de" we have been able to find in Spanish were unambiguously derived from place names (and many of those were relatively late). Moreover, we have not been able to find any examples of the diminutive form used to produce a surname in period Spanish, even where the structure of the name was otherwise documented (e.g., a form like "Miguelito" or "Miguelitez"). As the submittor allows no changes whatsoever to the name, we could not register any of the modified forms suggested by the College. (07/1989)

Felicia of the True Layne. Badge. A lion's head cabossed Or, jessant of a tower gules.

Conflict with Jehanne de Lyonesse ("Vert, a lion's head affronty Or, orbed vert."), the badge of the Poet Laureate of Meridies ("Vair ancient, a lion's head cabossed Or, orbed and langued gules."), etc. (10/1988)

Finn MacGregor. Name only.

The name is too close in sound and appearance to the already registered name of Fiona MacGregor. (03/1990)

Finn O Lochlainn. Device. Per saltire and per fess vert and argent, a roundel counterchanged.

Unfortunately, it was the consensus of commentary in the College that the proposed device did conflict with William Gordon of York ("Per pale sable and argent, a roundel counterchanged."): the most difference that can be derived under the current rules is a major and a minor point of difference. (12/1987)

Finnabhair M'Corrain. Device. Or, a saltire doubly parted and fretted, the points of intersection fretted with four annulets in cross, all between in pale a demiunicorn to sinister sable and a thistle, slipped and leaved, proper.

The diminution in size of the saltire-annulet combination brings it under the ban on "thin-line heraldry" in the old rules and the requirement for identifiability in the new rules ("Armorial Identifiability, X.3, p. 11). (11/1989)

Finnbar MacAlasdair. Device. Gyronny vert and sable, a winged stag salient, wings elevated and addorsed, argent, attired Or.

Conflict with Pownes ("Sable, a buck springing argent, attired Or."). (05/1988)

Finola O'Clery. Device. Argent, a cock crowing azure within a bordure gules, semy of fountains.

Unfortunately, Crescent is correct in indicating that the fountains are banned because of the ban on charges semy which are fimbriated, proper, fur or divided tinctures (AR1.c). In this case, there actually is a problem since virtually noone who looked at the device was certain that the charges on the bordure were fountains. (05/1988)

Fiona Lachtna. Device. Vert, an estoile argent and a chief indented of three points ermine, each upper point terminating in a fleur-de-lys vert.

Unfortunately, a comparison of the emblazons confirmed that this does conflict visually with Katherine FitzWalter ("Vert, an escarbuncle argent, a chief ermine."), as suggested by Compline. (03/1988)

Fiona MacGregor. Badge for Household of Copers Anomalous. Argent, on a spiderweb throughout, in base a spider sable.

Conflict with Darvula Hedwig von Schwarzwald ("Argent, on a spiderweb sable, a garden spider displayed proper within a bordure rayonny gules."), cited on the letter of intent: as Darvula's spider is essentially sable, negigible difference can be derived from the spiders. Note that the consensus of the College was that the name was not a period construction, the more so since both elements of the name were first documented after our period (and the senses in which they are used here are more modern still). (05/1988)

Fiona Mairi MacQuarrie. Device. Per pale gules and azure, on a pale argent a rosebud azure conjoined to another inverted gules, both slipped and leaved vert.

Conflict with Corrmacc na Connacht ("Azure, on a pale argent a sword inverted gules", etc. Also, as Brachet has pointed out, there is a strong visual conflict with the modern flag of France (whose while portion is frequently charged for special purposes). (07/1987)

Fiona Mairi MacQuarrie. Device. Azure, on a pale argent, in saltire, a rosebud and a rosebud inverted, azure, both slipped and leaved vert, overall an orle of leaves counterchanged.

The leaves of the rosebuds were misblazoned on the letter of intent as argent. It seems inappropriate to pend this, however, since it would have to be returned in any case. Not only is the placement of the orle of leaves visually confusing and poor style, but it does not serve to clear this from Cormacc na Connacht ("Azure, on a pale argent, a sword inverted gules.") since the conjoined rosebuds are essentially a single charge. (02/1989)

Fiona Margaret MacNicol. Name only.

Given the coincidence of both given names and the patronymic particle, this seemed too close to the registered name of Fiona Margaret MacQueen. (07/1987)

Fiona na Gealache Micclaus. Name and device. Bendy sinister sable and argent, a greyhound couchant reguardant to sinister gules.

The name is not properly formed Irish Gaelic for "of the moon of ill repute" (which would probably be "na gealai mhichlu", according to Batonvert). Since the submittor has forbidden any changes to the name, we have been compelled to return the lovely device as well. (02/1987)

Fiona O'Mull. Badge for House Dragon Heart. Gules, in pale three flames of fire between two dragon's wings conjoined, displayed and inverted, Or.

As the Pursuivant for Cloondara noted, the household name is in direct conflict with the Middle Kingdom's Order of the Dragon's Heart. The flames are so reduced in size by the design that they are virtually unidentifiable. Moreover, there is really no way to guarantee that this design will be drawn in this particular manner, even through a long and precise blazon. These two facts together clearly point to a design that is not period style. (03/1990)

Fiona O'Mull. Badge. Azure, on a sun throughout argent, a unicorn's head couped azure.

Conflict with the badge of Micheila ni Fhionghuin of Skye ("Azure, a sun eclipsed azure charged with a mullet voided argent."): no more than a minor point can be assigned for the changes in type of the essentially blue objects on the sun. (12/1988)

Fionn Creagh. Badge. Vert, a pear vert, fimbriated argent.

Whether you blazon this as a pear fimbriated or a pear voided, this is "thin line heraldry" which renders the pear unrecognizable and is not acceptable. (09/1987)

Fionn Creagh. Badge. Vert, on a card weaving tablet lozengewise argent a unicorn's horn inverted purpure.

Heraldically speaking, the card weaving tablet is a lozenge so this is in conflict with Kyra Kai ferch Madoc ("Per pale vert and azure, on a lozenge argent a cresset torch enflamed per pale sable and vert."). There is a minor point of difference for the field, but the resemblance in shape between the torch and the horn prevents our giving a major point of difference for the changes in tincture and type to the tertiaries. (09/1987)

Fithir Gormlaith MacMurrough. Device. Vert, three pallets argent, on a chief vert four feathers argent.

What was drawn was not paly, as blazoned on the letter of intent, but rather three argent pallets on a vert field, leaving the vert chief floating on the vert field. (04/1988)

Forgotten Sea, Barony of. Badge for the Order of the Trident Tree. Vert, a poplar tree issuant from an inverted Ukrainian trident head within a bordure embattled argent.

While the bordure carries this clear of the other conflicts cited for the baronial badge, this still conflicts with the device of Joseph of Locksley. (05/1989)

Forgotten Sea, Barony of. Badge. Argent, a poplar tree rooted of a trident vert.

Conflict with Joseph of Locksley ("Vert, a tree eradicated argent."): as the unusual rooting of the tree is a distinction rather than a difference, there is only the major point for counterchanging the tinctures. This also conflicts visually with the mundane arms of Nozier ("Argent, a nut tree eradicated vert.", as cited in Woodward, p. 318) and Kymberlee ("Argent, a tree eradicated vert.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1112). (12/1987)

Forgotten Sea, Barony of. Badge. Argent, a poplar tree issuant from an inverted Ukrainian trident head vert.

Laurel would be the last to deny that, taken as a primary charge in its normal orientation, the Ukrainian trident head is a distinct and separable charge (after all it was she who, as Brigantia, successfully argued this point). However, inverted, miniaturized and substituted for the normal roots of a poplar tree, this is not sufficient to difference this from an ordinary tree eradicated: it merely looks like tree roots a la Celtic knotwork. This being so, the original conflicts still remain as cited in December, 1987: Joseph of Locksley ("Vert, a tree eradicated argent."), the mundane arms of Nozier ("Argent, a nut tree eradicated vert.", as cited in Woodward, p. 318) and Kymberlee ("Argent, a tree eradicated vert.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1112). In addition, Brachet has correctly cited a conflict in the device of Gillian du Bois des Fleurs ("Argent, a lombardy poplar tree eradicated proper, between two gillyflowers gules, slipped and leaved proper."). (05/1989)

Francesca da Trani. Device. Erminites, on a lozenge Or, fimbriated, between two flaunches azure, a pomegranate, slipped and leaved, proper.

The excellent analysis of the sources by Silver Trumpet confirms us in our opinion that the ban on erminites for Society use, which is one of the oldest precedents in the Society (dating back nearly twenty years to Harold Breakstone in 1980), is well founded on the absence of this ermine variant in period sources and should continue. In addition to this usage, the fimbriated charged lozenge gives the appearance of a lozenge Or with a pomegranate and a bordure azure which would too greatly resemble arms of pretense under AR10d. (05/1989)

Francesca the Fiery. Device. Per pale embattled azure and sable, a unicorn's head erased and sinister facing Or.

The field contrast here is extremely low and the line of division is partially obscured by the high contrast charge so that it is virtually impossible to determine the precise line of division. Note that two of the three conditions for the use of complex partition lines stated in the case of Leannon of Cambion (listed under the acceptances for the Kingdom of Atlantia) are absent here, making it an excellent antithetical example. (10/1986)

Francesca the Fiery. Device. Per pale embattled azure and sable, a unicorn's head erased and sinister-facing Or.

This was returned on the letter for October, 1986, for the use of a complex field division line with insufficient contrast. Vesper has appealed this return on the grounds that the detailed precedents for the circumstances in which complex fields of two colours could be used were listed elsewhere in that letter and therefore were not known at the time the submission was made, i. e. that the rules were changed on the submittor after the fact and therefore this should not have been returned. As a matter of fact, the device was returned under a disposition which has existed, as Chevron has pointed out, at least since the summer of 1984. In the Rules published at the end of Master Wilhelm's tenure as Laurel, it is clearly stated (IX. 4) "those partitions allowed to use two colors or two metals should not use complex lines of division, as those will be difficult to discern at a distance, due to poor contrast" and (IX. 5) "the basic requirement in all cases is that there be sufficient contrast for cler visibility". In Master Baldwin's rules, issued less than a month before the October meeting, this was restated in terms which involved a definition of "what is a simple case". Since there had been much confusion expressed to me due to inconsistencies (and subjective judgements) of what was a case where two colours were legitimate in terms of the new rules, the precedents noted on the case of Lann of Cambion were issued to attempt to "quantify" the already existent criteria. No "new rules" were involved and in fact there has been no change in official theory on this issue from Master Wilhelm through Master Baldwin to myself.

If Vesper's arguments were to be accepted in their totality, we would find ourselves in one of two absurd situations. In the first, Laurel would be bound not to make any judgements on the application of the rules (i. e. , set precedent) without a notice of three months or more in which the precedent would have been changed but could not be applied. I am sure that Vesper would be as appalled at that approach since it would rob the College of the ability to respond to circumstances as they arise, to utilize new research or information or to deal with "grey areas" in the rules. A more limited case (and what in fact what was being requested in this appeal) would have Laurel free to return the submission on which a precedent was set, but not any other submissions which involved the same issues until a "notice period" had elapsed. That is absurd and unfair to submittors, making the passage of return of a controversial or precedent-setting issue depend on whose submission the actual precedent was attached to. That is not acceptable because of simple equity.

In any case, the question of general principles to be applied in setting precedents is moot. The submission of Francesca the Fiery, although beautiful, was clearly a case where the field division was "not there". Even at the distance of ten inches at which the emblazon sheet is currently being viewed, it is difficult to be certain whether the field is all sable, all azure or party, and it is impossible to determine the nature of the field division at all. After a review of the relevant precedents there is no doubt that this submission would have been returned on the same grounds had it been considered by Master Wilhelm or Master Baldwin. Therefore, the appeal on the ground of "rules changes" cannot be accepted. (03/1987)

Francis de Burgo. Device. Counterermine, a fox passant reguardant argent.

Conflict with the badge of Johann von Graustein ("A fox statant reguardant argent."). (12/1987)

Francis of Aaron Isles. Household name for House Aaron Isles.

As Crescent has noted NR21 specifically bars household names which differ by only a "minor spelling variation" from a well-known place name. There is no doubt that the Aran Isles are extremely well-known, even outside the large cadre of Celtophiles that exists in the Society: the popularity of Aran-style knitted garments assures that! It was our considered opinion that this is indeed a variation of that name which differs in only a minor degree in orthography and not at all in pronunciation, given the usual American pronunciation of "Aaron" and "Aran". (04/1989)

François le Renard. Device. Sable, in pale an arm embowed, issuant from chief and maintaining an hourglass palewise argent, sanded gules, and two swords in saltire argent.

Conflict with Bollingford ("Sable, two swords in saltire argent.", cited in Papworth, p. 1107). Note that the arm and hourglass configuration issuant from chief is poor style. (04/1989)

Francoise Follet Accard de Nevers. Device. Argent, in pale a heart and a lozenge gules and in fess a trefoil fesswise and a spade fesswise reversed sable, all conjoined in cross, within a bordure azure, semy of hawk's bells Or.

The conjunction of the playing card symbols in this manner is not period style. (11/1986)

Francoise Katze. Device. Gules, a winged cat passant guardant, forepaw extended, wings elevated and addorsed, argent, charged on the wing with a fleur­de­lys sable.

This is a direct conflict with the fieldless badge of the Barony of Windmaster's Hill ("A winged cat passant, forepaw extended, wings elevated and addorsed, argent."). (11/1986)

Frederick of Zwickau. Device. Or, on a pile sable, surmounted by two chevronels counterchanged, in chief a tau cross argent.

There is a clear visual conflict with Douglas Archer ("Or, on a pile throughout sable, three pheons argent, overall a chevron counterchanged.") (09/1986)

Freygard Magnusdottir. Badge. A wolf's upper jawbone, the fang embrued and dripping, all proper.

First of all, the persona story included on the letter of intent is irrelevant. Secondly, there is no true proper for bone: this would best be blazoned as argent. Thirdly and most importantly, this charge is basically unidentifiable for what it is, even at a close distance, and the badge cannot with reliability be reconstructed from any blazon that we could devise. (02/1988)

Fridrich Eisenhart. Device. Azure, a bicorporate lion within a bordure Or.

Conflict with Arundell ("Azure, a lion rampant within a bordure Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 118) and John of Northampton, Lord Mayor of London ("Azure, a lion bicorporate sejant guardant crowned Or, the tails cowed and erect", cited in Dennys' Heraldic Imagination [p. 137] with the note "the beasts sometimes depicted as more or less rampant"). (05/1988)

Friedrich de la Grimace. Device. Sable, on a triangle OR a pair of bat wings displayed sable, all within a bordure of flames proper.

Under both sets of rules this is a conflict with Damon Hawke ("Sable, a triangle Or charged with another sable."). Valid concerns were also expressed in the College about the use of the conjoint batwings on a gold background (albeit the classic depiction of the "quasi-arms of pretense" of Batman are on oval fesswise and this is the form recently and aggressively protected). Finally, the bordure of flame proper here, particularly as depicted in the emblazon as individual tiny points of red placed on almost separated yellow tongues of flames, is not really a period effect and the entire collection of charges comes perilously close to what one commenter called "biker heraldry". (12/1989)

Friedrich Stolzadler von Ansbach. Name only.

The name conflicts with that of Friedrich, Margrave of Ansbach in the Reformation period. The byname of Ansbach is particularly unfortunate, given the arms which contain so many references to the Hohenzollern Margraves of Brandenburg-Ansbach. As the submittor requested no changes to his name, we felt we could not simply drop the place name to leave the more acceptable "Friedrich Stolzadler". (09/1988)

Gabriella Francesca Qlejja de Warre. Device. Sable, a Maltese cross chequy sable and argent, fimbriated argent, within a bordure chequy argent and sable.

At the height of the "independent heraldic jurisdiction" frou-dou, Laurel can recall telling a would-be submittor who wished to appropriate the insignia of the Knights of Malta, that if the Society only protected a dozen mundane insignia, that would be one of them. We see no reason to change our view now and feel that the original insignia of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (better known as the knights of Malta) should be rendered the protection offered sovereign states for they certainly functioned as a sovereign entity for a significant part of their history, ruling first Rhodes and then Malta as de facto sovereign states. This being so, the addition of the bordure and the cross chequy placed on an argent cross is not sufficient to difference the proposed device. This device is, it should be noted, even more imprudent used with a Maltese surname like "Qlejja". (02/1989)

Gabrielle Brovindar. Name only.

With the best will in the world, on the basis of the material providedin the letter of intent the College could not come up with any rationalization for "Brovindar" as a constructed name in any language. The place name "Brovendike" which was cited as existing in period was shown as of "unknown" derivation and we could not find any analogue that would allow us to add the Scandinavian nominal suffix "­ar" to a putative "Brovend". She could have the documented form "Brovendike" as a surname of origin or could resubmit with a similar­sounding French or English name. (05/1990)

Gabrielle du Bois. Device. Vert, on a pale between two pegasi rampant addorsed Or, three oak leaves vert.

Under both old rules and new, this conflicts with Lyris Wordsmith ("Vert, upon a pale between two cat's heads caboshed Or, a quill azure between two cat's heads caboshed vert."). Even under the old rules there would have been only a major point for change of secondary type and a minor for change of tertiary type. (The change in tincture of the quill is negligible per Dod D.5: "Applying Major­point changes for charges to some, but not all, of a group of tertiary charges. . .is worth nothing in terms of difference."). Under the new rules, this is also in conflict with Pring ("Vert, on a pale between two annulets Or, three cinquefoils of the field.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1007). (05/1990)

Gaidhealach Dorchadh, Shire of. Name and device. Vert, a cinquefoil within a laurel wreath Or and on a chief indented argent, three hurts.

The letter of intent indicated that the submittors wished the meaning of "Misty Highland". Unfortunately, not only is this name not syntactically correct, it also carries almost nothing of the desired meaning. "Gaidhealach" is an adjective not a noun and means "Gaelic" (it is the source of the English linguistic term "Goidelic"). Although the dictionary the submittors used gives it as an adjective meaning "Highland", there is definitely a capital "h" involved there and refers specifically to the area of Scotland in which Gaelic was spoken, i.e., the Highlands. This is made clear by the following citation from the documentation provided which offers "Gaidhealtachd" as the noun form with the translation "Highlands of Scotland". The more general term would be either (very literally) "ard-thir" (or more appropriately for the West Virginia countryside in question) "garbhchriochan" the latter being a plural noun form which means "rough country" and is used commonly in Gaelic to denote the Highlands of Scotland, when not speaking in an ethnic mode. "Dorchadh" on the other hand is a participle form meaning "getting dark or obscure" or "mystifying". In the sense of "misty" or "foggy" as we mean it the proper Gaelic adjective would appear to be "ceòthanach" (not surprisingly, the Scots have quite a few different ways of describing this particular weather condition!). As the changes necessary to the name would be so radical, we felt it necessary to refer it back to the group for consideration. Equally, unfortunately, the device had to be returned since no holding name can be formed for groups. (10/1988)

Gairvald Eburhard von Eissenhand. Change of name from Gairovald Eburhard.

While much of the College was receptive to the argument that "Gairvald" was a reasonable intermediate form between "Gairovald" and "Gerbald", there were serious problems with the byname as submitted. In the first place, although earlier submissions which never reached Laurel level apparently had the first element of the byname spelled correctly, "Eissen" is not the German word for "iron": that is "Eisen" with a single s. The feeling in the College was that the Ansteorran College had been correct to return the byname on the grounds that it was not a properly formed geographical name. "Eisenhand" is a fine personal epithet, formed in the period manner and his best option would be to add it to his registered name: "Gairovald Eburhard Eisenhand". Alternatively, he could do as several commentors have suggested and treat "Eisenhand" as a noun form in apposition with a geographic descriptive: "von Schloss Eisenhand". As he strictly forbade even the most minor changes to his submission, we were unable to modify even the given name to drop the offending "o". (01/1988)

Galatea de Aragon. Device. Argent, on a pale between two lions combattant azure, two pomegranates, slipped and leaved, argent.

Conflict with Melisande Marsetoile ("Argent, on a pale between two mullet of eight points elongated to base azure, another argent."). (05/1987)

Galen of Bristol. Badge. Or, an uncial letter "G", coronetted, within a bordure wavy gules.

It was our definite feeling that "initial" badges should be registered only after the most serious consideration, since such usage would prohibit the general use of initials for decoration on personal articles or insignia (e.g., favours), a perfectly period practice which should be encouraged. In this case, the clear intent to use a modern style royal monogram impelled us to return the submission. (Note to Star: the letter of intent indicated that the badge had been "lost" in A.S.XVI, presumably indicating a desire to claim clemency through hardship. However, this badge would not have been permissible in A.S. XVI since the gentle did not become a viscount until some time afterwards.). (01/1987)

Galiena Goshawk. Device. Or, on a pile purpure between five lizards tergiant palewise, two, two and one, vert, a sinister hand appaumy Or.

Unfortunately, it has previously been ruled that, since period piles would have extended almost to the bottom of the shield, there would not be space for a charge below a pile. Therefore, this submission must be returned. (12/1988)

Gallavally, Canton of. Device. Vert, a phoenix sinister-facing and rising from a laurel wreath Or, enflamed proper.

It was our feeling that the enflaming of the laurel wreath rendered it unidentifiable enough that it is not really a "significant" part of the design. As a result, this is visually in conflict with Sigurd Dragonhawk ("Vert, in fess a phoenix Or, issuant from flames proper between two seaxes argent.") and Jessica Llyrindi of Northmarch ("Gyronny sable and gules, a phoenix Or issuing from flames proper."). (08/1989)

Gallyoddwyn ap Morgane. Name &nd device. Argent, ermined gules, an owl displayed guardant sable.

No documentation was supplied for the given name other that it was supposed to be Welsh. No member of the College could confirm that it was an actual Welsh given name and in fact the name does not appear to be formed in accordance with the usual rules for given names in Welsh. The device is in technical conflict with the device of Muhrenah Vasilanova Romanovich ("Per pale ermine and counter­ermine, a barn owl stooping affronty proper.") (09/1986)

Galmr Ingolfsson. Device. Per chevron azure and argent, two lions couchant aspectant Or and a longship, sails furled, proper.

Conflict with Hagar Stromburg Blackrune ("Per chevron throughout sable and argent, two double-bitted axes Or and a double-prowed drakkar, oars in action, proper."): only a minor point of difference can be derived from the differences in the fields. (05/1988)

Galmr Ingolfsson. Device. Per chevron embattled azure and argent, two lions couchant respectant Or and a drakkar proper, sailed argent.

Unfortunately, the sail, blazoned as proper on the letter of intent, is in fact argent on argent. . . (08/1989)

Ganelon Imrahil de Lorraine. Personal name and badge for Clan Stardragon.

Per bend sinister argent and sable, a dragon passant and a compass star within a bordure embattled, all counterchanged. Ganelon is not, as stated on the letter of intent, a made-up name. It was the name of the step-father of Roland in the Chanson de Roland. It was Ganelon who betrayed Roland and his companions to the Saracens at Roncesvalles in that chanson de geste and, by so doing, became a period archetype for treachery on the grand scale. As such he appears in a number of period works, including Dante's Inferno and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. In period terms, this appears to be a unique name and should not be registerable in the Society. The situation is only made worse by Zelazny's use of the name as the pseudonym adopted by Oberon in the Amber series: this was quite intentional and was meant to signal the role which Ganelon/Oberon was to play in the original series, one definitely parallel to that of Ganelon in betraying the hero to whom he ought to behave as a father. As Ganelon/Oberon first appears in The Guns of Avalon as ruler of "Lorraine", this name is a direct conflict. The difficulty is not at all ameliorated by the use of "Imrahil", the name of the Prince of Dol Amroth in Tolkien's Lord of the Rings. He allows no changes whatsoever to his name so we feel that a holding name would be imprudent and must return the whole submission. (05/1988)

Gareth ap Llewelyn. Device. Per fess urdy purpure and vert, in pale two lions couchant Or.

Conflict under both sets of rules with Kane Greymane ("Sable, in pale two lions couchant Or, crined argent."): there is a difference for the field, but the crining is artistic detail. (03/1990)

Gareth Cochrane. Device. Per saltire sable and gules, on a cross argent, a sword palewise between in fess two hearts gules.

Although Crescent is correct in noting that the addition of the tertiaries may contribute up to a major point of difference here since the ordinary lies alone ont he field, this still conflicts not only with Brian Dritar an Conn ("sable, on a cross argent a sinister hand couped at the wrist appaumy azure.") but also the famous flag of Denmark, the "Dannebrog" which appears in armorial works as early as the Geire Armorial ("Gules, a cross argent."). As national armoury, the "Dannebrog" requires two clear points of difference to clear by DR1. (09/1989)

Gareth de Mountayne. Device. Gules, three pallets argent, overall a pheon Or.

If you consider the pallets to be primary charges, this conflicts with De Dale ("Gules, three pallets argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1014). If you consider the gules and argent to be visually tantamount to paly, which it is, this would conflict as well with Nutt ("Azure, a pheon Or.", ibid., p. 1019). (08/1987)

Gareth of Eastbrook. Device. Quarterly azure and argent, a compass star elongated to base within and surmounting an annulet, all counterchanged.

As Crescent quite rightly noted, this is in conflict with Alexandre sur le Mer ("Azure, a compass rose argent."). The depiction of the compass rose, defined by Alexandre's submission (and copious documentation), is close enough to this to consider this an artistic variant. Since counterchanging along a line of division provides only a major point of difference between two Society devices this is not clear. The submittor should be informed that several commentors (from as far afield as Lochac!) thought this might infringe on the badge for NATO. As we had no depiction of this badge available, we could not confirm this, but the submittor should be made aware of the potential problem. (03/1988)

Gareth of Gryphon's Nest. Device. Argent, a griffin segreant to sinister gules and on a gusset sable a griffin segreant Or.

White Stag nobly attempted to justify the unusual background as a "sinister tierce per pall" which is a distinctly neologistic construction. This could be considered an improperly drawn gusset and, for the sake of clarity, we have so blazoned. We were compelled to agree not only with the commentors who felt this was not period style but also with those commentors who saw this as in conflict with the device of Ysabeau Cameron ("Per pale Or and gules, to hippogriffs combattant counterchanged."). (04/1988)

Gareth the Eccentric of Saint Albans. Device. Argent, semy of delves pierced sable, in fess three quills gules.

Although we sympathize with Brigantia's "gut feeling" that this should not conflict with Raymond of Noergate ("Argent, billetty sable."), there is no doubt that this does. At most a minor point of difference can be derived from the modification of the square objects and, since the minor change is applied to the semy, this difference is negligible (DoD D6). As a result, the only difference here is the addition of the charges overall which is not, since we consider a semy to be charges, not a field treatment, addition of primary charges to a field. (08/1989)

Garlanda de Stanes. Device. Per bend argent and azure, a dolmen sable between two roses counterchanged.

Unfortunately, the contrast between the sable dolmens and the azure portion of the field was so poor that the primary charge was unidentifiable, even at a distance of a foot. We would suggest that the submittor modify the tincture of the primary charge or of the field colour to obtain a better contrast. (01/1987)

Garmund Farer. Device. Per saltire azure and Or, in fess two ravens addorsed sable.

Silver Trumpet is correct in citing as a conflict Robin Vinhall the Ambivalent ("Or, in fess two robins close addorsed, tails crossed in saltire, proper."): there is a major for the field, but the shapes and tinctures of the birds are too close to allow a full major point for the cumulative changes to the birds. (04/1989)

Garrett Steele the Fox. Device. Sable, a fox sejant affronty argent playing a transverse flute Or.

Unfortunately, this conflicts with Wolfangus MhicMairgdhim ("Azure, a wolf sejant affronty, forepaws spread in fess argent, maintaining a basket-hilted broadsword and a targe Or."): while there is a major point for the field and a (relatively weak) minor for the objects held, the two beasts in essentially the same position are nearly identical. Indeed, at least one member of the Laurel staff blazoned the animal as a wolf before the blazon was read. (03/1989)

Garth the Wanderer. Device. Sable, on a bend sinister argent goutte de sang between a Celtic cross and a winged shoe argent, a morningstar sable.

Conflicts with the device of Ewan the Mad Wanderer.("Sable, a bend sinister between a Celtic cross and a unicorn's head couped reversed all argent.") (09/1986)

Garth the Wanderer. Badge. Azure, in fess a Celtic cross Or, a dagger inverted proper and a winged shoe Or.

Three unrelated objects strewn on a field do not a badge make. (See Baldwin's "Rule of Thumb" above.) (09/1986)

Garwen of Caerleon. Device. Azure, a stag trippant argent, on a chief Or, three roses azure.

We were reluctantly forced to agree with those who found this in conflict under the current rules with Eamon Deimne James Hennessy ("Vert, a stag trippant argent, on a chief Or, three pairs of arrows in saltire sable."): as the pairs of arrow in Eamon's device are really single units visually, only difference of type and tincture is derived from the tertiaries and so this cannot be considered to equate to a major point of difference. (10/1989)

Garwulf Nightsbane. Device. Sable, a chevron between two hammers set chevronwise and a mullet of four points elongated to base Or.

The device still conflicts with the arms, cited from Fabulous Heraldry of Robert Mansel ("Sable, a chevron between three mullets Or.") cited in the original return. Additionally, it also conflicts with the Society device of Oliver de Leon de Oro ("Sable, a chevronel between a demi-sun and a lion rampant Or."): there is no difference between an ordinary and its diminutive and, under the current rules, no more than a major and minor point can be derived from successive changes (here number and type) to a group of secondaries. (01/1987)

Gavin de Haga and Alina Meraud Bryte. Household name of House de Haga.

While the family name has been registered to one of the submittors, it is also the Latinised form for "from the Hague". Since our period the Hague has been the meeting place of the States general of Holland and the residence of the stadtholders (now the royal family of the Netherlands). Given this, it seems inappropriate to register this as a household name any more than we would register to someone the "House of Paris", "House of Romse", etc. (11/1989)

Gawain McHenry. Device. Vert, a chevron between two thistles, slipped and leaved, and a horse's head, couped and sinister- facing, Or.

Conflict with Sterling of Toad Hall ("Vert, a chevronel Or between in chief two bulldogs statant respectant erect, each gorged of a collar sable, and in base a squirrel sejant erect.") as well as the mundane arms of Skewis ("Vert, a chevron between three thistles Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 424), Curle ("Vert, a chevron Or.", Papworth, p. 377), etc. (12/1988)

Geddes ap Redmond. Name only.

Unfortunately, this gentle appears to be one of the legion who have been lead astray over the years by Yclept (alas! a production of a former Dragon Herald and thereby having perhaps more renown than it deserves). Black shows "Geddes" as being a family name derived from a place name and other sources which attempt to derive the name from a given name fail to show clear documentation (and adduce it as a diminutive form in any case). Therefore, failing better evidence, we must conclude that "Geddes" is not acceptable for use as a given name in the Society. While Redmond is an Anglicised form of an Irish given name, Crescent is quite correct in stating that its use with the Welsh patronymic particle "ap" is inappropriate: Redmond by itself would be acceptable. Unfortunately, the submittor allows no changes whatsoever to his name. (02/1988)

Geffrei Almeric Peregrinne. Device. Azure, on a pile raguly Or a falcon close reguardant gules.

Conflict with Jaromir Mihailovich, cited on the Letter of Intent ("Azure, on a pile Or in chief a sun gules."). (09/1987)

Genet of Ashertor. Name only.

Two etymologies were given for the given name, neither of which is acceptable for period usage. The forms give Genet as a form derived from the French "Genet", or latin "Genista" (the broom plant) involved creation of a "new flower name" and such have long since been barred from Society usage. The alternative meaning, mentioned in the letter of intent, and copiously documented with photocopies, is for the word as an alternative name for the civet cat, which is not, so far as we can determine, used in period as a given name. Had she not strictly forbidden any changes whatsoever to her given name, we would have registered it with the similarly spelled and pronounced given name "Jenet", a documented spelling of the diminutive of Joan in use as a separate name in period. Perhaps Dragon could suggest this alternative to her. (04/1987)

Genevieve Cameron Morchaertaigh. Device. Quarterly argent and purpure, four fleurs-de-lys conjoined in cross, bases to center, counterchanged.

Although the miniature emblazon made it appear that the fleurs-de-lys- were distinctly clear of one another, they are in fact conjoined like a rather distorted cross fleury. Thus this could be considered to conflict with Rayne Louveciennes ("Argent, on a cross fleury purpure a rose argent."), since counterchanging along a line of division only gives a single major (09/1989)

Genevieve LaRousse. Device. Sable, a harp ensigned with a unicorn's head, on a chief argent an estoile sable.

It was the consensus of opinion in the College that in the tertiary position the visual difference between a compass star and an estoile was too weak to carry this clear of Elendeer ni Khilhilt, as cited on the letter of intent ("Sable, a sword inverted, and on a chief argent, a compass star sable."). Increasing the number of estoiles or modifying the tincture would resolve the difficulty, assuming no new conflicts. (04/1988)

Genevieve nic an Cheannai. Device. Per pall gules, purpure and azure, a unicorn passant reguardant argent.

Conflict with Selena of Dragon's Bay ("Vert, a dapple grey unicorn statant."). The posture differences cumulative amount to a minor point and the tincture difference between the two unicorns is non­existent, both technically and visually. There are problems also with Leanne of Maywood ("Azure, a unicorn trippant to sinister, armed, crined, pizzled and cullioned Or."), although that is more of a judgement call. (11/1986)

Genna Gaireacdaic a Froac. Name only.

Although Genna might be considered a valid orthographic variant of the pre-seventeenth century West Cornish name Jenna (see Names for the Cornish, p. 29), the remainder of the name does not seem to be properly formed Irish for the meaning "laughter of the heath" which the submittor desired. Moreover, this is not the sort of byname that was generally used in the Irish world for actual (rather than epic poetic) use. Since the submittor forbade any changes to the name, the name as a whole had to be returned. (02/1987)

Geoffrey de Braybroc. Device. Gules, a fess argent, overall seven mascles, four and three, counterchanged.

Not only does this conflict with the arms of Austria ("Gules, a fess argent."), but it is visually confusing to an unacceptable degree. (07/1988)

Geoffrey of Coldingham. Badge. Per fess sable and argent, a cross moline counterchanged.

Conflict with Columbers ("Per fess gules and argent, a cross moline counterchanged., as cited in Papworth, p. 616). (08/1989)

Geoffrey of Lincolne. Change of device. Argent, a saltire vert, overall on a lozenge argent, fimbriated, a cross crosslet sable.

It was the consensus of the College that there were severe stylistic problems with this device. The primary charge is not a saltire issuant from a mascle as blazoned on the letter of intent: if the base charge were a mascle surmounting the saltire, the center of the mascle will be vert. As actually drawn, the device has at least four layers and gives the distinct impression of an inescutcheon of pretense: neither stylistic feature is acceptable. (06/1988)

Geoffrey of Salisbury. Device. Per bend vert and purpure, a bend Or between a unicorn rampant argent and an astrolabe argent, marked Or.

The contrast was so poor between the argent and Or of the astrolabe that it was impossible for most to identify clearly what it was at any distance. Although this may be an "astrolabe proper", it, does not serve well for identification. Perhaps the submittor would consider delineating the identifying markings In a colour? (09/1986)

Geoffrey Soulspeeder. Device. Or, on a bend bretassy gules a hide argent.

There are two problems with this submission. There was a strong consensus among the members of the College that this fell under the heading of "road kill heraldry" and thus was in violation of both X19 and (at least to some) X6. Also, since the difference between raguly and bretassy is minor at the best of times and minimal in the context of a bend, this really seemed to be uncomfortably close to the US 32nd Armored Regiment ("Or, a bend raguly gules.") cited in the letter of intent. [Irreverent Comment from Laurel staff:"The service badge for the US 32nd Armored Regiment on the Yellowstone fire front. . ."]. (07/1989)

Geoffrey the Procrastinator. Device. Argent, a wyvern erect to sinister gules within a bordure sable.

Conflict with Celenion Ffranges verch Cinnan ("Argent, a wyvern rampant to sinister, tail nowed, gules, between its claws a mullet sable, all wihin a bordure chequy sable and argent.") and Cirilo Zmajdrugada ("Argent, a dragon segreant to sinister, tail coward, vert, winged within a bordure sable."). (10/1988)

Geoffrey Visick. Device. Or, on a bend between two hands appaumes azure, a wolf statant argent.

Under the old rules, this conflicts with Sula von Pferdenthal ("Or, on a bend azure, two horse's heads cabossed argent."). Under the new rules, it conflicts with the arms of Gernon ("Or, on a bend azure an escallop argent.", as cited by Papworth, p. 235). (03/1990)

Geofrey Soulspeeder. Device. Or, chappe ploye counter-ermine, two cups Or and another azure.

Conflict with Aelfhaelen Dracasid ("Argent, chape ploye azure in chief two chalices argent issuant of wildflowers and in base a chalice issuant of wildflowers azure.)". (05/1987)

George Armstrong. Device. Vert, a bend sinister azure,fimbriated Or, overall in pale three dexter arms fesswise, armoured and embowed, and on a chief argent, a dexter arm issuant from the line of division, embowed and maintaining a sword, gules.

The desire to echo elements of the mundane Armstrong armoury has led this gentle into a design that is just too complex and visually confusing. The fimbriation of the bend sinister is a permissible anomaly that becomes dodgy when overlain by the arms. The addition of the arms issuant from the line of division only adds to the business of the device. As many commented, the chief here is placed as if it overlay the bend and should not. (09/1988)

George mac Raibeart. Device. Or, a cross patty, fitchy at all points, gules, overall a cross, all within a bordure vert.

The cross overall obscures the underlying cross to such an extent that it is unclear what form the ends of the arms are intended to take. There is also a technical conflict with Oriana Winterbourne ("Or, on a cross vert five pegasi rampant Or within a bordure vert. "). (03/1987)

Gerald the Inverter of Kilkenny. Device. Azure, a double-bitted axe palewise between two oak leaves, all argent.

Conflict with the badge of Armand Vozon d'Angoumois ("Azure, a halberd palewise argent." A comparison of the emblazons convinced us that the visual difference between the halberd and the double-bitted axe was not adequate to difference the two. (01/1987)

Gerald Thomas fitzGerald. Change of name from Gerald Fitzgerald and device.

Argent, a saltire gules, overall a Barbary ape passant proper, grasping in the dexter paw a sword bendwise sinister Or and in the sinister paw a clay pipe argent, in base a key palewise, wards to base and to sinister sable. Alas! the original passage of the name "Gerald Fitzgerald" in 1982 was one of those moments when the College nodded for the name is a direct conflict with that of Gerald Fitzgerald, Earl of Kildare (1477­1513), sometimes known in Irish as Geróit Mor (Gerald the Great). His son, who succeeded him as Earl of Kildare and Lord Deputy or Ireland, was also named Gerald and was called "Geróit Og" (Gerald the Younger). The son of Gerald the Younger was that Thomas FitzGerald, sometimes called "Silken Thomas", who led the revolt against the power of Henry VIII in Ireland in 1534, was executed at Tyburn in 1537. In turn, Gerald FitzGerald, orphaned at 12, became a rallying point for Irish sentiments in the years to follow and was widely acknowledged on the Continent as "King of Ireland", even being considered by the French at one point as a viable candidate for the hand of Mary of Scotland. Given all this, the addition of the name Thomas to his already registered name would be particularly unfortunate. Also given this, the arms become rather presumptuous. As Star has noted, they differ the well-documented period arms of FitzGerald primarily by adding a monkey, which is the crest added to those arms by the Earl of Leinster, head of the FitzGerald family. Taken with the name, this is a bit too much. (09/1988)

Geraldine the Wanderer. Change of device. Argent, a two-headed peacock in his pride, necks entwined, proper.

Conflict with the badge of Tannis of Tir-y-Don ("Argent, a peacock passant reguardant bendwise proper."). There is a clear point of difference for the differences of posture, but the double-heads are not sufficiently visible against the peacock's tail to add the necessary extra difference. Note that the arms of Sieglinde von Krause ("Argent, a peacock pavanated in base proper, perched on a linden branch fesswise vert.") not only adds the branch as a prominent design element but has the bird's tail quite clearly in base for a position quite different from that here. Given the almost invisible "non-standard" head arrangement, this is also uncomfortably close to Munt ("Argent, three peacocks in pride proper.", cited in Papworth, p. 329). (08/1987)

Gerard de Lisieux. Device. Paly bendy sinister argent and azure, a bordure embattled sable.

Conflict with the arms of Bavaria ("Lozengy bendwise azure and argent."). (02/1987)

Gerbold Asbjorn. Device. Sable, a katar argent.

Even amongst those weapons mavens who were aware that a katar is a peculiarly Indian two­handled dagger, there was a general consensus that the charge was not identifiable (several indicated that it appeared at first glance to be a rocket!). In addition, since a dagger is a sword and a sword is, generally speaking, a sword from the point of view of difference, there are a number of mundane conflicts which involve a sword argent in various positions on a sable field. (12/1986)

Gerwyn y Teigr. Device. Sable, an axe bendwise sinister Or, on a dexter point argent, a wolf's head, erased and sinister-facing, sable.

As Crescent has noted, White Stag's use of the arms of Hawkins as a period example of a charged point is invalid since both the point and the lion which was adduced as the charge are Or, making it obvious that the lion stands atop the point. Even were this not the case, however, the example would not address the issue of balance in this device for the default point in base is centered and contributes to the balance of the design rather than unbalancing it, as does this point. As Habicht, Crescent and others have pointed out, the dexter point was cited in at least one Tudor armorial work as an abatement for boasting of a valiant act which was never performed, but there is no evidence that this was ever so used nor that such a point would have been charged or depicted in any tincture other than tenne. As has been frequently stated in the past, the Society is attempting to emulate the best style of heraldry in our period, not decadent "book only" heraldry, and the best period style clearly was static and balanced. Granted that certain other unbalancing charges (most notably the charged gore) crept into Society heraldry in the past, we see no reason to allow the inherently unbalanced charged dexter (or sinister) point. (02/1989)

Geyla of the Dragons. Device. Argent, a dragon dormant purpure.

Unfortunately, Brachet is correct in commenting that this conflicts with Caryl de Trecesson ("Sable, a dragon dormant Or.") by identity of outline (AR20a). (09/1987)

Giacomo Frisinghelli. Device. Per fess gyronny from fess of thirteen Or and gules, and azure, overall a lion of St.

Mark passant guardant disarmed argent.

While we do agree that American state flags should be protected at the same level as national armoury, this device is technically clear from the state flag of Arizona, which shares a field that is functionally identical, because from the "mullet Or" (copper should be blazoned Or) which the primary charge on the flag there is a major point for type of charge and another for the tincture of the primary charge. On the other hand, since no difference may be derived from the field of a fieldless badge this is in conflict with the badge of Windmaster's Hill ("A winged cat passant, forepaw extended, wings elevated and addorsed argent."). (07/1987)

Giacomo Frisinghelli. Device. Per fess Or and azure, in chief three gyrons, conjoined at the line of division, gules, overall a lion of St.

Mark passant to sinister and guardant argent. Conflict with the badge of Aethelthritha of Whitby ("Sable, a winged lion passant guardant to sinister argent."), as the gyrons in chief are tantamount to a field treatment gyronny and we cannot really see our way clear to granting a minor point of difference for the halo. For the same reasons, this also conflicts with the badge of the Barony of Windmaster's Hill ("A winged cat sejant affronty, facing to sinister, wings displayed, argent."): the permission to conflict from Windmaster's Hill was specifically for their "Kittyhawk" passant. (08/1989)

Gideon MacLeod. Device. Quarterly Or and gules, a wyvern sable.

Conflict with Somerke ("Gyronny of eight gules and Or, a wyvern with wings addorsed sable.") and Rognon ("Argent, a wyvern segreant sable."), both cited in Papworth, p. 984. (08/1989)

Gilda Nootka's Wife. Name and device. Per bend sinister vert and azure, on a bend wavy crested, counter wavy crested argent an octopus palewise gules.

The letter of intent presented "Gilda" is a feminine form of the Welsh name "Gildas", but this is not how feminines are formed from Welsh names. (The analogues used were all Latinate and thus regularly formed feminines in "-a".) While there is some evidence for "Gilda" as a diminutive of "Ermengilda", there is none for the use of such a diminutive in period or for the regular formation of such diminutives in period for other German names, which is what is required for the use of the diminutive under the new rules (Documented Names, II.1, p. 2). The descriptive "Nootka's Wife" is not allowable since "Nootka" does not seem to be a period given name. The device must be returned since it uses the line of division "wavy crested" which has specifically been ruled to be modern and not compatible with Society style (as of August, 1980). (11/1989)

Gillain Clayshaper. Name and device. Azure, semy of mullets of eight points argent, a woman affronty proper, garbed argent, crined Or, holding in both hands a crescent gules.

The argument for Gillain as a given name derived from "gille" and "Aine" and meaning "servant of Anne" is not really plausible. In the first place this is a documented family name from "giolla" meaning boy or servant (commonly appearing as Gillan or Gillen or in the Irish patronymic "O Giollain", cited by MacLysaght in Surnames of Ireland, p. 124). Secondly, Aine is a separate pre-Christian Irish name which is only confused with the Biblical Anne at a late date. Thirdly, there is no evidence that the name formation ever coalesced the Irish name elements in quite this manner: in most Irish sources until a very late period the component parts of such compounded names retained their separate identities and were properly inflected. Whether one is a devotee of the old religion or the newer one, this device is "a bit much". The lady is quite correct that human figures were used in period heraldry and even divine figures occasionally appeared on non-ecclesiastical heraldry. However, given the religious pluralism of the Society and modern attitudes towards the symbols of religion, this device could cause inadvertent offense. The maiden garbed in white and set upon a blue sky set with silver stars is the classic depiction of the Virgin in Baroque and modern iconography. This particular depiction in fact could be derived directly from the holy pictures of the Virgin that many of those who attended Catholic School collected in their youth. This is excessive in itself and, taken with a name constructed to mean "servant of Anne", becomes even more problematic (Anne was, of course, the mother of Mary in medieval tradition). It should be noted, incidentally, that this depiction is directly assimilated from the depiction of the goddess in the older religion (even to the adornment of the Virgin with the heavenly symbols of stars and the moon) and the name Aine, although used for human women in historical times, is particularly associated with aspects of the goddess in early Irish myth (O Corrain and Maguire, Gaelic Personal Names, pp. 19-20). Finally, it also conflicts with Gilrae of Moorburn ("Azure, a fox-headed woman affronty statant, hands crossed at the waist, vested argent.") (06/1987)

Gillermo el Alacran de Castilla. Badge. Argent, a chestnut tree eradicated sable, leaved gules.

Conflict with Kornkoopers ("Argent, a dry tree sable.", as cited in Woodward, p. 318). (05/1988)

Gillian Clayshaper. Badge. Azure, a torch Or.

Conflict with the British 18th Artillery Training Brigade ("Per fess gules and azure, overall a torch enflamed all Or."). (02/1988)

Gillian Clayshaper. Device. Azure, a torch Or between and maintained by two hawks rising respectant, wings elevated and addorsed, argent.

Under the old rules there is but one major point of difference, derived from addition of the hawks, from the arms of Saint Aidan ("Azure, a torch Or, enflamed proper.", as cited in Fabulous Heraldry, #890). Note that since, the flames in Aidan's torch would be largely Or, the difference in tincture is really negligible. The situation is essentially the same under the new rules, where the addition of the single group of secondaries (the hawks) gives one clear visual difference. (11/1989)

Gillian de Ravely. Device. Azure, on a pile throughout between two crescents Or, a sword inverted azure.

Conflict with Jaromir Mikhailovich ("Azure, on a pile Or in chief a sun gules."). (05/1988)

Giovanni dei Fiori. Badge. Two cup hilted rapiers in saltire surmounted by another palewise inverted sable, overall a rose gules, barbed and seeded proper.

We were compelled to agree with Crescent that the red rose of Lancaster, like the white rose of York, deserves extra protection versus Society badges which should differ by more than one major point from this particularly famous royal badge. (12/1986)

Gisela von Salzburg. Device. Argent, a Maltese cross, on a chief purpure three papal crosses argent.

In the article cited by Brigantia as a source for the papal crosses here, White Stag specifically noted that the cross was not used in secular armoury except in those cases where it was granted as an augmentation by the Pope. This being the case, we feel it inappropriate to modify its current status as a reserved charge. Used in this context, with a cross associated with the Knights of Malta (albeit in a different tincture) even without the Hohenstaufen name originally associated with this submission, it is "right out". (06/1989)

Gisèle de la Rose Blanche. Device. Argent, on a pile azure between two tongues of flame gules, a garden rose, slipped and leaved, argent.

Conflict with Roane Fairggae of Lochlann ("Argent, on pile throughout azure a harbor seal hauriant argent."). (06/1988)

Gizela Balbina Teuceri. Change of name from Gizela Balbina Teucer.

At the time her name was registered in October, 1988, the final "i" of the last byname was dropped because the declined form appeared inappropriate in this form of the name. White Stag has argued at some length that the given name is Italian and that by the analogy with other Italian names such as Juliani, Giustiniani, etc., the terminal "i" should be permitted with an Italian given name. Leaving aside the issue of whether Italian orthography is likely to use a "z" in this context, the suggestion that the formation of the byname is a normal one for all given name derived surnames in Italian is not correct. It is notable that the examples we have seen are all of names that have been "naturalized" into Italian from the foreign source, usually Latin (all the examples cited by White Stag are directly derived from Latin gentile names or epithets, which were used as "surnames" in classical times and, because of the manner in which they appeared in ancient writings, were misinterpreted to be given names in the later mediaeval and Renaissance period. This does not seem to be the case with "Teucer". It is derived from a Greek source and does not seem to have passed into common use in Latin nomenclature or into Italian of a later day. The usage here then is distinctly parallel to that found in such names as "Julius Caesar Scaliger", where the bynames are all placed in the nominative, which was the common humanist practise. The use of a feminized version of an ancient cognomen ("Balbinus") only reinforces the overall impression of a humanist-inspired name. This being the case, the misapplied form in "i" is particularly inappropriate. For those who are not linguists, the discussion over a single "i" no doubt seems futile. It is precisely the sort of discussion that has led to common understanding of the article in German, of aspiration following patronymics in Irish and of the grammar of Gaelic naming practise: in other words, it can make a difference in meaning. . . (08/1989)

Gizela Balbina Teuceri. Change of name from Gizela Balbina Teucer.

The former White Stag Herald eloquently presented new evidence on Italian names and a long listing of analogues which show a terminal "-i" in names derived ultimately from Greek sources. This new evidence would certainly justify passage of a form ending in "-i" properly formed. The difficulty is that the analogous forms from White Stag's own documentation all show the form being used deriving from a Latin transliteration of the Greek form. In this case, the proper analogue is that of "Alessandri" cited by White Stag, where the "e" of the nominative form dropped out in the oblique cases. The same is true of "Teucer" which in both Greek and Latin forms its oblique cases in a stem without an "e". Thus, we would expect the name to be formed from the Greek and Latin form of the genitive, producing "Teucri". Our apologies to the lady for not picking up on this sooner, but the focus of argument was very much the question of whether a genitive should be used and this obscured the issue of whether the genitive was correct. . . (01/1990)

Glandyth Rhys-Mordwyn. Name only.

No evidence was present for Glandyth as a given name and its formation strongly suggests a place name. No documentation could be provided for Mordwyn. (04/1987)

Glenda Sobhrach Dubhchad. Name and device. Argent, a primrose within a tressure azure.

The lady had indicated that she would accept the name Guendolen in place of the name "Glenda" which is apparently of American origin. "Sobhrach" does mean "primrose" or "clover" in Gaelic and would be acceptable as a byname. However, the same problems arise for "Dubhchad" as did for her lord's name (Brandon Dubhchad, above). If the device had been acceptable, we would have used the holding name Guendolen Sobhrach, but it unfortunately conflicts with Alyanora of Vinca ("Argent, a periwinkle proper."), since the visual difference between the blue primrose here and a periwinkle proper is negligible. (07/1987)

Gloria Kirkhouse of Tain. Device. Gules, a cradle bendwise sinister Or, charged on the head and footboards with towers sable, within a bordure Or.

As submitted, the cradle is drawn in trian aspect and is nearly unidentifiable. It is difficult to see how the towers could be depicted on the cradle if it were depicted in profile, which would make it most identifiable. (12/1988)

Godfrey of Inwood. Device. Sable, a winged manticore rampant, maintaining a sword, argent.

As Crescent and Dolphin note in their recently published Pictorial Dictionary of Heraldry (p. 69), the manticore consists of a lion's body, a human face (sometimes with horns) and a scorpion's tail. While the monster here does have a leonate body and a human face (although this is less obvious in profile), the tail is not that of a scorpion, but one of a dragon placed more in the position usual for a lion's tail. Visually, this is entirely too close to Culehech, cited by Hund ("Sable, a griffin segreant argent.", as given in Papworth, p. 982). (06/1988)

Godfrey Thacker of Northumberland. Device. Argent, two bars nebuly vert, overall a pale counterchanged.

Conflict with Gwydion Pendderwen ("Argent, on a pale vert, a crescent above three acorns Or."): only a major point of difference is derived from counterchanging along the line of division under AR18b. (06/1988)

Goldwyn of Britain. Badge. A horse rampant to sinister Or maintaining in its forehooves a peel ermine.

Conflict with Ian Michael ("Gules, a unicorn salient to sinister Or, attired, crined and unguled argent."). Laurel sends her sympathies to the submittor: she was addicted to The Avengers too! (12/1987)

Gordon MacGunter. Name and device. Argent, a pale sable between two crosses crosslet gules, all within a bordure sable.

The letter of intent indicated that the submission was being sent up even though the name was illegal in order to protect the armoury. This is technically using a "holding name" as a place marker on the submission and is against the administrative rules of the College: holding names are allowed only at Laurel level.In any case, the name is not registerable since Gordon is not a given name in period and is not the submittor's mundane given name.(The submittor appears to be aware of this, at least in part, since the documentation on the forms notes that Gordon is "clan name for area of Scotland".) Moreover, without stronger documentation for the mixing of the Scots patronymic with a German given name we would not be able to register "MacGunter" under old rules or new. Finally, the effort to protect the armoury is futile since it conflicts with the arms of Cunninghame of Balgownie ("Argent, a pale within a bordure sable.", as cited in Balfour­Paul's Ordinary of Arms, p. 34). Under both rules this is a conflict since there is only one change: the addition of the secondaries. (02/1990)

Goswin Sterrenkijker van Sint Gillis Waas. Device. Pily counter-pily of nine pieces sable and argent, the points ending in mullets, four in chief, three in base.

Unfortunately, Crescent is quite correct that this conflicts technically and visually with the mundane arms of Power ("Per fess indented sable and argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 700). (02/1988)

Goswin Sterrenkijker van Sint Gillis Waas. Device. Pily sable and argent, the point of each trait ensigned with a mullet, a bordure gules.

This is definitely in visual conflict with the arms of Anstruther, cited by the Brachet working group ('Argent, three piles in point from the chief sable within a bordure gules.", as cited in Papworth, p. 3). As Silver Trumpet has also pointed out, it is technically in conflict with Watt ("Barry of six argent and sable, a bordure gules.", as noted in Papworth, p. 34): As the mullets are essentially "frou­frou" on the pily field division, the two devices differ only by field division type. (02/1990)

Gottfried von Kolberg. Device. Or, a winged bull, statant to sinister, sable, a chief chequy sable and Or, fimbriated gules.

A chief cannot be fimbriated so that the device must be returned. (08/1988)

Gracilia of Carrick. Name only.

The citation for Gracilia from Withycombe, cited on the letter of intent, specifically states ". . .from Latin gracilis 'slender'. Sometimes used as a f. christian name, probably from a mistaken derivation from gratia." No date is given which usually points to an out-of-period derivation. As the form is used in period as a Latin substantive for "graceful things", it is necessary to have documentation for the name as such. The very similar feminine given name "Gracia" or "Grace" is well-documented in period (Withycombe, p. 138), but the submittor unfortunately forbade any changes whatsoever to her name. (11/1988)

Graham MacRuari. Change of name from Theodric MacRuari.

As noted by Silver Trumpet (then Crescent), the ban on the use of surnames as given names goes back well into the last decade to the tenure of Mistress Karina and has been reaffirmed by every Laurel since. The submittor has appealed to a citation from Camden to justify this use of the surname "Graham" as a given name to allow registration of the name the submittor apparently actually uses. As noted by a number of commentors, the citation from Camden with regard to the practise "in late years" of giving surnames as given names has been considered on a number of occasions by the College of Arms. The standing precedent was set by Master Baldwin in December, 1984, in the case of Dunham Wycliffe when it was decided that the Camden citation referred to a late and anomalous practise and that the use of surnames as given names should be limited to surnames actually shown to have been used as given names in period. This issue has been discussed on a number of occasions over the last five years, in conjunction with both submissions and the rules revision, and the feeling in the College is that the current policy is the most equitable and reasonable to follow. Note that this name is not precisely an "invented" given name since it is regularly used in modern times. However, granting for the moment that it were considered "invented" for the purposes of our period (since it was not known as a given name in period), it would still be inadmissible since no "strong" pattern for the use of the class of words of "geographical surnames" as given names has been established for Scottish names in period. (cf. II.3.b, p. 3). (11/1989)

Grania the Thyme Harvester. Device. Per bend sinister embowed- counterembowed purpure and argent, an hourglass counterchanged.

Unfortunately, Crescent was correct in calling the conflict with Ian Domhnall ("Per bend sable and argent, an hourglass counterchanged."): while a major point of difference is derived from the field, only half of the hourglass changes tincture so only a minor point of difference can be derived from its tinctures, even though it is the primary charge. Note that the line of division blazoned and emblazoned on the letter of intent as "wavy" was actually "embowed- counterembowed". (05/1989)

Grazia Geralda Loviza de Navarra. Device. Or, bendwise a sprig of holly vert, fructed gules, a chief Or, fretty gules.

Alas! the predominantly Or chief on the Or field is "metal on metal". (11/1986)

Grey Gargoyles, College of the. Change of device. Azure, a winged horned gargoyle sejant erect, maintaining a sword, argent and on a chief Or, an open book argent, fimbriated sable, between two laurel wreaths vert.

Not only is the fimbriation of the book on the chief excessive, but the device also technically conflicts with the device of Amil Sorcha Duileach, cited on the letter of intent ("Azure, a rat sejant erect, tail coward, argent and on a chief Or three swans naiant gules."). (10/1988)

Greyhan Brovindar. Name only.

The citation provided by the submittor for "Greyhan" only documents it as an anglicized form of the name "O Gréacháin". As this name is also anglicized as Graham and appears from the documentation to be involved in a number of suspect backformations, this is not really acceptable documentation for its period use as a given name. For a discussion of the surname, see the submission of Gabrielle Brovindar above. (05/1990)

Greyhope, Shire of. Device. Azure, a tower argent, masoned sable, within a laurel wreath argent, all within a bordure compony sable and argent.

Conflict with both the Shire of Myrtle Holt ("Azure, a myrtle tree eradicated within a laurel wreath argent, all within a bordure compony sable and argent.") and the Shire of Salt Keep ("Per bend azure and vert, a tower within a laurel wreath argent."). (02/1988)

Griffyn ap Madoc. Name only.

Conflict under old rules and new with the previously registered name of Grufydd ap Madog. (05/1990)

Grimfells, March of the. Change of device. Sable, on a pile within a laurel wreath Or, a spiderweb throughout sable.

Unfortunately, as several commentors noted, there is long­standing precedent in the College for banning charges, including laurel wreaths, below piles on the grounds that a properly drawn period pile would not allow space for another charge to rest, in whole or in part, below the pile. Under the old rules, this would also conflict with the Barony of Madrone ("Sable, on a pile argent a madrone tree proper, in base a laurel wreath Or."). Under the new rules the two are clear since difference is derived not only from the change in tincture of the pile but also from the changes to the tertiaries. (02/1990)

Grimlea der Scharfrichter. Name and device. Sable, on a pale argent goutty de sang a griffin segreant bearing an axe sable.

The name was appealed from a return by An Tir in 1982 on the grounds that it should have been considered more leniently under a "grace period" then in force at Laurel level. However, as Crescent has quite correctly noted, this "grace period" was not a suspension of the rules then in effect, but rather a leniency with regard to documentation that particular practices were used in period. The requirement that a given name be included in a Society name and that documented last names or geographic names could not be used for given names unless there was evidence that the specific name had been so used in period was already in place. In fact, Grimlea (or Grimley) is a family name derived from a place name, a fact which was pointed out to the submittor when the submission was first returned nearly six years ago. The device conflicts with that of Pwyll pen Tyrhon ("Sable, on a pale argent, a decrescent gules.") (02/1988)

Gryphon Shieldbreaker. Device. Counterermine, a bend Or, overall a griffin segreant, wings elevated and inverted, gules.

The gules monster overlying the counterermine field violates the contrast requirements of the new rules. (05/1990)

Guidobaldo senza Cervellio. Name and device. Argent, on a bend sable between two horseshoes inverted azure, a sword argent.

"Cervellio" does not appear to be a place name, as stated on the letter of intent. The submittor's own documentation indicates that he intends "senza Cervellio" to mean "without sense". This only works if you take the Italian literally ("without a brain") and ignore the misspellings involved. (As Crescent noted, Italian usually uses "cervella" to apply to the human brain so that this could literally mean someone who was in need of some calves' brains. . .). Green Anchor was able to find a "Monte Cervellino" near Genoa if he really wishes an Italian place name. If he wishes to be "the brainless", he should be aware of the fact that Italian does not use the literal translation for this. The device conflicts with Pharamond of Flanders ("Argent, on a bend sable between four roses gules, barbed and seeded proper, a greatsword proper."). Because of the "Secondary Limit" rule, only a major and a minor point of difference can be derived from the changes to the secondary charges. (05/1989)

Guillaume de Copé. Badge. A tabard vert.

Some expressed concerns that the charge was insufficiently identifiable (many of the alternatives were rather amusing), although we had to agree with Crescent that in the hands of a competent artist the tabard would be easily identifiable. Unfortunately, as the tabard has been traditionally the herald's identifying garment, both mundanely and in the Society, and green has been the traditional Society tincture for heralds, the consensus was that this would infringe on the traditional insignia of the Society herald. We had to agree with Crescent when he noted "I don't want to be in a position where every pursuivant has to ask his permission before wearing a tabard of office!". (07/1987)

Guillaume le Chypriot ap Taliesynne. Badge. A stag's head cabossed proper, its tines surmounted by a wooden three-branched candelabrum proper.

There are several problems with this, the most immediately striking is the overuse of proper here. If the stag's head is changed to a standard heraldic tincture, conflicts with mundane and Society heraldry arise. As it is, this is very close to the emblem of St. Hubert, as Habicht has noted. (04/1989)

Guillaume le Fort. New designation of Midrealm Free Militia for previously registered badge. Chequy gules and argent, a ram passant to sinister sable, maintaining with the sinister foreleg a bill bendwise Or.

It was the consensus of the commentors that, if the fighting group is to be an official arm of the Kingdom, the badge should be registered to the Kingdom. It was even more strongly stated by most commentors that the use of the Kingdom name by non-official groups should not be considered legitimate, even when authorized by the Crown. (05/1988)

Guinevere of Wulfhold. Device. Sable, a wolf passant within a bordure embattled argent.

After a comparison of the proposed device with that of Ulfr Byrnsmidr ("Vert, a winged wolf passant, wings inverted and addorsed, within a bordure embattled argent."), there is no doubt that the two devices conflict visually. Even if the addition of wings were to be considered worth a major point of difference in all cases (and we are by no means convinced that this is so), the visual echo here is overwhelming. Since the wings on Ulfr's device are inverted, they lie almost entirely in the space already occupied by the body of the beast and their visual weight is diminished to near invisibility. Indeed, as the two beasts are in essentially the same position, were it not for the curve of the top of the wings, which would give Ulfr's wolf a "hunchback" were it drawn in outline, it could be argued that the two emblazons conflict by outline. This being so, the bulk of the difference is derived from the tincture of the field and that simply is not adequate to differentiate the two devices. (01/1989)

Gunnora Hallakarva. Device. Per bend embattled Or and azure, a male kestrel striking proper, maintaining in its dexter talon an axe and in its sinister talon a ring of three keys Or (Falco sparverius).

As Brachet noted both at the time of the original return, the gender of the kestrel must be noted since it significantly affects the tincture of the bird. Since the markings of the bird have been significantly modified since the original submission and now include the distinctive slate blue of the male kestrel, we are inclined to think that this is the intent of the submittor. Were this the case, we would be inclined to consider this clear by the significant change of tincture from both Tober Thorvald ("Vert, an osprey volant proper.") and Falkh of Ratisbon ("Per bend Or and gules, a falcon rising wings elevated proper.") for which the submission was originally returned. However, the bird as depicted on the emblazon sheet conforms to neither the male nor female markings of the bird: the male has slate blue wings and head, a single stripe on its tail and spots on its breast while the female has reddish wings and head, a barred tail and stripes on the breast. The bird illustrated on the emblazon sheet is rather androgynous: slate blue head, reddish wings no stripes and a plain tail and plain white breast. Since the sexual dimorphism (as Brachet so elegantly expresses it) is critical to the question of difference (in this posture a male would be predominantly slate blue and spotted and thus clear of the default European falcon), we feel this must be returned. (01/1990)

Gunther Addis. Device. Sable, fretty argent, on a bezant two axes in saltire gules.

Sadly, under both rules, the charged bezant gives the appearance of arms of pretense, since it is charged with multiple charges.This is the more suggestive since two weapons crossed in saltire are such a common theme in heraldic art. (03/1990)

Gunther Schwarzdwaldersohn. Name only.

The letter of intent indicated that the byname was meant to be "son of the man from the Black Forest". There are two problems here, one a simple grammatical problem, the other more radical. The suffix "-sohn" is regularly used with the genitive form in German so technically this should be "Schwarzwalderssohn". However, the real problem here is that after searching several volumes of original source material for German period surnames, we have been unable to find any example where a surname of place used the patronymic suffix, even with a substantive derived from an adjective such as is used here. The form that would be used would be a preposition with the place name (with or without an article as determined by the nature of the place name) or the simple adjective form. In this case, the form "Gunther Schwarzwalder" would be most likely, but since the submittor allows no changes to his name, however minor, the name as a whole must be returned. (03/1988)

Gwaeddan o Ystad Llangollen. Device. Or, two gripping beasts in annulo, that to dexter gules, that to sinister azure.

The beasties are not clearly identifiable and the emblazon could not be reasonably reconstructed by a competent heraldic artist as our traditions require. In point of fact, the rendition on the emblazon sheet and the letter of intent were quite different (the former quite lacked any of the sexual connotations some commentors saw in the rendition on the letter of intent). (10/1986)

Gwaeddan o Ystrad Llangollen. Device. Or, two foxes salient respectant in annulo gules within a bordure wavy sable.

Unfortunately, the consensus in the College was that the beasties were still not in an identifiable heraldic position and were consequently extremely difficult to identify. The attempt to force the beasts into an annulate arrangement forces them out of any identifiable salient or rampant posture. Please ask her to resubmit with a standard heraldic arrangement. (12/1987)

Gwendolyn Arwen des Estoiles d'Or. Device. Per pale and per saltire azure and Or, a pegasus rampant argent.

Conflict with Arianwen of Urquart ("Vert, a horned pegasus salient argent, armed and unguled azure."). There is a major point for the difference in fields, but the total changes between the two beasts cannot be held to be a full point of difference, the more so since Gwendolyn's beast is actually halfway between salient and rampant and the azure horn on Arianwen's beast is almost invisible against the vert field. (02/1987)

Gwendolyn Arwen des Estoiles d'Or. Device. Per pale and per saltire, azure and Or, a pegasus passant, wings elevated and addorsed, argent.

Unfortunately, as no difference can be derived from the field, this technically conflicts the badge of the Barony of Windmaster's Hill ("A winged cat passant, forepaw extended, wings elevated and addorsed, argent."). (08/1989)

Gwendolyn Kaye MacVeigh of Amber Oaks. Device (see PENDING for name).

Vert, an oak leaf palewise fructed within a bordure Or. As diapering contributes no difference, this conflicts under both rules with Alanna ni Druhan ("Vert, a leaf within a bordure Or."). (02/1990)

Gwendolyn of Castle Court. Device. Argent, a quatrefoil knot interlaced with an arrow palewise inverted azure.

We had to agree with Chevron that this conflicts with the tinctureless badge of Hugh ap Llewelyn ("An ankh interlaced with a quatrefoil knot."): interlaced as they are with the quatrefoil knot, the differences between the arrow and the ankh are seriously diminished. (07/1987)

Gwendolyn of the Aran Isles. Device. Azure, a chevron argent between three fleurs-de-lys in fess and a starfish Or.

Conflict with all of the following: Hall-Joy ("Azure, a chevron argent between in chief three fleurs-de-lys Or and in base a lion rampant proper.", as cited in Papworth, p. 420), Helliar ("Azure, a chevron argent between three mullets Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 460), Allenson ("Azure, a chevron argent.", cited from Papworth, p. 373), Angela of the Stoney Oak Forest ("Azure, a chevron between two acorns and an oak leaf argent.") and Beorn Collenferth ("Azure, a chevron between a harp, an axe reversed and a sabre-toothed tiger statant argent."). (05/1988)

Gwenhyfar le Wita. Name and device. Per chevron gules and gules, semy-de-lys, a chevron and in chief two crosses moline Or.

The given name lacks the "w" which is necessary for the proper pronunciation of the Welsh form Gwenhwyfar. As Pennon himself noted, le Wita couples a French article with an Anglo-Saxon noun in a manner which is not documented from period sources. The most serious problem with the name, however, is the implications which come from linking the name Gwenevere with a term like "wita" which could so easily be associated with Arthur's queen. Although the given name was used by other ladies in period and is licit for Society use, the contexts in which it is used must be carefully examined in order to avoid offense. The device conflicts with Slough ("Gules, a chevron between three crosses sarcelly Or."). There is also a visual conflict with Gaufridus Baldewin Gilbertson ("Gules, a chevron between two chess rooks and a caltrap Or."): Crescent is correct in stating that the visual effect is such that the semy-de-lys in base must not be considered as a divided field for purposes of difference, but rather as part of the group of secondary charges about the chevron. (11/1987)

Gwenhyvaer of Dolphinsgate. Device. Sable, on a bend sinister gules, fimbriated, between two dolphins embowed, three escallops inverted Or.

Under the current rules, this is in conflict with Elaine of Wogen Cavern, cited on the letter of intent ("Sable, a bend sinister gules, fimbriated, between a mullet and a pegasus rampant to sinister Or."). (07/1988)

Gwenivere Perreal Smythe. Device. Per fess pean and argent, in pale a pegasus couchant reguardant, wings elevated and addorsed, argent and a branch of roses gules, slipped and leaved vert, the two linked by a demi-annulet of chain azure.

The name was not new, as stated on the letter of intent: it was registered in February, 1986. The use of the demi-annulet of chain to link two disparate charges across a divided field is not period style. Additionally, in this case it is almost an invisible charge: the links of the chain disappear against the black field and, while the azure on an argent field in theory ought to be visible, in practise the links are nearly indistinguishable from the foliage. (04/1988)

Gwenivere Perreal Smythe. Device. Per fess potenty vert and pean, in chief a sun between in fess two broad arrows, in base a horse couchant reguardant Or, environed of a rose vine vert, budded gules.

This device is excessively complex. There is a low contrast complexly divided field, four different types of charge in a non-standard arrangement and, to push the whole thing over the edge, the detail of the rose vine in which the horse is entrapped, which is nearly unidentifiable, even though most of it does lie on the horse and so has reasonable contrast. (04/1989)

Gwennan nic Ailpein of Loch Sheil. Device. Vert, two bendlets wavy between four escutcheons, two and two, Or.

Conflict with Anton the Fair ("Vert, two bendlets wavy between two suns Or."), registerd in October, 1988. (12/1988)

Gwilym o'r Afonydd Tair. Change of name from Gwilym of the Three Rivers.

The submittor's appeal for this previously returned form of his name must be denied. Brachet has provided an extensive analysis of the issue and the conclusion must be that the numeral, unlike most other adjectives in Welsh, precedes the noun, that the noun following a numeral is usually in the singular and that an analysis of a significant number of Welsh place names shows no examples which depart from this standard syntax. (03/1988)

Gwion o Lanfair ap Bleiddyn. Device. Barry wavy azure and vert, ermined Or, two dolphins hauriant addorsed argent.

There were several problems with this device. Firstly, barry and barry wavy are not one of the fields which may be divided of two colours (remember, ermined fields are not neutral in Society heraldry). Secondly and much less importantly, the "ermining" was so much a variant that it appeared less ermining than inverted sunbursts. Thirdly, the device conflicts with the arms of Hamner ("Vert, two dolphins endorsed haurient argent.") (05/1989)

Gwyl ferch Ollam. Name only.

As noted by Treble Clef, "ollam" is a rank of bard and is not appropriate for a patronymic in the Society. The submittor's own documentation defines the word to mean "a learned man of the highest rank" so that the use of the patronymic may be interpreted as a claim to rank and therefore fall afoul of NR13. (08/1987)

Gwyneth Greentree. Device. Per fess vert and argent, in pale a staff lodged guardant and in fess a weeping willow couped and a fir tree couped counterchanged.

This falls under the ban on "slot machine heraldry" as it shows three charges of different types in a standard group arrangement (one and two) on the field. (10/1989)

Gwyneth of Lindesfarne. Device. Per bend argent and azure, two cross crosslets counterchanged.

Conflict with Eleanor Coldwell of Gloucester ("Per bend gules and azure, a cross crosslet Or and another argent."). Not only is there identity of outline, but there is less than the two points of difference required (only a major for the field and a minor for changing the tincture of one of a set of charges). Conflict also with Phelan of Glamorgan ("Per pale azure and argent, two crosses crosslet fitchy counterchanged."). There is a major point for the change in field division and a minor for the fitching of Phelan's crosses, but I have to agree with Crescent that the change in position of the charges should carry no extra difference since it is derived entirely from the change in line of division. (01/1987)

Gwynneth Annora. Device. Azure, on a saltire between in fess two hunting horns reversed argent, a rose azure, barbed and seeded vert.

This conflicts under both the old and new rules, although the conflicts are slightly different. Under the old rules, it is a definite conflict with the flag of Scotland ("Azure, a saltire argent.") since this is a national flag and requires two full points of difference: addition of the horns provides a major but addition of the tertiary provides only a minor. (Under the new rules, both the horns and the rose provide a clear visual difference so the two are clear.) Under the old rules, this also conflicts with Njorbjorn Jorgesson ("Azure, on a saltire argent a stone throwing hammer, crossed and thonged Or, half fimbriated argent"), cited by Da'ud: there is a major for adding the horns, but the changes to the tertiaries do not create a major since Gwynneth's device has secondaries present. (Under the new rules, there would be a difference for changes in type and tincture to the tertiaries so the two would be clear.) Under the old rules, the device of Oppin cited on the letter of intent ("Azure, a saltire argent charged in the centre with a double rose gules.", Papworth, p. 1081) would squeak clear from the major for the addition of the horns and the minor for the change of tincture of the tertiaries. Under the new rules, the single change to the tertiary of tincture is not adequate to carry the two clear (there is no substantive difference between a double rose and a single rose.) (01/1990)

Gwyntarian, March of. Badge for Gwyntarian Archers' Guild. A bowyer's knot Or.

The knot is not a standard knot and consequently could not be recovered by a competent heraldic artist from the blazon. (11/1986)

Gwyntarian, March of. Badge for Gwyntarian Archer's Guild. A bowyer's knot Or.

The original return of this badge for use of a non-standard knot which could not readily be reconstructed from blazon was appealed on the grounds that the "bowyer's knot" is a variant of a stan "timber knot" which appears in many books, that it was a "medieval object" and readily known to period archers and that knots unknown to heraldry have worked their way into heraldry over time (e.g., the Lacy knot) and so can be introduced as "defined charges". (Note that the knot had not been emblazoned on the letter of intent so that the College had not been able to check properly for conflicts.). There are several problems with these arguments. As Crescent has noted, the "bowyer's knot" most often seen in texts is a modern invention and, while the timber knot is certainly commonly used in tying strings for longbows, its very name only dates to the last century and no evidence has been provided for its period use. Moreover, even if period use for bowstrings was demonstrated, there is no evidence that this was the only knot used in this function Finally, since this is fieldless, this conflicts with the badge of Curlew of Drofhela ("Gules, a hangman's knot Or."): no more than a single point of difference can be derived from the changes to the knot. (09/1989)

Gwynydd ferch Dafydd. Device. Per bend sinister barry azure and argent and argent, in sinister base a cross formy azure.

We were compelled to agree with Silver Trumpet that this was just too close to the arms of David ("Argent, a cross paty azure.", as cited in Papworth, p. 604), particularly in view of the fact that she is using the same surname. There is a major point under the old rules for the field difference, but the modification of position is, as Silver Trumpet notes, derivation from the modification of the field and cannot contribute difference. Under the new rules there is a clear visual difference for the field, but again the difference in position of cross is caused by the change to the field and therefore is not an independent difference (Arrangement Changes, C.4.g). (12/1989)

Gytha Anora ni Kerean. Change of name from Gytha Anora ni Chiarain.

The form of the name above was originally submitted with documentation indicating it was a variant spelling of Irish Ciaran and, when the name was registered in January, 1987, the patronymic was modified to the proper Irish form which the paperwork suggested the submitter wished ("ni Chiarain"). Æstel has submitted a name "correction" to the original form. Technically, this is a change of name or appeal rather than a correction (which term should be used only when there is cause to suspect that Laurel has mistyped or otherwise accidentally modified the submitted form, not when the change is clearly intentional). Unfortunately, the change was made originally to avoid several problems with the name and the documentation provided by Æstel does not resolve these. In the first place, "Kerean" is not a valid variant, English or Irish, for Ciaran. The forms cited in the letter of intent and all others we have been able to find have no diphthong in the final syllable. Irish "Ciaran" and the Anglicized forms "Kieron", "Kieran", etc. are pronounced not at all like "Kerean" and orthographic variants in both Irish and English tend to follow pronunciation. As the "k" form is used, we must suppose that this is an Anglicized form, which would not usually have been used with the Celtic feminine patronymic particle "ni". In any case, if the feminine particle is used, it would aspirate the following given name, as in the registered form of the name. To accept the appeal, it would be necessary to ignore our long-standing strictures on prepositions and nouns following the grammatical rules of the same language. (11/1987)

Gytha Hakonsdottir. Name and device. Vert, two crabapple leaves inverted, the stems in saltire argent, within an annulet throughout Or.

In all fairness to other submittors whose names have been returned for "linguistic miscegenation", this name must be returned. The regular genitive for Hakon ends in the "-ar" suffix and, despite the wealth of genitive endings cited in Geirr Bassi (pp. 17-18, as cited by Batonvert), each form seems to be regular in its class, with no evidence presented that endings did vary in Old Norse. The citations noted by Dragon unfortunately are all from the Penguin English translations, which are notoriously random in their forms: although they seldom obscure the given names and patronymics often take modern English forms or are compounded of modern and period forms. Since the submittor allowed no changes whatsoever to her name, the submission as a whole must be returned which is a pity. (04/1987)

Haakon Silverram. Device. Pean, a ram's head cabossed, on a chief wavy argent a pair of antlers proper between two roses sable, barbed and seeded proper.

Antlers proper have been defined as "white or light yellow brown" (Wilhelm von Schlussel, 26 December, 1983) so there is insufficient contrast between the antlers and the argent chief. (09/1986)

Hadi the Aspiring. Name only.

From his own documentation "Hadi" appears to be an epithet rather than a given name ("the Quiet"). This is not permissible. (02/1987)

Hadi the Aspiring. Device. Per chevron inverted argent and Or, in chief a boar courant sable.

As courant is only a minor point of difference from passant (Determination of Difference, p. 2, under posture), this is in conflict with Brytean ("Argent, a boar passant sable." cited in Papworth, p. 57) Gilpin ("Or, a boar passant sable.", p. 58), etc. Note that his name was previously returned in February, 1987. (05/1987)

Hafgan ap Bleiddudd. Name only.

By the submittor's own documentation, the given name is that of a king of the Welsh underworld. As no commentor has been able to find any evidence that this name was used by any human in period, it may not be used in the Society. (04/1989)

Hagar Helmsplitter. Household name for House Cats and Hammer.

Commentary in the College divided evenly between those of us who are old enough to remember the Katzenjammer Kids and those who were not. If I may quote from Master Gawaine of Mistbridge, "this name would be acceptable only if they had two boys named Hans und Fritz" (actually, not even then!). (09/1986)

Hagen Silverskull. Device. Per fess embattled sable and gules, two swords inverted in saltire surmounted by a sword inverted palewise, all proper, in chief a label couped argent.

There are several problems with this device. As Crescent notes, the collocation of swords, if properly drawn, obscures the complex line of division to such an extent that it does not qualify as the sort of simple armoury which may complexly divide two colours. It also conflicts with the mundane arms of Valentine ("Sable, three swords, points downwards, argent, hilted Or, one in pale and two saltirewise.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1110). If the label is removed, there is only a minor point of difference for the change to half the field. It was the consensus of feeling in the College that, while standard cadency marks such as the label may be used as "regular charges" in Society heraldry, i.e., not be used solely in the context of cadency, it is not feasible or appropriate to use such recognized cadency marks to provide the primary difference from mundane or Society armoury. In other words, a majority of the College felt that this device looked like a cadet branch of Valentine. (01/1988)

Hakon Gunnarson. Device. Or, two flaunches ermine, overall a hop cone vert.

There are two stylistic problems here: the lack of contrast between the flaunches and the field and the fact that the hop cone overlies the flaunches. Ermine is not neutral in Society heraldry and may not be placed on a metallic field (AR1d). Moreover, it was ruled some five years ago that flaunches should not be surmounted by charges (Wilhelm von Schlussel, April, 1983) and we see no reason to reverse that ruling. (04/1988)

Haldana Jensdottir du Baliol. Device. Per pale azure and argent, two chevronels between two escallops inverted and a decrescent, all counterchanged.

Conflict with Esclairmonde Ravenscroft ("Per pale purpure and argent, two chevronels between three crescents all counterchanged."). There is slightly less than a full major point for the cumulative changes in tincture (a clear minor for the field and something less for the derivative tincture changes in the charges) and a weak major for changing the types of all the charges (weak because the charge in base is a crescent modification in both cases). (01/1987)

Hallfridr Throndardottir. Device. Per chevron enhanced sable and gules, in pale a chevron of three ropes braided and a natural leopard's head erased argent, spotted sable, holding in its mouth a hawk's lure argent.

Unfortunately, by long-standing Society precedent braided knotwork is not permitted for Society armoury, however common it may be in Society artwork. In this case, the emendation (suggested by Crescent) to a chevron invected would not really be acceptable since the sable voided portions of the chevron are really intrinsic to the design. (07/1987)

Hallfridr Throndardottir. Change of name to Hallfrithr Throndrsdottir and device. Argent, a pile azure charged with a natural leopard's head erased and affronty argent, marked sable, between two piles sable, each charged with a fir branch, coned, argent.

The letter of intent indicated that the submittor desired the use of the given name with "th" substituted for the "d". This is certainly a valid alternative transliteration for the radical Norse consonant. However, the usage suggested on the letter of intent, which adds an "s" to the radical Old Norse nominative form of the given name in the patronymic to form a genitive, is not copiously documented, as suggested by the letter. Indeed, the issue of the form of the nominative was never in question: only the proper form of the genitive is an issue and current documentation indicates that "Throndar" is the correct form contemporary with the Old Norse "dottir". Added to the confusion is the fact that the submittor's forms used the spelling "Throndarsdottir", which uses both common genitive suffixes which is definitely a solecism. The device has significant stylistic problems: the side piles do not issue from chief in the proper manner, there are three identical ordinaries in a moderately standard arrangement in two different tinctures and the ordinaries are themselves charged with different tertiaries. Finally, it conflicts with Downton ("Argent, three piles sable, on each a goat's head erased of the first, attired Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 1027). At most a minor point of difference can be derived from changing the tincture of one of a group of identical charges. A full point of difference cannot be derived from the partial change of tincture of the tertiaries (a negligible difference by our current rules per DoD clause D6) and the difference in type of the tertiaries. (07/1989)

Hanna he Metoikos. Name only.

The submittor did an excellent job of browsing Liddell and Scott for the appropriate classical term for a person foreign living in a Greek city. She also got the appropriate Attic form of the article. It is extremely unfortunate that she both failed to modify the adjective "metoikos" to its feminine form and specified that she would not allow spelling or grammatical changes. The name "Hanna he Metoike" would be perfectly good Greek from Attic times until at least the seventh century, but the submitted form is incorrect. (05/1990)

Hannorah O'Neill. Name and device. Gules, a griffin sejant, dexter foreleg raised, and on a sinister tierce Or in pale three sinister hands pean.

As Batonvert has noted, none of the known variants of Honoria (from whence is derived Annora, the nearest period given name to that proposed) being or end in and "h". What this appears to be is a modern phonetic rendering of a Cockney attempting "Annora". She forbade any changes at all to her name so the whole submission had to be returned. Perhaps in resubmitting she might be persuaded to resident with a more balanced design and without the "side": this is not actually illegal but it is certainly poor style. (04/1987)

Hans Dürrmast von der Wanderlust. Device. Azure, a chevron argent and on a pale counterchanged between in chief two halberd heads, blades inwards, argent, a rapier inverted counterchanged.

This submission was pended from the October meeting because the emblazon on the letter of intent, which showed a field per chevron, rather than the chevron which actually exists, mislead a considerable proportion of the College. It was the feeling of the College, considering the correct submission, that it was just too complex for Society heraldry, not only containing four layers (field + chevron + overlying pale + rapier) but reducing the rapier to a nearly unidentifiable state through the counterchanging. (01/1988)

Haos Windchaser. Change of name from Daniel Windchaser.

The submittor had originally submitted the given name as coined and it was returned in June, 1984, at which time his current name was issued as a holding name. The submittor adduces a Persian name name "Khaoos" cited in Yonge, although we have not been able to document it from any other source. Correspondence with Star indicates that this name could be derived by transliteration from "Khaoos". Unfortunately, it is also a rendition of the Greek word more commonly transliterated as "Chaos" and, as such, would not normally be acceptable for use as a Society name. (08/1989)

Haran Keir. Device. Per fess sable and fusilly Or and azure, issuant from the line of division a demi-dragon, sinister facing and wings displayed, argent, maintaining in each forepaw a bezant, in chief a bezant.

The cumulative anomalies here take this device beyond period style. The beast is depicted in trian aspect and issuant from the line of division, with the tail peeping out separately from the "curtain". The bezants it is maintaining fade into its wings almost entirely and the overall posture is not heraldic. In sum, the general effect is of a juggling dragon puppet at a Punch and Judy show (Ollie?). (11/1988)

Haran Keir. Badge. Sable, a dragon statant erect to sinister, wings displayed and tail coward, argent, maintaining in each forepaw a spear proper, crossed in saltire at the points, in chief three bezants, one and two.

The roundels were misblazoned on the letter of intent as hurts, which led many commentors to excoriate it for poor contrast. Poor contrast with regard to the spears there is indeed, since their hafts fade into the sable field so that the spearheads appear to float in chief between the bezants. Additionally, the monster is in an essentially non-heraldic posture and the overall design is too complex for a badge. (11/1988)

Harland le Garlyckmonger. Name only.

The documentation provided by the submittor supports the use of "Harland" only as a surname derived from geographical sources. Perhaps the submittor would consider the similar-sounding but documented given name which appears in Reaney and various other sources as "Herluin", "Harlewyn", "Arluin", etc. (07/1989)

Harold of Roseworn. Device. Per bend sinister sable and azure, an angel affronty, wings displayed, argent, crined Or, holding two copper straight trumpets proper and charged on the breast with a rose gules.

Three problems presented themselves with regard to this device. The trumpets, whose default tincture must be heraldically Or, are metal on metal because of their position, to the extent that they were unidentifiable at any distance. The angel looks as if he were technically a herald to the Princes of Lippe (whose very famous arms are "Argent, a rose gules, barbed and seeded proper."). Finally, there to a technical conflict with Megara di Alessandra ("Sable, a fury rampant affronty, sinister hand lowered, proper, vested argent, winged Or, maintaining in the dexter hand a torch bendwise sinister enflamed proper.") (09/1986)

Harold Olafssen fra Roskilde. Name only.

Unfortunately, the addition of the locative of Roskilde only creates a new set of problems for the name, since Roskilde is not merely a place "on a Danish fjord" as stated on the letter of intent, but was the capital of Denmark for much of our period and is both an official seat of the Danish royal family and the burial place of a majority of the Danish kings. Thus, one runs into problems with the use name of not only Harold Olafsson of Man, but also of the Harolds and Olafs of the Danish royal family. (02/1988)

Harold Olafsson. Name and device. Per bend sinister gules and sable, a sword bendwise sinister inverted proper between a lion passant guardant to sinister Or and a wolf passant reguardant argent.

The name conflicts with Harold I, son of Olaf II, king of the Isle of Man (1237­1248). It is also perilously close to the Society name of Harold Ulfson. The device conflicts with Roderick MacLucas ("Per bend sinister vert and sable, a sword bendwise sinister throughout proper between a mullet of six points pierced Or and another argent."). (12/1986)

Hastar the Barbarian. Name only.

Although the name was stated to be "made-up", it is not really a construct name. It is either a truncated form of the term used for a spearman in the late Roman army (in which case it is an occupational name) or is a modification of the name "Hastur" from the Darkover series by Marion Zimmer Bradley. In either case it is not acceptable for a given name. (07/1987)

Haven's End, Borough of. Name only.

It is not clear whether this is an incipient official group or a meta-household (the only designation on the forms was "This is a designation for Wesleyan University["]). As noted in the return of the Borough of Felding in November, 1989, there are problems with the use of the term "Borough" in the context of the current territorial structure. Since it has previously been registered for non-territorial "College/Canton" type groups in the East without official status, it cannot really be recognized as an official designation equivalent (unless or until all "unofficial boroughs" either become official or their registered items are released). On the other hand, as several commentors have notes, the term is not really appropriate for a household or other non-territorial group. Moreover, if this is a non-official group, under the current policy they would have to register a badge to have the name and it would have to be registered to an individual (the contact on the forms is the Barony of Dragonship Haven). (12/1989)

Hawkyn Fitzgerad. Device. Per bend sinister azure and argent, a sun in its splendour and a double-headed hawk displayed, wings inverted, counterchanged.

Conflict with Airbertach Deoraidh ("Per bend sinister argent and azure, two eagles displayed counterchanged."). (12/1987)

Hayashi Wolfshadow. Device. Sable, on a pale between two wolves sejant ululant argent, another sable.

(Note from Jaelle - the printed LoAR gave no reason). (02/1987)

Hayashi Wolfshadow. Device. Sable, on a pale between two wolves sejant ululant argent, another sable.

When this was returned in February, 1987 a pagination "ate" the cause for return. There was a conflict with Katharine of Northhall ("Sable, a pale between two open books argent.") and Michael the Lucky of Lancaster ("Sable, on a pale between two mullets of eight points elongated to base argent, a sword inverted gules."). (05/1987)

Heather Elaine Hall of Dormanswell. Device. Argent, an owl statant to sinister sable, within a rustre azure.

Visual conflict with the badge of Aureliane Rioghail ("Argent, within a mascle azure a gladiolus open and displayed Or, slipped and leaved proper."). (02/1988)

Heather MacRae. Name only.

As the letter of intent and several commentors (including Brachet who bears the name mundanely) noted, "Heather" is a modern flower name which would be acceptable only if the submittor bore the name mundanely. This has been the case ever since 1983 when Wilhelm von Schlussel specifically cited it as a post-period "flower name" in ruling against the use of "flower names". (A member of the Laurel staff also mentioned a daughter of Gordon MacRae who performed in a club act with him some years ago . . .). (03/1989)

Heather of Newcastle. Name and device. Azure, issuant from a vase Or, a bunch of heather flowers, overall two unicorns salient addorsed argent, armed and hooved, and on a chief indented Or, a castle sable.

Unfortunately, Heather has been considered a modern "flower name" and unsuitable for Society use for some years now. All the exceptions registered in recent years have been accepted under the "mundane name allowance". The arrangement of primary and secondary charges is unheraldic and distinctly pictorial: in particular the three-dimensional effect of the unicorns in front of the vase created problems for many. That the lack of contrast between the argent unicorns' tails and the Or vase makes this less identifiable just makes the situation worse. (06/1989)

Heinrich Alois von Speyer. Device. Per pale ermine and azure, a maple leaf within a bordure counterchanged.

Conflict with Hugo von Moltke ("Per pale Or and azure, a maple leaf within a bordure counterchanged.") (08/1988)

Heinrich von Kreiner. Name for House Zwergberg.

As Vesper has pointed out, the literal meaning of the name is "Dwarf Mountain". Taken in conjunction with the golden hammers under the hill, we felt this was a bit umm. . . non-humanish? (01/1989)

Helen Nelsdotter. Device. Purpure, an eight-legged horse rampant to sinister, holding a sword in its jaws, argent.

Conflict with Sarah MacColin ("Purpure, a unicorn rampant to sinister argent and in sinister chief a mullet Or.") The cumulative changes to the horse do not create a clear major point of difference. Moreover, we are by no means convinced of the appropriateness of the Sleipnir for Society use, notwithstanding the fact that it has been registered in the past. (02/1987)

Helen of Dianasgrove. Device. Sable, an Irish wolfhound and a stag rampant combattant and on a chief argent, a vine sable, leaved argent.

As Diana is the Roman equivalent of Artemis, goddess of the hunt, several commentors found the charges used here excessively reminiscent of the tale of Actaeon, who was turned into a stag by Artemis after he had come upon her bathing in her sacred grove and who was then torn apart by his own hunting dogs. This is a very popular motif in both Greek and Roman art. (02/1989)

Helen of Dianasgrove. Device. Sable, an Irish wolfhound and a stag combattant, on a chief argent, a vine embowed sable, leaved vert.

Brigantia appealed the return of this submission for excessive reference to the myth of Artemis/Diana and Acteon on the grounds that the reference, although intentional, is not offensive and did not in fact contain a claim to divine powers. It is not merely Laurel's classical background which applies here: several other commentors and Laurel staff noted the problem. As the Æthelmarc Herald noted, taken in context with the surrounding legends and the records of Artemisian sacrifice, which in some cases involved sacrifices of human surrogates for Artemis, this passes beyond mere allusion and into the excessive and (potentially offensive) area. (10/1989)

Helmut of Greenland. Name for Teacht Cearta Nua.

The name was stated to mean "House of the New Forge" in Old Irish, but no documentation to support this was supplied and two hours spent in Laurel's Old Irish sources could not confirm more than "tech" for house and something close for a spelling variant to "nua" for new. (11/1986)

Hieronymus the Sarabite. Name and device. Purpure, semy of ankhs argent, a Mushroom argent, capped gules, enflamed argent.

Most commentary on the name in the College centred on the more technical meaning of the term "Sarabite" for certain groups of early monks who gathered in desert areas without any ruling ecclesiastic or adherence to a fixed rule. Unfortunately, this obscured the common mediaeval usage of the term, distinctly pejorative in connotation, for monastics who did not adhere to the Benedictine rule. This usage, illustrated by the application of the term to the early Franciscans, applies remarkably well to Saint Jerome, who followed a monastic, but distinctly non-regular, life for much of his career. Although no genus and species was provided for the mushroom, we assumed it was meant to be an amanita: it has a white stem and a red cap with white spots. As such, the stem, which is a dominant part of the design, has insufficient contrast with the flames Or. (09/1987)

Hirsch Ross Eichmann. Device. Quarterly sable and Or, in bend sinister an oak tree fructed proper and a stag's head, couped at the shoulders gules.

Under both sets of rules this has the appearance of illicit marshalling The old rules forbid quartering where charged quarters are not identical in such designs, specifically noting that marshalling does not exist if "at least two quarters are uncharged fields, and charged quarters use the same charge" (AR11.b.p.5). The same ban holds true under the new rules: "Charged sections must contain all charges of the same type to avoid the appearance of being different from each other" (Marshalling, XI3.b., p.16). (11/1989)

Hrolf the Silent. Device. Sable, on a sun between two mullets of five greater and five lesser points Or and a base wavy Or and vert, a drakkar affronty proper, sailed vert.

Unfortunately, as several commentors pointed out, the increase in number of the secondary charges does not clear the conflict with Kourost Bernard of the East Woods ("Sable, a sun eclipsed Or.") for which the previous submission was returned in 1986. Indeed, the addition of the mullets in chief (not estoiles, as they were blazoned on the letter of intent) only adds to the already great visual complexity of the device. (05/1989)

Hrolf the Silent. Device. Sable, on a sun Or a drakkar affronty proper, sailed vert and a base wavy barry wavy Or and vert.

Technically this conflicts with Kourost Bernard of the East Woods ("Sable, a sun eclipsed Or."). (11/1986)

Hrorek Halfdane of Faulconwood. Household name only.

As Crescent noted on his letter of intent, this submission was made by Chevron as a "test case" in the wake of the "von Markheim" precedent. Two points were raised: whether a household name submission can be made without a badge submission and whether prior registration of a personal name with the proposed household name as a component can block registration of the household name. For a discussion of the latter issue, see the cover letter. That point is moot, however, with regard to this submission since the Rules for Submission are quite specific in stating that a household name submission must be accompanied by a badge. While Laurel personally has no problem with the registration of household names and alternate persona names without accompanying armoury, both at the time the present rule was put into effect and in current discussions of the rules, she has found herself distinctly in the minority (sometimes a minority of one!). Therefore, a change in current policy does not seem justifiable at this time. (03/1988)

Hrothgar Bjornsson. Device. Sable, a chevron inverted between a bear's head, erased and affronty, and three compass stars argent.

Conflict with Elayna Amavia ("Sable, a chevron inverted and in chief a rose argent, barbed vert, seeded of a heart gules."). (03/1989)

Ia Annayavitch. Name only.

The given name is documented as a Russian feminine form of the classical Greek masculine name "Ion". Unfortunately, there was general agreement that the "patronymic" was not formed in a genuine period manner, since it does not agree in gender with the given name and is not properly formed. In a guest appearance from the West, Tatiana Nikolaevna Tumanova explained it well: The formation is that of a patronymic; specifically, a male patronymic ­­ not a surname. I cannot recognize the root name this patronymic was formed from, which could be either Anna (with a y thrown in as a bridge?) or Annai. If the root name is Anna, then this may be a misguided attempt to form a matronymic. Matronymics . . .were very rare and, in every case mentioned, the matronymic was borne by a man. Surnames derived from women's names are not so rare as matronymics, but a surname formed from the root name of Anna would be Annin/Annina, Anin/Anina, Anuskin/Anushkina, or Anyutin/Anyutina. . . . In any case, Russian names must agree in gender. The feminine first name must have a feminine form of the surname or patronymic to go with it. (04/1990)

Iago ap Gwilym. Name only.

Crescent has noted a rather famous James Wilson, signer of the Declaration of Independence and ratifier of the Constitution. This name is a direct translation of that name. While the "conflict by translation" clause in the current rules has been localized in the group names section, personal names which have been direct translations of Society names and/or the names of famous individuals have been returned for conflict for years when they have been noticed. A result of the increasing knowledge of foreign naming practises over the past decade may be a slightly increased probability of such conflicts being noticed, but they are not a novelty. Indeed, members of the Laurel staff can remember Eastern submission being returned as direct translations of Society names during the tenure of Master Wilhelm. (08/1989)

Iain MacNaught the Woundburner. Badge. Argent, a goutte de sang within a bordure azure.

At the time of the Symposium, concern was raised about the resemblance of this badge to that used by the waterbearers in some Kingdoms and to that officially registered to the Waterbearers of Caid ("Argent, a goutte de larme within another voided within a bordure azure."). At the time, we were inclined to see this as technically clear on the grounds that the tincture change and addition of the voided goutte carried it clear since the two are both badges. However, a comparison of the two emblazons upon Laurel's return to New York showed that the visual resemblance of the two designs was in fact much stronger than we had thought when it was discussed in Caid, since the goutte in the Waterbearer's badge is effectively a single design entity. While the two are still technically clear, the visual resemblance must be held to be just too great: a reasonable member of the populace, seeing this emblem, could easily misinterpret it to have a relation to the chirgeonate/waterbearers. (07/1989)

Iain MacNaught the Woundburner. Device. Per pale azure and vert, on a pale surmounted by a saltire argent, a goutte de sang.

After considerable discussion both in correspondence and at the Symposium, there was a distinct consensus that this submission was visually so suggestive of the standard EMT insignia using the "Star of Life" in white on a blue field that display of the submitted device could be generally interpreted by the populace as indicating the presence of an EMT station. It has long been accepted that the Society has an interest in preventing potentially dangerous situations by display of insignia which would indicate that medical aid was available when it was not (this is the rationale for banning use of the staff of Aesculapius by unqualified individuals). It was the feeling of the College that we had an equal interest in restricting any suggestion that an official medical aid station was present when it was not. Therefore, it seems appropriate to ban the use of the "star of Life" or "star cross" in any tinctures which would suggest an official EMT station. Our information at this time indicates that this would include the star in argent on azure and its counterchange of azure on argent, as well as a gules star cross on argent. Other tinctures may well have to be restricted: Laurel staff will consult with the National Chirgeon's office on this subject and a fuller list of restricted tinctures will be issued when our information is complete. (07/1989)

Iain MhicMairghdhin. Name and device. Or, on a cross azure, a wolf rampant argent, overall a bordure counterchanged.

While the surname was registered some nine years ago to Wolfangus MhicMairghdin as a form of MacMartin, standards were rather different in those days and his file offers no real supporting documentation for this spelling.As Brigantia himself noted, there was no real evidence for the intrusion of the "ghdh" in lieu of the "t" which appears in virtually every form of the name in both Irish and Gaelic.Additionally, as noted by Brachet, the "Mhic" form of the name is the genitive which is not used in forming personal names, but with the name of the clan (i.e., the clan of the son(s) of Martin). As he allows no changes whatsoever to the name, the submission must be returned although the device appears acceptable. (01/1990)

Ian Howard. Name only.

The name is in conflict with John Howard, first Duke of Suffolk and Hereditary Marshal of England. Unfortunately, the problem with the polylingual names so common in our Society is that their use is predicated on the assumption that the person in question moved in more than one nation in the course of their career. This requires that we check for conflict beyond the limits of a single language into translated forms that would not have been common in period. In fact, this personage with a Scots given name and the English family name Howard would have been called Ian Howard in Scotland (because there was no ready translation for Howard), but would have regularly been called John Howard in England. His badge has been registered under the holding name Ian of Silver Keep. (12/1986)

Ian Jameson de Comyn. Name only.

When the name was returned for conflict with a Society name in November, 1987, it was suggested that a sufficiently different place name be added to clear the conflict. Unfortunately, the name is now clear of Society conflict but runs into a problem with an important figure from Scots history John (or Ian) Comyn, sometimes known popularly as the Red Comyn. When Robert Bruce stabbed Comyn in a church at Dumfries, it triggered war with England (because Comyn had been under King Edward's peace), excommunication of Bruce by the Pope (because of the sacrilege) and Bruce's coronation at Scone (hurriedly carried out to anticipate the previous two events). A different place name perhaps? (03/1988)

Ian Jameson. Device. Per fess Or and vert, a fess enarched azure, overall a griffin segreant to sinister argent.

We were compelled to agree with Brachet that the field/fess arrangement here is visually equivalent to "tierced per fess enarched". The contrast between the azure fess and the vert portion of the field is so bad that they fade into one another behind the argent griffin and gives the impressions of "divided field + argent griffin". This being so, this is clearly visually in conflict with Tnek the Ainissestor ("Per bend sinister sable and gules, a griffin segreant to sinister argent."). (01/1987)

Ian Jameson. Name only.

The name conflicts with the registered name of Ian James of Silverlake. Under our current rules, adding a sufficiently different locative would clear the conflict. (11/1987)

Ian MacDonald of Connacht. Device. Argent, a bend gules, overall a rowan tree eradicated and inverted proper.

The primary charge is the bend, not the tree. Therefore, a conflict exists with Thomas Wolfgang von Lauer ("Argent, a bend gules enfiled of an annulet sable."). Note that the inversion of the tree diminishes its recognizability and therefore its visual force. This being so, a visual resemblance exists to the devices of Sharon the Meek and Richard the Mild ("Argent, a bend gules surmounted by an axe bendwise sinister vert, both surmounted by a wolf's head cabossed sable, orbed gules." [Yes, they both have the same device, passed on the same day in 1971]). In both cases, the psychology of perception will be :argent field with a bend gules surmounted by something vert and dark with red spots. A conflict also exists with the mundane arms of Barnack, etc. ("Argent, a bend gules."). (01/1987)

Ian MacGregor. Name only.

There was some debate at the Symposium whether the Laurel Queen of Arms was a "rabid Scots historian". Regardless of the state of one's Scotophilia, this name would appear to conflict with two of the most famous MacGregor clan chieftains. The first was Iain MacGregor, the son of Gregor of the Golden Bridles who gave his name to the clan. The other, perhaps even more famous because of the history of the clan, was that Sir John MacGregor, cited by Green Anchor, who was named chieftain of the clan after the final revocation of the proscription of the name in 1775. (06/1988)

Ian MacIoruach. Device. Or, a squirrel rampant sable.

Conflict with Sengeli von Zauberberg ("Or, a woodchuck rampant proper."). Complete difference of charge cannot exist between a woodchuck and a squirrel: the visual similarities are too great. The woodchuck on Sengeli's emblazon is essentially sable. (01/1987)

Ian MacLairdy MacDonald. Name and device. Per chevron gules and azure, a chevron cotissed between a sword fesswise and a lion rampant reguardant Or.

Unfortunately, Crescent is correct in noting that the proposed name conflicts with that of Sir John MacDonald, first prime minister of Canada (the analogue of "George Wilson Washington" is very well taken). Silver Trumpet is correct in noting that this technically conflicts with Eadwyn Inhold ("Per chevron gules and purpure, a chevron cotised between in dexter chief a castle and in base a sprig of two oak leaves fesswise fructed Or."). (08/1989)

Ian of Nightsgate. Device. Sable, on a bend sinister argent, a pellet between, overall, four swords in cross, hilts to center, counterchanged.

Not only is this, as Batonvert put it, "intrusively modern", but it is also in visual conflict with Axel of Taavistia ("Sable, a bend sinister argent surmounted by a dove descending maintaining in its beak an arrow fesswise counterchanged.") (09/1987)

Ian of Nightsgate. Device. Sable, on a bend sinister argent, a pellet, overall four swords in cross counterchanged.

This was originally returned in September, 1987, for non-period style and conflict with Axel of Taavistia. Both problems still exist. The conflict with Axel derives from the identity of the underlying field and charge (the bend sinister): adding a charge overall is a not uncommon method of cadency and the roundel/swords collocation is visually tantamount to a single unit. The problem with period style, however, is derived from the counterchanged charges overlapping the bend in a non-period manner about a central charge which lies entirely on the bend. It is quite unusual in period to have more than one charge "overall" and when there are multiple charges they are not counterchanged in this manner. We see no reason to amend the original return. (07/1988)

Ian of Nightsgate. Device. Sable, on a saltire between four swords, hilts to center, argent, a pellet.

Unfortunately, this conflicts with Dianne of the Golden Chalice ("Sable, on a saltire argent a chalice Or enflamed sable."). (12/1988)

Ian of Nightsgate. Device. Argent, a pellet between a fret of four swords sable.

Since the pellet, not the swords, is the primary charge, under the current rules this technically conflicts with Dav Greyheart ("Argent, on a pellet a francisque Or."). (08/1989)

Ian Sinclair of Cowgate. Name only.

The name conflicts with that of Ian Saint Clair, registered in October, 1986. Note that Sinclair is merely a phonetic spelling of the family name Saint Clair (see Reaney, p. 321). (06/1987)

Ichijo Honen. Device. Argent, four Japanese closes in saltire widdershins, arrondy, voided and issuant from the edges of the shield, sable.

We were compelled to agree with those commentors who felt that the cloves were too complex a charge to void (or chase or fimbriate, depending on how you were looking at the cloves). Already difficult to identify because of their position and unfamiliarity to Western eyes, they become a classic "thin-line" heraldry" when voided. This is a problem not only under the old rules (AR6c, Complexity Limit) but also under the new (Armorial Identifiability, VIII.3:" Voiding and fimbriation may only be used with simple geometric charges placed in the center of the design.) (12/1989)

Içiar Albarez de Montesinos y Aragón. Name and device. Or, a Catherine wheel an in chief on three piles sable three crosses of Santiago Or.

Brigantia argued strongly in favor of the point of view that, while a charge could not be placed beneath one period pile because it would run throughout, that it could be placed beneath three period piles since they could not run so far to base, founding this assumption on the exemplars shown in Papworth. As these are undated (and we do not have the depictions they represent), it is somewhat difficult to weight these properly. On the other hand, we have a considerable body of work from Pye and other indicating that period piles, whether singly or in multiple, tended to go all the way to the other side of the shield. Indeed, this is the very reason that three piles are generally depicted in point in most pre-Victorian rolls (so they'll all fit!). While it is true that Silver Trumpet (then Crescent) cited a reblazon of some Scots armory towards the end of our period (1519) which misinterpreted the chief on the Douglas arms as three piles, it should be noted, however, that this less evidence for normative practise for piles in Scots of English heraldry than it is evidence that the early period form of the chief indented (i.e., with fewer and deeper indents) was by that time virtually defunct and the poor Tudor herald was left with the desperate task of trying to come up with a description for something that did not match any of his ordinaries, although it was clearly trying to be something in the ordinary line. Like many of our Society heralds when confronted with something unblazonable by the normal terms, they started with the nearest approximation and went on from there! (Any herald who has ever been involved in a "blazon the nearest object contest" will know what we mean. . .). This being the case, it does not seem appropriate to modify the current ban on charges beneath piles. (11/1989)

Iduna Snorrisdottir. Device. Paly wavy argent and azure, a longship sailing to sinister proper, sailed Or.

After much consideration we have concluded that Chevron is correct in calling conflict with the badge of the Barony of Storvik ("A drakkar under sail proper, bearing a sail argent charged with three pallets gules."). As Chevron noted, the charge itself is so symmetrical that it is difficult to derive a major point of difference from the difference in orientation which is indicated primarily by the sail and no difference can be derived from the field since Storvik's badge is fieldless. (05/1989)

Idunn Felinnoir. Device. Or, an apple and a dexter gore vert.

While Geirr Bassi does show instances of the name Idunn being used by humans and therefore the name may be used in the Society, the most famous bearer of the name was the distinctly non-human keeper of the apples of youth that the Norse gods consumed to preserve their youth. Therefore, the name Idunn may not be used with apples any more than Rhiannon may be used with horses. (09/1987)

Ilarion Ivanovich Drakonov. Device. Argent on a pile sable between in base two caltraps gules, a wingless dragon statant Or.

It is extremely unclear precisely what the submittor desires here. As noted by several commentors, a properly drawn pile would not allow the caltraps to exist below it and it is dubious whether a dragon in this position could exist identifiaby on such a pile, even if it were expanded to its widest period form. On the other hand, we cannot really consider this a poorly­drawn chief triangular increased in size to accommodate the tertiary. (This does happen in period heraldry where the width of a chief varies widely depending on whether the chief is charged.) In this case, the chief comes almost to the bottom of the shield, which is by definition absurd, and the caltraps, which would then be the primary charges, are unacceptably diminished in size and pushed to the bottom of the shield. Finally, were this a field divided neutrally per chevron inverted, the line of division would start along the flanks of the field, not in the upper corner. (05/1990)

Ilaysaidh ni Dughlass. Name and device. Sable, a pall hummetty, each arm terminating in a unicorn's head and the upper arms elongated and fretted, argent, all within a bordure ermine.

No documentation was given for the unusual forms used in the name and none could be provided by the College. "Ilaysaidh" is not a valid variant form of the Gaelic Ealasaid. Moreover, "Dubhghlas", as it is more properly spelled, is not used with the patronymic form in Gaelic, since it is a family name derived from a place. As several commentors noted, the use of "Douglas" as a given name is derivative from the family name and occurs only at the very end of our period and, so far as we can tell, only in non-Gaelic- speaking contexts. There was general agreement that the involved pall not only violated the ancient ban on knotwork, but could not be reconstructed from the blazon, ingenious as it was. (04/1988)

Imran Yosuf le Scorpioun. Device. Gules, a swan rousant argent, beaked and membered sable, and in chief an escallop Or.

Conflict with the Counts of Stormarn, as quartered by the Kings of Denmark ("Gules, a swan argent, beaked and membered sable, gorged of a crown Or.") There is also a problem with the silver swan of the Bohun family, customarily placed in this posture, since this has been used as a royal badge in England since the fifteen century. Note that the effect of cadency is increased because the escallop is so reduced in size and visual effect as to appear a standard minor brisure mark. (11/1986)

Imran Yosuf le Scorpioun. Device. Quarterly gules and sable, a swan rousant, wings displayed and elevated, argent, beaked and membered, within a bordure engrailed Or.

Conflict with Moore ("Sable, a swan wings expanded argent membered Or with a bordure engrailed of the third." cited in Papworth, p. 317). (04/1987)

Ingirid of Thanet. Device. Per pale azure and Or, a griffin segreant, wings elevated and inverted, gules maintaining a plate.

Conflict with Conway ("Or, a griffin segreant gules.", cited in Papworth, p. 981), Armiger ("Per pale azure and Or, a griffin segreant counterchanged.", ibid., p. 982), etc. (05/1990)

Ingrid of Whitecliff. Device. Vert, a bend between a maunche argent and a plate.

Conflict with Christopher Troweselagh ("Per bend purpure and vert, a bend between a cross formy and a spur rowel argent."), Olaf the Maedi-Ogre ("Vert, on a bend argent a battle-axe gules."), etc. as well as with the mundane arms of Hayton ("Vert, a bend argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 198). (06/1988)

Inloth Lamont. Device. Per bend gules and sable, an ermine statant guardant proper between two compass stars in pale argent.

Conflict with Rima of Rockridge ("Gules, an ermine statant guardant proper.") (01/1988)

Ioannes Vallis. Device. Per pale vert, semy of trefoils Or, and vert, semy of pheons inverted Or, on a pale argent, a waterlily and waterlily bud, stems issuant from base and crossed in saltire, gules.

While this is technically clear of Melucine de Ronceverte ("Vert, on a pale argent, a greenbriar slip vert.") by the difference for addition of the semy and the change in type and tincture of tertiary, this is just too complex to meet our requirements of style. As Dolphin noted, the anomalies are just too great. In the first place, two different types of charge semy are placed on either side of an ordinary in identical tinctures (and not dissimilar shapes which creates a visual confusion). In the second place, the correct identification of the tertiary depends on a precise depiction and arrangement of the charges that is not period. In the third place, there is excessive complexity with four types of charges and four tinctures involved in this device. (05/1990)

Iomhar MacThaimhis o Cairngorm. Device. Argent, on a bend sinister azure between two wolf's heads couped sable, three cinquefoils argent.

Conflict with Andred Fairhair ("Argent, on a bend sinister azure between two goblets sable, three daggers argent. (11/1986)

Iricus le Ferur. Device. Sable, on a bend sinister between two crescents argent, three towers palewise sable.

Conflict with the device of Peregrine Ignatius Dominic Augustine Doran, cited on the letter of intent ("Sable, a bend sinister between a Latin cross and a Greek Orthodox cross, all argent.") as well as that of Ewan the Mad Wanderer ("Sable, a bend sinister between a Celtic cross and a unicorn's head couped reversed, all argent."). (11/1988)

Iron Mountain, Barony of. Change of device. Gules, on a pale argent, a Danish war axe reversed within a laurel wreath vert, on a canton sable, fimbriated argent, three mullets in fess argent.

This submission points out many of the problems which occur when a "modern" canton of augmentation is added to a period-style device without consideration for the overall design. The confusion manifested by some senior members of the College as to the design intended (i.e., was the laurel wreath being moved onto the pale, as the blazon suggested) demonstrates that this does not really meet the canons of period style. Without getting into the question of the poor contrast laurel wreath vert which lies almost entirely on the gules field (it is grandfathered), the placement of the canton further reduces the identifiability of the wreath. The "bordure" about the canton of augmentation is clearly there only to avoid breaking tincture and ill succeeds for it is so small as to be nearly invisible at any distance and in any other context would be decried as "thin line heraldry". This is only accentuated by the fact that the sinister side of the canton fades into the pale. Finally, even for an augmentation this adds an unacceptable level of complexity since the charged canton is placed on top of a charge overall making the canton itself the fourth and fifth layer of the design. (04/1988)

Isabeau de Bordeaux. Device. Argent, a cross quarter-pierced between five roses azure.

Conflict with Ayesha de Warwick ("Argent, a cross quarter-pierced between five blue violets slipped and leaved proper."). (05/1987)

Isabeau de Calais. Name only.

This name caused major twitches. Richard II was married to his second wife, the child bride Isabella (or Isabeau, depending on the French dialect you spoke) in Calais and she is closely associated with that city in many period accounts of her life (short as it was). (01/1987)

Isabel de Marmande. Device. Azure, two wooden spoons in saltire and in chief a bell, all Or.

We were compelled to agree with Brachet that there was a visual conflict with Hrorek Halfdane of Faulconwood ("Azure, two spears in saltire and in chief a mullet Or.") (02/1987)

Isabel Vyell MacLeod. Device. Per chevron throughout sable and argent, a brown bull's head cabossed proper and in chief two compass stars argent.

Conflict with Brenna of Storvik ("Per chevron sable and argent, two mullets of eight points argent and a snake coiled as to strike vert."). (01/1989)

Isabela del Bosque. Name and device. Vert, a lion couchant, on a chief arched Or, three crosses patoncy vert.

In his letter of intent, Obelisk noted that "one of our Spanish speakers. . .says that the single "l" in Isabela is O.K. Unfortunately, no documentation was provided to support this statement. Since the consonants "l" and "ll" are distinct and can create differences of meaning in both Continental and American Spanish (in the latter it even has devolved to a "y" sound rather than a liquid), some documentation for the change seemed advisable. The device is visually in conflict with that of Arthur of Burgundy ("Vert, an African lion dormant Or and on a chief argent, three goblets gules."). Note that Brachet is quite correct in noting that the arching here is virtually identical to that shown on period renditions of a plain chief and adds almost no visual difference between the two devices. (03/1988)

Isadora d'Athinai. Name only.

No prepositions beginning in "d" are used in Greek, ancient or modern, to indicate geographic source. The preposition which best approximates "from" in both classical and modern Greek is "apo" which is not used with the nominative of the noun. As Crescent has pointed out, the most likely form of her name in Greek would be "Isadora Athenaia", since Greek is very fond of adjectives of origin. Unfortunately, she will not allow any changes to the name so it has to be returned (a holding name can be issued since the Western forms state that this is done unless the submittor specifically forbids this). (10/1987)

Iseault Wishbringer. Device. Purpure, a tree blasted and eradicated between in fess two urchins statant respectant argent.

Conflict with the Middle Kingdom Order of the Silver Oak ("Purpure, an oak tree blasted and eradicated argent, fructed Or."). (07/1987)

Isengrim du Bois d'Anvers. Name only.

Brigantia's documentation indicated that the given name was used in a period Flemish folktale. This folktale and even older forms including a Latin "Ysengrimus" used the descriptive name "Isengrim" for the wolf who is its hero. While Isengrim, like Reynard, may have been used as a given name in period, the conjunction of the given name of the lupine archetype with a byname indicating a woodland origin appears to be too close to the legendary Isengrim for comfort. (11/1988)

Isengrim du Bois d'Anvers. Device. Gules, on a chevron between a dexter hand couped bendwise, a sinister hand couped bendwise sinister and a falcon's hood affronty argent, three fleurs-de-lis gules.

Conflict with the arms of Parker ("Gules, on a chevron between three keys erect argent, as many fleurs-de-lis of the first.", as cited in Papworth, p. 528) and O'Cullen ("Gules, on a chevron between three dexter hands argent, a garb gules enclosed by a pair of trefoils slipped proper."). The use of the hands in different orientations together with a relatively unidentifiable charge in base pushes this device towards unacceptable complexity despite its simplicity of tincture. Note this name was returned in November, 1988. (04/1989)

Iseult du Coeur de l'Opale. Device. Argent, a tree, blasted and eradicated, on a chief nowy purpure, two urchins statant respectant argent.

Laurel, like Crescent, would like to see some documentation that the line of division "nowy" is a period usage. After diligent search of our library, we were not able to find any illustration of this usage (as opposed to a cross nowy, which is quite a different thing) which predated the mid- nineteenth century. (05/1989)

Ishida Kuan. Device. Per bend sinister gules and argent, a sinister hand couped aversant between in fess a sword palewise inverted and a tonfa palewise inverted, all counterchanged.

This arrangement of charges is almost random and certainly unbalanced, given the field division. Moreover, there is a serious question in the minds of most of the College of Arms as to the identifiability of the tonfa (apparently a martial arts weapon used by ninja). Some question was also raised as to its documentability as a period artefact (though Monsho feels it was) and other commentors feel that, apart from the question of identifiability, it is inappropriate for use as a charge because of its dishonourable associations in Japanese culture. (12/1988)

Isle of the Blue Mists, Shire of. Name only.

Unfortunately, Crescent is correct in stating that this is technically in conflict with the name of the Barony of the Isles in Caid. Perhaps they would be willing to grant permission as one Pacific island group to another? (02/1989)

Isleif Brimstone. Badge for Munekoshi Kotai. Sable, a hana-gusari argent.

No documentation was provided for the alternate persona name. It has not been established that this is an unvarying heraldic charge, even in the Japanese system, which could be depicted solely from the blazon by a competent heraldic artist. If blazoned in western terms, the links in profile definitely become a serious anomaly. (02/1987)

Isleif Brimstone. Device. Gules, a bend between a rose argent, pierced gules, and a Bengal tiger passant proper.

Conflicts with Beikemore ("Gules, a bend argent."). (12/1986)

Isolde Baird. Device. Azure, a wolf's head cabossed between two flaunches argent.

Conflict with Janek Shiron ("Azure, a harp reversed between two flaunches argent, each charged with a quill azure.") (09/1988)

Istvan Kostka. Device. Per bend bendy azure and Or and argent, on a bend sinister gules, three llamas statant fesswise to sinister argent.

This was accidentally dropped from the January letter of acceptance and return. Conflict with Susanna Marie of Palermo ("Per bend sinister pean and ermine, on a bend sinister gules, three quatrefoils argent."). (02/1989)

Ivan Nikolaevich Kozorézov. Device. Or, two legless wyverns combattant and in base a cross swallowtailed, all gules.

The attributed arms of Uther Pendragon, which appear in a number of rolls of arms, are variously blazoned has having two "dragons" or "wyverns" (there is little doubt that the two were interchangeable in the early period) "combattant" or "respectant". In some manuscripts they are shown as vert, in others as gules. Such is the fame of the bearer and the popularity of Arthurian display in our period that it seems foolhardy to allow such a close variation of these arms. It should be noted, that in the later manuscripts the red dragons are shown as crowned gules and the gules dragons are shown as crowned vert, which reinforces the impression that the two versions of the arms derive from the same tradition. Given the tradition that Cadwallader of Wales bore as his personal standard the dragon gules, which even today appears on an argent and vert field as the emblem of Wales, one can suspect that the older tradition would have the dragons gules. (12/1988)

Ivar Skalagrim. Name only.

There was considerable feeling in the College that "Skallagrim" was a unique epithet referring to the father of the Egil of the Egil's Saga. Grim Kveldulfsson became bald at an unusually young age and so became known as "Bald Grim" or "Skallagrim". Perhaps he could be interested in a similar period epithet from Geirr Bassi, such as "Skalaglamm"? (04/1988)

Ivar Skalla-grimr. Name only.

This submissions was previously returned in April, 1988, on the grounds that "Skalla Grimr" appears to be a unique epithet referring to the father of Egil of the Egil's Saga. Grim Kveldulfsson became bald at an unusually young age and so became known as "Bald Grim" or "Skallagrim". The submitter has appealed on the grounds that the name appears in a list headed "Old Norse Personal Names" from Barber's British Family Names (p. 27) and thus cannot be considered to be a unique epithet. As Habicht has pointed out, Barber took many of the names on this list from the Landnámabók, which refers to the history of Iceland, where Grim the Bald fled and thus could refer to him. It should also be noted that Barber was not an Old Norse expert and the listing contains a number of names that are demonstrably epithets rather than given names in general usage (e.g., "Reythrsitha" which Geirr Bassi shows as an epithet meaning "whale coast". "Rafa-kollr" which Geirr Bassi shows as "amber-colored baldpate", etc.). This, taken together with some of the spelling errors, indicates that the process of abstracting names from the Landnámabók was rather similar to that which some amateurs in the Society have used with translations to produce name lists: the text (in the original or more likely an annotated translation) was scanned for any appearances by individuals and the names by which the individuals were mentioned were deemed to be personal names (which they were) with little effort given to critical analysis. Imagine a similar process applied to an account of a Society War: you might end up with a list of names that include "Lucky", "Bellatrix", "Jade", "Guy", Frederick", "Flieg", "William", "de Sevigny", etc. Some of these are names which could be used by anyone as a given name, some could only be used as epithets, some would probably be considered unique epithets by many in the Society. You see the problem. The submitter has not really demonstrated that the epithet can be used as he wishes. (12/1989)

Ivo le Lunatique. Device. Argent, a human eye environed of a pruning hook azure.

There was a considerable feeling in the College that the combination of the eye and sickle-shaped blade was excessively redolent of the occult. The Laurel staff also found the allusion (possibly unintentional) to ritual blinding to be potentially offensive. (08/1987)

Jacquelin of Normandy. Device. Azure, a rose argent, a chief argent, ermined azure.

Since the almond flower is very similar to the heraldic rose in appearance, this does conflict with the device of Maria Mindalova, cited on the letter of intent ("Azure, an almond flower proper."). It also conflicts with the British 23rd Division ("Azure, a rose argent.") and the white rose of York. (08/1989)

Jacques d'Avignon. Device. Per bend sinister azure and Or, a table cut gemstone fesswise, seen from above, argent and a bunch of grapes purpure.

While a number of gemstones were registered in the early days of the Society (indeed the blazon given above for the stone draws partially on one of these), this does not seem to meet our current standards for identifiability of charge. As has frequently been noted before, not all items documented in period are suitable for heraldic charges and this seems to fall into that category of exceptions. In effect, without the interior markings, this is a peculiar billet fesswise argent and not really identifiable without the blazon as the gemstone he desires. (06/1989)

Ja'far al­Safa. Device. Argent, semy of suns gules, a lizard dormant vert atop a rock sable, on a chief gules, in saltire two scimitars inverted Or, hilted sable.

There are just too many anomalies and too much business here. The lizard atop the rock is actually a naturalistic representation of a lizard on an obsidian­type rock and a good part of the vert lizard's typical leg and foot structures fade into the sable stone. While the general desert effect is quite clear, when this is placed on the overcrowded suns, the effect is overly complex. When one also considers that the sable hilts of the scimitars cause the swords to appear like hiltless blades, the visual confusion just falls over the edge. (02/1990)

Jago Redbeard. Device. Ermine, a saltire vert, overall an hourglass Or.

Unfortunately, the charge overall must be judged for contrast against the field and Or does not have adequate contrast with ermine in our system. Note that the exception allowance in AR4 only applies "where the underlying charge(s) are inherently large, taking up most of the shield in any reasonable emblazon". Although White Stag has drawn the device beautifully so as to place most of the hourglass on the saltire vert, the size and width of a saltire has a wide number of variants in period and an even wider variance in the Society so the saltire cannot be considered to be so inherently large that no significant part of the hourglass would be placed on the field in any reasonable emblazon. (05/1989)

Jago Redbeard. Device. Ermine, a saltire vert, overall an hourglass Or.

This was returned in May, 1989, for violation of the rule that charges overall must have sufficient contrast with the field, not the underlying charges, unless the design was inherently such that the overlying charge would lie almost entirely on the underlying charges. White Stag has appealed this essentially on two grounds: that period heraldry allowed Or on ermine and that, if drawn properly, the saltire by definition would be drawn thickly enough that the hourglass would lie almost entirely on the vert. While there was significant support for the appeal in the College, it was difficult to collate since many of those who supported the appeal in the particular case opposed the arguments presented and in other cases, those who approved the arguments presented opposed the appeal in the particular case. Master Erasmierz is correct when he notes that late period heraldry did place ermine on Or or, more commonly Or on ermine. Most of the examples cited were granted or confirmed or appeared in rolls from the Tudor period and there is some doubt as to whether the use of ermined furs as a generally neutral colour was all that common in period. Be that as it may, long since the College of Arms decided that the interests of the Society, particularly its need for heraldry recognizable in battle conditions in poor weather or across a large encampment required somewhat higher standards of contrast than prevail in contemporary mundane heraldry. This decision was reviewed and discussed at some length in the course of the rules discussion and there was considerable support for strengthening the requirements for contrast, not weakening them (there was a point that our fevered imagination conjured up images of small groups of militant heralds making up signs and marching on the Symposium chanting "No more gules on pean!"). That being said, there would not seem to be a compelling to alter the basis of contrast worked out over twenty years or so on the basis of the relatively anomalous exemplars adduced by White Stag, although his arguments are by no means empty. This means that the issue must be decided on the question of the predictability of the size of the saltire as drawn by White Stag. Unfortunately, neither mundane nor Society heraldry really have a default practice for drawing ordinaries when they underlie charges overall (this is partly because charges are not surmounted in this manner nearly so often as they are themselves charged). Pulling examples of saltires with charges overall from the files did not encourage us to believe that the saltire would be drawn as robustly as White Staff drew it and it is clear that, without this guarantee, the submission should not be registered. (12/1989)

James ap William. Name and device. Per pale Or and vert, two sea-lions combattant counterchanged.

The form of the patronymic is not correct since the particle is Welsh and "William" is purely English. If he wishes the Welsh equivalent of his mundane name of James Williams, it would be Iago ap Gwilym. The device technically conflicts with Aaron Elvenspeed ("Per pale vert and Or, two dragons serpentine combattant counterchanged.") (02/1987)

James Colin MacLochlen. Name only.

Conflict with the Reverend Colin MacLachlan who was notorious of the leading role he played in the slaughter of the Lamonts in 1648 (Moncreiffe, The Highland Clans, p. 160). (12/1987)

James Darkstar. Change of device. Azure, a compass star elongated to base sable, fimbriated, between four mullets Or.

A compass star is too complex a charge to fimbriate. Additionally, since the compass star is equivalent to "a compass star Or, voided sable", this is technically in conflict with Paul of Sunriver ("Azure, a compass star Or."). (07/1987)

James Foxston of Stone Heath. Device. Per chevron azure and vert, a chevron argent between two fasces, blades to center, and a fox passant Or.

Conflict with Gordon Mac Blayr de Galowaye ("Per chevron azure and vert, a chevron argent between two winged lions combattant and in pale a compass star and a lamp Or, enflamed at the tip proper."). (07/1987)

James Galen MacGrew. Device. Gules, on a sun within a bordure argent, a wolf's head cabossed sable.

Conflict with Conroy der Rote ("Gules, on a sun argent a falcon's leg couped a-la-quise proper."). (07/1988)

James Galen MacGrew. Device. Per pale gules and sable, on a sun argent, a bear's head cabossed sable, all within a bordure argent.

Conflict with the badge of Cynedd ap Gwen ("Sable, a sun eclipsed within a bordure argent."): only a minor point of difference can be derived from the low-contrast divided field under the current rules. (09/1989)

James MacPhearson of Kirkcaldy. Device. Gyronny of four from dexter chief sable and argent, a Maltese cross gules.

Conflict with the arms of the mundane Order of St. Stefano of Pisa ("Argent, a cross maltese gules.") and with the badge of the Barony of the Angels ("A cross crescenty fleury fitchy gules."). In the former case, there is only a major point for the difference in the field, in the latter only the type of cross differs since no difference can be derived from the field. (05/1989)

James Malcolm Helme. Device. Argent, on a pale between two lions combattant sable, a human skull pierced palewise by a sword proper.

There is a technical conflict with Balthazar Thornguard, cited on the letter of intent ("Argent, on a long cross throughout between in base two lions combattant sable, a sword inverted argent, enflamed proper."): no difference can be derived from the slight movement of the lions towards the bottom of the shield, since this is directly derived from the change in type of primary charge. This also runs into problems with Cedric fils de Guillaume ("Argent, on a pale sable between a drawstring bag azure and a Latin cross gules, a sword argent."). (04/1988)

James nic Edom. Badge. Azure, a cobra coiled affronty argent.

This badge was originally returned in September, 1986, for conflict with Vincenzo di Calabria ("Per pale gules and vert, a rattlesnake coiled to sinister, tail erect argent."). Unfortunately, Crescent consideration (complete with marginal sketches!) was correct: the differences between the two serpents in position and type are so weak as to be virtually negligible. The two may be blazoned differently for canting or symbolic purposes, but are not significantly different visually. (08/1987)

James NicEdom. Badge. Azure, a cobra coiled affronty argent.

Conflict with Vincenzo di Calabris ("Per pale gules and vert, a rattlesnake coiled to sinister, tall erect, argent."). There is a point for the field, but the differences in the serpents are not so pronounced as to produce the strong minor needed for difference. (A natural phenomenon of period and modern European life is that we do not differentiate serpents with the same accuracy as we do warm blooded creatures: A snake tends to be a snake and no more in mundane heraldry.) (09/1986)

James of Sherborne. Device. Argent, on a bend sinister gules between two mullets of four points sable, an arrow inverted Or.

Conflict with Kathryn Dhil Lorriel, cited on the letter of intent ("Argent, on a bend sinister gules, cotised sable, a Lady Banks rose proper."). It is clear from mundane ordinaries and period armorial treatises that cotises are indeed regarded as secondary charges, rather than merely a variation in the line of the ordinary: thus only one point of difference is derived from changing the cotises to mullets. (04/1988)

James the Tactless. Device. Gules, seme of tacks argent.

Conflict with the badge of Conrad von Regensburg ("Gules, seme of decrescents argent.") Complete difference of charge cannot apply to a seme so there is only one point of difference here. Reducing the number of charges or adding a charge on the field would overcome this problem. (01/1987)

James the Tavernkeeper. Device. Sable, on a bend between two mugs Or, a mace sable.

As Crescent noted, under the current rules this is technically a conflict with Richard Ericksson the Burgundian Norseman ("Sable, on a bend cotised Or, a castle palewise and a hurst of three pine trees palewise sable."). [Editorial Note: Laurel and her staff had to agree with Crescent that the emotional gut reaction in this case is that the two devices should not conflict, but this is because of the limitation on difference to be derived from tertiaries in the current rules. The current rules are clear in stating that only in cases where the armoury consists of a field and charged ordinary alone can changes of two categories of difference made in the tertiaries provide a major point: to attempt to resolve this by asserting that cotises are not in fact secondary charges is a far more radical departure from mundane and Society tradition than to emend the rules for difference to allow for proper weight to be given tertiaries when they are placed on a primary charge. For a discussion of the issue of cotises as lines of division, please see the cover letter.] (11/1988)

James the Tormentor. Device. Per bend sinister embattled argent and azure, a double-seated lymphad reversed proper, sailed Or.

Under both old and new rules this is a conflict with Echlin ("Argent, a galley proper.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1088) and Meares ("Argent, a three masted galley, her sails furled proper."). Under both sets of rules there is a point of difference for the field. Had the sails adequate contrast with the field, they might be considered important enough to give the additional minor point of difference required under the old rules. However, the Or sails are placed entirely on the argent portion of the field and so are essentially invisible. No additional difference can be derived (the difference between a lymphad and a galley is not significant). (01/1990)

James the Wise. Badge for House of the Dragon. Or, a dragon segreant gules within a bordure sable.

Under both sets of rules, this name clearly conflicts with the title of the Dragon Principal Herald and with the medieval Order of the Dragon, cited by Brigantia. The badge conflicts with the arms attributed to King Arthur in Fabulous Heraldry (#702: "Or, a dragon rampant gules."). (11/1989)

Jaqueline Etiennette Capistriti von Neumann. Name only.

While we have been able to document "Jaqueline" (which appears to be her mundane name in any case, although the forms use an abbreviation), "Etiennette" appears only as a diminutive form in the cited location in Yonge and is not clearly dated to period in any case. No documentation whatsoever was provided on the forms or letter of intent for "Capistriti" and none could be provided by the College. Finally, as several commentors noted with respect to the name of her husband, "Neumann" is not a place name and therefore cannot be used with "von". As she allowed no changes to her name, we could not register the allowable portions of the name (e.g., "Jaqueline Neumann"). (07/1989)

Jauhara bint al Gammar. Name and device. Counter-ermine, on a bend argent three fleurs-de-lys palewise purpure.

The commentors could not document the form of the patronymic used here and found its stated meaning ("daughter of the Moon") to be disturbing. Were evidence available for the use of "Gammar" as an Arabic given name or epithet, the name would be more acceptable. As Brachet noted, the device conflicts with Andrea des Champs de Batailles ("Azure, on a bend argent a unicorn's head palewise couped sable between two cinquefoils purpure."): there is a major point for the field, but the change in type and partial change of tincutre of the tertiary charges in not tantamount to a major point of difference here. (05/1987)

Jean de la Rue. Device. Or, semy of cloves azure, on a fess sable, three saltorels couped argent.

Under the old rules, this conflicts with Whytock ("Or, goutty de poix, a fess sable." as cited in Papworth, p. 707): only a minor point is allowed for changing the tincture of a semy (Major Changes to Minor Charges, DoD. B.7) and a minor for adding the tertiary since the semy is present here and the semy is considered as a charges, not a field treatment. While these are blazoned as cloves, they are well within the parameters for depiction of gouttes and thus no real difference is derived from type. Under the new rules, this would be clear of Whytock, since one difference is derived from the tincture change of the semy (Tincture Changes, X.4.d) and another for the addition of the tertiaries (Addition of Charges on Charges, X.4.i). However, it would conflict with Cobull ("Or, on a fess sable, three crosses crosslet argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 788): there is one change for addition of the semy but, as there is only one change to the tertiaries, this does not fall clear. (12/1989)

Jean d'Eaux. Name and device. Argent, on a tombstone, a fountain.

There is no doubt that the name conflicts by sound with that of the famous (period) legal entity John Doe (note NR15 "A personal name conflicts with another name if it looks or sounds enough like the other name to cause confusion" [italics ours]). In sound the two are identical. Additionally, as many of the commentors pointed out, this will be considered by far too many as a bad example of offensive "toilet humour" (literally!), given the general Society euphemism of "Shrines of Saint John of the Waters". Even taken at face value, the device creates some problems. Crescent has provided some convincing evidence that the sort of tombstone used here, presumably for maximum identifiability to modern eyes, is post-period. Also, were the fountain to be drawn properly (on the emblazon it is a plate charged with three barrulets wavy azure), it would not appear at all round since the azure tends to fade into the sable. Finally, although the submittor may not really have intended the effect of a drawing of a modern (very Art Deco modern in black!) toilet seen from above, this is the picture that a majority of the populace will see, particularly when placed in context with the name. Leaving aside the issue of whether this is offensive, it is disruptive to the medieval atmosphere by its very modernity. (03/1988)

Jean Étienne de Bane Garde. Name only.

The submitter's documentation indicated that he believed "Bane Garde" to be an Anglo-Norman corruption of the name of Bangor in Wales, but no documentation was provided in support of that belief. (09/1989)

Jean Paul de Burgundy. Name only.

The lesser problem with the name is that "Burgundy" is the English form of "Bourgogne" which should be used with the French preposition. More serious is the conflict with John, Duke of Burgundy (sometimes called "Jean sans Peur") who played such a significant role in the history of France and England in the age of Charles VI of France and Henry IV and Henry V of England. (05/1988)

Jean Richard Malcolmson. Device. Per bend sinister purpure and vert, a caltrap Or.

Since a major and minor point are required between Society badges and Society devices, this is in conflict with several items cited in the letter of intent: Morgan of Aberystwyth ("Azure, a caltrap Or."), Scellanus of Skye ("Gules, a caltrap Or.") and Selena of the North Woods ("Sable, a caltrap Or."). (02/1987)

Jean Richard Malcolmson. Device. Per bend sinister purpure and vert, an annulet Or.

Since no difference can be derived from the field, this is technically in conflict with the badge of Aidan Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ("A triskelion of dragon's heads within an annulet Or."). It also conflicts with Anne des Anneaux ("Purpure, five annulets in saltire Or.") since the difference in half a low contrast field adds only a minor point of difference to the major point for number of primary charges. (03/1988)

Jehan Lebatarde. Change of name from Jehan le Batard.

Brigantia is quite right in asserting that the surname forms in which the article coalesces to the noun can be documented in period. However, the modification of orthography also included the change of the noun from the feminine form to the masculine to agree with both the given name and the article. There is a great deal of evidence to suggest that masculine nouns were never modified by feminine articles or vice versa. We would cheerfully have modified the byname to the proper coalesced form "Lebâtard", but the forms prevented any change to the submitted form, however minor. (Note that at the time the name was originally accepted, we did not have the ability to print the circumflexed "a"; now we do.) (03/1988)

Jenette of Carrington. Device. Erminois, on a pale sable a fleur-de-lys Or.

Conflict with Lin the Baker ("Argent, on a pale sable, a garb Or.") (05/1988)

Jennet d'Anjou. Name and device. Azure, a chevron cotised between three dolphins haurient Or.

As there is no difference between a name and its diminutive, this is a conflict with Joanna d'Anjou, Queen of Naples, cited by Silver Trumpet. The device conflicts under both old and new rules with Chamberlayn ("Azure, a chevron between two couple closes and three escallops Or."): the only difference is the change of type of outer secondary. (05/1990)

Jerry the Inverter. Change of name from Gerald the Inverter and device.

Azure, an axe between in fess two oak leaves palewise argent. Aten has indicated again that the submittor's mundane name is "Jerry" and made a number of interesting statements on the law concerning names and aliases in the state of Arizona, but again no proof of the submittor's actual mundane name has been provided although this is relatively easy to do. The College is quite reasonable and, although a photocopy of a birth certificate is the usual simple proof in such cases, a copy of a driver's license or other such "proof" item would be acceptable. If the submittor's actual legal name is "Jerry", then he should be able to provide this easily (a fact which was pointed out to Aten by several heralds at Estrella War some months ago). If it is not "Jerry", then he is not entitled to the leniency of the "mundane name allowance". It is as simple as that. Unfortunately, the device does still conflict with the badge of Armand Vozon ("Azure, a halberd palewise argent."): no matter how many secondaries there are in a group and how large they are, they still count only a major point of difference and under our current rules a major and a minor point of difference are required between a badge and a device. (05/1989)

Jessica Elaine Kincaid. Device. Argent, two flaunches azure pierced by a sewing needle, threaded, Or.

The interlacing of the flaunches by the needle is not period style and is, in and of itself, too great an anomaly to allow. Additionally, if the needle is considered the primary charge, it breaks tincture where it overlies the argent field. If it is considered mainly a tertiary charge, the device is insufficiently differenced from Varin Waldreisender ("Argent, in pale three pine trees eradicated vert between two flaunches azure.") (12/1986)

Jihan um Omar. Device. Gules, two scimitars in saltire argent, in chief a lotus blossom in profile Or.

(12/1986)

Jilara of Carrowlea. Device. Sable, a dolmen of three uprights standing on a mound argent, in chief three oak leaves Or.

Visual conflict with Gwyneth merch Macsen ("Sable, a dolmen and in chief a mullet of eight points argent.") (10/1986)

Jocelyn of Fairfax. Change of Name to Jocelyn Doughlass of Fairfax.

The spelling "Doughlass" is neither English nor Gaelic and does not represent a valid variant of either. In English the family name should be Douglas. In Gaelic it is Dubhghlas. She must choose one or the other. (Note: her paperwork forbade any changes to her submission so that we were forced to return the name change in its entirety.). (11/1986)

Jochim Murre. Name and device. Per bend azure and gules, a long cross argent and a star of David Or.

The name is really too close to that of Joachim Murat, the brother­in­law of Napoleon and king of Naples. As the final consonant in Murat's name is silent, the echo is inescapable. (The name also raised echoes of the California bandit Joachim Murrieta.) The device conflicts with Alcuin of Threekingham ("Per bend azure and gules, a cross couped and a cup argent."). (12/1986)

Joella of Blue Lion's Keep. Badge for Claw Legion. A hurt, surmounted by four talons in cross gules, armed Or.

After much consideration, we have decided that this badge cannot really be considered period style. It is notable that virtually nobody in the College could determine what the charges were surmounting the hurt without looking at the blazon (several heralds in different kingdoms blazoned them first as four icecream cones in cross!). Laurel staff comment also centered on the fact that this submission only makes sense if you imagine the (invisible) four-toed lion's jambe behind the hurt, making it by definition in trian aspect. If she wishes to retain the cant, she might do better to use a jambe. There was some strong negative comment on the "fantasy novel" tone of the household name, but it is, strictly speaking, legal if no conflicts exist. (10/1988)

Joella of Blue Lion's Keep. Badge. A demi-lion azure issuant from a bar bretessy couped argent.

Conflict with Talstock ("Or, a demi-lion rampant azure, issuing out of a chair resembling a mural coronet reversed argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 62). Note that not only Brachet but much of the Laurel staff immediately perceived this as a crest. (05/1989)

Joella of Blue Lion's Keep. Household name for Claw Legion.

Conflict with the "Claw Legion" from the Battle Tech role-playing game, cited by Habicht. (04/1989)

Johan Bjoerinson. Name and device. Per pall gules, azure and purpure, on a plate between two axes palewise, blades outwards and hafts embowed outwards, argent, a bear's pawprint sable.

No documentation was provided for "Bjoerin" as a given name or form of a given name. We suspect that White Stag is correct in stating that the submittor may have heard the early genitive form "Bjarnar" for "Bjorn" and miscopied it, the more so since he clearly playing on the bear motif, but he allows no changes to his name so we cannot modify it. This would force the return of the device, but that has some problems of its own. The combinations of anomalous elements render this non-period style. Without getting into the issue of pawprints as design elements in period, the three-coloured per pall division and the "bent" axes which are vital to the suggested design are enough to justify the return of the device. (04/1989)

Johan Blau. Device. Argent, a pall inverted between two cinquefoils and an anvil azure.

Conflict with Llywelyn o Lanteprey ("Argent, a pall inverted azure, between two griffins combattant vert, armed and winged gules, and a caltrap sable, embrued at the upper point gules. "). No more than a major and a minor point may be derived from changes to a single set of secondary charges (DR9). (03/1987)

Johan von Metten. Device. Sable, a cracked goblet within an orle of escallops inverted argent.

Conflict with Tristan ap Howell ("Sable, a goblet between in fess two hearts argent."). (02/1987)

Johan Wolfgang Falkan. Badge. Sable, a stag's attire surmounted by a sword inverted argent.

Conflict with the device of Uta von Mainz ("Sable, a sword inverted between the two halves of a broken chain fesswise abased argent."). (01/1987)

Johann Klaus Drager. Device. Per pale vert and sable, an eagle rising, wings elevated and addorsed, argent.

Conflict with Tober Thorvald ("Vert, an osprey volant proper."). The osprey is "dark above and white below" and in the position in which is appear on Tober Thorvald's arms, primarily shows the light plumage. The difference in position of the birds between the two devices is at best a weak minor (the osprey is volant in a manner that is no doubt normal for ospreys, but not for heraldic birds). (04/1987)

Johannas von Bern. Badge. A bear, sejant erect to sinister, sable, atop a stump Or, maintaining a sword argent, upon which it breaths flames of fire proper.

This badge labours under several difficulties. It clearly violates the spirit of the rules on contrast, as it is difficult imagine any field on which it would display adequate contrast (a gules field would suffice were it not for the flames of fire proper which are largely gules and appear to be a major component of the design). It is overly complex for a badge. Finally and not entirely irrelevantly, it suffers from terminal "cutesiness". (Note: his name was returned on the August letter.). (11/1987)

Johannas von Bern. Name and device. Sable, a fess erminois, in chief two bears passant addorsed Or, breathing flames proper.

As the gentle forbade any changes to his name or the creation of a holding name, we regretfully had to return the submission as a whole. While Crescent is correct in saying that period orthography is often variable, Latin is much less so (and Johannes is Latin: the German form was Johann). Johannes (or Iohannes) is a regular third declension noun and tends to maintain the standard endings with a fair amount of rigidity, although the other portions of names may vary quite a bit. The device is fine and the name would be too, were the given name Johanne or Johannes. Alas!. (08/1987)

Johannes von Bern. Badge. A bear passant Or, breathing flames of fire proper, atop a capital J sable.

The issue of whether the capital "J" existed in period is to some extent a side issue, as this design and the "jaywalking" bear depends completely on the heraldic artist reconstructing this particular form of the letter with a crossbar large enough to bear the weight of the beast. That cannot reasonably be predicted even if the restriction to period forms be lifted. Just as a point of information, however, a number of period manuscript regularly used the "long" form of the letter "i". It was most frequently used in an initial position in several hands (presumably for aesthetic reasons) and well before the end of our period had become the common form for names beginning with the consonantal form. Thus in fifteenth century Italian manuscripts, what we would readily identify as a capital "J" is regularly used for names like Johannes and Jacobus. Moreover, some of the commonest humanist hands even had a horizontal bar at the top of the character, although this seldom, if ever, was carried to the right of the perpendicular line in most fifteenth hands. It should be noted that it was this practise that carried over into early printed material which eventually "set" the distinction between the use of "I" and "J" to represent differing qualities of sound. (02/1989)

John Alexander. Name only.

We had to agree with those who felt that this name conflicts with the previously registered name of Ian Alexander. Not only is the translation of John and Ian a common one, but the sound of the two names, when properly pronounced is distinctly similar. (01/1990)

John Burgolyn de Lakinghei. Name and device. Or, a chevron, in chief a label azure, crusilly fitchy Or.

Documentation is required for these spellings of the family name and place name: none was provided and the College could not provide them. There was a strong consensus in the College that the device really does conflict with that of Bastard ("Or, a chevron azure."): here the sole distinguishing mark is the addition of a label. Even if one considers that label as separately charged, so closely is that sort of charging tied to the original cadency that we have to consider this insufficiently differenced. (01/1989)

John de Somerville. Device. Per pale azure and argent, a sword palewise, winged at the hilt, counterchanged.

Not only does this run afoul of the ban on long, thin objects counterchanged along their long axis, but it also conflicts with John of Melnibone ("Per pale azure and Or, a winged passion nail, wings displayed, counterchanged.") (06/1988)

John de Somerville. Name for Shadow Dancer's Household.

As noted by more than one commentor, in Jack Chalker's G.O.D., Inc. series a shadow dancer is a drug addict. This seems an inappropriate meaning for a household name and one of which we suspect the submittor is unaware. (06/1988)

John Fletcher Stanwood. Name only.

Vesper is correct in calling conflict with the early seventeenth century dramatist John Fletcher. He is one of the most famous early English dramatists. Probably his most famous works were written with Francis Beaumont (quite a few Society dramatic guilds are willing to stretch a decade or two on dates and such Beaumont and Fletcher as The Knight of the Burning Pestle, Philaster and The Maid's Tragedy have found ready audiences). Other plays were written with Massinger or Rowley and many scholars believe that Fletcher was co-author of Shakespeare's Henry VIII (one wit noted that Shakespeare wrote the "good parts" and Fletcher wrote the "bad parts"). (08/1988)

John of Blackwood. Badge. An Oak tree, fructed and eradicated, quarterly Or and sable.

Conflict with Ioseph of Locksley, the Rhymer ("Vert, a tree eradicated argent.") and Loren Goldwood ("Per fess argent and azure, a tree eradicated Or, leaved vert."). Since this is a fieldless badge, the only difference that can be derived here is from the tincture of the charge, which is at most a major point of difference. (02/1989)

John of Sacred Stone. Device. Azure, a saltire between four spearpoints in cross, points outward, Or.

Conflict with Gwynedd mab Cynddylan ("Azure, a saltire cotised with eight demi-fleurs-de-lys Or."), William of Wolfscape ("Azure, on a saltire between four lozenges Or, five hurts."), Hyndman ("Azure, a saltire Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1057), Weddell ("Azure, a saltire between four buckles Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 1069), etc. (08/1988)

John of the White Boar. Name and device. Sable, a cross botonny between four annulets Or, overall a boar rampant argent.

While it is true, as Crescent noted, that Richard III may have had many retainers named John, he also had a bastard son, John of Gloucester, who would be entirely too closely associated with this name for our comfort. The boar obscures the underlying charges to such a degree that the identity of the annulets is not sufficiently clear. (02/1987)

John Richard Beaufort. Name and Device. Counter-ermine, on a pile Or, a barn owl proper.

The name conflicts with that of John Beaufort, first Duke of Somerset and ancestor of Henry VII. Indeed, it was through this gentleman's descent from John of Gaunt that Henry ultimately laid claim to the throne. While the bird on the emblazon sheet was largely dark brown, commentors have produced evidence that this is not the normal colouration of the barn owl: it is usually a buff, which would have insufficient contrast with the Or on which it is placed. (09/1989)

John Sterling. Name only.

The name is in direct conflict with that of the nineteenth century essayist and litterateur, John Sterling. This gentleman was the center of the "Sterling Club" a circle which gathered together some of the most notable English writers of the middle of the nineteenth century, among them Tennyson, John Stuart Mill, Palgrave, Carlyle, etc. (07/1988)

John the Fletcher's Son. Name only.

The name does, as the submitter suspected, conflict with that of the famous dramatist John Fletcher. (09/1989)

John the Heretic. Name and Device. Sable, a torch Or, enflamed proper, maintained by a sinister hand fesswise and couped argent.

Laurel, like Habicht, immediately thought of John Hus, even before flipping the pages to look at the device. For those who are not immediately conversant with the history of eastern Europe or of the Church Councils, Hus was Rector of the University of Prague and got into heretical hot water by preaching against simony and the burning of Wycliffe's books. Eventually, he was excommunicated and, when he continued preaching with much popular support, was placed under interdict with the entire city of Prague. In the end, he was called before the Council of Constance under a promise of safekeeping but was nonetheless tried for hearsay and burned alive. He became something of a hero for Czech nationalists and the betrayal of the safe conduct was a controversial in its day as the Dreyfus case at the beginning of this century. The name alone would be dicey (and caused significant twitches in the College), but taken in context with the torch on the submitted device, it is a bit too much. The device conflicts, as several people noted, with the badge of the British 218th Brigade ("Sable, a cresset torch palewise Or, enflamed gules."). It also conflicts with the Boniface of Tennequay ("Sable, a coney rampant argent, maintaining a torch Or."): when Boniface's device was submitted by the East, there was a considerable feeling that it should have been blazoned "in fess a torch and a bunny rabbit"... (12/1989)

John the Lost. Device. Sable, three pallets argent, overall a turk's head proper, impaled on a spearpoint gules.

Unfortunately, although the background was blazoned as "paly" what was drawn was in fact a coloured field with three metallic pallets. In fact the spear overlies the center pallet in such a way that it appears to be gules on sable. The turk's head in this context is the distinctly Mongol sort of Turk that appears so commonly in Hungarian heraldry with a sable topknot (which itself lies in large part on the sable field so is hard top identify): see von Volborth (p. 122) for some examples. (05/1988)

John the Pell. Device. Argent, a pell proper.

As a pell has no fixed form or material, it is difficult to see how it could be "proper". (We have seen modern and period exemplars made from various kinds of woods, with and without metal sheathing, from cloth and from metals, even --- in the case of modern pells --- plastics.) What is depicted on the emblazon sheet is "Argent, a brown billet." which caused some unfortunate comments from the Laurel staff since this is one of the common blazons for "cow pats" in the heraldic version of the children's game for long automobile trips. If this were defined to be a "log palewise proper" and so depicted, it would be in conflict with Holdsworth ("Argent, the stem of a tree couped and eradicated in bend proper.") and Here ("Argent, the trunk of an oak tree, sprouting afresh, sable."). (06/1989)

John Theophilus. Device. Azure, a cross formy throughout and on a chief argent three hearts gules.

Unfortunately, there is a technical conflict with Eric Lyon of St. Michael's ("Azure, a celtic cross and on a chief argent a lion statant azure."). (10/1986)

John Theophilus. Device. Azure, a cross formy throughout and on a chief argent three hearts gules.

This was returned in October, 1986, for technical conflict with Eric Lyon of St. Michael's ("Azure, a Celtic cross and on a chief argent a lion statant azure. "). Vesper has appealed on the grounds that the three minor points of difference in the tertiaries should equal a major point of difference and therefore the conflict does not exist. The allocation of a full point of difference for three changes to tertiaries is not automatic by any means and, as we have discussed before, should be considered in the context of the visual prominence of the tertiaries, which usually is directly related to the degree to which they are central to the design of the device or, phrased in another way, how early in the recognition process they will be registered by an individual comparing the two devices. Someone looking at this device will first register that both devices have a white cross on blue field, then note that this is an unusual cross and spend processing time registering that the splayed arms indicate that the particular subvariant of "unusual cross" here is a cross patty throughout, then note that both devices have a white chief, that both chiefs are charged and only then compare the items on the chief. If the tertiaries had been placed on the cross with no secondary charge, then they would be highly likely to count as a major point. Placed as they are on a "peripheral" charge (remember that there is a psychological basis for the chief appearing last in most blazons), they are diminished in importance. Note that this consideration addresses the reality of perception. We preferred not to address the issue in term of the principle of demotion, as stated in DR4, since that is so controversial (interpreted strictly, that would require that the difference between hearts and lions, as the second change of type of charge, be "demoted" from minor to negligible. (03/1987)

Jonathan DeLaufyson Macebearer. Augmented arms. Azure, a saltire sable, rayonny argent, overall a mace inverted argent, the whole surmounted by on an inescutcheon Or a mullet of five greater and five lesser points between in pale a crown of three points sable and a demi-sun issuant from base gules.

By tradition in the Society, the Kingdom's arms are the arms of the king and should be worn only by the king himself and his herald, when speaking as the king's voice. After some consideration, we have come to the conclusion that it is inappropriate that the arms of a Kingdom should be used as an augmentation, even if the recipient is entitled to bear a coronet on his or her arms. The badge of a Kingdom or a rendition of the arms without the laurel wreath can, however, be used. Since the laurel wreath is absent, this does not actually use the Kingdom arms, but caused some twitches. However, the use of the inescutcheon here for the augmentation would seem to be prohibited by the ban on appearance of pretense in AR10d: note that such usual insignia of augmentation as chiefs, cantons, bases are not included here. Note as well that moving the augmentation to a canton or to a chief placed above the existing arms would increase the identifiability of the original arms and decrease the complexity of the whole. (08/1988)

Jonathan DeLaufyson Macebearer. Augmented arms. Azure, a saltire sable, rayonny argent, overall a mace inverted argent, the whole surmounted by on an inescutcheon Or a mullet of five greater and five lesser points between in pale a crown of three points sable and a demi-sun issuant from base gules.

The original submission of the augmented arms was returned in August, 1988, because "the use of the inescutcheon here for the augmentation would seem to be prohibited by the ban on appearance of pretense in AR10d". At the same time it was suggested that the augmentation be moved to a chief or a canton to reduce the complexity of the design and increase the identifiability of the already complex arms. The submittor and Star have appealed this decision, citing the augmentation granted to Aelflaed of Duckford and the mundane augmentation of Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, as precedents for the use of an inescutcheon for augmentation. There was a considerable degree disagreement of support in the College whether these precedents should override the ban in the rules on devices (and these must be considered to include augmented devices) which give the appearance of including arms of pretense. Some, like Crescent, feel strongly that this is a useful and legitimate method of displaying an augmentation and that these precedents should be binding. Others, like Habicht, feel that the appearance of the inescutcheon is one of pretense not augmentation and note that this sort of inescutcheon is specifically banned by the rules. While there may be historical precedents from the mundane world for the use of the inescutcheon in this manner, we must recall that the Society does not always follow mundane precedent where this would be confusing or produce generally poor style (the ban on colour-on-colour bordures and chiefs is a major example of this tendency). Therefore, the historical precedents are not in themselves overriding (the citation of the augmentation to Aelflaed of Duckford was undated: in fact, it is now goes back quite a few years). Pending a demonstration of the positive advantages to be gained from changing the rules to allow such an inescutcheon of augmentation at the honour point, we cannot see changing the current clearly expressed policy. Indeed, the issues of complexity and poor style, which were not perhaps adequately stressed at the time of the original return, are compelling reasons not to allow the practise in this case. At the time of the discussion of the augmented arms for Taliesynne Nychymrh yr Anghygannedd at the last Heraldic Symposium, there was a clear consensus in the College that augmentations were required to follow the other rules of the College (e.g., contrast, complexity, use of reserved charges, etc.). We do not feel that this consensus has changed radically in the interim and there is no doubt that the addition of this augmentation raises the complexity level of an already complex device several degrees. The radical arms already involve a low contrast saltire separated from the field by a row of "teeth" of a different tincture with an inverted charge overall (making three or four layers, depending on how you count the saltire). Adding the inescutcheon adds a further two layers as well as three tinctures and four types of charge, all depicted at extremely small scale. What is more, the identifiability of the underlying charge overall (well, it is confusing. . .) depends on the precise positioning of the inescutcheon somewhat above the honour point where it would normally reside. This is just too much complexity. (05/1989)

Jonathan Hogue. Name and device. Per fess gules and argent, in chief a fox courant and a fox courant to sinister Or and in base a goblet sable, charged with a Maltese cross gules, fimbriated argent.

The name conflicts with the leading character in Heinlein's The Unpleasant Occupation of Jonathan Hoag. The fimbriation of the cross on the goblet is excessive. Note that the countercourant foxes on the upper portion of the field only exaggerate the impression that there is an argent field with a chief gules. (08/1988)

Jonathan of Fenrock. Device. Vert, on a plate, a fish naiant embowed vert, a chief embattled argent.

Conflict with Anne of the Golden Mantle ("Vert, on a plate a swan naiant, couped on the fess line, sable."). (11/1988)

Jonathan Silverthorn. Name for House Windsong.

After much deliberation, we decided that we could not ignore the identity of the proposed household name with the trademarked name of the perfume (Irreverent note: "Their windsong hangs on our mind. . ."). (09/1988)

Jörg Kratz. Badge. Argent, a bend counter-compony azure and gules between two dragons passant counter-passant vert, bellied Or.

Unfortunately, by the strict reading of AR2, charges may not be counter-compony of two colours, just as fields may not be chequy of two colours. (10/1988)

Joscelyn Sinclair. Device. Or, a sword palewise argent, hilted sable, surmounted by in saltire two irises purpure, slipped and leaved vert, overall a heart gules.

While the letter of intent and the forms blazoned the sword as sable, it was emblazoned as argent, hilted sable, and lacking solid evidence to the contrary, we normally assume that the emblazon conveys the intent of the submittor. That being so, the device breaks the "Rule of Tincture". Even were that not the case, both visually and by the blazon, there are four layers on this device. (11/1986)

Josef Jäger. Name and device. Or, a fleshing knife, blade to base, between three mullets of six points pierced sable.

The name conflicts not only with the friend of Luther cited on the letter of intent but also with the registered Society name of Joseph the Hunter of which it is a direct translation. Several commentors asked if there is any documentation for this knife as a period type of instrument and whether there is a fixed shape for a "fleshing knife". (05/1988)

Joseph the Wanderer. Name.

Unfortunately, the given name attached to the "Wandering Jew" by Matthew Paris and other medieval writers is Joseph. This account, extremely detailed and circumstantial, is well summarized in the Oxford Companion to English Literature at p. 870. His device, badge and household name have 'Seen registered under the holding name of Joseph of the Angels. (12/1986)

Judith of Acre. Device. Per bend Or and azure, in bend sinister a dragon rampant to sinister and a lion rampant counterchanged.

As drawn the lion is distinctly rampant, not passant as blazoned on the letter of intent. Therefore this is too close to Vennor ("Per bend Or and azure, to lions rampant counterchanged.", cited in Papworth, p. 149). (08/1989)

Julia de la Montoya. Name and device. Azure, a bend sinister between three mullets of four points, two and one, and a tower, all Or.

By the submitter's own documentation from Woods and Alvarez-Altman, Spanish Surnames in the Southwestern United States (p. 94), "Montoya" is a surname referring to one who came from Montoya in Spain. The article is inappropriate before the place name, but the submitter allows no changes to her device. Under the old rules, this device conflicts with a number of Society devices dues to the "secondary limit", including Blari Dubois ("Azure, a bend sinister between a cat sejant guardant and a dove close Or."), Barbara Caballeus ("Azure, a bend sinister Or between in chief an open book argent, leathered Or, and in base a horse trippant Or". Under the new rules both these conflicts are clear. However, under both the old and new rules there remains a conflicts with the arms of Fetzer notes by Silver Trumpet ("Azure, a bend sinister Or.", as cited in Woodward, p. 134): there is only the addition of the secondaries which produces a major point or a single clear visual difference, depending on the set of rules you are using. This is not sufficient. (12/1989)

Julia Gilyneta Ahearn. Badge for House of Greywood. Argent, two bows palewise, their strings drawn as if with an arrow and interlaced, sable within a bordure azure.

After long discussion, we decided that the unusual posture of the bowstrings was intrinsic to the basic design, but probably would not be reconstructable by the average heraldic artist, even with the emended blazon. There was some feeling that this resembled an attempt at a monogram, although the submittor's name contains no double "d"'s. (06/1988)

Julia Gilyneta Ahearn. Name for House Greywood.

As Star noted, the household name conflicts with the previously registered name of the Shire of Graywood. We apologize to the submittor for not catching this earlier. (12/1988)

Juliana of Eashing. Device. Per fess embattled azure and argent, a rose Or and a leaf vert.

We were reluctantly compelled to agree with Brachet that there is a visual conflict with Adriana Holloway ("Per fess embattled azure and argent, in pale a sun Or and two maple leaves, stems crossed in saltire, vert and gules."). Had the rose been barbed and seeded of a contrasting tincture the possibility of visual confusion with a sun Or would have been significantly lessened. (10/1987)

Juliana Richenda Trevain. Device. Vert, ermined and chappé ployé, a seahorse argent.

Conflict with Rowan of Windtree Tower ("Per saltire sable and vert, a seahorse erect argent."): while the field division is very different visually, there is only a single change for field. (This is made clear if one reblazons this as "per chevron ployé throughout argent and vert, ermined argent. . ."). (04/1990)

Juliana Richenda Trevegne. Name only.

The given names are fine, but the surname is not formed on standard Cornish patterns since, by the submittor's own documentation, it combines the "tre" with a variant of an infinitive form. Cornish place names of this sort were invariably formed of two nouns or of the "tre" plus an adjective. There were a number of possible alternatives that sound almost alike, but her documentation gave no clue which she would prefer, so we felt it best to leave it to her. "Trevon" (="towns") dates from at least 1284; "Trevanion" (="Annian's place") goes back to Domesday Book; "Trevean" (="small place") is documented in 1291; "Trevennan" means "women's place"; "Treventon" refers to a "homestead by a spring", etc. (all from Dexter's Cornish Names). (05/1988)

Julitta of Rosehaven. Device. Per bend sinister azure and vert, a dagger inverted argent entwined by three natural roses gules, slipped and leaved, vert, between in chief a compass star and a decrescent argent.

This is not period style and has some serious problems with contrast as the portions of the roses and their leafing and vining fall into the field. (In fact, the leaves vert are invisible on the vert portion of the field and almost invisible on the azure portion of the field.) It is also very close visually to Barbara Fitzhugh de Brandhard ("Azure, a sword inverted proper entwined widdershins of a poppy proper".) On points it might be clear: a major for adding the secondaries, a minor for the partial change of the field, a weak minor for the change in tincture of the hilt of the sword and a minor for the difference in number and type of flower. The latter changes are much diminished because of the lack of contrast and the common tinctures in use. Visually the two are strikingly similar. (01/1987)

Junella ferch Balin. Name and device. Vert, a wolf statant erect, grasping in its dexter forepaw a rose slipped and leaved and on a chief argent, a ferret passant to sinister gardant proper.

Unfortunately, the form Junella is definitely a diminutive form and made-up names must obey the prohibition on diminutives. The analogy with Petronella is a good one, but does not help since the use of Petronella in period was based on a misapprehension on the part of medieval clerics: when a tomb was discovered in the catacombs of Rome labelled "Filiae dulcissimae Aureliae Petronillae", it was assumed mistakenly that this was the tomb of a daughter of St. Peter called Petronilla and the cult rapidly spread. Note that the form Balin used, by the lady's own documentation, is from the French romances, the Welsh original is probably Beli or Belinus, the Welsh sun god who appears as a companion of Arthur in some poems. Since the ferret, as Aten notes, can exist in several colorations, it cannot be proper. Since the beast on the emblazon is a distinctly red-brown, we would suggest that the beast be made gules. (01/1987)

Jurdi Throndsson. Device. Quarterly Or and sable, a Norse serpent, nowed and sinister facing, vert, orbed sable.

The primary charge could not be accurately reconstructed from the blazon by a competent heraldic artist: there are literally dozens of Norse serpents possible in the various documented styles. Even if there were a standard depiction, however, the contrast between the sable portions of the field on which the key portions of the head and body lie and the vert of the beastie that it would still be unrecognizable. (02/1987)

Jusric Allison. Name only.

Despite Star's valiant attempts, we could not find any examples where a Latin initial element such as this coalesced with the Germanic "-ric" in this manner. Moreover, the submittor seems to have misinterpreted the statements in Yonge (p. 192) to believe that the noun "ius" was the actual source for names such as "Justin" when in fact the names were derived from the perfect passive participle of the verb derived from "ius" so that the compound form, if it was permissible, would have been "Justric". Perhaps Star could interest the submittor in a similar documented name such as "Gaiseric" (name of a fifth century leader of the Vandals and Alans). (02/1989)

Justin du Bois Noir. Device. Argent, a tree blasted and eradicated sable, its trunk charged with a double-bitted axe argent, a base of flames proper.

Note that it must be specified that the tertiary charge appears on the trunk of the tree since the default position for charges on trees is on their widest part (i. e. , on the foliage or, for blasted trees, where the foliage would be). What appeared on the emblazon sheet were not flames proper. It was a base of flames Or, with the line of delineation from the field gules (it was not thick enough to call it fimbriation). This is an improper use of proper. What is registered is the emblazon and, from that, it is the intent of the submittor to have flames totally of a light tincture. Note that this is technically clear, but visually very close to Frederick William of Wastekeep ("Argent, a tree blasted and eradicated sable charged with a lion's head cabossed Or, within a bordure sable. "). If the base here had been, for instance, gules, there would be a major and a minor point for the difference in type and tincture of secondary charge and another minor for the change in the tertiary. (03/1987)

Justinian the Sluggard. Device. Chequy of nine panes gules and argent, a slug passant guardant sable.

Under both the old rules and the new, thre is a problem with contrast here. As the letter of intent itself says, this could be blazoned, as "Gules, a cross quarter­pierced argent. . ." Even as blazoned, there is a problem since chequy of nine panes is, by definition, not evenly divided as to tincture: one tincture must be dominant and in this case it is gules. This being the case, this must be treated as if it were a gules dominant field, not an evenly divided (and hence neutral) field. If the slug is considered to be clearly overall, which is dubious since only one "antenna" extends off the area of the cross, there is a contrast problem. If it is considered to be on the cross, then there is a conflict with William the Wanderer ("Gules, on a cross quarter­pierced argent, a goblet Or.") cited by Dolphin. (04/1990)

Kaatje van der Hagen. Name only.

Unfortunately, "Kaatje" is a diminutive form which is not permitted under the current rules. As the lady allowed no changes to the name, this problem could not be corrected. (06/1989)

Kaellyn mac Dermott of Leinster. Device. Azure, a shoe within a bordure embattled argent.

Conflict with Alasdair MacAuley ("Azure, a boot argent between four estoiles of four straight and four wavy rays, three and one, Or."). (08/1989)

Kaillian d'Andrade. Device. Counterermine, a lion rampant to sinister within a bordure embattled gules.

Under the new rules, gules on counterermine has insufficient contrast by definition. (05/1990)

Kaitlyn of the Burr Ridge. Device. Or, a wolf's head cabossed sable between two thistle plants vert, flowered purpure, all within a bordure sable.

The thistle plants depicted on the emblazon not only resemble a laurel wreath too much, they are not drawn as normal heraldic thistle plants, which normally have a single flower rising from a stalk which is leaved. This depiction which shows a flower alternating with each leaf on a branch similar to a laurel branch has no precedent in period or Society heraldry. (08/1989)

Kalanina bint Rahman. Name and device. Per bend argent and pean, in sinister chief a butterfly bendwise azure.

The documentation indicated that the given name was compounded from a Hindu adjective "black" and the Spanish noun "niña" meaning "girl". Society usage does not permit such cross- linguistic amalgams (unless there is specific documentation to support the form) and in this case it is particularly unlikely given the naming practises of the two linguistic groups. It should also be noted that intensive research on the part of the commentors could not reveal any instance where the simple adjective/substantive "Rahman" was applied to anyone but Allah himself. Indeed, so closely is the epithet tied to Allah that it can be used in such forms as "Abd al-Rahman" to indicate a "servant of Allah". As she allowed no changes to her name, the submission as a whole had to be returned. (10/1988)

Kalina Crna zvjesda. Name only.

Insufficient documentation was provided to demonstrate that Kalina was a period given name in Serbian or any other language. Documentation in support of the formation and meaning of the byname would also be helpful. (02/1987)

Kamayana Kangoro. Badge. Sable, the kanji "shu" argent.

While abstract symbols may be used in badges, AR10c specifically states that "a badge shall not consist solely of one abstract symbol". And kanji character must be considered an "abstract symbol" in the sense that the Rules intend. (04/1987)

Kamber MacKinnon. Name only.

As noted in the return of Camber of Ambrii in November, 1989, the only period evidence for the use of the Camber appears to be the eponymous ruler of Wales ("Cambria"). All the linguistic evidence points to the name being a backformation from the placename, which itself is a Latinized form from "Cymru", the Welsh name for their own land. Apart from this probably fictional character, the primary exemplar for the name is the Deryni saint of Katharine Kurtz' fiction. (The "Camber Eben" whose name was registered some years ago in the Society, when he was about two years old, had the mundane given name "Camber", presumably Deryni derived.) As far as we can determine, this was regarded in period as a unique name and was not actually used by individuals in the same manner in which "Arthur" or "Gawain" were, for instance. (06/1989)

Kamille Siobhan Moffat of Annadale. Name and device. Gules, on a bend engrailed argent, two lozenges azure, overall a wolf's head cabossed sable.

The submittor's handwritten forms showed the placename as "Annandale" which matches the documentation on the letter of intent; the typed name documentation forms used "Annadale" which appeared on the letter of intent. No documentation has been provided that French alternates "c" and "k" in this manner at the beginning of names such as "Camille" nor that other languages which do use such alternation (e.g., German) had adopted the Latin "Camilla" in this form. As the typed forms indicated that the submittor would allow no changes to the name, we could not register this as "Camille Siobhan Moffat of Annandale" as we would have liked to (Psigh. . .). Note that the letter of intent omitted the tincture of the field colour. However, there is no point in pending this submission for further comment, as suggested by several members of the College since the field is gules and the sable head is colour on colour. (07/1989)

Karl der Gangr. Name only.

Unfortunately, you cannot use a German article with an Old Norse noun. If he wishes the byname to be Norse, as his documentation indicates, he would be "Karl Gangr". If he wishes to have the German form for Karl the Walker (the meaning he indicates the byname should have), he wants "Karl der Fussgänger". As he allows no changes whatsoever to his name, we were compelled to return it in its entirety. (10/1987)

Karl Rasmussen of Tvede. Device. Or, a saltire sable, between three frogs tergiant gules in chief Viking longship.

Conflict with Rodney of El Dorado ("Or, on a saltire sable a unicorn forcene Or, crined, unguled, langued, armed and orbed gules."). (05/1987)

Karl the Purple. Device. Purpure, seven annulets interlaced in annulo and on a chief multiply nowed or, a domestic cat courant to sinister purpure.

There are two problems with this device. First of all, it was the consensus of the College that the line of division used for the chief is too difficult to identify and will inevitably be confused with traditional nebuly or wavy and therefore should not be accepted for use in the Society. Secondly, the annulet of annulets far too strongly resembles an annulet of chain, which is reserved in Society usage to the Chivalry. (09/1986)

Karl the Purple. Device. Purpure, seven annulets in annulo and on a chief enarched embattled Or a domestic cat courant to sinister purpure.

Unfortunately, it was the general consensus that the annulets in annulo still looked far too much like a knight's chain. Perhaps he might consider Crescent's suggestion of a semy of annulets Or. (02/1988)

Karl Tollmache of Cuxhaven. Device. Gules, fretty Or, a pale argent, overall a sea wolf erect sable maintaining a trident argent.

The sable beastie on the essentially gules field is colour on colour. (05/1988)

Karl von Kötzle. Name and device. Sable on a pale gules, fimbriated, two caltraps Or, overall a horse and a dragon rampant addorsed argent.

We could not document the surname from period or modern sources. Green Anchor found a town called Kötzing which might be a possibility for a resubmission. If the "l" sound is important to him, he might consider the period surname "Kessel" for Karl Kessel ("Kessel" means kettle in period as today). The device is too complex. Even if the pale had been a metal and not fimbriated, it would have been a distinct anomaly to have two beasts of different types placed in such a way as to partially surmount it. As it is, the effect is just too busy. (06/1988)

Karla Reichelt Petasch. Name only

Documentation was not provided for "Reichelt" and "Petasch" and noone in the College was able to provide any support for these. (01/1987)

Kasimira Verena d'Arcy. Device. Argent, a bend embattled counterembattled between a lamb couchant and a lion couchant to sinister gules.

Under both rules, this is a conflict with Sabraham ("Argent, a bend embattled counterembattled sable."): there is only one difference in either case for the addition of the secondary charges. (03/1990)

Kate l'Engloise. Name only.

Under the current policy set by Master Baldwin in the case of Wladislaw Poleski, this name is indeed a conflict with that of the Katharines, Queen of England. While both components of the name are acceptable, their conjunction causes a problem. Brigantia's statement that "we do not feel the name is presumptuous" does not really address the issues involved in the current policy sufficiently. (The presence on the device of the red roses which were used for so long as a royal badge did not assist in allaying twitches in the College.) Note that the beast on the device is not a Paschal lamb, as that would require a halo. (Unfortunately, as the emblazon submitted by the lady does not include such a halo, this is not merely a case of mistake on the part of the artist who drew the miniature emblazon and so we cannot merely "assume its presence", as suggested by Brigantia. (07/1989)

Kate the Curious. Badge for House Querulous. Per pale azure and Or, on a lozenge an ermine spot, all counterchanged.

A comparison of the two emblazons indicates that there is indeed a conflict with John of Melnibone, cited on the letter of intent ("Per pale azure and Or, a winged passion nail, wings displayed, counterchanged."). There was considerable doubt as to the appropriateness of the household name. (08/1988)

Katharina Weiss Hessen-Kassel. Name only.

We were compelled to agree with Star and the other commentors who felt that this name was presumptuous given the use of the territorial designation of the Landgraves of Hessen-Kassel. While perhaps not the most powerful of the German princes, they played a significant part in the international political scene right up to the nineteenth century. (As Chevron noted, it was the Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel who was responsible for the "Hessians" of the American Revolutionary period.) (09/1988)

Katharine Attryde. Device. Vert, on a bend sinister Or, three lions heads palewise caboshed sable.

This was accidentally dropped from the printed copy of the January letter of acceptance and return through a buffering problem. Conflict with Cruser the Ranger ("Vert, on a bend sinister Or a star of David between two mullets of six points gules."). (02/1989)

Katharine Meredith Morgan. Name only.

Conflict with the name of Kathryn Morgan, registered in December, 1982. (08/1989)

Katherine Angelique d'Artois de Berry. Device. Azure, three bezants, on that in dexter chief a key fesswise sable, on that in sinister chief a quill bendwise sinister gules, on that in base a triskele azure.

The use of three different tertiaries on each one of three identical charges is not period style: this looks like a collection of badges strewn on a field. Additionally, it conflicts with the Society device of Caolbhach MacOisdealbhaigh ("Azure, three bezants, each charged with a shamrock vert, within a bordure Or.") as well as several mundane arms with "Azure, three bezants."). (12/1986)

Katherine Stonehand. Device. Per fess azure and Or, a lymphad sable, sail argent, charged with a pawn gules and a hand appaumy vert, atop the mast a pennon Or.

"Sails may not normally be charged in the SCA" (Wilhelm von Schlussel, August, 1983). (02/1987)

Katrina de Montfort. Name and device. Barry of six gules and argent, in pale on each trait a goutte, all counterchanged.

The name is a direct conflict with that of Katerina de Montfort, registered in June, 1986. While a strict interpretation of the definitions for charges would imply that the gouttes here should be counted as charges, the small size of each charge diminishes the visual impact of each one. There is no doubt that visually they have only the weight of tertiary charges and, when emblazons of the two are compared, this clearly conflicts with the arms of Berlingham cited in the letter of intent ("Barry of six gules and argent."). (01/1987)

Katrina of Silverbrook. Device. Sable, three scarpes wavy within a bordure argent.

Conflict with Veleda of Isenfir ("Sable, three bendlets sinister wavy argent between two sprays of lilies of the valley Or."). (08/1989)

Katrine Elise Gabrielle du Barneville. Name only.

With the locative the plain preposition "de" should be used, but the submittor allowed no changes whatsoever to her name. (07/1988)

Katryn Runereader. Device. Vert, on a chevron palewise to sinister couped argent, three clover blossoms sable.

The device is unbalanced and the clover blossoms were unidentifiable as drawn. Moreover, the chevron here forms one of the standard runes, as given in Koch's Book of Signs, and runic characters are forbidden for use in devices, although they have been used on a case by case basis in badges. (09/1986)

Katsushika Michinaga. Device. Gules, a pile inverted raguly sable, overall a centipede palewise embowed Or.

This was originally misblazoned as a field "per pale". On the correction letter this was reblazoned as "per pile", a field division that does not exist. In fact, this places a pile inverted sable on the gules field which is "colour on colour". Even were the field drawn as a proper "per chevron" division, there would be a problem since the overlying charge obscures and seriously diminishes the identifiability of the complex line of division in the low contrast field. Note that the problem is only compounded by the lack of identifiability of the centipede when placed in this position. (04/1990)

Katsushika Michinaga. Device. Sable, a demi-tortoise issuant from the base of a great wave and naiant into its curve, all within a hexagon voided argent.

Conflict with Akagawa Yoshio ("Sable, a hexagon voided within another argent."). (04/1989)

Katya Leonovna Belokonev. Change of name from Katerina Katya Leonovna Cherkasska.

Although White Stag's confidence in the speed with which the current ban on diminutives would be withdrawn was laudable, it was (alas!) misplaced. Additionally, although documentation was provided from Unbegaun (Russian Surnames, p. 188­189) for "konev" as an epithetic surname and for "belo" as an initial element in nicknames derived from the characteristics of pigeons (!!!), the two are not shown together. While we would be more than willing to stretch a point on this, the byname would also have to be feminine, like the patronymic to agree with the feminine given name. As the submittor emphatically disallowed changes to the name (a very large "NO"), we felt unable to correct the name to change the bynames. (02/1989)

Katya Leonovna ez Cherkaska. Change of name from Katerina Katya Leonovna Cherkasska (see PENDING for device).

Katya is a diminutive form and we do not normally register diminutive forms for the given name unless there is documentation that it was used independently in period. Also, Cherkaska is an adjective of origin, not a place name as is implied after the preposition. (This was pointed out at the time her name was originally registered in July, 1982,: "The first name must be the formal given name. You can place a nickname after it. Leonovna is the correct form of the patronymic. Cherkasska is the correct translation of 'the Circassian'. I have therefore corrected the name. (03/1987)

Kay the Innocent of Bel Anjou. Device. Purpure, a goblet and on on chief argent, five saltorels throughout conjoined sable.

Conflict with Layla Shirin ("Purpure, in pale an increscent and a goblet argent. "). Although this submission from the Outlands is registered elsewhere in this letter, there is no question that it should be considered to hold chronological priority, particularly since the letter of intent on which it appeared was postponed from the February meeting due to the tardy arrival of the paperwork from White Stag. (03/1987)

Kayley Piers. Name only.

Reaney indicates (p. 62) that the documented family name form "Kayley" is derived from either Cailly in France or from Cayley in Lancashire. We would suggest he either retain his mundane name of "Kelly", use the Irish equivalent "Cellach" (O Corrain and Maguire, Gaelic Personal Names, p. 48) or the similar sounding Irish name "Caolan" (ibid., p. 40). (02/1988)

Kaylitha Rhiannon of Southhaven. Change of device. Azure, an estoile and on a chief Or, three crescents azure.

Conflict with Hogarth ("Azure, an estoile Or, on a chief of the last three spear's heads as the first.", as cited in Papworth): there is only a minor point of difference for the change in type of tertiary charge. (10/1987)

Kazdoya Ruslander. Device. Purpure, a garb and a chief trefly­counter­trefly Or.

Conflict under both rules with the badge registered to Dagmaer or Nautaloek elsewhere on this letter (under Atlantia): "Purpure, a garb within a bordure Or." There is only one difference under either system: type of secondary charge. (04/1990)

Kazimir Petrovich Pomeshanov. Device. Sable, on a bend between two suns eclipsed argent, three crescents sable.

Conflict with Ewen the Mad Wanderer ("Sable, a bend sinister between a Celtic cross and a unicorn's head reversed, all argent.") and Peregrine Ignatius Dominic Augustine Doran ("Sable, a bend sinister between a Latin cross and a Greek Orthodox cross, all argent."). Technically the conflict with Meryk Haraldsen ("Sable, on a bend sinister cotised argent, three rams' heads erased palewise to sinister sable.") cited by Crescent is removed under the current rules by the partial change in tincture of the secondary charges. (02/1989)

Keara Calder. Device. Vert, on a chevron between two harps and a lymphad argent, three hawk's bells vert.

Conflict with Caradoc Llew Du ap Morgan ("Vert, on a chevron between three Maltese crosses argent, two lions passant respectant maintaining between them a Maltese cross sable."). (08/1989)

Kedric Messerschmidt. Device. Gules, three piles conjoined in pall argent, each charged with a mullet sable.

As Brachet pointed out, this is in conflict with Stefan of Naught ("Gules, three piles issuant from sinister throughout in point argent, each charged to sinister with a mullet of seven points sable."): no matter how drastic the change, you can only get a major point of difference for the position change of the primary charges and there is at best a weak minor for the change of type in the tertiary. (04/1988)

Kein MacEwan. Device. Counter-ermine, a griffin segreant to sinister gules.

Conflict with Garth ap Ronin ("Quarterly argent and sable, a griffin segreant to sinister gules.") and Daedra McBeth a Gryphon ("Sable, a griffin segreant to sinister gules, fimbriated and maintaining an Irish harp Or."). (08/1987)

Kelda the Incoherent. Name only.

By the submittor's own documentation, "kelda" is an Old Norse byname, meaning "well" or "pool". No evidence has been provided for its use as a given name in Old Norse or any other language nor for any pattern of regular use of such bynames as given names in Old Norse (in point of fact, all our evidence indicates they were not so used). (11/1989)

Kellen Oddsdottir. Name and device. Argent, a sealion vert within an orle of gouttes de sang, on a chief azure, three roses argent.

Note that the gouttes are not in orle since there are none above the lion. While Brigantia stated "this is correct style" for an orle of charges with a chief, no evidence was presented for this practise and it is contrary to traditional Society practise. In any case, this submission with four types of charges and four tinctures is already perilously complex. This anomaly simply adds to the visual complexity of the design. (04/1990)

Kelson MacLaine. Name only.

There are multiple problems with this name. The most striking is that it is a documented surname and is not a documented given name save in Katherine Kurtz' Deryni books. That alone would require its return. (For a discussion of the issues, see the submission of Trevyn Avery below.) In this case, however, the allusions to prominent characters of the series may also be excessive in and of themselves. To quote Ibis, "Kelson does come from the Camber series. So does MacLaine -- it is the surname of Duncan, the priest who was King Kelson's mentor and advisor." The conjunction of the two names created twitches throughout the College (literally from coast to coast!). (04/1989)

Kelvin Alastair MacGowan. Device. Vert, in pale a compass star gyronny of sixteen argent and sable and a one­horned anvil argent.

From its very first return from Laurel, this has conflicted with Anaron Caithness of Wik (formerly Anaron of the Vale of Springs) and this resubmission has done nothing to address that conflict. The "hardship case" situation cannot overcome a conflict which existed at the time the submission was first made. Anaron has made a slight change to his device since the original submission was made (it is now "Vert, in pale a hippogriff rampant and a two­horned anvil argent."), but the conflict still remains. (11/1986)

Kendrah Elwinstar. Name and device. Argent, chaussee purpure, in pale a swan naiant to sinister sable and a thistle, slipped and leaved, proper.

While "Kendra" has previously been considered "Society- compatible" and might be accepted here, the byname causes problems. The only meaning we could derive was something like "Elwin's star", which either requires and out-of-period idiomatic usage of "star" or is a claim to distinctly non-human status or origin. The device conflicts with Julian of the Purple Mist ("Purpure, on a pile argent, two sprigs of laurel proper."). (07/1989)

Kendrick del Grenewode. Name only (see PENDING for device).

The letter of intent did not note it, but this precise spelling of the surname is dated in the cited passage from Reaney to 1275. (05/1990)

Kendrick MacDonald the Stout Heart. Device. Azure, on a sun Or, within the pieces of two swords in saltire fracted proper, a heart gules, all within a bordure argent, crusilly fitchy azure.

Between their reduction in size, their fracting and the peculiar arrangement, the swords on this device were virtually unidentifiable. Even if this were not the case, there is the problem of the name: although it was listed on the letter of intent as already registered, we could find no file for it. It is possible that it has been misfiled, but without further information on the date of passage, etc., it will be difficult for us to locate it. (Note that the fact that the submittor noted that the name had been registered on his forms is not evidence: many "old timers" perpetuate the myth that a name is registered if it appears on the membership card you get from "the Registry". (01/1990)

Kenelm Reimund of the Plains. Device. Argent, a wolf rampant sable, in chief two dolphins naiant vert, spined and finned gules, and a bar engrailed on the upper edge azure.

What is shown on the emblazon sheet provided the Laurel Office is essentially "Argent, a wolf. . ., on a chief invected argent, fimbriated strait azure, two dolphins. . ." For a long time, we have banned fimbriated chiefs (particularly where the chief is the same tincture as the field!) and the reblazon of this visual effect to consider it a "bar enhanced", etc., does not ameliorate the visual effect. Were a fess engrailed of usual size placed at fess point with the wolf reduced in size and the fish enlarged and lowered, this effect would be ameliorated. (07/1989)

Kenneth Lyon of the Curr. Device. Azure, on a pile inverted throughout between two lions rampant argent, a lion rampant azure.

Conflict with Rowena d'Anjou ("Azure, on a pile inverted throughout between two fleurs-de-lys argent a swan naiant affronty, wings inverted and addorsed, head to sinister, sable."), Ripley ("Per chevron argent and azure, three lions rampant counterchanged.", as cited in Papworth, p. 168), etc. (12/1988)

Kenneth Meriedoc Olafsson. Device. Azure, a chess rook between three trees couped argent.

Again, while the letter of intent and one of the two blazons on the forms includes a bordure, the emblazon does not. We therefore have to assume this is what the submittor desired. It is unfortunately in conflict with the badge of Michael von Bogaart, cited in the letter of intent ("Azure, three trees couped argent."). (11/1986)

Kentiggerma the Rebellious. Badge. Purpure, a sword bendwise argent, the blade enflamed Or.

The blade is not really enflamed: the surrounding metal is more properly engrailed fimbriation. In any case, the "flaming" Or surrounding the argent blade has insufficient contrast to the point where the blade is nearly invisible so that the weapon looks rather like an eccentric cinquedia Or, hilted argent. Were the flames proper (i.e., gules against the blade, Or against the field) the contrast would be immeasurably improved. (02/1987)

Kenyon of Tellias. Device. Sable, on a pale counter-ermine, fimbriated argent, a horned human skull affronty gules.

Note that his name was previously returned (July, 1987). There was a general consensus in the College that the count of anomalies here was excessive: thin line heraldry in the fimbriation, a primary charge which is low contrast and would be illegal were it not for the fimbriation, an extremely unusual tertiary charge and that in a low contrast tincture which makes it harder to identify. Additionally, the device technically conflicts with Pwyll pen Tyrhon, cited on the letter of intent ("Sable, on a pale argent a decrescent gules."). (10/1987)

Kenyon of Tellias. Name only.

As Brachet, Chevron and others have pointed out NR12 requires that the name which seeks an exemption by virtue of its being the mundane name must be used as portion of the name "corresponding" to the mundane name element, i.e. first name to first name, last name to last name, etc. As Kenyon is a place name, it would be necessary for this to be his given name. It is not. Moreover, Tellias was a classical Greek personal name and therefore should not be used, as here, as a place name. (07/1987)

Keradawc an Cai . Badge. Three crescents conjoined in pall inverted, horns outward argent.

Conflict with Bannes, Marquis de Puygiron ("Azure, three crescents, one and two, argent, the first one upright and the other two addorsed.") (09/1986)

Kerensa of the Winds. Name only.

The explanation offered by the submittor for the given name on the basis of Provencal orthography is not compelling, particularly since "kerensa" is the Cornish common noun meaning "affection" or "love". This being so, our rules demand some evidence for its use as a given name in period. (08/1987)

Ketra Nichtgale Bran atte Mos. Household name and badge for House Erin Sea Wolf. Per bend sinister azure and argent, a sea wolf erect counterchanged.

The name conflicts with the title of the Sea Wolf Herald. The device conflicts with Dusan Jakovic Vovkaj ("Per bend sinister azure and argent, a fish-tailed demi-wolf erect argent, tailed vert, spined gules, maintaining between its paws a broken lance bendwise sinister inverted argent."). (07/1987)

Keturah d'Oragefleur. Name and device. Vert, on a lozenge throughout sable, fimbriated, within the horns of a decrescent a unicorn lodged, all argent, and in base a goutte de sang, fimbriated argent.

There was a general sense in the College that this was definitely too complex. In particular, the excessive use of fimbriation was cited as a non-period feature of the device: the lozenge throughout is equivalent to "vetu" and that should never be fimbriated. (04/1988)

Kezia von Holzenhaus. Device. Per saltire azure and counter-ermine, in pale two fir trees couped argent.

Conflict with Susan of Winterwood ("Counter-ermine, a pine tree couped argent."): there is a major for the number of the trees and a minor for the low contrast field, but the change in position is derivative and cannot be held to carry this clear. (02/1989)

Khaalid al Jaraad. Change of name from Ambrose of Barduin.

Unfortunately, no meaning was given for the byname and without some idea of the meaning, it is impossible for the members of the College to decide if the name would be in conflict with any of the important historical Khalids. (12/1987)

Khalil el Hadji. Device. Or, an Egyptian sphinx couchant gules.

Conflict with Micheal Sacristain's badge for Clan Couchant ("Or, a lion couchant coward gules."). Save for its head, an Egyptian sphinx is a lion. (02/1987)

Khulan Terlea. Device. Argent, a wolf statant, head raised, sable and in chief a sword fesswise gules.

Conflict with Walsalle, cited on the letter of intent ("Argent, a wolf statant sable."). The difference derived from raising the head is negligible. (12/1987)

Kikuchi Tsurunaga. Name only.

Monsho indicates that the given name is not properly formed since the given names beginning in "tsuru" (crane) never seem to end in an element like "naga". At least one member of the College also thought the assonance with the Shogun "Toranaga" of was uncomfortably close to western ears. (12/1987)

Kimberly of the Darkwater and Regina Masquer. Badge for the Oleander. A majuscule O sable, entwined to dexter base by an oleander blossom gules, slipped and leaved vert, issuant a goutte de sang.

This submission has caused a great deal of "angst" in the College due to the unfortunate controversy over who "owns" the rights to the name and insignia of this "souvenance", as White Stag dubbed it. After the appearance of White Stag's February letter of intent, Aten more or less demanded that the registration of this submission be "disallowed" on the grounds that the submission belonged to the Kingdom of Atenveldt, although it had never been registered and was only submitted some two months after the date of White Stag's letter. Unregistered use of names or insignia, no matter how widespread, does not create a property right in that insignia as several Kingdoms, Principalities and individuals have learned to their cost. NR24b alluded to by Aten in his correspondence was specifically inserted in the rules to cover cases where the names of individuals of great fame in the Society were unprotected because those individuals, in most cases active before the College coherently registered armoury or when heraldry in their Kingdoms or the Society at large was in great disarray, were deceased or inactive. Indeed, the question that triggered this ruling was whether certain royal names from among the earliest reigns in the East prior to 1973 which "belonged" to individuals who were deceased or inactive could be protected so as not to cause offense to the populace. As Aten himself notes, the situations are not analogous. This name and insignia could have been submitted and was not. Whether this omission was intentional or due to carelessness is irrelevant. The submittors here have an absolute right to submit the badge and household name and, if it is acceptable, to have it registered to them personally. This having been said, as several commentors noted, the badge unfortunately conflicts with the mundane arms of Pym ("Argent, an annulet sable."). Since the badge cannot be registered to the ladies, neither can the name. (05/1989)

Kiriana Michaelson. Device. Sable, platy, a standing balance argent.

Unfortunately, those who called conflict with Sheldon the Just ("Sable, a set of standing balances and in base an Arabian lamp argent.") and with Knute Hvitabjorn ("Sable, platy, a polar bear's head erased to sinister argent.") under the old rules are correct. The secondary limit limits the changes to Sheldon's device to a major and a minor and complete difference of charge cannot be called with Knute's device since the semy is technically a set of charges, not a field treatment. Under the new rules, the changes to the secondaries count full weight so there is no conflict with Sheldon's device, but the technical conflict with Knute still remains. (01/1990)

Kjarvala Thorvaldsdottir. Device. Per fess indented azure and sable, two ravens passant close respectant and a wolf sejant ululant argent.

Azure and sable have too poor a contrast to qualify for the use of complex lines of division under AR2c. (11/1986)

Klara Landrada Buckholz von Koln. Device. Or, a bend sinister between four mascules azure.

Conflict with Saabrina de la Bere ("Or, a bend sinister azure between a half-bloomed garden rose gules, slipped and singly thorned proper , and a leopard couchant sable. (04/1987)

Klaus Meyer. Name and device. Per bend sinister Or and purpure, a red squirrel rampant to sinister proper and a rabbit rampant argent.

The given name is a diminutive form of Nicholas. If this cannot be documented as being in use in period as an independent name, he must register a fuller version of the name. Since he indicated that no changes could be made to the name, the submission as a whole must be returned. (02/1987)

Knikolos Major of Salem-by-the-Sea. Badge. On a sun quarterly sable and gules, a plate.

Conflict with Glynn Llan-y-Rhyllwyn ("Potenty gules and argent, a sun sable eclipsed argent charged with a mullet throughout sable."): no difference can be derived from the field and the eclipsing is essentially identical to the plate so the visual echo is great. Since the sun is not an ordinary, this is also in conflict with Boncueur ("Ermine, on a sun gules, a heart Or."): only a minor point can be derived from the changes to the tertiaries in addition to the minor for the partial change in the tincture of the sun. (12/1988)

Koell of the Broken Tower. Device. Or, on a tower within a bordure rayonny sable, a sword argent.

The question of conflict raised on the letter of intent was with Harold Breakstone ("Or, a castle triple-towered sable, pennants flotant to sinister vert."). Crescent specifically asked for a "point count ruling" under our current system for the difference between a "castle" and a "tower". Crescent is quite correct in stating that mediaeval practise would have considered the difference negligible. Brault (Early Blazon, p. 141) notes "Contrary to modern heraldic practice, which distinguishes between castles, towers and turrets, the first two having at least two towers, early blazon used all three terms interchangeably." A perusal of period rolls supports this conclusion: arms blazoned as a tower might be depicted with multiple towers while a "chastel" or "castrum" might appear with only one tower. It should be noted that Brault's comment on modern usage should be applied to terminology, not perception of difference, since even modern armorial researchers tend to subsume the one category under the other (for example, Papworth includes "tower" under "castle"): the case seems to be similar to that of the lozenge and fusil or, perhaps more aptly, that of mascle and rustre. In Society tradition, the situation is by no means so clear and practice has apparently varied widely from time to time, depending in part, one suspects, on the skill of the submittor's heraldic artist. Based both on period practise and modern perception, it is clear that the difference between a single-towered tower and a multi-towered castle should be at most a minor point of difference as we currently count difference. In circumstances where the building is a large central primary charge, this may be a strong minor. In circumstances where there are multiple charges whose size and impact is therefore diminished and/or the charges are removed to the periphery of the device, the difference may be reduced to a weak minor or a negligible point. In this case, we were inclined to see the maximum strength in the minor for type taken against Breakstone's device: with the major point for the bordure and the minor for the tertiary, this would squeak clear under the current rules. However, it is rather closer to Alina Brianna of Rainbow Keep ("Or, a tower with spire and pennon sable, surmounted by a natural rainbow proper."). In the latter case, the addition of the rainbow, which would normally comprise a major point of difference, is severely weakened by its placement and lack of contrast: the argent clouds are carefully placed to begin exactly at the point the tower impinges on the field and so are entirely argent upon Or (i.e., not there), whilst the bands of colour lie entirely on the sable tower and fade into it. In this situation it is almost impossible to grant two full points of difference for the addition of the bordure and the change from the rainbow overlying the black tower to the sword entirely on it. (05/1988)

Konrad Lothar. Device. Sable, a chevron between a wolf couchant guardant and four wolf's pawprints in cross, all Or.

Conflict with Oliver de Leon de Oro ("Sable, a chevronel between a demi-sun and a lion rampant Or.") and Bainer ("Sable, a chevron Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 377). (07/1988)

Konrad of Bohemia. Name and device. Per chevron pean and sable, a chevron between a wolf dormant, tail pendant, and four paw prints in cross, all Or.

Since his name conflicts directly with Konrad I of Bohemia (d. 1092) and he has expressly forbidden any changes to his name, the submission as a whole must be returned. (03/1987)

Konrad Tregetor der Taschenspieler. Device. Vert, an English sheepdog passant to sinister argent, marked sable, on a chief argent, three triple-bladed windmills azure.

This variety of dog appears to have developed after our period and therefore are not permissible under AR7b (see Ammalynne Starchild Haraldsdottir "May I Use a Collie in My Arms?" in the Proceedings of the Meridian Heraldic Symposium, specifically p. 54). (05/1988)

Konrad von Greifswald. Device. Pily bendy gules and Or, an escarbuncle sable.

Conflict with Apifer ("Or, an escarbuncle sable."), Bothor ("Argent, an escarbuncle sable."), Mandeville, Earl of Essex ("Quarterly Or and gules, overall an escarbuncle sable."), all cited in Papworth, p. 684. (Note that the depiction of the emblazon on the emblazon sheet is non-standard, being unpierced and with relatively defloreated terminations on the arms.). (09/1987)

Konrad von Greifswald. Device. Pily bendy gules and argent, an escarbuncle sable.

White Stag errs in referring to the field as involving a field treatment: from the examples cited, there is only a major point of difference for the field. This is clear from #3 in DT1 (where Field 1 is Plain Tincture X and Field 2 is Party Y and Z). Thus, the submission still conflicts with Mandeville ("Quarterly Or and gules, an escarbuncle sable."), Apifer ("Or, an escarbuncle sable.") and Bothor ("Argent, an escarbuncle sable."), all cited on the letter of intent. (04/1988)

Kormak Ivanson. Device. Argent, a dragon rampant gules, maintaining a poleaxe sable.

Conflict with Minamoto Akataro, cited on the letter of intent ("Argent, a dragon rampant vert, holding in the dexter forepaw a Latin cross trefly Or."). It also conflicts with Leif Thorvaldsson, cited by Crux Australis ("Argent, a bend sinister sable, surmounted by a dragon salient gules, maintaining a double-bitted axe sable."). (04/1988)

Korrum du Mere. Name and device. Argent, an eagle displayed gules, a chief chequy azure and Or.

Lymphad was quite correct in returning the submitter's name: no documentation has been submitted to support his allegation that it is a legitimate Turkish-style name form constructed by "Expanding" a noun meaning "bird". Moreover, the existence of a period Turkish city named Corrum and the Michael Moorcock hero require some documentation of this name as actually used in period. Additionally, the form of the surname should be "de la Mer" since the word for "sea" is feminine. Note, although the letter of intent blazoned the device with a bordure and it in fact has a chief, the commentors accurately noted that this conflicts with the Margraves of Burgundy ("Argent, an eagle displayed gules."), the Princes of the Tirol ("Argent, an eagle displayed gules, crowned Or."), and others. (09/1989)

Korubushi Hikaru. Name only.

Both Monsho and Dolphin agree that both that "Korubushi" is not a valid variant of "Kurabuchi", as stated on the letter of intent. "Kurabuchi" is formed from the kanji for storehouse and deep pool and apparently is used only as a place name, not a family name. In any case, since Japanese does not randomly modify vowels and consonants without change of meaning, the proposed variant is not valid. Dolphin notes that the name which he desires ("black warrior") is very close to a famous Japanese folk song (Kuroda Bushi) about a drinking contest and might be taken to be a presumptuous allusion to that song. Monsho suggested "Kurabayashi" or "Kurahashi" as documented family names which sound similar. (03/1988)

Korwin Freawine of Maeldun. Device. Azure, a bend argent, cotised Or, between a fleur­de­lys and a compass star argent.

Conflict with the arms of Humphrey de Bohum, Earl of Hereford ("Azure, a bend argent between two cotises Or."). These are famous arms indeed, cited not only in Papworth but also in numerous period rolls of arms. In a number of treatises it is one of the chief examples of arms which were "feudally differenced" by the addition of further charges (usually, but far from uniformly six identical charges Or) around the cotises. (12/1986)

Kosulya Karlovich Kuznetzov. Name only.

The given name is stated to mean "roe deer" and to "work as a nickname" in Russian. While Russian, like English, does derive surnames from animals, it does not seem to produce given names from common nouns or the names of animals. While Karl is used in modern Russia in honour of Karl Marx, it is a German given name which normally would not have been used in period with a Russian patronymic. (05/1988)

Krystyna Czartoryska. Device. Per bend rayonny argent and gules, a wing proper and a decrescent argent.

The wing was blazoned on the letter of intent and forms as proper and is in fact brown so it cannot be reblazoned in any heraldic tincture. If there had been any method of determining what sort of wing this was intended to be, we would have pended this for appropriate commentary and conflict-checking. However, the depiction of the wing is such that, although clearly designed to be naturalistic even to pendant tip feathers, it was exceedingly unclear what type of wing this should be. As the wing is obviously of great importance to the submitter (her forms specifically forbade as the only colour change not permitted any changes to the wing), we felt this had to be returned for clarification/redesign. (12/1989)

Kumari Kamala. Name only.

Kumari is a virgin goddess, an avatar of Durga, the manifestation of Shakti. No evidence has been presented that the name was used in period for ordinary human beings. Certainly today there is a cult which names a young girl as "Kumari": apparently, she must be perfect of form and "retires" when she reaches puberty. However, this child is most definitely regarded as the actual manifestation of the goddess. Kamala also lacked documentation: the nearest thing we could find was a masculine name from Afghanistan, probably of Arabic origin (used by Kipling:"Kamal is out with forty men to raid the countryside and he has stolen the Colonel's mare that is the Colonel's pride. . ." [Pardon us if we got carried away or misquoted: like Horatius at the Bridge, this poem tends to render one a tad overenthusiastic.]). (07/1987)

Kveldulfr av Ulfsgaard. Name and device. Argent, a wolf-headed eagle displayed and sinister facing, gorged of a county coronet Or and grasping in its talons two battleaxes crossed in saltire sable.

As Vesper notes, "Kveld-Ulfr" may well be a unique name like "Skalla-Grimr": the adjective "kveld" was added to the given name "Ulfr" for the grandfather of Egil Skallagrimsson, a famous berserker. He was apparently given the name because he only came alive in the evenings and possibly because he was considered b some to be a werewolf in actuality. (Some superstitious folk considered that the berserkers actually became their totemic animals in the heat of battle and Geirr Bassi lists "Kveld-Ulfr" only in his section on bynames, giving that meaning (p. 24). Conflict with Anne of Bohemia, wife of Richard II of England ("Argent, an eagle displayed sable.") and the royal arms of Prussia ("Argent, an eagle displayed sable, crowned and with klee-stengeln Or, armed gules, holding within its dexter claw the Royal Sceptre and in the sinister the Royal Orb."). (10/1988)

Kwelland­Njal Kolskeggson. Device. Azure, a net argent.

The consensus of the College was that the net and the spiderweb were visually too close to clear this from the badge of the Order of Arachne's Web ("Sable, a spider web argent."). (05/1990)

Kyle Finar of the Salt Bluff. Name only.

Until this century, Kyle exists only as a family name derived from a place name. (02/1987)

Kyle of Kincora. Name only.

Kyle is not a period given name, but rather in period (and modern) Scotland is primarily a anglicized form of the Gaelic geographic term caol, which refers to a strait of water between two land masses (e.g., the Kyle of Lochalsh). (01/1987)

Kyril de Barcelona. Name and device. Argent, two unicorns passant counterpassant sable, armed Or.

Note that the blazon was changed for clarity: the occasional usage of "counterpassant" in Society blazonry as the equivalent of "passant to sinister" demands the longer blazon. Unfortunately, Brachet is correct in calling a technical conflict with Aryana Silknfyre ("Per pale and per saltire argent and Or, a unicorn trippant sable, crined gules."). (12/1987)

Lachlana of Crownwood. Name only.

The given Is not formed properly. Gaelic does not form feminine forms simply by adding an "a" suffix as does Spanish. (09/1986)

Ladislaus Vulcu. Device. Per chevron argent, seme of bats displayed sable, and gules, in base a mullet of four points pierced argent.

This was pended from the February meeting because there was some feeling in the College that the byname might involve a reference to one of the Transylvanian characters associated with vampirism. As no documentation for the byname existed in the files, documentation was requested from the submittor or the heralds of the Middle. As no documentation has been received, despite an extra allotment of time, we feel this submission has to be returned. (09/1987)

Laeriel Fayrehale. Device. Per fess embattled argent and azure, a dexter tierce counterchanged.

Conflict with Ruy d'Oute ("Argent, the dexter tierce azure, in canton a wheel Or."). While a major point is derived from counterchanging along the line of division, only a minor point can be derived from the subtraction of the tertiary charge on Ruy's device. (12/1987)

Lakeland, Canton of. Name only.

As was the case with the Principality of the Lakes earlier this year, this name conflicts with the Lake District in England. (11/1989)

Lakes, Principality of. Name and device. Gules, an escarbuncle argent within a laurel wreath, in chief a crown Or.

They have permission to conflict with Black Lake, the submitted group name of Lakeland, etc. There is also a letter from the Seneschale of the Middle indicating that there would be no problem with the defunct group of Genevieve's Lake, although this technically also requires the signatures of the King and Queen of the Middle which were not present on the letter. However, this also conflicts with the name of the Lake District in England, an area of such fame that it cannot be ignored. As for the problem of "The Lady of the Lake" mentioned by Brigantia in his responses, this did cause major twitches to a number of folk who commented verbally to Laurel immediately after the submission was made, although most did not put this in writing ("non scriptum, non est".). Normally Laurel blocks out anything that she may have seen or heard at Society events when considering submissions, but since no less than four individuals present at the late East Kingdom Coronation where the incipient Principality was proclaimed have complained to her about the usage given at that time to the area's temporary titular head ("Lady Protectress of the Lakes"), there was a feeling on the Laurel staff that some force was lacking in Brigantia's reports of the "categorical" nature of the asseverations of the founders of the Principality that they would use no form resembling "Lady of the Lake". (06/1989)

Lance Lyttle du Pont. Device. Azure, seme of lances inverted, a goblet argent.

Technical conflict with Ealdred of Gwyntarian ("Per fess grady azure and chequy Or and sable, a goblet argent issuing three ears of barley Or. "). Note that the lances are difficult to distinguish from ermine tails at any distance (they are virtually identical to one of the standard period forms of ermine tail). (03/1987)

Lance Nyström. Name for House Nystrom.

Although it is correct that the personal name has been registered, many bynames and epithets used in the Society may not be registered as household names and no documentation was provided for this household name. (09/1989)

Landric of Ely. Device. Per fess Or and gules, in fess three human skeletons affronty, kneeling on their dexter knees, gules, each maintaining in its dexter arm a book and in the sinister hand a staff palewise sable, and a mongoose rampant Or, maintaining a sword bendwise argent, hilted sable.

After much consideration, we came to the conclusion that this was just too busy, the more so in view of the difficult-to-process charges used here. Additionally, it looks remarkably like an unusual "per fess" marshalling of arms. The unusual skeletons would probably make a rather striking device alone, were they put in a normal heraldic arrangement. (08/1989)

Lao Tao-sheng. Change of name from Lao Xue-sheng and device. Lozengy argent and sable, a monkey rampant guardant azure, vested and booted in the Chinese manner Or, wearing a tam sable with two feathers, and maintaining in dexter forepaw a staff Or.

Although the new given name was documented as the name of a period monk, no meaning was given for the name. As the name is not a common one and most Chinese names have meanings, this is necessary here, particularly in view of the aural similarity that a number of non-Chinese oriented commentors found to Lao Tzu, known in the West as the founder of Taoism. Note that the beast depicted here is considerably less a primate than that on the original submission and would be more readily identified as a lion. Also note that, even with the expanded description, it is doubtful that a competent heraldic scribe would arrive at this depiction from the blazon. Finally, the problem with the interpretation of this beast as the "Monkey King", which was raised in the original return, has not been addressed in the letter of intent or in the documentation. (11/1987)

Lao Tao-sheng. Badge. Lozengy argent and sable, a Chinese beret gules, decorated to sinister with two feathers azure, eyed vert, overall a bend couped bendwise Or.

The feathers on the cap, omitted from the blazon, are not a minor detail in the design, although they fade into the sable portions of the field. This form of cap is not the usual one depicted in Chinese art and would not be reconstructed from the suggested blazon by any heraldic artist. Indeed, the image presented by a "Chinese cap" to most heraldic artists we queried differed substantially from this image. (11/1987)

Lao Xue-sheng. Device. Gules, a monkey rampant guardant argent, faced azure, vested and maintaining in dexter forepaw a staff Or.

Conflict with the badge of John the Idiota "(Gules, a woolly spider monkey rampant proper grasping in its upraised tail a pouch Or."). The overall tincture of the monkey on John's badge is as close to Or as makes no difference and the golden clothing covers the monkey to such an extent that it appears to be Or at any distance. The cumulative changes in the detail of the monkey do not make a full "point and a half" required for difference from a Society badge. It should be pointed out to the submittor that there was severe disquiet on the part of some commentors at the use of the "Monkey King" as a heraldic charge. (01/1987)

Lars Nilsson. Name only.

Under both rules this conflicts with Lars Nilson (1840­1899), discoverer of the element scandium which confirmed Mendeleev's Periodic Law of Elements. Silver Trumpet is quite correct in asserting his fame to be the equal in its own circles to that of an Elizabethan playwright: he is not only mentioned in Webster's Biographic Dictionary (p. 1102), but Laurel even remembered his name from her high school chemistry class [which was distinctly a least common denominator effort!]. (04/1990)

Lassair of Waterford. Badge. Azure, a hand issuant bendwise from chief and a hand issuant bendwise sinister from base argent, to dexter a vair bell Or.

There was a strong feeling among the commentors that this design, with its intense impression of movement, its use of visually non-identical charges, etc. was not period style. (09/1989)

Laura Lynn of Lonsdale. Device. Or, in pale a pile paly wavy azure and argent, charged with a goblet, and a demi-sun issuant from base gules.

This device had been returned by Pennon on the grounds that the demi-sun beneath the pile was not period style and contravened previous Laurel rulings. This was appealed to Laurel. With near unanimity the College of Arms supported Pennon's original return. (02/1989)

Laurenz auf Waldum. Name and device. Per chevron azure and argent, two chalices argent and a cluster of grapes purpure, slipped and leaved proper.

Since the preposition means "on top of", it must be corrected to "auf" which means "from" or "von" which means "of". However, the submittor indicated on his forms that no changes whatsoever to the spelling of his name was acceptable so we are compelled to return the submission as a whole, although the device seemed acceptable. (01/1987)

Lauria Sybelyn von Kieferturm. Name and device. Gyronny argent and azure, a fir tree counterchanged within a bordure vert, seme of trefoils argent.

Lauria does not seem to be a documented variant of "Laura" as a given name, but would seem to be acceptable if there were no other anomalies in the name. However, "Sybelyn" is not manufactured, as stated in the documentation, but is rather a variant spelling of "Sybelline", implying oracular powers. Finally, although the submittor clearly wishes to have the placename mean "Pine Tree Tower", the current form, as Badger has noted, would tend to mean "Jawbone Tower" instead. Since the submittor has indicated that she will accept no modifications to the submission at all, we were compelled to return the submission as a whole. (09/1987)

Leadrán O'Domhnallain. Change of name from Michelle O'Domhnallain.

The given name was submitted as having been invented on the analogy of Irish descriptive names such as "Cadla" (="beautiful"), "Colm" (="dove"), etc. Unfortunately, such Irish names generally fall into definite categories of noun/adjective types, e.g., animals, complimentary descriptives, transferred pet names, etc. The form "Leadran" which is stated to mean "slowness" does not fit into those categories. We would suggest to the submittor the well­ documented Irish feminine name "Líadan" which was the name of several saints as well as the female half of a pair of lovers who have been called the Irish Abelard and Heloise (O Corrain and Maguire, Gaelic Personal Names, p. 22). There are also two very similar­sounding Irish masculine names "Leannán" and "Liadhnán" (ibid.) which could be used. (02/1990)

Leah of Bukhara. Device. Sable, on a hexagon argent a Japanese moonflower gules.

Conflict with Akagawa Yoshio ("Sable, a hexagon voided within another argent. ") and Cassandra of the East Winds ("Sable, on a plate argent a flame gules. "). In the latter case there is a major point for the difference between a plate and a hexagon (there is not complete difference of charge) and a minor for the difference in type of tertiary. (03/1987)

Leah of the Lillies. Device. Per fess wavy azure and vert, a fess wavy between a swan naiant and three lilies, one and two, argent.

Conflict with Dimitri Mosheloff ("Per fess azure and vert, a fess wavy argent between a plate charged with a compass star gules and an argonaut shell argent.") (02/1989)

Leandra Corey of Hassel. Name only.

The place name in the name was documented on the letter of intent as "province of Germany". There is "Hesse" and there is "Kassel", but there is no "Hassel". The submittor's name forms originally indicated that the name could be changed, but this was crossed out to allow no changes, so we have to return the submission. (07/1989)

Leanore de Veryearbors. Name for Parish of Santz Martz.

Parish is a term denoting territorial jurisdiction and may not be used for households in the Society. Moreover, since the documentation proved indicates that the spelling of the name "Maur" as "Martz" only occurs in the very narrow territory of Liechtenstein in which lies of Parish of Saint Martz, with which the submittor's correspondent is associated. In such a situation, where a place name could only occur in a narrowly defined geographic area, although the location may not be in itself famous, there may exist a presupposition of infringement. (04/1987)

Lee Fribrand. Name only.

While we sympathise with the submittor's desire to have his surname as part of his name, Lee is a surname in both English and Chinese (since the surname precedes the given name in Chinese, the submittor's examples only support this). Moreover, there is some doubt as to the legitimacy of the name "Fribrand". Certainly, the documentation provided, which compounds it from two languages, places it in contravention of the rules of our rules on linguistic consistency. (02/1989)

Leif MacLeod. Device. Or, a lion rampant to sinister azure and in base three hearts, two and one, gules.

While the collective consensus of the College twitched at the suggestion to the famous arms of Denmark ("Or, semy of hearts gules, three lions passant azure."), this is actually much closer visually to the arms of the Duchy of Lüneburg which is not only used in period by the rulers of Brunswick and Hanover, but appears quartered in the Hanoveran arms of England ("Or, semy of hearts gules, a lion rampant azure."). (11/1988)

Leif McBride. Device. Per pall sable, ermine and azure, two winged unicorns combattant, that to dexter sable that to sinister argent, in chief two mullets argent and a compass star elongated to base Or, two and one.

While we grant this gentle the right to have his twin conflict by a mirror (although some may thing it discourteous to so confuse the populace). However, this does not exempt the submission from the limits on complexity and this exceeds those limits under both sets of rules: five tinctures and at least four sets of charges, if you blazon the chief triangular as such to avoid the ambiguities of the two types of mullets in a group with the unicorns. Even without the two different types and tinctures of mullets in the same group in chief this would be dicey. As it is it falls over the edge of permissibility. [Ed. Note: Block moves do have their function in life . . .] (12/1989)

Lelia ni Lachtnáin Uí Chathail. Device. Lozengy couped Or and vert, on a pale vert, three unicorn's heads, couped and sinister facing, Or.

It is our opinion that this is a conflict under both old and new rules with Armand Baird ("Lozengy vert and Or, on a pale vert in pale a harp Or and a sword argent."): there is a clear difference for the changes to the tertiaries (a major point under the old rules since there are no secondaries present). However, under the old rules we cannot see giving more than a very weak minor for the difference between "lozengy vert and Or" and "lozengy couped Or and vert". Certainly, it is not a clear visual difference under the new rules. Under the new rules, this also conflicts with the badge for the Order of the Dragon's Tooth of the Middle Kingdom ("Or, on a pale vert, three fangs palewise Or.") and Turnour ("Ermine, on a pale vert, three trefoils Or."). (05/1990)

Lenora Isabella Niccolini. Device. Gyronny sable and vert, a winged lion rampant between three crosses patonce Or.

The new rules are quite specific in banning gyronny of two colours. While we sympathize with the submittor's having been caught just on the cusp of a rules change, the problem of the low­contrast field was not mentioned in the original return because the letter was written and distributed before Laurel was notified of the approval of the rules for submission at the Board meeting held at the end of October. As soon as this information became known, together with the fact that the stylistic portions of the rules could go into effect, the "grace period" clock should have started ticking. In point of fact, a three­month grace period from the acceptance of the rules in October had been specified; Laurel extended this for another three months to allow extra time for kingdom processing to clear any backlog of "problem" submissions. In this case, over three months elapsed between notification of the return for poor style and the point at which the revised submission was returned to the College. A couple of commentors suggested that, if the submittor had revised her device according to suggestions from the College, then we had a moral obligation to pass it. No suggestion was made. The return read: There was virtually unanimous agreement in the College that the almost random arrangement of the crosses and monster were not heraldic and not period style. (05/1990)

Lenora Isabella Niccolini. Device. Gyronny sable and vert, in bend enarched to base three crosses flory and in sinister chief a griffin segreant Or.

There was virtually unanimous agreement in the College that the almost random arrangement of the crosses and the monster were not heraldic and not period style. (09/1989)

Leonore de Vertearbors. Addition of household name of Schola Omnium Sanctorum to previously registered badge.

There was a considerable feeling in the College that the name was "a bit much. . ." (09/1988)

Leri of Biantrii. Name and device. Per fess sable and argent, a demi-woman proper crined vert, maintaining a staff in bend gules, conjoined to a tree stump eradicated proper.

By the submittor's own documentation, "Leri" is a diminutive form and we do not register diminutives unless there is evidence for the particular diminutive name's having been used in period. None of the commentors could find"Biantrii" as a town in County Cork or anywhere else. Further documentation is required. The device has some contrast problems: the upper portion of the staff and the hair of the maiden disappear into the upper portion of the field. While these are details of the charge, in this case, where the charge itself is so unusual that its identity is not immediately obvious, the lack of contrast seriously affects the identifiability of the charge. (01/1987)

Lerwin Ysbrand O'Choda. Name and device. Vert, a dragon-prowed knorr sailing to sinister Or, sailed, on a chief argent, a Wake knot purpure.

Unfortunately, "Lerwin" is not a reasonable spelling variant of Learbhen, since the pronunciation of the Irish differs markedly from the English result (i.e., is closer to "Larvan" by the submittor's own documentation). Moreover, the statement that the name is an Irish construction is not strictly speaking true: the submittor indicates that she wishes to add the Welsh suffix "- wyn" ("-win") to the name of the Irish god Lir (also spelled "Ler") in order to produce a name which means "white Lir". The change of the initial letter in "Ysbrand" from "Isbrand" is not so reasonable was Brigantia calmly states: the submittor's documentation indicates that the equivalence for "ice" between "is" and "ys" exists in Old English, but no evidence is offered for Old Norse. However, we would be willing to stretch a point given Old Norse examples of "ing" and "yng" being equivalent as prothemes. Since the submittor allows no changes whatsoever to her name, the whole submission must be returned. Probably, the information provided by Green Anchor that the knorr, being a trading vessel, would not have used the military dragon prow, should be shared with the submittor. (In point of fact, her documentation for the knorr gives no support whatsoever for this usage, since all examples of the knorr, as opposed to the military longship, had plain prows.) (08/1988)

Levanah ha-Perusha Mechafesh shel Or. Name and device. Per pall inverted azure, sable and Or, in fess a sun in splendour argent and a moon in its complement Or, in base a mullet of eight points azure.

There is evidence for the given name as a Biblical name (although it was masculine in the Bible, not feminine). However, the remainder of the name is not formed following mediaeval Jewish naming practise and, given its meaning ("hermit, seeker of light") caused serious twitches for many members of the College. The device does fall under the heading of "slot machine heraldry" which has been banned since 1985: three different types of charge in three different tinctures on a field divided per pall inverted is almost a textbook example of the genre. (02/1989)

Liadain O'Dubhghaill. Device. Per chevron enhanced and per pale argent, a decrescent argent, fimbriated sable, enclosing a pellet, in chief two mullets counterchanged.

This is just not period style. In the first place, the "chevron enhanced" is really more of a truncated "chape" and it is a solecism in period style to charge a "chape". The real problem, however, is the decrescent/pellet collocation that forms the primary charge. It would probably be simpler to blazon this as a decrescent argent on a pellet, but then you would have a sable charge on a partially sable field, which is not permitted. Indeed, fimbriation with the tincture of the field is not permitted and this is used here. Even if this were fimbriated of another tincture ("fimbriated counterchanged" --ouch!), there would still be the problem of the black center to the decrescent which is clearly not period style. (05/1989)

Liam Devlin. Badge. Per pale argent and gules, a lion dormant, overall a bend sinister cotised, all counterchanged.

This falls under the prohibition of excessive counterchanging under the old rules and the requirement for identifiability in the new rules (Armorial Identifiability, X.3, p.11). There was a strong consensus on the part of the College that the complex counterchanging rendered the lion virtually unidentifiable. (11/1989)

Lianna de Bern. Name only.

As far as can be determined, Lianna is not a feminine form of Liam, but rather a diminutive form from Juliana and similar Latin derived feminine names. We do not register diminutives unless they can be demonstrated to have had a separate existence in period. (02/1987)

Lileen of Cinnamon Grove. Name and device. Per chevron azure and argent, a cinnamon tree eradicated counterchanged, its roots encircling a heart gules.

The given name was stated on the letter of intent to be "an acceptable variant" of Lilian. It was the consensus of the commentors, however, that this variant was not acceptable, being supported neither by period pronunciation nor period spellings. Additionally, it was felt that the name (which was stated on the submittor's paperwork to be her "own original version" of the "lily" names) had a distinctively modern feel like a twentieth-century compound of Lily and Eileen. As the submittor allowed no changes whatsoever to the name, the submission as a whole had to be returned. Note that gules heart environed of the roots of the cinnamon tree in a device otherwise totally azure and argent also strikes a rather modern note. (08/1988)

Lindrael a Ceilerionn. Name only.

The given name appears to be incorrectly formed in terms of Sindarin naming practice. While the eloquent discussion of the name from the letter of intent might justify "Lindariel" as a formation, the presence and position of vowels in Sindarin has significance and therefore the modifications to the name here, which might occur in Germanic languages, would not happen in Sindarin. Further, there was a considerable feeling in the College that the name "Lindariel" does in fact mean "maiden of the Sea Elves", since the suffix "ar" appears to denote an entire race (thus "Lindar" = "the singing people") and therefore is a claim to non-human origin. The early Irish verb "celebraim" (warble) is clearly the source of such Tolkienic Elven names as Celeborn and Celebrian and this is somewhat troubling. In any case, the form desired would seem to be something closer to the modern Gaelic "ceileriche" ("warbler"). (05/1987)

Linette Marie Genevieve Armellini di'Addabbo. Name and device. Per pale argent and azure, a unicorn's head and a pegasus head addorsed, both couped at the shoulder and conjoined, counterchanged.

There was almost universal agreement that the conjoining of two such similar charges (they differ only by the substitution of wings for horn) in a mirror image arrangement reinforced by the counterchanging reduced the identifiability of each and was not period style. The issue is moot, however, since Aten indicates that the submittor allows no changes to her name and the formation "di'Addabbo" is not properly formed. "Addabbo" is the submittor's mundane surname and may be used as it is, but may not be used with the preposition unless it is shown that this word is one that would be used with this syntax as a surname. In any case, the preposition would have either the apostrophe or the "i" here, not both. Since she allows no changes to her name, both name and device have to be returned. (05/1989)

Lionora of Chalfont Saint Giles. Device. Or, an apple tree fructed and eradicated proper within a bordure rayonny vert.

Conflict with Rowena de Segovia ("Or, an orange tree fructed and eradicated proper within a bordure rayonny vert."). In this context, the difference between the fruits is negligible, (04/1987)

Lion's End, Canton of. Device. Azure, a bicorporate lion within a laurel wreath Or.

Conflict with the arms of John of Northampton, Mayor of London in 1381­83 ("Azure, a bicorporate lion guardant crowned Or."). As Crescent has noted, this is a frequently depicted piece of armoury. Indeed, it is almost the "defining instance" for the bicorporate lion in most handbooks. (05/1989)

Lion's Heart, Hold of. Name and device. Or, on a heart gules, a lion sejant Or, in base a laurel wreath vert, all within a bordure embattled sable.

The consensus of the College was that the original decision of the Eastern College of Heralds in returning the name and device was justified. The collocation of the term "Hold" and the epithet of Richard Lionheart suggested too strongly that this was one of Richard's royal castles. The device was judged to be excessively complex and poor style to a degree which should not be accepted for group arms which precedent indicates of should set an example". (09/1986)

Liriel Correll of Tuatha Keep. Badge. On a table-cut gemstone vert, a ginkgo leaf Or.

As noted in the return of the device of Jacques d'Avignon in June, 1989: "While a number of gemstones were registered in the early days of the Society (indeed the blazon given above for the stone draws partially on one of these), this does not seem to meet our current standards for identifiability of charge. As has frequently been noted before, not all items documented in period are suitable for heraldic charges and this seems to fall into that category of exceptions. In effect, without the interior markings, this is a peculiar billet . . .and not really identifiable without the blazon as the gemstone [s]he desires." (07/1989)

Ljubljana Kovaca. Name and badge. Argent, a sprig of holly vert, fructed gules.

Since "Ljubljana" is the name of the period city that is the capital of Slovenia, some documentation is needed for its use as a given name in period. The badge is in conflict with the badge of the Barony of Rowany ("Two rowan leaves conjoined vert pendant therefrom three berries gules.") as well as the badge of Alen Elegil ("Two holly leaves, stems in saltire, vert."). (12/1988)

Llawrwydden Faucon. Name only.

As "llawrwydden" is a common noun meaning "laurel", we need to have documentation that it was used as an actual given name in period in Wales. The documentation provided does not provide that, since the seventeenth-century Latin-Welsh dictionary used, gives this as the form for "laurea", the Latin feminine noun for the laurel tree. Note that the fact that a form may be used as a given name in one language does not guarantee that it is also valid as a given name in another unrelated language: the existence of Laura as a period given name in Italy does not mean that the translation of Laura will appear as a given name in Wales. The situation is quite the contrary, in fact, since the period forms of the name documented in Wales are derived from the Romance forms, e.g. "Lowri" the name of a sixteenth-century Welsh bishop. (10/1988)

Llew ap Nuada. Name only.

The given name Llew has previously been ruled to be ineligible for use in the Society since it is the name of a Welsh demi-god. Although Nuadha has been used as the name of several ecclesiastics in period, it is best known as the name of the ancient Irish lord of the Otherworld, who appears in the early genealogies of many Irish noble families (much as Mars appeared in the genealogies of the Romans). Used in conjunction with the name of a Welsh demi-god with stars and a silver sword in the device, this is clearly not acceptable (one of the primary attributes of Nuadha Silverhand was a magical sword of great power). (02/1988)

Llewelyn the Archer. Device. Per chevron azure and vert, a chevron between two compass stars and a tower Or.

Conflict with Meer ("Azure, a chevron between three mullets of six points Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 460). It is dubious that this would have been clear under the old rules: there is a minor for a low contrast field and a minor for application of a minor point change to some of a group of secondary charges. Even if one considers the change from six to eight points a clear minor point (and we are inclined to), it is negligible under the old rules since it is applied to only some of the group of secondary charges (DoD. D.6). (05/1990)

Llorcan Ap 'Harthur. Name and device. Or, two chevronels sable, each charged with a chevronel Or, fretted with a chevron inverted sable, charged with a chevronel Or, on a chief vert three mullets Or.

The given name was stated on the submittor's documentation to be a "Celtic/Gaelic translation" of Lawrence. The period Irish name usually anglicized as Lawrence is "Lorcán" (O Corrain and Maguire, Gaelic Personal Names, p. 124­125). As several commentors noted the Welsh patronymic particle "ap" should not be capitalized and its final consonant would mutate before Arthur. Finally, the Welsh form of Arthur is not 'Harthur but (surprise!) "Arthur". The legitimate form of the name nearest to the submission would be "Lorcán ab Arthur". If the gentle desired a wholly Irish name, the form should be "Lorcán mac Artuir". Unfortunately, as the submittor forbade any changes whatsoever to his name, we were not able to modify it in order to register (and protect) it. At least one commentor was misled by the blazon into believing that the chevronels were voided vert. This is not the case, as the blazon above indicates. However, the complexity added by the golden lines on the chevronels, only marginally wider than a (non-blazonable) delineation, particularly when the chevronels are fretted in this non-standard manner takes this beyond period style. The submittor is strongly urged to drop the metal from the chevronels and/or drop the non-heraldic fretting of the ordinaries. (11/1988)

Llwyd Emrys o Arth. Name and device. Gyronny of fourteen gules and Or, a double-bitted battle-axe and a bordure argent.

The best evidence indicates that the Llwyd was not a given name but rather an epithet in period (it means "grey") and it has been ruled ineligible for use in the Society. Although there might be a case for accepting the Llwyd as an epithet here since there is a valid given name (Emrys), such epithets do not usually precede the given name in Welsh as they do in English. Additionally, we were compelled to agree with Batonvert and Kraken that the name is just too redolent of that Merlin Ambrosius (or Myrddin Emrys as he appears in Welsh sources) who is usually associated with Arthur (the name Arthur is directly derived from "bear"). The device conflicts with Eric Ragnarsson ("Counter-ermine, a double-bitted axe head within a bordure argent. "): there is a major point of difference for the field but only a minor for removing the haft of the axe. (03/1987)

Llwyd Emrys o Arth. Household name for Tylwyth Arth.

There was considerable feeling that this approached too close to "house of Arthur", particularly if registered to someone using the name Emrys. (03/1987)

Llywus ap Alun. Name and device. Argent, a mountain lion sejant proper, on a chief vert three candles argent, enflamed proper.

(Felis concolor).

We were not able to find reliable documentation for the name Llywus as a period name. The submittor provided a letter from a professor at the University of New Mexico indicating that the name "Lewis" is an anglicized form of this name in Welsh with the root "Llyw" (meaning chieftain) and the adjective suffix "us" meaning like). There are several problems with this, notably the fact that the usual Welsh spelling of Lewis is either "Lewys" or "Lewis" and that this period name is clearly derived from the Old German "Chlodovech" which gives rise to French "Louis" and English "Lewis". Also, Welsh does not form adjectives in "us" as Latin does so the derivation is unlikely, to say the least. The mountain lion on the emblazon sheet is shown as a dark brown, but all our sources show the beast as a much lighter tincture that could only be blazoned as Or, so the cat would have insufficient contrast with the argent field. (03/1987)

Lochan Blackmane. Device. Per saltire Or and azure, a bay horse rampant to sinister reguardant proper, crined and hooved sable.

It was the consensus of those present at the Laurel meeting that the contrast between the azure portion of the field and the brown and black of the horse was so great as to render the position of the beast unclear at any distance. (10/1986)

Lochan Blackmane. Device. Per saltire Or and azure, a bay horse rampant to sinister reguardant proper, crined and hooved sable.

The submission was originally returned in October, 1986, for insufficient contrast between the azure portions of the field and the horse which is very dark brown with black mane, tail, and legs from the knees down. In his appeal Vesper stated that the submission is "legal" by the rules and "an example of why we have the Rules". Unfortunately, both the Rules issued under Master Wilhelm (which would have been in effect when the submission was made) and the new Rules issued by Master Baldwin just prior to the October Laurel meeting are very clear: in both it made clear that proper charges must always have "sufficient contrast" (note that that term is specifically used in both IX. 5 of the older rules and AR1 of the new rules. In this case, the horse is a very dark brown which fades into the azure (in fact the color usually used for dark wood proper) and the sable is virtually invisible against the azure. Had the "dark" portion of the field been a tincture which is deemed to have "sufficient contrast" in AR1d or AR2b (e. g. , gules), the contrast would have been improved to the point that the problem would have been resolved. As it is, it is not. (03/1987)

Lochmere, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Blasted Oak. Argent, an oak, eradicated and blasted, and a chief wavy sable.

Under both old rules and new, this conflicts with the Barony of the Steppes' Order of the Oak, cited by Dolphin. The badge conflicts (also under both sets of rules) with the device of the Barony of Myrkewoode ("Ermine, a tree blasted and a chief wavy sable."). Though we have no doubt that this was intentional since the territory of that historic Barony has been subsumed in large part in Lochmere, the device has not been released and, given the historic nature of the arms, there is some question whether it should be. In any case, this also conflicts under the new rules with the arms of Here ("Argent, the trunk of an oak tree sprouting afresh sable.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1112). (05/1990)

Lonely Tower, Barony of. Name for Order of the Beacon of Science.

Unfortunately, the addition of the adjectival phrase does not clear this of the title for the Beacon Principal Herald (09/1989)

Lonely Tower, Barony of. Name for Order of the Rose Window.

As Crescent has noted, technically this is clear of the name of the Order of the Rose, since the noun in the name changes, although this did create uncomfortable twitches for many in the College. As it happens, however, the term Rose Window does not seem to be a period term for this medieval design since the earliest instance we were able to find of its occurrence is from 1773, well out of our period. Indeed, an earlier term (although still only documentated to the early eighteenth century) would appear to be "marigold window". (This term may have come into use not only because of the shape of the windows, but also because of their frequent dedication to the Virgin..). (09/1989)

Loriwynn Lindsdottir of Skye. Name only.

This was an appeal over an original return by Brigantia which was sent on by Brigantia with support. Unfortunately, while the other elements of the name are perfectly acceptable, the documentation for the given is not compelling. The submittor found "Lore" as a given name in French prose romances based on the Arthurian legend, but a French given name cannot simply be merged with an Old English or Welsh suffix without further ado. Even the merging of Old Norse with Old English, which would be culturally, if not necessarily linguistically, more persuasive, cannot be supported and we were unable to locate the form "Lorí" mentioned by Brigantia without any citation of a specific source. (10/1988)

Lorraine Mary d'Aquitaine. Name only.

All documentation that we could find, including the source partially cited in the letter of intent, supports the view that the use of Lorraine as a given name is well out of period. As Lorraine was an important geographical entity in period, it is necessary to have some evidence for its use in period. She could use her mundane given name, Laura, which is documented in period. (11/1987)

Luce Urquhart. Device. Sable, on a cartouche between two fleurs­de­lys Or, a swan naiant to sinister sable, all within a bordure engrailed Or.

Unfortunately, as Crescent has pointed out, the cartouche appears like an inescutcheon of pretense of the arms of Western Australia ("Or, a swan naiant to sinister sable."). (11/1986)

Lucian Starwind. Device. Azure, seven comets bendwise sinister argent.

Notwithstanding the blazon on the letter of intent, the emblazon clearly shows heraldic comets, their tails to chief. These charges are not in a heraldic arrangement that can be clearly blazoned and reconstructed by a reasonably competent heraldic artist. To best describe the current arrangement would require a phrase like "a running wedge of shooting stars". Please request the submittor to place the charges in a standard arrangement, bearing in mind the possible conflicts with comets, estoiles and mullets. (11/1986)

Lukas von Reaumer. Device. Sable, a unicorn's head couped between three mullets of seven points argent.

Conflict with Heinrich Palatine ("Sable, a unicorn's head couped argent, collared of a chain Or, within a bordure embattled argent."). (08/1989)

Luned of Cadair Idris. Name only.

As Habicht has noted, "Cader Idris" is a particularly magical place in Welsh legend. Although this is an actual mountain peak, it is named "Chair of Idris" for the giant who is said to have lived there (the only person to live there as far as we can determine, although a hoard of La Tène period ornaments was discovered under a boulder on the lower slopes some twenty five years ago). According to Welsh legend, anyone who sleeps in the Chair of Idris wakes either a poet or a madman. The name by itself is problematic; taken with a device which suggests the lion (for "Luned") sleeping on the mountain in the moonlit night, it becomes excessive. (11/1988)

Lydia of the Pines. Device. Argent, a pine branch in bend sinister, fructed, proper within an orle vert.

We were compelled to agree with Aten and with Lydia Nove herself that this was too likely to be confused with the device of Lydia Nove ("Argent, a gore vert, in sinister a pine bough leaved and fructed proper."). In either case the pine bough could be seen as the primary charge (in Lydia Nove's device it is of no less weight than the gore) and the modification of the position of the bough really derives from the difference between a gore and an orle. Although the coincidence of given name and geographical area might add to the practical difficulties, they were not considered in making the judgement on difference here. (05/1988)

Lydia of the Pines. Device. Argent, a pine branch in bend sinister, fructed proper, within an orle vert.

This submission was originally returned for conflict with Lydia Nove ("Argent, a gore vert, in sinister a pine bough leaved and fructed proper."). White Stag's appeal of this return included analysis of registered armory where individuals with similar names used similar charges in their devices. While this was interesting, it was to some extent irrelevant, since this was not really a factor in the original submission. There is clearly a point of difference for the change of the gore to the orle. The remaining difference then must be derived from the position of the two pine boughs, since they are identical in tincture and type. White Stag's depiction of the bough is not entirely alien to the depiction on the emblazon sheet in the Laurel files, which was consulted at the time of the original submission. However, the boughs are more linear and the gore occupies rather more of the field. This being said, the orientation of the central portion of the bough is in a bendwise sinister position, with side shoots being drawn in and the whole constructed to fit around the gore. In the case of the proposed device, again the central orientation of the bough is bendwise sinister, although no side shoots are present in the depiction used by White Stag and by the submittor. Were such shoots present, which is a legitimate (and according to the files quite normal Society) depiction for pine boughs, the whole would be in almost the precise position of the boughs on Lydia Nove's device. It is the difference between the gore and the orle that forces the differences in position (much as a lion rampant would be more erect when placed to one side of a pale than he would be placed beside a gore). This being so we found it impossible to grant a full point of difference for the difference in position which was, as several commentors noted, more than usually susceptible to artistic interpretation. (12/1988)

Lynn Chance of Kent. Device. Or, an escarbuncle flory and on a chief azure, two Catherine wheels Or.

Unfortunately, this beautiful device does conflict with Lorna of Leeds, cited in the letter of intent ("Or, an escarbuncle of six flory azure."): between an escarbuncle of six spokes and one of eight there is a distinction not a difference. (08/1987)

Lynna von Drachenberg. Name only.

The given name was stated on the letter of intent to be a variant spelling of either Linda or Leonie. However, such sources as show Lynne indicate that it is a diminutive form of Linda or Lynnette, probably out of period, and in any case not eligible for use in the Society unless the diminutive can be documented as a separate form in period. We have not been able to do so. (Note that Lynnette is a Francophone version of Welsh "Eluned", not a diminutive form from Lynn.) Other forms which might produce "Lynna" derive from common nouns or topographics and therefore are not usable as given names (e.g., English "lynn", German "linne" or neo-Latin "Linnea"). (02/1988)

Lynne the Farrover. Name only.

Æstel made a valiant attempt to be persuasive that the given name could be formed as an Old English construct from the protheme "Lyn" (as in "Lynsige") and "-ne" (as in "Tilne"). Unfortunately, evidence is that the lady wishes a monosyllable name rather than the bisyllable this would produce and under our current rules relatively strong evidence for the actual existence of the form is required since "Lynn" and its variants are well attested as modern diminutives for Caroline and other names and in period "lynn" is a common noun (as in the geographic name King's Lynn). The problems will also affect the shorter variants "Lyn" and "Lin" suggested as alternates by the submittor (note as well that "lin" is a common noun in Old English, referring to flax or to a linen cloth or napkin). (03/1988)

Lynne the Farrover. Change of name from Bonnie of Madrone.

Since the reasons for the return of March, 1988, were not adequately addressed in the letter of intent, it is relevant to quote the original return in its entirety: Æstel made a valiant attempt to be persuasive that the given name could be formed as an Old English construct from the protheme "Lyn" (as in "Lynsige") and "-ne" (as in "Tilne"). Unfortunately, evidence is that the lady wishes a monosyllable name rather than the bisyllable this would produce and under our current rules relatively strong evidence for the actual existence of the form is required since "Lynn" and its variants are well attested as modern diminutives for Caroline and other names and in period "lynn" is a common noun (as in the geographic name King's Lynn). The problems will also affect the shorter variants "Lyn" and "lin" suggested as alternates by the submitter (note as well that "lin" is a common noun in Old English, referring to flax or to a linen cloth of napkin). The letter of intent merely repeated the original argument for the name as a construct from Old English linguistic elements and did not address the issue of its use as a "pet name" or a common noun by providing any evidence for the actual use of the name as such in period, whatever the spelling (and the submittor indicted on her forms that the spelling is "crucial"). As it happens, the weight of evidence for the use of the name is that it is a twentieth-century diminutive form. As Star had noted Dunkling and Gosling (Dictionary of First Names, p. 268) quite firmly place the name in this century, the earliest citations of the name being those of the theatrical personages Lynn Fontiane and Lynn Bari. Note too that Reaney (Dictionary of British Surnames, p. 223) cites "Lynn", "Lynne", etc. as surnames of origin from King's Lynn. all this being the case, under the current rules it is necessary to provide considerably stronger evidence for the use of the name than has been provided. With regard to the byname, it might be wise to suggest to the submittor that the separation into its component elements "Far Rover" would be less confusing, clarify the meaning and ensure that is was spelled correctly. At least one member of the College was not entirely sure whether this was a typo for "Farrower", which would probably be an embarrassing reading for the submittor since she is not a sow. (03/1989)

Lyonel Oliver Grace. Badge for House Crymson Wyrm. An apple slipped and leaved vert.

Although the name seemed acceptable, it must be returned with the badge which conflicts with the arms of Adelicia of Gilwell ("Sable, an apple argent.") as well as the cited badge of Mela de Prion ("An apple vert, winged argent."). (01/1989)

Lyra Blackpool. Name only.

The situation with Lyra is not analogous to names such as Margaret, as indicated on the letter of intent. While Margaret does have a "meaning", as do a number of other names from Kolatch attached to the submittor's documentation, it is a name shown to have been used in period. Lyra has not been so shown and is not only a Latin common noun for a musical instrument, but is also by the submittor's own documentation a constellation. (08/1987)

Lyrel-Phillipa of Eden's Hall. Badge. A martlet voided argent.

There were two points of issue concerning this badge. On the first point, whether the Grandfather Clause covered the now illegal fimbriation of the complex animate charge, there was substantial agreement that the fact that her device ("Per fess azure and vert, two martlets voided argent.") uses this emblem entitles her to its use. The second point was quite literally that: is there a full major point of difference here betweent the submitted badge and the arms of Adam ("Sable, a martlet argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 305). Crescent argued by analogy that since a bend voided is tantamount to two bendlets and a roundel voided is tantamount to an annulet and a major point of difference would be present between a bend and two bendlets or a roundel and an annulet, a major point should be derivable here. While this argument is ingenious, it ignores the issue of the simplicity and independent existence of the geometric charges voided and their immediate identifiability. By long Society tradition, difference cannot be derived merely from a change of blazon and this submission could equally be blazoned as "On a martlet argent another. . ." In this case, the rules on the addition of tertiary charges come into play: as this is not by any stretch of the imagination an ordinary, the most that could be derived from addition of the second bird would be a minor point of difference and so the mundane conflict stands. (04/1989)

Lyulf Angus MacDougal. Device. Argent, a brilliant-cut emerald vert within a bordure embattled sable.

Unfortunately, the omission of the tincture of the gem from the letter of intent is a moot point since Dragon's doubts on the identifiability of the charge were well-founded. (08/1989)

Macaire Tempest. Device. Argent, a thunderbolt gules within a bordure nebuly sable.

As the two thunderbolts are functionally identical, Silver Trumpet is correct in calling conflict with Richard the Steadfast ("Argent, in bend a thunderbolt gules and a tower sable."): the two are visually very close with the only apparent change being the substitution of the bordure for the tower of the same tincture. (02/1990)

Maddelena Jessamyn di Piemonte. Device. Vert, a cinquefoil pierced argent and a chief azure, fimbriated Or.

This is "thin line heraldry": even a plain chief may not be fimbriated, fimbriating a chief wavy is even more a solecism. (10/1987)

Madelein Ceréis de Toulouse. Badge. Azure, a thimble within an orle of rosemary argent.

After much discussion we decided that the orle of rosemary was visually too close to one of the standard depictions of the required Society laurel wreath. Over many years stylistically aware heralds have struggled to bring a more "bushy laurel wreath into general use, but the usual laurel wreath has small, semi-paired leaves often as small and narrow as those on Madeleine's rosemary. Moreover, after some intensive pawing through the emblazons of group armoury on the part of the Laurel staff, we have come to the conclusion that the "closed" wreath, while unusual, is by no means unprecedented in Society usage, particularly in older coats. (11/1989)

Madeleine Aurore des Mille Roses. Badge. Gules, an amphora Or charged with a pink garden rose proper.

Conflict with Daniel de Tankard ("Gules, a tankard of beer Or, headed argent."). The cumulative changes to the container are worth a strong minor as is the addition of the rose, but this is not enough to carry this clear. (03/1989)

Mael Mardane. Name only.

On the letter of intent, White Stag suggested that "Mael" might be derived from Irish "Maol". According to O Corrain and Maguire, "Mael" is indeed a variant spelling for "Maol", but in Irish and Gaelic this word is like "Gille" and seems always to be linked to a modifier (e.g., "Mael Colum", "Mael Duin", "Mael Isu", "Mael Muad", "Mael Muire", etc.). However, Brachet indicates that the form also exists alone as an element in period Welsh, noting five citations in Bartrum. However, "Mardane" just cannot be linguistically twisted in any way to represent "Dane of Mar". As the submittor stated he wished the sound to be preserved, we did not feel justified in substituting the similar surname of place "Marsden" or even "Marden". (04/1988)

Maelen Gwynonwy of Ravensfield. Device. Azure, a unicorn's head erased argent within an orle of escallops Or.

Conflict with Goston ("Azure, a unicorn's head erased argent, armed and gorged with a ducal coronet Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 913). (01/1989)

Maeve ni Siurtain. Device. Or, on a chief doubly enarched a mullet of eight points argent.

A comparison of the two emblazons indicates that this is visually in conflict with the badge of Rhwth Rhys of Eldatir, cited on the letter of intent ("Argent, on a chief doubly enrached azure, an estoile argent."). (10/1989)

Maeve of Roscommon. Name only.

The beginning of the Táin Bó Cuailnge proper runs "Once when the royal bed was laid out for Ailill and Maeve in Cruachan . . .". The Cruachan thus referred lies in what is now County Roscommon (Kinsella, The Tain, p. xviii). The name is thus in conflict with the great Maeve of Irish myth and legend. (01/1988)

Magdalen Anne Catherine Ravenstein. Device. Argent, a bend gules, overall a raven volant bendwise sinister sable, all within a bordure compony sable and argent.

It was the consensus of the members of the College who commented on the issue raised at the time this was pended from the June meeting that a bordure compony where one tincture is identical to the field should not be permitted. The general feeling was that the "islands" of tincture in this case were too large to permit the distinction between the plain bordure compony and a bordure embattled being readily apparent. (09/1987)

Magdalena Ysabel von Wolfenberg. Badge. Argent, a wolf sejant ululant within a bordure sable.

Conflict with Furnace ("Argent, a talbot sejant within a bordure sable."): the cumulative minor/negligible changes to the canine do not a major make. It also conflicts with the device of Athelwulf Wulfsson ("Lozengy couped in fess Or and gules, a wolf sejant within a bordure sable."). (08/1989)

Magdalena Ysabel von Wolfenberg. Device. Gules, on a mountain issuant from base argent a wolf's head affronty erased sable and on a chief argent a hawk's head erased sable, beaked Or.

Conflict with James Buehler ("Gules, a mountain couped and on a chief a lion passant gules."). The cumulative minor points do not carry this clear. (01/1987)

Magnus Blackthorne. Device. Per bend gules and sable, a swan naiant to sinister argent.

Conflict with Amber Dorigen of Limerick ("Sable, in pale a swant naiant to sinister argent between two chrysanthemums, the upper inverted, Or, slipped and leaved vert."). (10/1988)

Magnus Boskin. Device. Per pale azure and argent, two gargoyles statant erect, addorsed and conjoined at the wings, tailes entwined, counterchanged.

There are several problems with the style of this submission. Firstly, an examination of a number of mundane sources indicates that there does not seem to be a clearly defined depiction for a "gargoyle" in heraldry, despite the notes in the Pictorial Dictionary (p. 59). Secondly, the posture in which the two monsters are conjoined at the displayed wings is eccentric in the extreme. (08/1989)

Magnus Torvaldson. Device. Per fess engrailed argent and azure, a hammer proper.

Since the Society traditionally considers "chaussé" as a field division variant, this conflicts under both old and new rules with the device of Lughaid Eamon MacDiarmid ("Or, chaussé ployé vert, a smith's hammer sable."). There is a difference for field but even under the old rules there would have been at most a minor for the partial difference of tincture of the hammer (the head of a hammer proper is by default sable). Since the primary tincture of a hammer is generally determined by its head and, in this particular case the haft has problems with contrast, no matter how depicted, it was our feeling that no difference should be granted under the new rules for the tincture difference in the hammer. (05/1990)

Maili Donnel MacGregor. Device. Per chevron azure and argent, ermined azure, in chief a pair of wings, displayed and inverted, argent.

Conflict with Francois le Feroce ("Per chevron vert and argent, in chief two wings addorsed argent."). (01/1989)

Mailloch of Wolfhaven. Name only.

The submittor stated that the given name was a constructed variant of "Malachi". Pennon valiantly attempted to support such a form with compounds of Irish and Gaelic linguistic elements. However, the form really can only be documented as a variant of the Gaelic word "mailleach" (which is used as an attributive surname). As this refers to a coat of mail and is not documented as a given name, we found the name unacceptable. Perhaps he could be interested in a documented Irish name such as "Máelán" or "Máenach"? If he is willing to consider a Welsh name, Dennys (Heralds and Heraldry, p. 70) cites a twelfth-century Welsh noble, one of the supposed founders of the fifteen noble tribes of Wales, who rejoiced in the name "Maeloc Crwm". (06/1989)

Mair of Lew. Device. Per pale sable and azure, a sun per pale argent and Or between five mullets in demi­annulo argent and five fish naiant to sinister in demi­annulo Or.

The overwhelming consensus of commentary in the College was that the counterchanged sun, rather than mitigating the appearance of dimidiated arms, as the letter of intent implied, actually reinforced it. (03/1990)

Maire Ui Casig. Name and device. Purpure, a pale ermine surmounted by a heraldic antelope rampant within a bordure potenty Or.

There seemed no problem with the device. However, the submittor indicated she would accept no changes to her name. Since no documentation was provided for the form "Ui Casig" other than that it meant O'Casey (which is in fact "O Cathasaigh" in Irish according to MacLysaght's Surnames of Ireland, p. 40), we are compelled to return the submission as a whole. (01/1987)

Mairéad O'Braonáin. Device. Or, a bend sinister gules, in dexter chief a two-towered castle sable.

Conflict with Geoffrey FitzAlain ("Or, a bend sinister between a winged lion passant gules and a Celtic cross sable."), as cited on the letter of intent. (09/1989)

Mairgreg nighean mhic Graeme. Name only.

By the submittor's own documentation, "Graeme" is not a given name, but a surname of geographical origine derived from the Old English "grægham" (meaning "grey home"). As such it cannot be used with the patronymic particles. The submittor allowed only minor changes to her name and we felt that dropping half the name (i.e., "nighean mhic") amounted to more than a minor change. (01/1989)

Mairgret of Carrigart. Device. Argent, a butterfly displayed azure within an orle of poppies gules.

The ever-lepidopteral Brachet meeting informs us that a Dyson's Metal Mark butterfly is blue so that this is in conflict with Constance von Messer ("Argent, a Dyson's Metal Mark butterfly proper.") as cited on the letter of intent. There was also a considerable feeling in the College that, as drawn, the poppies and a standard heraldic rose were so close that identity of outline existed between this submission and Allanda de Warwick ("Or, a butterfly within six roses in annulo azure."). The Laurel staff felt that the difference between the poppies in orle and the roses in annulo were sufficient to carry the two clear since it has been traditional that even the most minor difference will clear identity of outline. However, the issue is moot in view of the conflict with Constance von Messer. (04/1989)

Malachi Plumekiller. Device. Azure, a pale sable, fimbriated argent.

Conflict with Corrmacc na Connacht ("Azure, on a pale argent a sword inverted gules. "). Blazoned in a more period manner, Malachi's proposed device would be "Azure, on a pale argent, another sable. " (03/1987)

Malcolm dhe Sgot. Change of name from Malcolm of Ered Sul.

His name was originally submitted as "Malcolm the Scot" and returned for conflict with the king of Scotland Malcolm. The resubmission claims that "dhe" means "of" in Gaelic and that "sgot" is a "small farm". Unfortunately, the name still looks and sounds virtually identical to "Malcolm the Scot" in its current form which cannot be registered since it is determinedly ungrammatical. "De" is not usually used in this manner in Scots and, if it were, it would have to followed by the appropriate case of the noun which it is not here. (11/1989)

Malcolm MacPherson. Name only.

The name is identical to that of the Malcolm MacPherson whose name was registered in July, 1984. (They are different people!). (01/1990)

Malcolm Strider of Amesbury. Device. Or, a pegasus rampant gules within a dolmen issuant from base sable and in chief a plate fimbriated sable.

The cumulative effect of the anomalies involved in this device are just too strong. Firstly, the plate fimbriated is poor style. Secondly, a dolmen issuant from base is an anomaly. Thirdly, the "dolmen" here is depicted more as a wooden "ranch" gate rather than as the "standard" Society dolmen. (11/1986)

Malcolm the Scot. Name only.

It was the consensus of opinion that this name did in fact conflict with several kings of Scotland, most notably with the son of King Duncan of Scotland mentioned on the letter of intent: it is this Malcolm who was proclaimed king after the death of MacBeth (MacBeth, Act V, Scene viii). (08/1988)

Mara Marguerite of House Morningstar. Badge. Or, a compass star, the greater points wavy, azure within a bordure purpure, ermined inverted Or.

The use of ermine tails inverted in a semy is not period style. Note: the compass star was blazoned on the letter of intent as vert, but the forms showed it as azure, which agrees with her registered device. (01/1987)

Marco Nibbione. Device. Per saltire sable and argent, a heart counterchanged charged with another gules.

This is a classic instance of the "op art style" referred to in X3. Note that the comments on discouraged practices say "A submission may incorporate one of these discouraged practices and still be marginally acceptable, but it costs the submittor the benefit of the doubt." This does not mean that particularly flagrant examples of any of the discouraged practices may not be in and of themselves grounds for return (I am sure that every member of the College can think of cases, particularly concerning offensive or excessively complex designs, where this should apply). So striking an example of "modern" heraldry is this that the consensus of the meeting was that it must be returned. (10/1986)

Marée de Tyrel. Name and device. Argent, chapé gules, a fiddle bendwise sinister surmounted by a bow bendwise proper.

The submittor has provided geneological materials indicating that Alice de Tyrel, sister of Allard de Tyrel, was wife of Baldwin des Marets, a participant in the First Crusade. However, as Crescent has noted, "marée" is a common noun in French and, as such there must be evidence for its use as a given name since the "mundane name allowance", as it stands in the present rules, only allows a middle name to be used as a middle name. In this case, it would have been possible to pass the name and device with only the substitution of the documented French name "Marie" for the given name, but the submittor forbade even minor changes to her name so the submission as a whole must be returned. (09/1987)

Margaret Blakesley. Device. Gyronny Or and sable, on a point pointed argent four leopard's heads erased and affronty sable.

The tertiaries crammed into the tiny compartment at the base of the field tended to degenerate into unidentifiable splotches. We were compelled to agree with Brachet and others who felt this visually to be in conflict with the famous "Gyronny Or and sable" of Campbell, even though there was adequate technical difference from the charged point. (12/1986)

Margaret Blakesley. Device. Per pale Or and purpure, a natural leopard's face jessant-de-lys counterchanged.

Conflict with Wrightow ("Per pale Or and sable, a leopard's head jessant-de-lys counterchanged.", as cited in Papworth, p. 911). (06/1988)

Margaret Blakesley. Device. Per pale purpure and erminois, a natural leopard's face jessant-de-lis counterchanged.

A comparison of the emblazons reveals that there is indeed a conflict with the badge of Parlan MacFallon ("A wolf's head jessant-de-lis purpure."): while there is a major point for the tincture modification, the differences between the two beasts head's cabossed become virtually invisible when the fleur-de-lis is added. (03/1989)

Margaret de Falkland. Name only.

This name creates problems in two respects. While the Prime Minister of England yet remains (as is traditional in the latter part of this century) a commoner, she was (and occasionally still is) called "Falklands Maggie" for some time and it has been quite seriously suggested that, when she retires to the House of Lords, her title in the life peerage should be "Baroness Falklands". Additionally, Falkland was one of the principal seats of James IV of Scotland, who did extensive rebuilding of the castle there, before dying at Flodden Field. His wife was, of course, Margaret Tudor, sister of Henry VIII. (10/1987)

Margaret Towerhill. Badge. A tower per pale sable and argent.

Conflict with Anne of the White Tower ("Sable, a tower argent."). (08/1989)

Margarete of Stirlingshire. Device. Azure, a cross flory between four gores voided, all within a bordure Or.

There was general agreement that, although this design does resemble a period window tracery, it has serious stylistic problems as heraldry. Specifically, gores by definition are limited to two in number and rest in the flanks of a field. Also, long­standing Society precedent disallows fimbriation or voiding or gores. (05/1990)

Marged Tylluan Fach. Device. Azure, a plate charged with an owl close azure, all within a bordure argent.

Conflict with Rhithryn yr Gwlad yr Hav ("Azure, a plate charged with a cauldron and a domestic cat in its curiosity sable."). (04/1989)

Margery Coulano de Tracey of Toddington. Device. Per bend gules and sable, on a bend Or in chief an escallop inverted sable.

Technical conflict with Paul of Bellatrix ("Sable, on a bend Or three compass stars palewise gules."). (12/1987)

Mari ferch Rathyen. Change of name from Elizabeth D'Erisbey.

While the given name is listed in Gruffudd as a "variant" of "Mair", no date is given for this usage and appears to be a non-period. The actual spelling of the name used in the metronymic is "Rathtyen in all the versions of the Mabinogion we could find (the lady appears in the Mabinogion in a listing of the ladies of Arthurs immediately following Guenevere and her sister). As the submittor allowed no changes whatsoever to the name, it had to be returned in its entirety. (07/1988)

Maria de la Flor. Device. Vert, ermined argent, a swan rising to sinister, wings elevated and addorsed, proper.

Conflict with Kathlin of Morecomb Bottom ("Per chevron inverted wavy sable and erminois, a swan statant to sinister, wings addorsed, argent, gorged and chained Or."). The changes in position of the swan, even when taken in context with the addition of the collar and chain, are not significant enough to add up to an additional major point of difference in addition to that offered by the field. (01/1987)

Maria Louise von Lübeck. Device. Per bend argent and azure, a bend between two horse's heads erased, all counterchanged.

Conflict with Angharad of the Blue Rose ("Per bend argent and azure, a bend counterchanged between a rose azure barbed, seeded, slipped and leaved proper, and a unicorn couchant argent, armed and collared Or."). (09/1989)

Marian of Sea Change Eyes. Name only.

It was the consensus of opinion in the College that this epithet transcended even the relatively relaxed standards for "fantasy- style" epithets in the Society. Not only is an article lacking before the noun formation, as one would expect, but the term "sea-change" is itself a noun, not an adjective, and is not used in this manner. Moreover, the term is demonstrably a poetic one invented by Shakespeare for a technically out-of-period play (The Tempest) and does not have the attractive meaning that the submittor clearly thinks, since the gruesomely evocative full citation is: Full fathom five thy father lies; Of his bones are coral made; Those are pearls that were his eyes, Nothing of him that doth fade, But doth suffer a sea-change Into something rich and strange. (11/1988)

Marie de Clermont. Device. Purpure, a unicorn statant and a chief triangular argent, the chief debruised of a rainbow proper, clouded argent.

It was the consensus of the College of Arms that the Brigantia Office was correct in returning the submission for non-period style. The collocation of the chief triangular and the rainbow is definitely not period style and the device as a whole is strongly reminiscent of modern "decal" design. (03/1987)

Marie de Clermont. Device. Argent, a pantheon salient purpure, estoily Or, between in fess two crescents gules, all within an orle flory purpure.

As noted by several commentors, the orle flory has been ruled too close to the reserved tressure of Scotland on several occasions. (05/1990)

Marie de La Rochelle. Device. Azure, a chevron between two fleurs-de-lys and an escallop argent, all within a bordure Or.

Conflict with George Lumsden, as cited by Æstel ("Azure, a chevron Or between two wolf's heads erased in chief and an escallop in base argent, within a bordure of the second."). (11/1987)

Marie de la Terre. Device.

as noted by several commentors, this is just too close visually to the arms of Comyn ("Azure, a chevron ermine between three garbs Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 429). While this is clear on technical "count" the only effective change between the two is crosses for ermine spots as a quick sketch of the device drawn from blazon in the period manner showed. (12/1989)

Mariel Dreamseeker. Change of name to Marielle i Raundal.

She indicates that she wishes to be "from Raven Valley". Judging by the grammar and analogies presented in Geirr Bassi, the byname should be "in Hrafndoelska". The masculine for a "man from Hawksdale" is "inn Haukdoelski", while the feminines end in "­a" with the particle "in". As the word for raven in Old Norse is "hrafn", we arrive at the form "in Hrafndoelska". Since the forms indicated that no changes were allowable to the name, we could not modify the name. (10/1986)

Marion of Edwinstowe. Household name for The Buttery.

While it is quite true, as Habicht notes, that The Buttery is one of the most ancient of Society institutions, there was considerable feeling that the name was just too generic to be registered as a household name. (Besides, as one member of Laurel staff noted, anyone else who used the name would just be "a cheap imitation".) (04/1989)

Marion of Scarborough. Device. Purpure, a gore argent, overall a Chinese phoenix volant bend sinisterwise to base counterchanged.

There are several problems with this device. First of all, placing charges overall on top of flaunches or gussets is not period style. Secondly, there seems to be no standard depiction of a Chinese phoenix (at least none was documented by the submittor) so that a heraldic artist would be at a loss to determine what to draw. Finally, even if the phoenix were made all argent and placed in the open area of the field and were documented in a standard form this device would conflict with that of Marsali Fox ("Purpure, a gore and in sinister chief a fox couchant reguardant argent."). (09/1988)

Marisse the Unattainable. Name only.

By the very documentation included in the letter of intent, the name forms offered as sources for Marisse date from after our period. The only period formation we could find that was really close was the geographic family name of origin "de Marise" cited in Reaney (p. 232) which derives from the French word for a marsh. (11/1987)

Mark of Ravenswood. Name only.

The name conflicts with House Ravenswood, registered to Cigfran Myddael Joserlin the Raven. As noted elsewhere on this letter, this is particularly unfortunate since the household name itself should never have been registered, being in conflict with the previously registered Shire of Ravenwood (sometimes our past mistakes come back to haunt us. . .). (05/1988)

Mark Redore of Greenleaf. Change of device. Vert, a pair of wings conjoined Or surmounted by a crescent gules, all within a bordure embattled argent.

Conflict with Mela de Prion ("Vert, a pair of wings conjoined Or and in chief a swan naiant argent. "): there is a major point for the change in type of secondary but only a minor point for the addition of the crescent. Note also that the crescent should lie entirely on the wings to avoid the "colour on colour" situation that exists in the emblazon where the crescent lies partially on the field. (03/1987)

Mark von Neumann. Name only.

The documentation provided on the letter of intent and with the submission forms demonstrates that several placenames in German begin in "Neumann" ("Neumannsdorf", "Neumannsgrund", "Neumannshof", "Neumannsmühle", "Neumannsruh", etc.) and any one of these could be used with "von". It also appears to document a placename "Neimen" (although not clearly in period and of unknown meaning, certainly not cognate with "Neumann"). However, "Neumann" itself is in form an epithetic name and would not be used in period with "von". Therefore, the submittor could be "Mark von Neumannsdorf" or "Mark Neumann", but not "Mark von Neumann". As his mundane name is Mark Newman, we suspect that he would prefer "Mark Neumann" (which is adequately different from his mundane name under NR11). However, since the forms sent to the Laurel Office indicate that the no changes may be made to the name, we could not register that form. (07/1989)

Mark von Salzberg. Device. Gules, a chevron dovetailed to chief between two armourer's hammers respectant and an armourer's anvil Or.

After a great deal of soul-searching, we decided that this does conflict with Soame, cited on the letter of intent: "Gules, a chevron between three hammers Or." This was a very difficult decision. Under both sets of rules, the modification of the line of division of the ordinary contributes difference (a major under the old and one difference under the new). The weight to be attributed to the secondaries is more difficult: while both the hammers and anvil are documented charges, they are very close in appearance to one another and the visual effect here is distinctly of three hammers around a chevron, a point raised by Brigantia and others. After much discussion, we determined that the visual resemblance is just too strong. (11/1989)

Marsali Fox. Change of device. Per chevron throughout gules and sable, a fox couchant reguardant, tail coward, argent.

Conflict with Finn Silverfox ("Vert, chaussé chequy argent and sable, a fox dormant argent."). (10/1988)

Mary Melissa Scolaíre. Device. Azure, a bend sinister between on a Latin cross argent, a heart gules, and a lion rampant Or.

We were compelled to agree with those who felt that the addition of the tiny tertiary charge to one of the group of secondaries was not really enough to carry this clear of Orien Wenderson ("Azure, a bend sinister argent between a dolphin embowed bendwise sinisterand a mace bendwise sinister Or."), Gwendwyn the Silent ("Azure, a bend sinister between a winged unicorn countersalient and a bat-winged manticore couchant argent."), etc.. (07/1989)

Mary Taran of Glastonbury. Badge. Azure, goutty d'Or, a Glastonbury hawthorne blossom proper, barbed gules.

As the letter of intent indicates, the flower is pink. Shades of pink are generally blazoned as gules (and, indeed, horticultural books show this flower in several shades of gules) so this is colour on colour. (08/1989)

Mary Wood of Hamfield. Device. Vert, two mascles fretted in pale Or.

Unfortunately, under the current special rules on mon, this conflicts with that of Yonekura cited by Dolphin, which has the same design and is also metal on colour. (05/1989)

Mathilde des Pyrenees. Device. Vert, a Great Pyrenees dog sejant guardant argent within an orle flory counterflory Or.

The submittor amply documented the period existence of this breed of dog and the design is excellent, but there was strong feeling in the College that the orle infringed on the royal tressure of Scotland. (05/1989)

Matsuyama Yoshitoshi. Device. Sable, a pair of pine needles palewise between two pairs of pine needles in annulo argent.

This submission was returned by Crescent for visual conflict with the badge of David MacColin ("Sable, an open penannular brooch, pin to base, argent.") The submittor appealed on the grounds that the pine needles do not look like a brooch but like Japanese pine needles, a well-defined charge, and that, if it did look like a brooch, it would be a brooch voided and with the pin to chief not to base and therefore would be clear. Opinion in the College on this issue was considerably divided (in some cases, according to the view the commentor had of "things Japanese"!). However, after a comparison of the two emblazons, we had to agree with Crescent's original return. (04/1989)

Matthew Arnaut. Name only.

The name is a direct conflict with Matthew Arnold since Arnaut and Arnold are alternate forms of the same name used interchangeably in period (Reaney, Dictionary of British Surnames, p. 12). While it is true that fewer folk read Arnold's poetry these days, his prose essays (particularly his work on Celtic literature) are still of use and he himself is of considerable fame even to someone who is not an "Eng. Lit. major"! (06/1988)

Maura Brighid of Darkwood. Device. Per saltire urdy argent and counter-ermine, a tree eradicated gules.

This was incorrectly described on the letter of intent with the counter-ermine portion of the field blazoned as "erminois". This would normally be pended for further conflict checking. However, the checks already run revealed conflcits under both rules which stand despite the change in fields. Under the old rules, this would be in conflict with the fieldless badge of the Barony of Madrone ("A madrone tree proper.") since there is no difference for field and the most that can be derived from the changes to the tree is a minor point. Under the new rules, this conflict is clear since there is one difference for the Fieldless Difference (X.4.i, p.13) and another for the change of tincture to charge since more than have the charge is modified in tincture. However, the conflict with Rosland de Okstede ("Or, an oak tree gules.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1113) still stands under the both rules: there is only a major for field tincture under the old rules and a single difference for field tincture under the new. (11/1989)

Maura von Blitzbau. Device. Azure, a pale argent, fretty gules, cotised plain argent.

Conflict with Lindanloren Droxeen ("Azure, a pale endorsed to dexter, to sinister a crescent, all argent."). (08/1989)

Maureen Fionn Lochlannach. Device. Gyronny arrondi counter-ermine and azure, on a mountain couped argent, a thistle proper.

As noted by Crescent, the field is not permitted under the rule cited by Aten since Society heraldry does not consider ermine furs to be neutral: rather are they considered to be of the same category as the underlying field. In this case, the counter-ermine must be considered as if it were sable which would not be permitted. (08/1988)

Maynard O'Bleary. Name only.

No documentation could be found to support the byname. We suggest that he consider the documented Irish name O'Leary or the Scottish name Blair. (02/1988)

Meagan ferch Meredydd. Device. Vert, a triple-towered castle and a chief embattled argent.

Conflict with Hjalmar of Aachen ("Vert, a castle argent, portalled and masoned sable, on a chief argent three oak leaves vert."). (11/1987)

Meara of Caer Dubh. Name only.

As Brachet noted, "Caer" is Welsh while "Dubh" is Gaelic and Irish. If the lady had allowed changes to her name as did her sister, we could have modified this to the entirely Welsh form proposed by Brachet: "Caer Ddu". As it is the name as a whole has to be returned. (12/1989)

Megan Althea of Glengarriff. Device. Argent, a hollyhock blossom purpure, in chief three shamrocks vert.

Conflict with Alyanora of Vinca ("Argent, a periwinkle proper."). (01/1987)

Megan de Grinstead. Device. Lozengy argent and purpure, on a pale gules three marguerites Or.

Conflict with Bronwyn Glendower ("Barry wavy azure and argent, on a pale gules a dolphin embowed between two fleursdelis Or."): there is a point for the field but only a minor point for changing the type of tertiaries. (02/1987)

Megan Elizabeth Marie Marlin. Device. Argent, three chevronels braced azure and in chief three martlets vert.

Conflict with Michael the Maladroit ("Argent, three chevronels braced azure beneath two crescents gules."). (02/1987)

Megan Elphinstone. Device. Ermine, on a saltire azure, a hawk's lure Or.

Conflict with Gawaine ("Ermine, on a saltire azure, five fleurs-de-lys Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1081) and with Orielle de Harfleur ("Ermine, a saltire azure, overall a legless oriole displayed, wings inverted, head to sinister, gules."). (12/1987)

Megan MacLeod. Name only.

The name is just too close in sound to the registered name of Morgan MacLeod. (01/1988)

Megan ni Laine. Name and device. Per fess azure and vert, in chief an open book argent and in base three fleurs­de­lys, all within a bordure engrailed Or.

Brigantia's original return of the name for incorrect Irish grammar was appropriate. Unfortunately, the submittor specifically barred formation of a holding name and requested return of the device rather than passage with a holding name. (05/1990)

Megwen Rhys-Gwynedd. Name and device. Vert, a daffodil sprig argent with two flowers Or.

The given name was stated on the letter of intent to be a Welsh variant of Margaret and the documentation provided by the submittor included an elaborate persona story to support a derivation from the English diminutive "Meg" with the Welsh adjective "Gwyn". Unfortunately, this is not the way Welsh names were formed. The Welsh form "Marared" (Margaret) would be feasible or, to preserve assonance, the name of the Welsh saint "Medwen" might be used. The hyphenated last name is not period Welsh practise. It should also be noted that, if a grammatically appropriate form of the patronymic such as "ferch Rhys Gwynedd" were used, it might suggest that she were claiming to be the daughter of a prince of Gwynedd. (She will accept absolutely no changes to her name.) The device conflicts with Barbara of Levedia, registered in November, 1987 ("Argent, on a pile ployé throughout vert, a daffodil, slipped and leaved, argent."). (12/1987)

Megwynne Seonaid of Loch Lomond. Device. Azure, a sprig of heather within a bordure wavy argent.

Conflict with the Kingdom of Atenveldt College of Bards ("Azure, a branch palewise argent."). In this case the differences between the sprig of heather and the branch are really not adequate to call the two clear. (06/1988)

Meiadoc Andoeth of the Towers Fells. Name only.

The submittor, who is a graduate student in Celtic languages and literature at Harvard, learnedly discoursed on the fact that "an" is a period prefix used to negate adjectives such as "doeth" (wise). In this she is absolutely correct. Unfortunately, she provided no documentary evidence to support the lack of a nasal mutation in formation of the compound adjective. Both Brachet and at least one member of Laurel staff have searched diligently for some example where the nasal mutation was ignored in Middle Welsh and have been unable to fund any: while some mutations do not take place regularly in Middle Welsh, all examples of the prefixitive "an" seem to have appropriately modified the following root adjective or noun. As Brachet notes, the classic instance of this is probably the name for the underworld in Welsh myth: "Annwyn" or "Annwfn" from "an" + "dwfn" ("not-world"). As the submittor allowed no changes whatsoever, we could not register the documented form "Annoeth". (10/1989)

Meinward Wighelm. Device. Azure, ermined argent, on a pile raguly argent a sword inverted sable.

Conflict with Geoffrey Fitz Roger ("Azure, on a pile raguly argent a male griffin segreant sable, armed Or."). (01/1987)

Melbrigda of Oak Glen. Badge. Vert, a kangaroo sejant erect Or.

Hund has provided convincing documentation for this badge being a nearly complete conflict with the Bond Corporation insignia, a trademarked emblem which was used for the flag which the Australia yacht flew during the America's Cup competition a while ago. The insignia, as shown in a catalogue from an Australian flag manufacturer sent us by Hund, is "Vert, a kangaroo Or, its forepaws vested in boxing gloves gules." This "Boxing Kangaroo" emblem was trademarked by the "America's Cup 1987 Defence 1987 Limited" and Hund tells us that they have sued several people for unauthorized reproduction of the insignia. (The thanks of the Laurel staff to Hund for indicating where we had seen this before: it was plastered over a significant number of the news features on the America's Cup.) There is also a strong visual echo of the device of Lorimel the Gentle, cited on the letter of intent ("Vert, an otter sejant erect Or."). (11/1988)

Meredith of the White Cliffs. Device. Sable, a tyger sejant to sinister Or within an orle of mullets argent.

Conflict with Thomas Lackland of Appledore ("Sable, a domestic cat sejant to sinister Or."): comparing the emblazons only reaffirmed our conviction that only a minor point of difference could be derived between the two primary charges in this position. (03/1988)

Merewynn Greenwood of Epping. Device. Argent, a bend sinister vert between a fret couped within and conjoined to a heart voided and three gillyflowers in bend sinister azure.

While Badger's linguistic notes on the history of the pretzel are interesting, we had to agree that the charge in chief is "pretty weird". In other words, after much consideration we were compelled to the opinion that the charge in chief is just not clearly identifiable enough to be considered period style. (11/1989)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Name for Leathercraft Guild.

There was a considerable feeling that this was too generic to register to a single group. With the addition of an appropriate geographic modifier, it might be acceptable as an identifier for a badge (paperwork indicates that it was originally submitted in conjunction with a badge). (04/1990)

Merlinia of Rivenoak the Faye. Change of name from Merlinia of Rivenoak.

On his letter of intent Brigantia describes the submission as a name "correction" and states "Her name was changed from Merlinia Silver Dove the Faye to its present form in Nov 84, and the epithet should have been transferred to the new name." Unfortunately, this is not correct. The lady had ended up with two registered names through a strange concatenation of circumstances (largely involving non-notification of the submittor in a timely manner of the progress of her submission and resubmissions in names just different enough to guarantee confusion when they occurred over the course of several years). To resolve this situation, the submittor decided to clarify the whole situation by using the name now registered. At that time she was warned on several occasions by several different heralds that it would be advisable to retain the descriptor "the Faye" in her name (it appeared to have been registered in the confusion of the last days of Karina) since that descriptor would now be highly unlikely to survive the scrutiny of the College should she later decide she wished to use it. Although the lady had routinely used the epithet up to that time, she was adamant that she no longer wished to use it as part of her registered name and insisted on registration of the name as it now stands. (Although Laurel attempts to block out her tenure as Brigantia as much as possible when dealing with Eastern submissions, she recalls distinctly extensive notes on this in both the lady's file and the general Eastern correspondence.) As the only rationale for reintroduction of the epithet at this time would be a clear hardship case, which is not present, we feel that the name cannot and should not be revised. There is long and honourable precedent for the stance that, once a name or armorial element has been properly released, it may not be reclaimed without resubmission according to the rules of the College in effect at the time of resubmission. (05/1989)

Merwinna o Bealach Breac. Device. Azure, a leaf inverted bendwise within an annulet fracted in pall inverted argent.

Conflict with Perigrine Mellryn of Last Mountain, cited in the letter of intent ("Azure, a mascle within an annulet argent."). (10/1987)

Mhoireagh of Mucky Heath. Name only.

Both the letter of intent and the submittor's documentation state that the given name is a Gaelic alternate spelling of the submittor's mundane family name of Murray. Unfortunately, there are two problems with this. The first is that the Scots Gaelic form for Murray appears to be "Moireabh". The second, and more important, is that Murray is a place name of origin (from the territory of Murray or Moray, as in the "Bonnie Earl of Moray") which has only been used as a given name in very recent times. (12/1987)

Michael Arthur of Kerry. Device. Azure, a bear couchant between three compass stars argent.

Visual conflict with Roxana of Windymeads ("Azure, an ibex passant between three mullets of eight points argent."). (02/1987)

Michael de la Mare. Badge for Michael the Impetuous. Argent, on an escallop inverted azure, a horse rampant argent, hooved and crined Or, bridled gules.

Conflict with Atlantia's Order of the Pearl ("On an escallop inverted azure, a plate."). (07/1988)

Michael Degral of Mellkin. Name only.

"Degral" could not be documented, although some interesting speculations came out of the College of Arms (a significant number involved the Holy Grail, which we suspect the submittor did not intend). Use of a documented family name such as "de Grellay" would be far better. Also, the form of the place name is not in fact a place name formation, but uses the standard given name diminutive suffix "-kin". He should use an actual place name such as Melksham or Melling. The submittor gave permission for changes, but as the changes necessary were relatively drastic, we preferred to allow the gentleman to make his own decisions as to the advisable modifications. (07/1987)

Michael of Bedford. Badge. Argent, on a fess between four annulets sable, a lion's head cabossed Or.

Conflict with Norman ("Argent, on a fess sable, three leopard's faces Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 792), Lilly ("Argent, on a fess sable, a fleur­de­lys Or.", ibid., p. 789) and Kighly ("Argent, on a fess sable, a mullet Or.", ibid. p. 794). (05/1990)

Michael of Oland. Device. Argent, a dragon's head erased to sinister gules.

Conflict with James Edward de Marksbury ("Argent, a dragon's head bendwise sinister erased to sinister azure, breathing flames gules."). (12/1986)

Michael of Öland. Device. Argent, two axes palewise, blades to center, and a dragon's head erased to sinister gules.

Conflict with Daimon Isamu ("Argent, two axes, blades to center, between their handles two single Japanese arrow notches in saltire, gules."). (03/1988)

Michael of Worcester. Device. Or, in pale a fox statant to sinister sable, maintaining in its mouth a squirrel purpure, and a mount sable.

This is a case where the tally of anomalies adds up to a device which is not acceptable. In period style, the fox would more normally be statant atop the base, not floating in mid­air; the addition of the minor charge in purpure, which has low contrast with the sable, is another anomaly, while others felt that the dead squirrel bordered on the morbid. Taken individually, each of these items would have been acceptable; cumulatively, they were considered to create a non­period device. (10/1986)

Michael the Scot. Name only.

Unfortunately, as Habicht noted, the name is in conflict with the thirteenth-century Michael Scott who enjoyed no small reputation as a scholar in his own time and as a magician somewhat later. He studied at Oxford and on the Continent and was astrologer to Emperor Frederick II who sent him about the universities of Europe to communicate a number of translations of Aristotle made by himself and others of Frederick's court. A number of his writings still exist, some in manuscript, but his posthumous fame as a magician has tended to eclipse these for all but the most scholarly. In that guise he must be considered famous by any standards since he has been immortalized by poets and prose writers from Dante through Sir Walter Scott to the present day fantasy writers. (09/1989)

Micheila NicFhionghuin of Skye. Device. Argent, vetu ploye purpure, four thistle heads erased in cross, leaved proper.

Visual conflict with Maelen of Catcott ("Purpure, on a lozenge argent a forget-me-not blossom proper."). (07/1987)

Michel le Gauche. Device. Argent, a pall inverted gules between three griffins segreant sable.

Conflict with Elaina Lochdroigheann ("Argent, a pall inverted between two roses gules and a triple-headed thistle proper."). (10/1987)

Michel l'Espiegle. Device. Purpure, on a pale between four cups Or, a rapier inverted purpure.

Visually this does conflict with William of Blackmoor ("Purpure, on a pale between two double-bitted axes Or, a sword purpure."): the minor for inverting the sword is just too weak to carry it clear. (05/1988)

Middle Kingdom. Change of designation for kingdom arms to Middle Kingdom and Sovereign.

By definition the arms of the Kingdom are the arms of the "sovereign by right of arms" so this change is unnecessary and confusing. We understand the desire to avoid gender specifics, but in this case it is unnecessary since, were a female fighter to win Crown Tourney in her own right, she would be the "sovereign by right of arms" and hence entitled to the Kingdom's arms. (08/1989)

Middle Kingdom. Seal for Trillium Herald. Two straight trumpets in saltire between four trillium flowers.

Registration of tinctureless seals for any but Principal Heralds ceased in January, 1986. (11/1986)

Middle Kingdom. Title for Rastaban Herald.

We were compelled to agree with Brachet that the name conjured up unfortunate connotations of dreadlocks and other phenomena of the Rastafarian movement. Although the name derived from the perfectly good Arabic phrase Al Ras al Thuban (The Head of the Dragon) which is applied in period to both Beta Draconis and Gamma Draconis, it is just too close to "Rastaman" for our comfort. (02/1987)

Miguel de Asturias. Name only.

The name is in direct conflict with Miguel Asturias, who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1967. Several commentors noted as well that the title "de Asturias" has been used since the thirteenth century as the title of the heir to the Spanish throne. (06/1987)

Miguel de Sanlucar de Barrameda. Device. Vert, a demi-yale rampant argent, marked purpure, issuant from a sinister gore Or, a chief dovetailed argent.

The use of the late and unusual charge of the yale (which was in fact improperly drawn on the emblazon sheets), the chief dove-tailed and the use of the gore are all "allowable anomalies" that have been permitted for Society use. However, the use,of all three together, with the added anomaly of the demi-beast issuant from the gore in a decidedly eccentric manner, force us to return this for "non-period style". (04/1987)

Mikael of Monmothshire. Badge. Or, a gusset azure and a sinister gusset gules.

We had to agree with Brachet that this is in conflict with Regulus of Vinhold ("Or, two gores sable."). The distinction between the gore and gusset seems to be more a distinction than a difference and many heraldic authors (for example, Woodward, p. 689) consider the two to be the same charge. (03/1989)

Mikel the Silent. Device. Argent, a Great Horned Owl rising guardant, wings elevated and displayed, proper, maintaining an arrow bendwise sable (Bubo virginianus).

The submittor's device was originally returned for conflict with Cigfran Myddrael Joserlin the Raven ("Argent, a raven rising reguardant, wings disclosed, proper, in the dexter claw a sword gules."). Note that this was stated to be an appeal, but it was not mentioned that the tincture of the bird had been specifically changed from sable to "proper", i.e., brown and black-brown: therefore this was not an appeal per se but rather a resubmission of a modified device. The conflict was more striking visually in the original submission were both birds were sable and in virtually identical positions maintaining long skinny objects in precisely the same position. Indeed, in the original rendition, difference of tincture of the minor objects which the birds were holding was the salient point of difference visually. The submission has been modified and most artistically drawn, although at the cost of rendering the bird in trian aspect with the most distinguishing mark of the owl (its distinctive head shape) obscured because it lies upon the identically coloured wing. It is clear that the blazon reflects the intent of the submittor and, if the bird were properly drawn, it would follow the blazon and the two birds would again be in almost identical positions. While there is a greater degree of visual difference here, there was a strong consensus in the College that the two devices were just too close to one another. (05/1988)

Mikel the Silent. Device. Argent, an owl rising guardant, wings elevated and addorsed, maintaining an arrow bendwise sable.

However one counts the "points", this is strongly in visual conflict with Cigfran Myddrael Joserlin the Raven ("Argent, a raven rising reguardant, wings disclosed proper, in the dexter claw a sword gules."). (09/1987)

Mikhail the Varangian. Device. Argent, a bend gules between a Russian Orthodox cross sable and a boot reversed gules.

Conflict with Jerome Robert of McKenna ("Argent, a bendlet between in chief a dexter mailed fist from the sinister grasping a cross bottonny fitchy and in base a lymphad, sails furled and oars in action, all gules.") and with the mundane arms of Barnack ("Argent, a bend gules.", as cited in Papworth, p. 183). (06/1988)

Miles Longfellow. Name only.

Conflict with the registered name of Miles Long. The name is not only close in sound, but also in meaning: in the citation from Matthews (English Surnames, p. 140) provided by the submittor as documentation it is stated: "The proper English word to describe a tall man was Long (Lang or Laing in the North), or he could be called Longman or Longfellow.". (11/1987)

Milhim ibn Rashid Brox Sukir al Sahara. Argent, a dromedary passant proper and on a chief wavy azure two falcons striking respectant argent (camelus dromedarius).

The name was stated to be Arabic for William, son of Richard Brox, Hawk of the Desert. The predominant language of the name is clearly Arabic. Even though the submittor's mundane name is William Brox, it would be necessary to show that these elements could reasonably be fitted into this name in the forms used. No evidence could be provided for Milhim or Brox as period (or modern) Arabic names. Rashid does not mean Richard and its use as a given name (as opposed to an epithet, as in Haroun al-Rashid) seems to be modern. Hawk would seem to be "al-Saqr" which is distinctly different in sound in Arabic from the form provided and al-Sahara refers specifically to the Sahara as opposed to a desert in general. The device conflicts with Rami ibn Asad men Damashk ("Argent, in pale a strung bow fesswise and a Bactrian camel statant proper."). (05/1987)

Milo Fitzlyon. Badge. Sable, on a mullet of eight points Or, a cross patty throughout gules.

There are problems both of style and conflict with this submission. Visually it does look like a quilt design, as noted by several commentors. While this is not in and of itself a problem, the fact that the cross must not only be throughout but of a precise size to reproduce the design is. Not only can we not guarantee its accurate reproduction by an heraldic artist, but such size-dependent designs are not period style. Note too that this is not really a compass star, since the longer rays are not sufficiently different in length to be clearly identified as such (i.e., this looks like a poorly drawn mullet of eight points). Under both rules, this would conflict with Sven Vandelaven the Fierce ("Sable, on a mullet of two greater and four lesser points Or, a dragon statant reguardant gules pierced through the back by a sword inverted sable.") Under the old rules, this would have to be considered in visual conflict with the badge of Thorvald Rodericksson ("A mullet of eight points concave voided and interlaced Or.") as no difference can be derived from field and it must be considered as if it were on a gules field. Under the new rules, this would conflict with the device of Starhelm Warlocke ("Sable, on a mullet of seven points argent, an arrow point inverted gules."): there is a clear difference for tincture of the primary charge but the single change to the tertiary is not adequate to carry it clear. (Note that Starhelm's arrowhead is drawn virtually throughout so that the visual assonance is quite strong.) (11/1989)

Minna von Lübeck. Device. Gules, a chevron argent between two coneys couchant respectant and a dove statant, its dexter wing expanded, argent, three trefoils slipped vert.

Under the current rules, this is a conflict with Merevyn Hanley of Myrkfaelinn ("Gules, on a chevron between two pairs of candles in saltire argent, enflamed Or, and a squirrel sejant erect argent, maintaining in both forepaws an acorn Or."). Crescent is correct in stating that the touches of Or on the secondaries are too insignificant to provide the required extra minor point of difference. (07/1988)

Minna von Lubeck. Device. Per chevron gules and barry wavy azure and argent, a chief nebuly and overall a swallow volant argent.

There is insufficient contrast between the swallow and the argent portions of the field and the chief which it overlies. A significant proportion of the identifying wing and tail shapes are invisible because they are argent on argent". Moreover, it is not, generally speaking, period style to have an animate charge overlie both the field and a chief. (11/1986)

Miranda de Mont Saint Michel. Device. Per bend argent and sable, a cornflower affronty azure, seeded Or, and a gout d'eau.

Conflict with Erzabet von Schachendorf ("Per bend Or and sable, a rose azure, barbed and seeded proper, and an anchor Or."). A number of commentors noted the difficulty of recognizing the identity of the flower in chief and there is no doubt that the unusual posture of the flower contributes to the confusion by making the difference from a rose almost negligible. (10/1987)

Miranda Graye. Device. Or, on a demi-sun issuant from base vert a goblet Or, in chief three bunches of grapes purpure, slipped and leaved vert.

After comparing the emblazon sheets, we came to the conclusion that there is a visual conflict with the device of Meriel de Blackwoode, cited on the letter of intent ("Per chevron inverted Or and ermine, in chief three bunches of grapes purpure, slipped and leaved vert, and in base a goblet purpure."). Not only is the upper half of the field identical (both sets of grapes are in fess), but there is a goblet in precisely the same position on both devices. If one reblazons Miranda's device to "Per chevron rayonny Or and vert, . . .", as very similar devices have been blazoned in the past, the problem becomes even clearer. (10/1987)

Mirielda Grey. Device. Gules, a bend cotised Or, overall on a rose argent, a heart gules.

Note that, though the blazon on the letter of intent, indicated that the rose was barbed vert, the barbs appear as argent on the emblazon sheet. Technically, the heart here adds a fourth layer. It is extremely unfortunate that this submission differences the mundane arms of Arsacke ("Gules, a bend between two cotises Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 206) by adding the Luther Rose. Although von Volborth shows a shield with the Luther rose as "Azure, a rose argent, seeded with a heart gules, charged with a cross sable." (Heraldry, Customs, Rules and Styles, p. 49), it is quite generally used in Lutheran religious banners and other insignia as simply the rose with the heart and (often) a nearly invisible cross. This emblem was in fact used by Luther himself who called it the badge of his theology (von Volborth notes that Prince John Frederick of Coburg had a signet ring made for Luther with this rose, ibid.). (10/1988)

Mirielda Grey. Device. Gules, on a rose argent, barbed vert, within an orle flory Or, a heart gules.

The use of the orle fleury here, particularly given the Or and gules tinctures used, is far too close to the reserved tressure of Scotland. Taken with the white rose motif, there is a distinct problem. (09/1989)

Misheal of Riga. Name and device. Per bend gules and Or, a natural reindeer statant to sinister proper, in chief a mullet argent.

Unfortunately, Star is correct when he says that this name conflicts with Michael, Archbishop of Riga. Crescent's argument that this is a situation parallel to John of London, where we would not consider the name to conflict with King John, although London was his capital, is not really valid. The Archbishopric of Riga was apparently at this time secularly a sovereign entity, parallel to the Palatine clerical territories in Germany, where the ecclesiastical title carried secular power and the ruling clerics were regularly referred to in contemporary documents as X of Y where X was the given name and Y the territorial designation (this does not rule out their being mentioned, sometimes in the same sources, with their family names, any more than the usage of "Richard of England" ruled out "Richard Plantagenet" or "Richard Lionheart" for the same person. Unfortunately, the bulk of the reindeer is a dark brown which shows up poorly against the red portion of the field: the rear portion of the animal showed up well on the Or, but the front half, the distinctively to reindeer" part, was virtually unidentifiable at any distance. (12/1986)

Misty Marsh, Canton of the. Name only.

While the name is very descriptive (the group is just a few dozen miles down the road from Laurel's house), Dolphin is correct in noting a conflict with the March of the Marshes: both old rules and new consider the designator to be transparent and the addition of an adjective to be insufficient difference between names. (05/1990)

Mitchell MacBain. Badge. A moth quarterly sable and gules.

After a comparison of the emblazons, we had to conclude that the difference in shape between the moth and the dragonfly were not tantamount to a major point of difference and so this is in conflict with the device of Andrew of Selcom Rest, cited on the letter of intent ("Or, a dragonfly displayed gules."). As the crimson tipped butterfly of the badge of Anne of Caerdydd is almost entirely argent, this is less a problem visually. (06/1989)

Mitchell MacBain. Device. Chequy gules and sable, a compass star argent.

Fields chequy of two colours have not been permitted for some time. (03/1987)

Mitsuhashi Masaie. Device. Argent, three hashi (chopsticks), two in saltire surmounted by another palewise, fretted with a hexagon voided, all sable.

This conflicts with Ferran de Montfery ("Argent, an escarbuncle of spears offset deasil gules.") and Clovia Lumi ("Sable, a snowflake argent."). Note the rules for tincture differentiation involving mon (DR8). By these, there is a minor point for tincture from Ferran and at most a major point for type of charge (visually it is less). Similarly, from Clovia there is a major point for tincture but only a weak minor for the type of charge (visually, they are almost identical). (12/1986)

Mlodn Zupan the Merchant. Name only.

The submittor's documentation for the given name was "familiar affectionate for person named after the missionary using the Latin name Malodorous" [sic]. The letter of intent indicated that it should be considered a variant of the name "Mladen" cited in Yonge (p. 445). Unfortunately, no real evidence was given for either the use of the name in period Serbia nor for the possibility of such mutations in Serbian. The byname was given as an adjective meaning "of the parish", but no supporting evidence for this or for its proper grammatical usage was given. (05/1990)

Monique l'Arrivée. Name only.

Unfortunately, "l'Arrivée" does not appear to mean "the arrived" as noted on the letter of intent. Used as a noun as here, it means "the arrival" (as of a person), "finish line", etc. which makes very little sense in either a medieval or modern context. While Crescent says that he had not "the faintest idea" why the submittor selected this form, the submittor's forms appear to indicate that she feels that "monique l'arrivée" would mean "the arrival of the advisor" (apparently deriving "Monique" from its Latin "Monica" and assuming that to be itself derived from the Latin verb "moneo", which can mean "advise" or "warn"). (12/1988)

Montengard, Barony. Blazon change. Argent, semy of wild roses proper, a minotaur's head erased sable, armed, orbed, and gorged of a chain Or, within a laurel wreath vert.

The fact that a bull-headed human figure is one of the more common representations of the minotaur in antiquity is somewhat irrelevant to the issue of whether the blazon should be changed from its current "bull's head" to a minotaur's head. All the documentation provided demonstrates that the head of a minotaur is a bull's head and cannot be distinguished as a minotaur without the remainder of the creature. (01/1987)

Mor ni Dhonnchaidh. Name and device. Argent, a thistle with three heads, stalked and leaved vert, flowered purpure, within a bordure counter-company purpure and argent.

The would seem to be a conflict with the arms of Spear "(Argent, a thistle with three heads stalked nd leaved vert, flowered gules."). As noted below, under Cairistiona nic Cailean, the thistle arrangement is distinctive enough to negate any minor visual difference derived from the change in the tincture of the flowers, the more so since thistle flowered gules and purpure tend to be used interchangeably in Scots heraldry. (05/1987)

Mora Naturalist of Blackmarsh. Name only.

The submittor documented the given name as that of a character in Mary Stewart's The Last Enchantment and Irish gives a number of similar given names: "Mór", "Máire" and its Anglicized form "Maura", "Mura", etc. and "Mara" exists in the Slavic world, but we could not find any documented instance of "Mora" as a given name in period. This is necessary under as "mora" is the common Latin and Italian noun for "delay" and is commonly used in Latin legal phrases and Italian musical phrases. Additionally, it is commonly used in Italian for a black woman. (In the latter usage it would be a fine byname.) As the submittor allowed no changes to her name, we could not substitute a close analogue, such as "Mór". (07/1989)

Morag MacKilcullen. Device. Or, a bend sinister cotised gules, overall a horse's head couped sable.

Conflict with John of Dreiburgen ("Or, on a bend sinister cotised gules, three triangles palewise inverted, each within and conjoined to an annulet Or."). (12/1988)

Moraig Annabella Drummond. Name and device. Argent, six holly leaves vert, conjoined in the center, vert, fructed with three berries proper, between two bars wavy gules, all between three mullets of four points sable.

Unfortunately, the submittor's own documentation compels us to agree with Crescent that the name is not only a conflict with Annabella Drummond, Queen of Robert III of Scotland, but that the device is excessive. Through a rather tortuous multi-lingual explanation the submittor has attempted to demonstrate that Morag means "princess" (and so the name means Princess Annabella Drummond). Additionally, the primary charges on the arms of the Drummonds branches are three bars wavy gules, while both the holly and the caltrap are Drummond badges, the latter in commemoration of the exploit of the then chief of the Drummonds in strewing caltraps before the English cavalry at Bannockburn. (02/1987)

Morgan MacDonald McCrae. Device. Per bend sinister azure and gules, a crescent argent surmounted by an arrow palewise inverted between in bend a mullet Or and bezant.

It was the consensus of the commentors that this was "slot machine heraldry" and by definition in contravention of AR6c. (03/1989)

Morgan MacDonald McCrae. Badge. Or, a dexter hand appaumy vert, overall a sword palewise argent.

As charges overall are tested for contrast with the field (AR4), this violates the rules of contrast. (03/1989)

Morgan MacLean. Name only.

Conflict with Morgan Maclain o Loch Cairlinn, registered in September, 1988. (05/1989)

Morgan Schwertfeger. Device. Quarterly per fess wavy gules and Or, in bend sinister a bendlet sinister azure and a horse's head, couped and sinister facing, sable.

This looks precisely like quartering, the more so because of the ordinary placed in the sinister chief compartment. (11/1986)

Morgan Schwertfeger. Device. Quarterly per fess wavy gules and Or, in bend sinister a bendlet sinister azure and a horse's head, couped and sinister facing, sable.

This was returned for appearance of quartering and was appealed by An Tir on the grounds that the submission was made under the "old" rules for submission and specifically fulfilled the requirements stated in those rules, even though it is in contravention of the rules issued by Master Baldwin in October, 1986, and dated August, 1986.

Although Æstel is most eloquent in his arguments on behalf of the submittor, there is no denying the fact that Master Wilhelm's rules stated the "Device with quarterly field of two tinctures will not be considered quartered arms (and thus generally generally returned) if . . .the line of division on the quarterly is other than straight." [The italics are mine.] This states guidelines, not guarantees, particularly where a usage not otherwise forbidden by law or precedent is used. This is the case here. As long ago as July, 1980, it was ruled that the use of ordinaries cut off by the quartered division would create the presumption of quartering and thus compel return of a device. Adding to the problematic nature of this device is the fact that the "apparent arms" of "Or, a bend sinister azure" are in fact the period arms of Trye (Papworth, p. 191). (Since appeal was made to Master Wilhelm's interpretation of Society precedent and law, it is interesting to note that he indicated that he would have returned it for the appearance of quartering, had it come before him when he was Laurel.). (08/1987)

Morgan Starbridge. Device. Azure, a gore sinister and in dexter chief a crescent beneath an arc of five mullets Or.

This is just not period style. The unbalanced effect of the gore is only exaggerated by the visually complex arrangement of moon and stars scrunched into dexter chief. (02/1988)

Morgan Tryggvisson. Device. Gules, three wolf's teeth issuant fesswise from sinister and in dexter chief a hammer palewise inverted argent.

Conflict with von Tettau ("Gules, three wolf's teeth argent.") cited by Kraken and, although without the name of its owner, by Hund. (02/1989)

Moriagh Teige O'Flaithbheartiagh. Device. Gyronny azure and argent, a trefoil slipped counterchanged.

Conflict with Olwen of Buckland ("Azure, a trefoil slipped argent."). (12/1988)

Moriah of Land's End. Name.

The name Moriah has been returned previously (e.g., in the case of Moriah Elliot) on the grounds that it is a Biblical place name, the mountain where Abraham prepared to sacrifice Isaac, and not a form used in period as a given name. No evidence has been presented to contravene that precedent. (12/1986)

Moriah of Land's End. Device. Per pale Or and vert, two chevrons issuant from dexter and sinister, fretted, counterchanged.

Her name was returned in December, 1986. The device conflicts with Bjorn Bjorklund ("Quarterly vert and Or, a chevron couched dexter and another sinister conjoined at the points counterchanged.") and Aymbros Turlion de Laisard ("Per pale Or and vert, on a saltire five crosses of Lorraine fitchy at all points palewise countercharged.") (02/1987)

Moriah of Land's End. Name only.

The name had previously been returned because "Moriah" is a Biblical place name (both the land of Moriah cited in the letter of intent and Mount Moriah which is the location of the sacrifice of Isaac) and has not been documented as a given name. The submittor, who had derived the name from Kolatch, contacted the author who very kindly responded, indicating that he had no evidence of the name being used before the twentieth century. The submittor then argues that the name "Moriah" is actually probably a tribal name and that, like other Semitic tribal names, it could also be used as a given name. The problem with this latter line of argument is that the twelve tribes were all specifically descended from eponymous founders in the twelve sons of Jacob. The use of the personal names then precedes the usage as a place name. Not all personal names become place names and the majority of places names in Palestine are not derived from personal names so that the logic fails. ("All trees are alive, some trees are green, all tress are green" is the classic faulty logic.) While the submitter apparently allowed alternative, the College really does not consider alternative submissions and, in this case, no documentation was provided to the College for the alternative which were not "common usage". (03/1989)

Moric of Corc. Name and device. Or, fretty gules, a Norse ship's figurehead sable.

While Brachet has been able to document Moric as a Bohemian form of Mauritius (not as an Anglo-Saxon form), no documentation was provided for the spelling of "Corc". Moreover, several commentors immediately noted that this sounded remarkably like "Mork of Ork", a distinctly non-human persona. Although documentation was provided for the form of the primary charge's being a legitimate one for Viking figureheads, it is by n means the only form of Viking figurehead. Therefore, the charge could not be reconstructed by a competent heraldic artist from the blazon and may not be used for Society heraldry. (05/1987)

Mortaugh Tyrrie. Device. Or, on a raven migrant to chief sable within a bordure gules, a Thor's hammer inverted argent.

Conflict with Veikr of Wales ("Or, a falcon displayed guardant, wings elevated, sable, maintaining two swords inverted in saltire argent, within a bordure invected gules."). It should also be noted that the Thor's hammer used with a name reminiscent of Tyr (son of Odin) and what appears to be a depiction of the raven banner caused serious twitches for several members of the College of Arms. Ness O'Murchadha. Device. Azure, in pale a bezant surmounted by a sword palewise azure, hilted, and a crescent Or.

This device only works with exceeding careful placement of the charge over the bezant in a manner that is distinctly not period style and unbalances the design as a whole. It gives the appearance of random placement on the field. (06/1988)

Morwen Greycloak. Badge. On an escallop azure, a unicornate sea-horse's head couped argent.

Conflict with Karl von Kugler ("Chequy Or and sable, an escallop azure."). (07/1988)

Muirgen of Caer Dubh. Device. Per fess wavy argent and azure, in pale a tower sable, charged with a sword Or, and two barrulets wavy azure.

As Star Emeritus notes, this is in conflict with Elaine Ladd (Per fess wavy argent and barry wavy azure and argent, in chief a tower sable, enflamed proper."). Under both sets of rules this is a clear visual conflict, as the weight of the barry lower portion of the field in Elaine's device and the azure with barrulets here are almost identical. Under the old rules, the enflaming of the tower would be a minor and the addition of the sword a minor, which is not enough to carry them clean. Under the new rules, the addition of the sword would be one difference, but the enflaming does not seem to clear the obvious visual similarity here. (12/1989)

Munemasa Kosenpu. Name and device. Sable, on a delf argent, an origami dragon, wings displayed, sable.

Unfortunately, the Japanese experts in the College are all agreed that "Kosenpu" is not a properly formed Japanese given name. Apparently, it might be the sort of nom-de-guerre adopted for publicity purposes by a sumo wrestler (like the Western "Tornado"), but is not supported. "Kazunbu" was suggested by one commentor as a similar sounding personal name. There is also some question about the legitimacy of "Munemasa" as a family name: O'Neill (p. 269) shows it only as a given name and both the letter of intent and the submittor's documentation notes give only the single name for the period individual cited (i.e., it could be his given name). It was the consensus of the commentors that the origami dragon was not an identifiable charge (and several asked why the submittor did not use an Oriental dragon as the basis of the charge, if he wished a mon). (04/1988)

Muriel Kiefsdottir. Name only.

It has previously been determined that Kief is a family name derived from a place name and therefore would not form a Norse patronymic in this manner. She could be Muriel Kief or Muriel Arenvaldsdottir (assuming she wishes to show relation to Arenvald Kief af Kierstad). (03/1987)

Mustapha el'Hakki. Name only.

The name conflicts with a major character in the radio play "Moon over Morocco" broadcast by PBS. That character is a storyteller with magical powers who is never called anything else but Mustapha. It is also in conflict with the leading character of Mustapha and His Wise Dog, a fantasy novel written by Esther Friesner, the mundane identity of a lady who is an active resident of the East Kingdom. (01/1987)

Myfanwy des Levriers. Device. Purpure, a levrier's head couped Or.

Under the current rules this is in conflict with Richard of Ravenwolf, cited on the letter of intent ("Sable, a wolf's head erased Or, armed argent, orbed sable."). While the rules allow a minor for the difference between a head couped and a head erased, an comparison of the two emblazons indicated that the primary differences of type between the wolf's head and the alaunt's head here were that the ears were different (one was pricked and the other floppy) and that the wolf's head was open to show the fangs. That did not seem enough to difference the two under our current rules. (07/1988)

Myfanwy o Dyfed. Name only.

The evidence indicates that the usage "given name + kingdom name" is regularly used in Welsh to indicate a member of the ruling family of that kingdom (e.g., Owain Gwynedd). It should be noted that the preposition "o" normally would require the soft mutation: "Ddyfed". (06/1987)

Myfanwy of Aberystwyth. Device. Per chevron argent and azure, statant upon the line of division a raven close sable, in base a wolf's head erased close affronty argent, all within an orle counterchanged.

The bird "perched" on the line of division is not period style so far as can be determined. If the bird and the head should be of equal weight, then the bird should be separated from the line of division and "fill" its portion of the field. If it is more important to the submittor to have the appearance of a bird statant upon a mount, then the "mount" in base and the head should be considerably smaller and the bird considerably larger. (09/1987)

Mykosianos Duxippus Draconis. Name and device. Per chevron gules and sable, a chevron between a dragon statant reguardant and a mullet Or.

The name Mykosianos is not a Latinization of a documented Greek given name, as stated in the documentation. In form it is a an adjective of origin, derived from an undocumented place name or personal name Mykosos, which would have been used in antiquity or in the medieval period as a descriptive epithet. Duxippus is reasonably plausible as a Latinization of a Greek name (although Doxippus would be more plausible), but we could not find the individual alluded to in the documentation in the dozen histories of Greece or Rome available to the Laurel office. Finally, Draconis is not a Latinized form of Draco. The proper Latin form of Draco as an epithet in Latin is Draco, the nominative form of the noun. The device conflicts with Meghan of Tara Hill ("Per chevron gules and sable, a chevron Or between two winged rams combattant and a sun argent."). (01/1987)

Myra Naedlsang. Device. Per bend sinister engrailed purpure and vert, a skylark volant to sinister argent, holding in its beak a nettle branch Or.

Crescent is correct in indicating that this technically falls afoul of the definition of a "simple case" i which fields may be of two colours yet use a complex line of division. This is particularly unfortunate as this may be well be the exception that proves the rule, although the engrailing on the emblazon was too small. (Irreverent comment from Laurel staff: Do you know the meaning of reduction ad absurdum, boys and girls?). (05/1987)

Naevehiem, Shire of. Device. Quarterly argent, ermined gules, and sable, a laurel wreath between in bend sinister two annulets Or.

The laurel wreath is not only too small, but also fades into the argent portion of the field to such an extent that it was virtually unidentifiable at any distance. Making the wreath larger and in a tincture like gules with acceptable contrast with both argent and sable, would resolve the problem. (08/1987)

Naevehjem, Shire of. Badge for Naevehjem Militia Elite Guard. On a plate within an annulet Or, an ermine spot gules.

Visually in conflict with the Order of the Crystal of the Salt Wastes of the Barony of Loch Salann ("Sable, a plate within a bordure Or."). As noted by several commentors, the use of an annulet in fieldless badges is directly analogous (and often replaces) the use of both the orle and the bordure in fielded badges. (02/1989)

Naevehjem, Shire of. Device. Quarterly argent, ermined gules, and sable, in bend sinister two annulets Or, each environed of a laurel wreath argent.

Unfortunately, White Stag is technically correct in stating that the letter of the current law prohibits the presence of more than one charge in a quarter, if the appearance of marshalling is to be avoided: "there shall be no more than one charge in a quarter, and that charge cannot be an ordinary" (AR11b). (03/1988)

Naevehjem, Shire of. Device. Quarterly argent, ermined gules, and sable, in bend sinister two annulets Or, at the honour point a laurel wreath gules, surmounting the lower annulet.

While we do not penalize gentles for their artistic insufficiencies, we can only judge the relative position of charges, etc. from the emblazon they submit. On the submitted emblazon, the laurel wreath is not much larger than on the original returned submission (as Brachet put it a "token micro-enlargement"). Moreover, it is not truly "overall" since it does not evenly overlie the charges on the field. This would be much better if they put the wreaths in the ermine portions of the field (using a more complex line of division to avoid the appearance of marshalling). Failing that, a laurel wreath that is truly overall and large enough to be readily identifiable at a distance despite the poor contrast with part of the field would be acceptable. (02/1989)

Natalija Varvara Stoianova. Device. Vert, on a bend sinister Or, two dragonflies sable.

Conflict with Cruser the Ranger ("Vert, on a bend sinister Or, a star of Davide between two mullets of six points gules."): no more than a major point of difference may be derived from changes to tertiaries alone. (04/1988)

Nefratiri Ani. Badge for House Rhondoval. Or, a wingless dragon passant to sinister, its body nowed in a Hungerford knot, vert, breathing flames of fire proper.

The name of the household conflicts with House Rondoval from Zelasny's Changeling and Madwand books. As Mistress Keridwen has noted, this is not only the name of the ancestral home of Zelasny's protagonist, but also the family title. The problem is only reinforced by the dragon on the submitted household badge, since the family in Zelasny's work is closely associated with dragons. (The Lord of Rondoval is specifically referred to as a "Dragon Lord".) While the submittor may indeed have been using the household name for some time, as the letter of intent indicates, it cannot claim hardship against a conflict and no hard evidence has been provided for its use predating Zelazny's work. It was not submitted at the time of the original (returned) name and device submission in 1982 nor when the name and device were eventually registered in 1984. The first evidence we have of its submission to the College is in the submission alluded to in 1985 when the badge was returned. As far as the badge itself is concerned, while the "standard" nowing makes the posture somewhat more blazonable than the posture of the monster in the 1985 submission, it is still not a standard position for such a beastie. In point of fact, it renders the identification of the wingless dragon as wingless dragon nearly impossible. This being the case, it cannot be registered. (03/1990)

Nest of Kelynwyk. Device. Azure, chausse argent, a serpent nowed Or and in base a holly wreath counterchanged vert and argent fructed gules.

We were compelled to agree with the commentors who felt that the wreath of holly here would inevitably be taken to be a laurel wreath: the berries are just not that prominent on a holly wreath and, given the wide variations in rendition of the wreath required for group arms, the leaf shapes are not distinctive enough to make it obvious this is not a laurel wreath. Additionally, a field chaussé should not have charge overlie both the field and the "draping" as the wreath does. Finally, given the visual problems with the identification of the holly wreath, it is visually too close to the Shire of Shadowmere ("Argent, on a pile throughout azure a heron close dexter, leg raised argent, overall in base a laurel wreath vert."). (08/1987)

Niall O'Callchobair. Vert, a whelk shell palewise between two flaunches argent.

Conflict with Brian Corwin Kilpadriag ("Vert, a Celtic cross between two flaunches argent each charged with a shamrock vert."). The "Point and a Half Rule" specifically states that the primary charge in question must be the "dominant" part of the design (DR7), which the shell here clearly is not. Flaunches are by definition visually more complex than a bordure or chief so that the fact that one set of flaunches is charged detracts from the simplicity enough that the "Point and a Half Rule" cannot apply. (03/1989)

Nicholai Hinidin. Device. Per bend sinister sable and argent, upon a mullet of eight points counterchanged a flame gules.

Conflict with Rashid al-Rashidum ibn Yaakov b'hup b'Salaam ("Per bend sinister sable and argent, a mullet of seven points counterchanged."). (01/1987)

Nicholas Wolfmar. Device. Gyronny from base gules and counter-ermine, a wolf's pawprint argent.

Under AR2b gyronny from the edge of the field is forbidden to be composed of two "dark" tinctures: since ermine furs are not "neutral" in Society heraldry, counter-ermine is classed as a dark tincture. (03/1987)

Nicole de Saint Clair. Device. Or, four pallets gules, overall a saltire counterchanged.

Unfortunately, it was the consensus of the commentors that this is in conflict with the arms of Aragon cited on the letter of intent ("Or, four pallets gules."). Only a major point of difference can be derived from the addition of the saltire overall; no extra difference can be derived from tincture between something and nothing. AR 18b, which grants automatic sufficient difference from mundane arms for the addition of the primary charge, does not apply here, since the saltire is added over an already charged field (Aragon is not "uncharged" as White Stag stated). (04/1988)

Nicole de Saint Clair. Device. Gules, a bordure sable, overall an orle crusilly fitchy counter crusilly fitchy Or.

The orle is elegant and we found no problem with its use in the Society. Unfortunately, however, the bordure here is technically colour on colour. While the Or of the orle separates the gules of the field and the sable of the bordure, there is no way to guarantee that this would be the case in all circumstances. Indeed, the normal tendency of the heraldic artist in the Society would be to draw the orle inside of the bordure. Even if we could guarantee that the orle would always be drawn in this position, the commentors who indicated that this is tantamount to elaborate fimbriation are absolutely correct (fimbriation of bordures has been forbidden for some five years). This is unfortunate: with an appropriately tinctured plain field this would be lovely. (09/1988)

Nicole de Saint Clair. Badge. A rose gules, seeded and barbed of five crosses crosslet fitchy Or.

Elaborate as the barbing is here, it was our feeling that it could not carry this clear of the conflict with the Lancastrian red rose, not to mention the arms of the Princes of Lippe ("Argent, a rose gules, barbed and seeded proper."). (10/1988)

Nicole de Saint Clair. Badge. A rose sable, seeded and barbed of five crosses crosslet fitchy Or.

Conflict with the badge of the Queen of Ansteorra ("A rose sable, charged with a rose Or, thereon a mullet of five greater and five lesser points Or."). The usage of the crosses as barbing substitutes diminishes their importance materially (the "fitchy" part of the crosses is entirely interlaced with the rose),increasing the visual assonance with this badge, which is royal heraldry, at least in Society terms. A conflict also exists with Sylvester von Beerberg "Argent, on a rose sable, barbed vert, a death's head argent."):no difference can be adduced for the field and the most that can be derived from the addition of the tertiary is a minor point of difference since it is not placed on an ordinary. (03/1989)

Nikolai Grigorovich Nabokov. Name and device. Sable, on a saltire dovetailed gyronny argent and Or, a mullet of eight points gules, in chief a cross bottonny fitchy argent.

The tincture of the mullet was omitted from the letter of intent, causing great confusion among some members of the College. The design need not be pended, however, since a charge gyronny of two metals is not registerable under either the old rules or the new. Note that this is overall a very modern design, requiring the depiction of the mullet and the dovetailed saltire in a specific manner to work: period heraldry did not measure thus in millimeters!. (02/1990)

Nikolaus der Auslander. Device. Argent, a barn swallow volant proper.

No Latin name was provided to confirm the submittor's intent with regard to this bird. The emblazon shows a hirundine bird of a solid reddish brown. The Barn Swallow (Hirundo erythrogastra) appears to be a "steel blue" (generally depicted as a sable variant) on its upper parts; chestnut brown on its under parts. If this is the bird intended then the emblazon errs for in the position that the bird is depicted it would be almost entirely sable and thus conflict, as Brachet noted, with the town of Arundel ("Argent, a swallow volant in bend sinister sable.") as well as Curson ("Argent, a martlet sable."). If the bird is another variant of swallow that is more red-brown, then it would presumably conflict with Greathead ("Ermine, a martlet gules."). (02/1987)

Nina Camarata. Name and device. Azure, a two-tailed mermaid affronty, holding a tail in either hand, between three escallops argent.

The given name is both a diminutive form from Russian names and a common noun in Spanish so it may not be used without evidence for its use in period. As the submittor insisted that no changes whatsoever be made to her name, the entire submission had to be returned. (12/1988)

Niobe Lais. Device. Vert, a domestic cat couchant argent within a bordure Or.

Conflict with Home ("vert, a lion rampant argent within a bordure Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 123). (12/1989)

Nisse Godreng. Name only.

Although the given name was stated to be a Scandinavian name, meaning "good elf", it is in fact the common noun in modern Norwegian for a goblin (Marm and Sommerfelt, Norwegian: A practical course for beginners and students, p. 170). As such, practical course for beginners and students considerably better support would be necessary for the use of the given name than the "baby name book" provided. Additionally, there was no documentation for "Godreng" meaning "good fellow" in Norwegian. In any case, taken together with the given name, for some commentors it created entirely too strong a suggestion of a Norwegian Robin Goodfellow. (12/1987)

Nöckl Redhand. Name only.

The name was submitted with the given name documented as meaning "rounded hill" from Bahlow's Deutsches Namenlexikon. The citation does prove this meaning, although the name is clearly listed as a surname, not a given name. It also supports the usage as a diminutive form from the early German name "Notget" or "Nicher" (as in the name of the famous monk Notger balbulus), but the only period example of the diminutive form adduced shows it as a surname. (03/1989)

Nootka Karlsefni. Name only.

While the combination of an Eskimo name with an Old Norse name seems reasonable in view of the simultaneous settlement of Greenland by both groups in period, the submittor's own documentation indicates that the name "Nootka" was the name of a tribe that inhabited that area, rather than an individual name. Since "Karlsefni" is an epithet (Geirr Bassi translates it as "he-man", p. 24), a given name is definitely needed. (01/1988)

Nootka Karlsefni. Change of name from Ron of Sundragon.

The name was returned in January, 1988, because the submittor's documentation gave the given name as the name of an Eskimo tribe rather than as a given name. He has appealed this apparently on the grounds that this was the name of a northwestern Indian tribe (not an Eskimo tribe as previously stated and that the tribe could have been known to Francis Drake who may have landed in the area in his travels. Although this still does not show the use of the name as a given name, he avers that the fact that the name "Nootka" is applied to a fir tree shows that it could have been considered a given name by Norsemen since "Norse used names of vegetation as given names" (as the letter of intent puts it). The support for this statement is that "Linne", from which the name "Linneus" is derived, means "limetree". Unfortunately, this argument does not hold water. In the first place, we have no period documentation for the name "Nootka" even being used for either the tree or the tribe. Even if they were, there is no evidence for the transference and no other examples of a Norse given name being derived from a local clan. Moreover, the example from "Linnaeus" is a false one since the name is not only out of period, but also a surname. (11/1989)

Novia Morgana. Device. Argent, vetu sable, a Black Widow spider tergiant proper between four hourglasses in cross gules.

As a a field vetu and a lozenge must be considered for conflict, this infringes on the badge of Robin of Mannefeld ("On a lozenge argent, a billet throughout sable charged with a mullet of four points throughout."): with the most generous count possible only a major point of difference can be derived from the changes to the charges on the argent lozenge shape. Note that several Laurel staff members who had vivid memories of the movie Krull had problems with the use of the name, the hourglasses and the Black Widow spider, particularly with the name "Novia" (which is the feminine form of "betrothed" in Spanish) in view of the "Black Widow" lady of the web who was the betrothed of the magician and smashes the magic hourglass which controls the spider in order to save him. (04/1989)

Nykolette Courcy de Navarre. Name and device. Sable, in bend sinister a rose Or, barbed and seeded gules, and a sea-dragon passant Or.

Neither a "y" for "i" nor a "k" for "c" substitution occurs in French. Therefore, although "Nicolette" is a well-documented French diminutive with an independent existence in period (consider the famous romance Aucassin and Nicolette), the form given here is not a valid variant. Since the lady has forbidden even the smallest changes to her name, we were unable to correct this problem and had to return the submission as a whole. Note that Batonvert is correct in commenting that the beastie on the device is in trian aspect and is rather unrecognizable in the guardant position. (09/1987)

Nywulf of Darkenwood. Name only.

No evidence was produced for "ny" as a protheme in period given names and the epithetic "new wolf" in this structure is not even formed of words from a single language: "ny" is modern Norse for "new" but the Norse for "wolf" is "ulv" (from Old Norse "ulfr"). In Old English the word for "wolf" is "wulf", but "new" is "niw" and there is no form that we could find for any word which would coalesce with "wulf" to form "nywulf" in Old English. Note that Darkenwood precipitated severe twitches in some of us. (05/1988)

Odoacer of the Wastes. Name only.

By the submittor's own documentation, Odoacer was the name of the Germanic military officer who supplanted the last Roman Emperor at Rome. He was put in place by his men specifically because they wished land in Italy. A.H.M.Jones (Decline of the Ancient World, p. 92) notes that Odoacer himself was a Scirian. While their position immediately before the fall of Rome is not clear, the Scirii derived from an area northeast of the Vistula River which, even in a much later period, would be widely considered wasteland. (10/1988)

Olaf Askoldsson. Badge. A horn-crested helmet affronty argent.

Although the letter of intent blazoned this helmet as Or, the forms showed it as argent, essentially as it appears on his device (see ACCEPTANCES above). If it is as blazoned, then it conflicts with Bostock ("Sable, a helmet Or."). If it is indeed argent, then it conflicts with the device of Olaf of Axar ("Vert, three horned helmets argent."), since no difference can be derived from the field. (11/1988)

Olaf Bjornson. Change of name from Olaf Bjarnarson.

White Stag asked on his letter of intent "Is there a profound linguistic reason to deny this spelling of the name?". Well, actually, yes, failing period documentation for this form. . .[Linguistic Complexity Warning: Laurel is about to (re)lapse into linguistic analysis mode: if terms like "morphology" and "syntactic modification" tend to drive you up the wall, you may wish to proceed to the next item. . .] In the Scandinavian languages, as in the Romance languages and the other Germanic languages, there was a progressive simplification of the grammatical structure as the mediaeval period progressed. In the period which preceded the Old Norse that we are familiar with, much of a very elaborate Indo-European syntactic system seems to have been retained, with a case system analogous to that which is familiar to linguists from Sanskrit, Greek and Latin. In particular, interrelationships between nouns were denoted by morphological changes in the nouns themselves, rather than by prepositional phrases, as is common in modern English and most modern European languages. Differing relationships were indicated by different cases, with the cases in Old Norse including a morphologically distinct nominative, genitive, dative and accusative. Each of these cases had its own varying suffixes which could in some cases affect the internal vowel quality of a noun when they were added to the root element of the noun, producing differing declensions of the noun. (This is a process that should be familiar to those who have studied German and found that some nouns add an umlaut to an interior vowel in forming the plural.) Specifically, in Old Scandinavian languages, the best attested of which is Old Norse/Old Icelandic, sometimes referred to as Western Scandinavian, the case which indicated possession or origin, the Indo-European genitive, was indicated by two suffixes: "-s" and "-ar". (Actually, these were originally both the same suffix, "s" and "r" being phonemically interchangeable at one point in the earlier development of the languages, but that is too complex to get into here.) Between the Old Scandinavian period, for which there is excellent documentation, and the modern period there was a constant development which produced the modern Scandinavian languages. In many areas, this development seems to have proceded at a slower rate than it did to the South in Germany and in England, so that processes that were more or less complete at the end of our period in the South were still continuing in Scandinavia. Indeed, thanks in part to the political and ethnic developments of the late mediaeval and modern period in some areas, most notably in Norway, the process did not become complete until well into the nineteenth century. (There are in fact some Scandinavian scholars who assert the process is not yet complete and that the advent of radio and television in the north is about to complete the simplification of the language.) One of the most striking features of this process of development (in English and German as well as in the Scandinavian languages) was the drastic simplification of the case structure. The variety of noun forms which were available in Old Scandinavian (which is generally considered to exist through about 1350) gradually narrowed over several hundred years with most of the cases being supplanted by the use of prepositions or word order, as was the case with English, and most of the varying declensions falling together, losing many of the internal modifications of Old Norse, such as are seen in "Bjarnar", the genitive of "Bjorn". The key issue here is precisely when these changes occurred. For each of the Scandinavian languages, a lengthy "Middle Scandinavian" period followed the Old Scandinavian period, running in most cases through the end of our period. Thus there is a Middle Swedish that, like Middle English, differs strikingly from the modern forms, although the process of collapse of the syntactic and morphological distinctions of Old Norse are already underway. It is clear from the modern languages, in which the genitive is the strongest of the remaining cases (in some instances the only remaining oblique case) that the genitive was the last to collapse and probably the last to lose the variety of forms which had typified it in Old Scandinavian. In the modern languages, virtually all genitives are formed by the simple addition of "-s" to the stem or the modified stem so that the submittor can point to a string of modern patronymics formed from Bjorn in the form "Bjornsson", but it is decidedly dicey whether this would have been the case in period. (There is the related question of whether the stem of the name itself would have been immune from the morphological modifications, but that is a separate issue. . .) If you are interested in a relatively convenient paperback summary of the historical morphology and syntax of the Scandinavian languages, see Haugen, Scandinavian Language Structures: A Comparative Historical Survey (University of Minnesota Press, 1982). We would dearly like to see some clear period documentation for the genitive form of "Bjorns", but have not thus far been presented with any. Note as well that the proposed patronymic would normally appear in the modern language as "Bjornsson" since the "s" of the genitive and the initial "s" of the noun are both retained. (10/1988)

Olaf Bjornson. Name for Tyger's Keep.

Under out current rules, household names may not be registered without an associated badge. (05/1989)

Oldenfeld, Shire of. Badge. Vert, in fess a rose and a lion salient guardant, all within a laurel wreath Or.

By long­standing tradition and the old and new rules, the arms of a territorial group must have the laurel wreath. Other armoury, such as badges, may NOT have a laurel wreath. (02/1990)

Olwen o Bryn Cribog Morynion. Name only.

Apart from any problems which might be involved in the non­human nature of the original Olwen (who is the only period exemplar yet adduced), the byname does not mean what the submittor thought ("of Maiden's Tor"). As Mistress Keridwen has pointed out, "bryn cribog" is not the Welsh equivalent of "tor", it is it's definition. Also "morynion" is not a genitive, but a plural (i.e., "maidens" rather than "maiden's"). According to Mistress Keridwen, a more plausible Welsh byname with the meaning she wishes would be something like "Brynmorwyn". (02/1990)

Olwen of Montgomery. Name and device. Gules, a sword bendwise sinister inverted between three trefoils slipped and three crescents, all argent.

While there can be (and has been) some debate as to whether the name "Olwen" is the unique perquisite of the lady with the unusual powers in Welsh myth, certainly the conjunction of the trefoils with the name is excessive, given the origin of the name itself in her stated power of "perfloration". [The Laurel staff really liked that terminology for the ability to have clovers spring from your footprints!]. (08/1989)

Olwen the Tanner. Name and device. Per fess azure and vert, a fess invected argent between a horse passant and a natural lynx dormant to sinister Or.

Unfortunately, Crescent is correct when he notes that the given name "Olwen" is not permissible for use in the Society without some evidence for its use by humans in period. As the letter of intent notes, in the Mabinogion Olwen is the daughter of the king of the giants. Her very name was from a non-human attribute: it means "white track" and refers to the fact that flowers bloomed wherever she walked. As the submittor allowed no changes whatsoever to the name, the submission as a whole had to be returned. Note that the submission blazoned the primary charge as a "fess wreathed", but for some years Society precedent has held that a charge may not be wreathed of one tincture. This is invected with interior diapering. (08/1988)

Omarad the Wavy. Device. Quarterly gules and argent, a compass star throughout counterchanged, overall a griffin segreant sable.

The griffin overlies the visually complex underlying charge to such an extent that it is unidentifiable without the aid of the blazon. (02/1987)

Onami Ryome. Device. Sable, a t'ai - ch'i sable and argent within a great wave of seven crests issuant from dexter, all within a bordure argent.

In the first place the argent bordure, which abuts the wave for most of its periphery, violates the rule of tincture. Secondly, the fimbriated t'ai - ch'i constitutes "thin line heraldry". Although the submittor's desire to have the great wave (nami) to play upon his name is understandable, the fact that he is designing a mon does not exempt him from the usual rules on contrast and style. (10/1987)

Oreta Heinemann. Device. Azure, in chief four tablet-weaving cards argent, each threaded with four threads palewise Or.

There was virtual unanimity among the commentors that this was "thin line heraldry" and, as such, should be returned. Concern was also expressed as to the identifiability of the tablet-weaving cards: several people thought them to be dice before reading the blazon. (04/1988)

Oriana of Xylina. Device. Gules, a blond mermaid affronty, maintaining a casket in dexter hand and mirror in sinister, all proper, a chief wavy sable, fretty Or.

Under both rules, the sable chief on the gules field violates the rules of tincture. (11/1989)

Orlenda ferch Llyn. Name only.

Orlenda was presented as a feminine variant of the Italian name "Orlando". However, no evidence was adduced for the modification of the vowels in this name. "Llyn" is indeed Welsh, as stated on the letter of intent, but it is also a common noun (meaning "lake") rather than a proper name so it should not be used with "ferch". The submittor is advised to drop the "ferch" and use a period given name like "Oriana": Oriana Llyn. (12/1988)

Orlanda merch Lynn. Change of name from Stefanie of Sun Dragon.

While the given name now seems acceptable, the byname still has the same problem it did at the time of the original return. "Lynn" is a variant form of the "Llyn" which was returned for meaning "lake" and thus was inappropriate for use with the patronymic particle. You need to have a given name after this particle (which incidentally would usually mutate to "ferch" when used in such a name). Either drop the "ferch/merch" or choose a period Welsh given name to follow it. (11/1989)

Orric Longtooth. Device. Azure, a fess ermine between a ferret statant argent and a demi-sun issuant from base Or.

Conflict with David of Dragon Run ("Azure, a fess ermine between a tipless broken sword proper and a mullet of four points argent."). (01/1989)

Oswald von don Grunwald. Badge. A pine tree eradicated bendy argent and sable.

As the current rules require that all fieldless badges be checked against all possible fields, legal or not, this conflicts with Allandale of the Evergreene ("Argent, a pine tree proper."), Daniel of Glenmor ("Per pale argent and azure, a pine tree counterchanged.") and Patricia of the Northern Manor ("Bendy sinister of four gules and Or, a Colorado blue spruce tree eradicated proper."). (09/1986)

Otagiri Tatsuzo. Blazon correction. Argent, three ken and three dragon's scales conjoined in annulo, pointing outwards, within a bordure embattled, all sable.

Withdrawn at the request of White Stag. (04/1988)

Otherhill, Shire of. Badge for the Unicorn Guard. Gules, a unicorn's head erased to sinister argent, collared sable.

Conflict with Katrina of the Neverlands ("Gules, a unicorn's head erased reversed, in canton a decrescent and in sinister chief in bend two mullets palewise argent."). (10/1988)

Ottar Eriksson. Badge. Barry vert and argent per chevron counterchanged.

This return was omitted from the July, 1988, letter through a file error during the word processing merge that assembled the letter. Crescent is correct in noting that the current provisions of AR19 technically apply to badges as well as devices:"A submission consisting entirely of a field shall differ from any other field-only armory by any two of the following categories: complex line of partition, division of field, tinctures, change or addition or removal of a treatment of the field." This differs by only one category from Harthall ("Barry of six Argent and vert.") (08/1988)

Otto Bötticher von Spreebrucke. Device. Argent, seven swords, fretted with pommels outwards vert.

Since no emblazon was submitted with the letter of intent so that the commentors could not judge the accuracy of the blazon of this unusual collocation of charges when checking for conflict, this must be returned. (If the problem were merely one of tincture or minor errors in depiction, this could be pended, but the commentors must have an emblazon from Lymphad before they can comment adequately.) (06/1989)

Otto Botticher von Spreebruek. Device. Argent, a mullet of seven points, voided Or and interlaced.

Conflict with the badge of Tiriel benn Loring ("Argent, a mullet of seven points purpure."): the changes here are all essentially of tincture and should not produce more than a single major point of difference. (04/1988)

Otto von Schwyz. Name and device. Erminois, two flaunches argent, overall a panther rampant sabe, incensed gules.

There are several problems with both the name and the device. Since the German name for Switzerland is always preceded by the definite article, the byname should be "von der Schwyz". However, since the given name Otto is so closely associated with the Hapsburgs who ruled most of modern Switzerland for much of our period (Hapsburg itself is in the Aargau), the name is decidedly dubious. As for the device, the argent flaunches on erminois are "metal on metal". Also, the beast overlapping the flaunches is distinctly a stylistic solecism. Also, it is visually in conflict with Houri the Savage ("Argent, a lion rampant sable, armed, orbed and langued gules."). (08/1989)

Outlands, Crown Prince of. Device. Vert, a stag salient argent, attired, unguled and gorged with a Saxon crown, all within a bordure embattled Or, overall a label argent.

Withdrawn at the request of White Stag. (04/1988)

Outlands, Crown Princess of. Device. Vert, a hind salient argent, unguled and gorged with a Saxon crown Or, between three doves rising, wings elevated and addorsed, argent, beaked and membered, all within an orle embattled on the inner edge Or.

Withdrawn at the request of White Stag. (04/1988)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Badge for Ministry of the Lists. Per pale sable and vert, in saltire a sword proper and a straight trumpet, bell to chief, Or between four quill pens tergiant, nibs to center, argent.

There was a considerable consensus in the College that this was overly complex, particularly for a badge: three types of charges, four tinctures andquill pens ina position (tergiant!) which almost guarantees unrecognizability.(At least one herald at the meeting thought they were darts until the blazon was read.) (01/1990)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Badge for the King's Bard. Vert, a harp Or surmounted by a trefoil slipped argent, all within a bordure embattled Or.

We had to agree with Habicht that this was visually really too close to the famous arms of Ireland ("Vert, a harp Or."), particularly in view of the fact that the additions are a bordure (a standard cadency mark) and a trefoil (a.k.a. shamrock). (04/1989)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Badge for the Order of the Stag's Heart. Vert, a stag argent, unguled, armed and salient through a heart voided, all within a bordure embattled Or.

Although there was considerable sentiment in the College of Arms in favour of this submission, after a long and careful examination of the emblazon we could not consider this compatible with the standards of period style which the College has in the past presented to the Society (especially for group armoury). In the cover letter to the March, 1989, letter of acceptances and returns, voiding and fimbriation of ordinaries which could be placed in the center of the shield was allowed. The heart here is not an ordinary. Were this the only anomaly, the issue of complexity and style would be much dicier. However, joined to the voided heart is the design which depends on the beast "doing a circus stunt" as one staff member described it, i.e., jumping through the heart. This posture inevitably obscures some of the identifying features of both the stag and the heart, since the head and antlers of the stag overlie the indentation of the heart to chief. Thus the shape of the upper portion of the heart is obscured and, since the Or antlers lie largely along the Or curve of the heart, so are the identifying antlers. (04/1989)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Badge for use as standard hoist in personal banners. Vert, a cross embattled Or.

The idea of registering a badge for use as the standard hoist in personal banners to show kingdom of affiliation is a nice one. (Many Easterners have used the blue tyger badge in this way for years.) As Anton the Fair has pointed out, however, it is a hoist, not a banner fly which is something quite different. Unfortunately, as Silver Trumpet has pointed out, this is in conflict with the device of Clarissa Elana de Perrenoud ("Vert, a cross of four mascles conjoined, pommetty at all points, Or.") under the old and new rules.Under the new rules, it would also be a conflict with the mundane arms of Gerson ("Vert, a cross invected Or.").In either case, there is but one change in type of cross. (01/1990)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Change of designation of title of Escarbuncle Herald as Herald Extraordinary.

As has already been verbally explained to White Stag, herald's titles are registered by the Society without any rank, with the rank determined by the kingdom to which the title is registered. Thus, it would theoretically be in the power of the kingdom to decide that the White Stag title should be used not for the Principal Herald of the kingdom but rather for a local pursuivancy. The title would remain registered to the kingdom, but the person bearing it would be called "White Stag Pursuivant". Like the title of pursuivant and the title of herald, the title herald extraordinary is an indicator of rank and is bestowed by the kingdom. From the time the title was created by Master Wilhelm, it has often been used as a "retirement title" for heralds who are still active in Society heraldry at the kingdom or Society level but who no longer hold any administrative position.It is a signal mark of honour and should be bestowed sparingly. If a title is bestowed on someone as Herald Extraordinary, that title is usually retained by the person with Herald Extraordinary rank as long as he or she is active as a herald. The fact that the Outlands is registering the title for use by Konrad von Greifswald in token of his services to heraldry in the Outlands does not affect the rank associated with that title. (01/1990)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Name for Trefoil Consortium.

This was submitted in conjunction with a badge for the use of the Trefoil Herald and his staff. As noted by Silver Trumpet, there is a long-standing precedent, preserved in the new administrative regulations, banning the registration of badges for subsidiary offices when a badge/seal exists for the primary office. Thus the badge could not be registered with any designation hinting that it would be for the use of a specific herald or group of heralds below the Kingdom level. (01/1990)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Title for Puca na n-Adharc Herald.

Withdrawn at request of White Stag Principal Herald. (03/1989)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Badge for Award of the Protector of the Queen's Heart. A cup hilt rapier inverted proper, overall on a heart gules ensigned of a stag's attire proper crowned with a Saxon crown, a rose Or, barbed and seeded proper.

Withdrawn at the request of White Stag. (04/1988)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Badge for King's Bard. A trefoil argent, surmounted in base by a harp Or, all within a stag's attire proper.

Not only is this badge overly complex, as a number of commentors noted, it combines metallic and coloured charges in a manner prohibited by AR 13b. (04/1988)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Badge for Queen's Bard. A rose Or, slipped and leaved vert, surmounted in base by a harp Or, all within a stag's attire proper.

Not only is this badge overly complex, as a number of commentors noted, it combines metallic and coloured charges in a manner prohibited by AR 13b. (04/1988)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Badge for the Order of the Walker of the Way. A palmer robed, hooded and bearing a staff sable.

While they have permission to conflict with the arms of Ton the Traveller ("Argent, a palmer, robed, hooded, and bearing a staff, passant to sinister sable.") from which this is derived, they do not have permission to conflict with Rhianwen o Enfys Disberod ("Or, a palmer passant, robed, hooded, and bearing a staff sable, atop a cloudless natural rainbow issuant from base proper.") which differs only by the addition of the rainbow, the badge is submitted as fieldless. (05/1989)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Badge for The Venerable Guard. A sword inverted palewise between two others in pile, all proper and issuant from a demi-trefoil vert itself issuant from a torse wreathes vert and Or, the trefoil charged with a rose Or.

As the convoluted blazon suggests, this is too complex for a badge: six different charges of four types. Additionally, it is clearly designed to be a crest, as White Stag himself notes, and we do not register crests for Society use. (04/1988)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Change of badge for Order of the Promise of the Outlands. A fawn's head argent, budding and issuant from a torse of roses Or, barbed and seeded proper.

Withdrawn at the request of White Stag. (04/1988)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Change of badge. Vert, a stag salient argent, attired, unguled and within a bordure embattled Or.

Withdrawn at the request of White Stag. (04/1988)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Change of device. Vert, a stag salient argent, attired, unguled and within a laurel wreath, in chief a Saxon crown, all within a bordure embattled Or.

Withdrawn at the request of White Stag. (04/1988)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Change of seal for White Stag Principal Herald. Two crossed trumpets, bells to chief, surmounted by a scroll bendwise sinister bearing the words "SALTANDI SALTARE", overall a stag salient, the whole within a bordure embattled.

There are a couple of problems with this seal. Firstly, as Crescent has pointed out, it is doubtful whether a bordure should be used on a tinctureless seal if it cannot be used on a fieldless badge for lack of a defining field. (Seals need not by any means be round, although a majority of period seals were for technical reasons.) This practise cannot be "grandfathered" here since the bordure was not on the original seal. This is a problem that could be overcome perhaps by placing the central charges within an annulet embattled on the inner edge. However, the use of the ribbon and motto is contrary to current practise of the College. The Society does not register mottos as part of devices or badges (although they may be assumed and used by submittors in an achievement). In the early days a few badges did include such items and at least one tinctureless herald's seal (for the Dragon Herald) did as well, but the latter was changed some years ago to the applause of the College. (05/1989)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Order of the Argent Hart. Name only.

In using the adjective form "argent" here in a heraldic usage, the adjective should follow the noun as in the original French. Unfortunately, if the name is changed to the Order of the Hart Argent, it would conflict by close assonance with the Caid 's Order of the Harp Argent. Use of the vernacular would prevent this problem. (09/1987)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Title for Montrose Herald.

This is directly in conflict with a period heraldic title from the English College of Arms, as White Stag himself notes on the letter of intent. Heraldic titles are registered independently of the status of the position (thus it would be theoretically possible to have White Stag Pursuivant, White Stag Herald, White Stag Herald Extraordinary or White Stag Principal Herald). Therefore no difference can be derived from the rank descriptor. (12/1987)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Title for Púca na n-Adharc Herald.

The idiom which would make this "Bugbear Herald" or "Pet Peeve Herald" seems to be a modern one. In period, the term would have meant something like "Hobgoblin of the Horn Herald". While it may well be that the lady for whom this title was devised is the good fairy (or "brownie") of the Outlands heraldic bureaucracy, the name seems inappropriate. (07/1988)

Outlands, Queen of. Change of device. Vert, a hind salient, unguled and in chief a Saxon crown within a wreath of roses, lying as on a bordure, Or.

Withdrawn at the request of White Stag. (04/1988)

Owain ap Gruffydd gan Ty Ddewi. Name only.

The name as submitted conflicts with Owain ap Gruffydd, the Welsh name of the prince better known to the English as Owen Glendower. As Brachet has noted, the place name is the Welsh form of St. David's, the cathedral town. As one of the most famous treasurers of St. David's Cathedral was Owen Pole, we felt uneasy about simply dropping the patronymic. (06/1988)

Owain ap Ioan. Badge. A plate charged with a pomme within an annulet sable.

Under both the old and the new rules this comes afoul of the restrictions on use of roundels which could appear as arms of pretense: "Such charges may not contain an ordinary that terminates at the edge or more than one charge." (Arms of Pretense, XI.4, p.16). Several conflicts were called against this, e.g., Edwin Bersark ("Gules, a roundel so drawn as to represent a round shield battered in long and honourable service, argent."), Walter De Witte ("Gyronny azure and sable, on a plate a pegasus salient azure."), Sumer Redmaene ("Purpure, on a plate a rose gules, seeded Or.") and Cassandra of the East Winds ("Sable, on a plate a flame gules."). Under the old rules, which exclude difference for fields, these would be conflicts. Under the new rules, these are all clear: one difference for the field and another for either adding the tertiaries (Edwin) or for changing at least two of the attributes of the tertiaries. (11/1989)

Owen Sherard Trahern. Device. Sable crusilly couped argent, on a mullet of ten points elongated to base Or, a winged spear, wings displayed, sable.

Conflicts visually with the device of Rolf the Relentless ("Pean, a compass star fitchy Or."). (09/1986)

Padraic of Armaugh. Name only.

The see of St. Patrick was at Armagh and he is called Patrick of Armagh in period sources. (01/1987)

Padraig of Lough Strangford. Name only.

When dealing with patron saints as famous as Patrick, some care must be used to avoid locations which are associated with their careers. Unfortunately, Irish tradition has it that it was in Strangford Lough that Patrick and his party were attacked by the Irish chieftain Dichu, who was so overcome when Patrick faced him that he laid down his arms and was baptized. Supposedly, Patrick built a church on the site to commemorate his first conversion in northern Ireland (Sabhall Padraic or Saul Abbey). Downpatrick, close to the southern end of the lough is, as the name suggests, closely associated with Patrick: it is said to be his burial place and for much of our period one of his major shrines was located there. (08/1988)

Patri ibn Cariadoc. Name only.

Documentation was kindly provided for a name similar in sound to Cariadoc from Arabic of the Crusader period. However, the approximation was not really close enough to justify this form as a transliteration, especially since it has a known identity as a Welsh personal name. Alas! out current rules are quite definite in requiring the patronymic particle to match the language of the name in the patronymic or to use the "lingua franca". Although the name is quite reasonable, given the persona story of Cariadoc of the Boar, we do not register persona stories. . . (03/1989)

Patrick Connor O'Donnell McPhelan. Device. Vert, a chevron inverted between a Celtic cross and two wolves salient addorsed argent.

Conflict with Lysbeth Poulsdottis ("Vert, on a chevron inverted enhanced argent, a dexter arm reversed embowed terminating at the wrist with a metal hook proper."). (09/1989)

Patrick Domhnall O'Dea. Device. Per pale embattled purpure and Or, a demi-lion rampant issuant from base and in chief two crosses pointed, all counterchanged.

After much consideration, we were bound to agree with the commentors who felt that the counterchanging along the line of division unacceptably reduced the identifiability of the already unusually placed demi-lion. Note that this had nothing to do with the depiction on the emblazon sheet, which was admittedly poor: even after rendition by a good heraldic artist the "crazy- quilt" effect diminished the recognisability of the lion, already diminished by its placement in base. (06/1989)

Patrick O'Reilly the Tall. Device. Vert, three mullets within a bordure argent.

Conflict with Morgan Morningstar ("Vert, three compass stars, the greater points wavy, within a bordure invected argent."): DoD4B3 specifically cites mullets of five points as being different by only a minor point from mullets of eight points and the visual resemblance here is just too great despite the difference in the bordures. (12/1987)

Patrick Shannon of Newhall. Device. Per fess embowed-counterembowed sable and purpure, 3 bars embowed-counterembowed between a mullet of four points and a crab tergiant inverted argent.

The contrast between sable and purpure is too poor to permit the use of this complex line of division. The overlying barrulet only makes the situation worse since it distracts the eye from such contrast as does exist between the two tinctures. (03/1987)

Paul of Somerton. Device. Azure, a lion rampant and a gore sinister argent.

Conflict with Allye ("Azure, a lion rampant argent."). (03/1988)

Paul Wickenden of Thanet. Device. Vert, on a bend sinister argent between two mullets of eight points Or, three crosses crosslet palewise Or.

Conflict with Tav-Alandil cited on the letter of intent ("Vert, a bend sinister argent between a hawk close and a lightning bolt Or."): there is a major point for change of type of a group of secondaries and a minor for addition of a group of tertiaries. (03/1988)

Pavel Feodorovich Strelkov. Device. Argent, on a pale between two arrows inverted azure, four mullets, one, one and two, argent.

Not only is the "constellation" on the pale not period style, this submission also conflicts with the device of Mellissande Marsetoile ("Argent, on a pale between two mullets of eight points elongated to base azure another argent."). (08/1989)

Pelinora de Orion. Badge for La Casa del Delfin Amable. Azure, a pall inverted between a natural dolphin uriant, a natural dolphin hauriant and a crescent, all argent.

We are compelled to agree with Brachet that the differences in position of the dolphins make them visually different charges so that there are three different charge types about the pall, an arrangement that has been ruled illicit even for a device. (01/1987)

Pelinora de Orion. Household name for Casa del Moro el ojo azul.

The submittor forbade any changes to the household name saying "it is correct". Unfortunately, she erred in that belief. The English translation of the household name was "House of the Blue-Eyed Moor". If she meant that she wanted to indicate that the Moor had one blue eye and one of another tincture, she could have "Casa del Moro del Ojo Azul". However, it is much more likely that she wishes simply to indicate that the Moor is blue-eyed. In that case, the household name should be "Casa del Moro de los Ojos Azules". (12/1988)

Pendaran Glamorgan. Name only.

All evidence, including the submittor's own documentation, supports the view that the name "Pendaran" was a unique name, appearing only in the Mabinogion as the name of the personage at the court of Pwyll who gave Pryderi his name. (Note also that in the Penguin translation by Jeffrey Gantz [p. 64] "Pendaran" is used as a title.). (10/1987)

Pepin Moroni. Device. Per saltire Or, purpure, vert and argent, a jester's bauble gules, faced to dexter argent.

While the submission is undeniable appropriate for a fool, noone could document a field divided of four colours per saltire and it does not appear to be period practise. (11/1988)

Pepin Moroni. Device. Per saltire Or, purpure, vert and argent, a jester's bauble gules, faced to dexter argent.

The submission was returned in November, 1988, because "a field divided of four colours per saltire does not appear to be period practise". The submittor and Star have appealed this, citing several Society examples of armoury which involved fields quarterly with three or four tinctures. Unfortunately, the most recent of these dates from 1981 and the other two were registered in the mass pandemonium of Heraldicon in 1979 so the precedents are not very compelling. On the other hand, in recent years such fields have been regularly returned as non-period style. We would have greatly enjoyed getting some documentation for period usage of this sort of field (it is so appropriate for a fool!). Failing such evidence, we feel that we cannot register this device. (05/1989)

Peregrine Darkhawk. Badge. A finger ring gules, gemmed azure, conjoined to a pair of wings displayed sable.

Conflict with the device of Thorvald inn Grimi cited in the letter of intent ("Argent, a hawk volant within an annulet gules."). The point count is marginal, but the visual dominance of the annulet gules becomes clear when the emblazons are compared. Conflict as well with the tinctureless badge of Terellys of Darkmoor for Kushyons Flyte House ("A winged cushion lozengewise displayed."): no points may be derived from tincture and the partial difference between the compound primary charges derived from changing the ring for the cushion cannot be a full major point. (01/1987)

Perkuk Gilgehjeh. Device. Gyronny of sixteen issuant from base Or and gule, a bear's pawprint palewise sable.

Conflict with Nicholas Wolfmar ("Gyronny of six issuant from base gules and Or, a wolf's pawprint argent."). There is a major point for the tincture of the pawprint, a minor for the changes to the field, but nothing whatsoever for the kind of pawprint. Note that the gyronny of sixteen is far too many to have issuant from a non-standard location (i.e., in base). (05/1989)

Perkuk Gilgehjen. Device. Gules, on a demisun issuant from base throughout a bear's pawprint sable.

Conflict with the Oregon National Guard ("Gules, the setting sun issuant of twelve light rays throughout Or, thereupon a beaver sejant erect proper."). If the demi-sun were drawn in a more standard manner several Society conflicts would be obvious. (07/1988)

Petraia Thule, Canton of. Name and device. Or, a compass star gules within a laurel wreath, in base a chain fesswise throughout, embowed to base, sable, all within a bordure gules.

While Habicht is correct in noting the use of Thule in certain occult movements of dubious report and others in noting other modern associations (Prince Valiant was named by some), the primary difficulty of the name is a conflict with the original Thule itself. As Targe noted on the letter of intent, in the ancient sources the location is given only as "Thule" (even in a majority of the Latin sources). The descriptions of the area are uniform: it is in the far north, is rocky and desolate and surrounded by mists and freezing fog and at midsummer the sun never sets. All for the primary candidates for the historic "Thule" are notably rocky, with rocks falling directly to the sea. This is true of the Norse fjord country, of the Shetland Islands and, most notably, of Iceland, which is the most likely candidate for the original "Thule". As the name cannot be registered, neither can the device (holding names are not possible for groups). As noted on the letter of intent, the position of the chain on the proposed device was anomalous (it reminded some of the chains that bar entry to closed parking lots!). (03/1989)

Philip MhicRath of Locksley. Badge. Azure, two swept-hilt rapiers inverted, Or and argent, their blades entwined to form a pall, between a decrescent argent and an increscent Or.

The return of this badge by Laurel in 1985 was appealed on the basis of the recent passage of a recent badge which included three nails sable bound into the shape of a cross, bound with a cord Or. Unfortunately, this example, where there is adequate contrast between the sable and Or, does nothing to emend the current ban on wreathing of two metals. The basis for the limitation on wreathing of two tinctures of the same category is the reduction of identifiability that ensues: in this case, there would be some question as to the identity of the primary charge, even if the contrast between the two swords were adequate. It was the consensus of the College that this would not be acceptable for a device and definitely was not acceptable for a badge. (08/1988)

Philip Trevor of Breckenglade. Device. Per bend sinister azure and argent, an annulet counterchanged.

Strong visual conflict with Aislinn nic Eoghainn ("Argent, a gore sinister azure, overall an annulet counterchanged."). This is very close to a mere colour reversal of Aislinn's device as it appears in the files and as she displays it (she was working on some embroidery during the weekend of the June Laurel meeting). (07/1987)

Philippa MacCallum. Device. Plumetty Or and gules, a horse's head couped argent, maintaining in its mouth a ring Or.

There was general agreement in the College that there exists a conflict with the mundane arms of Marsh ("Gules, a horse's head couped argent."). Although included in the blazon because of its significance to the submittor, the ring is not heraldically significant. (04/1988)

Philippe Guillaume Claude du Chat. Device. Argent, a cat's paw erased sable, claws to chief, within an orle of gouttes de sang.

Conflict with Tuania Catsclaw ("Argent, goutty de sang, a cat's paw dismembered sable, armed argent, embrued gules."). As Brachet noted, there "is NO difference visually between goutty and this orle of gouttes." (01/1988)

Philippe Lyon de Marseilles. Device. Sable, a lion's head cabossed Or within an annulet of flame proper, on a chief Or three fleurs­de­lys gules.

This is in conflict with the cited device of Ari ben Abraham ("Sable, a lion's head cabossed, on a chief Or, five mullets of six points sable.") The allusion to increases in the importance of tertiary charges when placed on an ordinary (in Master Baldwin's cover letter of April, 1986) would seem to be applied to ordinaries where they are the only charge on the field. Here this is not the case: the ordinary is itself a secondary charge and therefore the charges lying upon it are reduced in visual importance. (11/1986)

Phillipe Lyon de Marseilles. Device. Sable, a lion's head cabossed Or within an annulet of flame proper, on a chief Or three fleurs-de-lys gules.

Crescent's arguments in his appeal are eloquent, but with the best will in the world it did not seem possible to make the change in the tertiaries carry this clear of Ari ben Abraham ("Sable, a lion's head cabossed, on a chief Or five mullets of six points sable."). Even if the cumulative changes to the tertiaries were held to equal a full point of difference there would be an apparent visual conflict. And it is by no means clear that the tertiaries in this case should be counted thus: before considering the changes in the tertiaries, it is necessary first to "process" the tincture of the field (which is the same), the tincture and type of the primary charge (which are the same), the addition of the central secondary and the type and tincture of the peripheral secondary charge (which are the same). The "business" of the charges in the center of the field, particularly the annulet of flame proper, detracts materially from the force to be attributed to the tertiaries which hover on the periphery of the field. (For a lengthier discourse on the psychology of perception as applied to blazon, see the cover letter to the March Letter of Acceptance and Return.). (04/1987)

Phillippa Llewelyn Schuyler. Device. Argent, a lavendar plant proper, on a chief invected azure, a quill pen fesswise reversed argent.

Conflict with Jennet Witeney of Little Cowarne ("Argent, a lady fern frond vert, on a chief invected azure, a whelk shell fesswise opening to sinister Or."). The similarity of shape in the two plants seemed too great to allow a full point of difference for type here in addition to the partial tincture difference. The visual resemblance is even more striking when one considers the similarity in shape of the two tertiary charges when placed on the chief invected. (12/1988)

Phillippa MacCallum. Spelling correction and device. Plumetty Or and gules, a horse's head, couped and sinister facing, argent, maintaining in its mouth an annulet Or.

Conflict with Keriane St. John of Shaddoncarraig ("Purpure, a horse's head erased to sinister argent."). Note that there is no way to guarantee that the ring would be placed on the gules part of the field so it is effectively "not there" (and in any case is too trivial a detail to provide the necessary extra difference required). (09/1988)

Phineas Ginn. Device. Argent, a pall inverted sable, overall a mascle azure.

We could not agree with Brigantia that this was clear of Gerhard Ruprecht von Eichenberg, cited on the letter of intent ("Argent, a pall inverted sable surmouted by oak leaves in pall vert alternating with three acorns argent."). It also conflicts with the badge of Aureliane Rioghail ("A mascle azure."). (08/1988)

Phoenix Glade, Shire of. Device. Gules, on sun within a laurel wreath argent, a demi-eagle displayed sable.

On the letter of intent the primary charge was blazoned as "an estoile rayonny", but what is depicted is a poorly drawn sun. An estoile by definition has wavy rays and normally has six of these unless another number is specified. Also the tertiary charge is not a phoenix, since the flames of fire which distinguish a phoenix from a demi-eagle are lacking. In any case, this conflicts with Conroy der Rote ("Gules, on a sun argent a falcon's leg couped a-la-quise proper.") (02/1989)

Phoenix Glade, Shire of. Badge. Gules, on an sun argent, a demi-eagle displayed sable.

See the blazon comments on their device above. This badge also conflicts with Conroy der Rote ("Gules, on a sun argent a falcon's leg couped a-la-quise proper.") and with the mundane arms of Richmond as well ("Gules, a sun in its glory argent."). (02/1989)

Phyllis Meisterssohn. Device. Per fess argent and gules, on a pale a recorder, all counterchanged.

Conflict with Lavider ("Per fess gules and argent, a pale counterchanged. ", as cited by Papworth, p. 1002). (03/1987)

Phyllis Meisterssohn. Device. Quarterly argent and counter-ermine, on a pale gules, a recorder argent.

Conflict with Faigunn of the Silver Shuriken ("Tierced per pale Or, gules, and sable, on the middle tierce a mullet of eight points pierced argent."). Faigunn's device could as easily be blazoned "Per pale Or and sable, on a pale gules. . ." (09/1988)

Phyllis Meisterssohn. Device. Quarterly argent and counter-ermine, on a pale gules, a recorder argent.

This was returned in September, 1988, for conflict with Faigunn of the Silver Shuriken ("Tierced per pale Or, gules and sable, on the middle tierce a mullet of eight points pierced argent."). White Stag has appealed this return on the grounds that a major and minor should be derived from the field because of the change in field division and the partial chane in tincture. Leaving aside, long-standing precedent that no more than a single major can be derived from the field except in certain, very specific circumstances, the visual similarity of the "tierce" and a "pale" is overwhelming, taken in the context of the similarities in number and tincture for the tertiaryies. This view is only reinforced by the excellent coloured sketchs White Stag drew of the conflicting devices. (08/1989)

Pierrine la Tapissier de la Fôret. Name only.

Unfortunately, the French form of "Tapissier" is "Tapissière", as the submittor's own documentation shows. As the forms submitted to the Laurel Office indicate that no changes may be made to the name, we are forced to return this. [Ed. Note: It is heartbreaking to have to return something on technical grammatical ground like this, when it could be fixed by adding an accent and a silent "e", simply because the forms forbid any changes. . .] (07/1989)

Politarchopolis, Shire of. Device. Argent, two chevronels gules between two griffins combattant and a laurel wreath azure.

There was a considerable amount of sentiment at the meeting for "forgetting the rules" and passing this submission although it conflicts, as Vesper noted, with the mundane arms of Chetwyn ("Argent, two chevronels gules."). Unfortunately, as Crescent explained, the "hardship rule" can hardly apply as the delays in submission here do not derive from heraldic non-feasance, as Vesper's own chronology indicates. The "Grace Period" too is not really applicable, whether one counts from the issuance of Master Baldwin's rules or the tenure of the current Laurel, who has been (we hope) been consistent from the first in applying the difference that can be derived from adding a group of charges. (10/1988)

Politikopolis, Shire of. Name and device. Argent, two chevronels gules between in chief two griffins combattant and in base a laurel wreath azure.

The fact remains that Master Baldwin's original return of the name was based on accurate analysts of the linguistic elements of the name which Is tautological and could not have existed as an actual place name in classical Greek, which is the linguistic environment in which this name has been placed by its syntax. No real evidence to the contrary has been adduced: the Xeroxes provided the Laurel Office are from the "Baby" Liddell and Scott. Comparison with the citations given In the unabridged Liddell and Scott as well as two decades of experience in the study and teaching of Greek on the part of the Laurel staff support the original return. Unfortunately, the device cannot be registered without a suitable name (holding names may not be created for groups). (09/1986)

Pycard Dunstable. Device. Or, an open book argent, bound, and surmounted at its sides by two domestic cats statant erect and aspectant sable.

The letter of intent indicated concerns over potential "witchcraft" allusions, but it was the virtually unanimous opinion of the College of Arms that black cats and books in and of themselves do not witchcraft make. However, the book is essentially a metal charge upon a metal field, contrary to mundane and Society practice (Yale University, for instance, has an argent book on an azure field). The sable binding in this case is visually no more than thin fimbriation. The posture of the cats partially surmounting the book is more than a little unusual (really supporting the book would be a far more usual and identifiable arrangement). Also, there is a conflict with Malkin Grey ("Or, on an open book proper, edged sable, a cat couchant to sinister sable."). (06/1988)

Quintasarius Silverstar. Name and device. Per chevron sable and azure, on a chevron sable, fimbriated Or, between two mullets of eight points argent and a demi-sun issuant from base Or, three mullets of eight points argent.

The given name was documented on the letter of intent as deriving from Ben Hur. Leaving aside the fact that Lew Wallace's novel is hardly a model of historical research, the closest name in that novel appears to be "Quintus Arrius", the Roman who rescues Ben Hur and whose name he adopts. The device is pushed over the edge of complexity under both rules by use of the four tinctures and four different charges with one type (the chevron) diminished in identifiability because it is defined entirely by its fimbriation and two others because they are almost identical in their shapes (the compass stars and mullets of eight points, which are in fact drawn almost identically). (11/1989)

Rachel bat Shimeon min-Verulamium. Name only.

Unfortunately, the submittor's own documentation indicated that "min" is an "inseparable preposition" from Hebrew. By our rules this means that the place name would have either to be Hebraic or be from a language which demonstrably merged in this manner. No such documentation has been provided. Although she could be Rachel bat Shimeon of Verulamium, she will allow no changes of grammar or spelling to her name so it must be returned in its entirety. (02/1987)

Raedwulf Odell. Device. Per bend sinister vert and vert, ermined Or, a bend sinister between an eagle displayed and a tower Or.

Conflict with Mikhail Andreyevich Putnikov ("Vert, a bend sinister between a bear passant and a lion rampant to sinister Or"). (11/1986)

Ragnar Kaupmadr. Device. Azure, a drinking horn between a chief and a base embattled Or.

This is visually Or, on a fess embattled counterembattled azure, a drinking horn Or. As such it conflicts with Aber ("Or, a fess embattled azure.", cited in Papworth, p. 706), as noted by a number of commentors. (05/1988)

Ragnar Shorthair. Device. Per chevron gules and argent, a saltire moline sable.

Conflict with Banester ("Argent, a cross moline saltirewise sable", as cited in Papworth, p. 1062). (03/1987)

Ragnar Skadeskudtr Sigtryggson fra Skardstind. Badge for House Blazing Gauntlets. Two gauntlets clasped in chevron argent, from the fists issuant a flame Or, within and surmounting a belt in annulo sable charged with the words "Forged in Fire".

Check whether name passed. As a number of commentors noted, there is a precedent going back some eight years banning the use of the "badge within a strap" since this is a standard form of display for Scottish badges: the chief uses the plain badge and the clansmen use the badge within a strap. Therefore, we have on several occasions returned or pended submissions to allow them to be considered without the strap. In this case, dropping the strap would not be adequate to resolve this problem since conflicts then arise: Sine ni Chlurain ("Vert, a pair of cubit arms issuant in chevron and crossed at the wrists argent.") and Amber Adeliza of Firehold ("Azure, on a pair of hands appaumy erased conjoined in pile inverted argent, a flame vert."). (01/1990)

Ragnar Thordarson. Device. Or, a dolphin naiant embowed and a dolphin naiant to sinister, embowed and inverted, both vert, spined gules, within a bordure engrailed azure.

Unfortunately, this conflicts with the device registered to Kenelm Reimund of the Plains in July, 1989: "Argent, in pale a dolphin naiant to sinister vert, spined and finned gules within a bordure engrailed azure." Under either set of rules, the only difference is the field tincture. (12/1989)

Ragnarr Hardraada. Device. Gules, a pale bevilled Or, overall a Norse raven sable.

There are several problems with this device. The pale is not a true bevilled pale but either half a pale dancetty or a sig rune throughout, neither of which may be used in Society devices. The raven is not an identifiable charge. The raven is technically colour on colour (see AR4). Finally, it is in conflict with the badge of Cigfran Myddrael Joserlin ("Gules, a pale Or, overall a raven disclosed proper."). (12/1986)

Ragnvald Joransson Ek. Device. Quarterly argent and lozengy gules and argent, in bend two pairs of oak leaves pilewise, fructed, vert, overall a fillet cross sable.

This fails by the accumulation of too many anomalies. Despite the attenuated cross, this clearly looks like quartering (the impression is the greater since the Germanic nations commonly superimpose a cross on the line of division of their grand quarters). What is more, as Obelisk rightly notes, it quarters the arms of Monaco in the second and third quarters! The fillet cross here is perilously close to "thin line heraldry" and, as Brachet notes, the foliage could be mistaken by the casual observer for a laurel wreath. (12/1987)

Raibeart am Ulfr an t-Ban-Righ. Name and device. Vert, on a bend sinister Or between a horned grey wolf's head erased to sinister proper and a cubit arm issuant from sinister base maintaining a claymore bendwise sinister argent, three pine trees palewise vert (Canis lupus).

Leaving aside the question of the propriety of the epithet of "the Queen's wolf", which some considered presumptuous, the name is not properly formed. "Ulfr" is an Old Norse word for "wolf", although it is used here with a modern Gaelic article, which is not permissible. Moreover, the form of the article in "am" is used with masculine nouns only beginning with "b", "f", "m" or "p". The term Ban-Righ (literally, "female king") is feminine and so should have the article "na" for the feminine genitive, rather than the masculine article form (used in any case before a noun beginning with a vowel). Since he has forbidden any changes to his name, both name and device must be returned. In any case, this device totters on the edge of acceptability: it strains at the proper use of proper [sic], with the beast- monster as well as the trees being proper. With the added anomaly of the minuscule arm issuant from base supporting the sword which is not really bendwise sinister, this is not really period style. We would suggest that the submittor adopt a more normal wolf's head argent and use the sword alone, dropping the extraneous arm. (01/1987)

Raibeart de Braose. Name only.

No, he may not be Robert Bruce! (06/1989)

Raibeart mac Donnachaidh. Name only.

The gentle's mundane name is Robert Duncan and he desired a natural Gaelic translation. Unfortunately, a different gentle, also mundanely known as Robert Duncan, had the same idea first: the name Raibeart Donnachaidh was registered in 1984. (10/1988)

Raibeart Ulfr. Device. Vert, on a chevron Or between a claymore fesswise reversed and a horned wolf's head, erased and sinister facing, argent, three pine trees proper.

The device does conflict with Theodore de Emerald ("Vert, on a chevron Or, three brilliant cut diamonds seem from above proper."). There is a major point for the addition of the secondaries, but the difference derived from the tertiaries is very weak in view of the coincidence of number and tincture (vert). In fairness to the submittor, he should probably be informed that the reaction to the horned wolf's head was dubious at best. (01/1988)

Raibert Ulfr. Device. Per bend sinister gules and azure, a bend sinister Or, transfixing the neck of a horned wolf's head erased argent.

No documentation was provided to indicate that an animate object could be transfixed by an ordinary in this manner in period style. Taken together with the unusual horned wolf, drawn in trian aspect, as is almost required by the design, this just does not seem to be a period design. (11/1989)

Randal Avery of the Mease. Device. Argent, a wyvern erect, wings displayed, gules within a double tressure sable.

Conflict with the famous arms of Drake ("Argent, a wyvern, wings displayed and tail nowed, gules.", as cited in Papworth, p. 984). (05/1989)

Randal Benton. Device. Gules, a sun argent, eclipsed sable, between three polehammers in triangle inverted argent.

Conflict with Conroy der Rote ("Gules, on a sun argent, a falcon's leg couped a la quise proper."). (10/1986)

Randal Benton. Device. Per chevron enhanced rayonny gules, mulletty of four points argent, and sable, in pale a sun issuant from the line of division Or, eclipsed sable, and a unicorn rampant to sinister Or.

This is not period style. The anomalies here are simply too great. In the first place this is not really "per chevron enhanced", but rather "chapé rayonny gules, mulletty of four points argent", i.e., colour on colour. Even if it were a proper "per chevron" field division, the gules rayonny which lies almost entirely on sable would not show up well. Also, the "sun eclipsed" is really thin line heraldry being merely a band of rays linked to a sector of an annulet. Suns issuant from a complex line of division like this are a major anomaly (indeed, suns issuant from anything but the sides of the shield are exceptional in period heraldry). The whole is simply "too much". (07/1987)

Randwulf aus dem Schnee. Device. Argent, a wolf rampant to sinister sable and three wolves' teeth issuant from sinister gules.

As Hund noted, this is in conflict with Eirianedd o Randir Mawr ("Argent, a hawk rising, wings addorsed and inverted, sable, issuant from sinister three wolve's teeth gules."). It is also uncomfortably close to Rohais of Wolfhill ("Argent, a wolf rampant to sinister sable atop a mount vert, in chief a rose gules, barbed and seeded proper."). (06/1989)

Ranthulfr Asparlundr. Device. Tierced per fess gules, argent and sable, two griffins passant and an aspen leaf inverted, all counterchanged.

This is not period style. Even were there only two tinctures involved, the visual complexity (these appear to be two different types of charge divided per fess and overlying a fess) would make the effect confusing. This would be far better if the one of the charges were placed on the fess surrounded by three of the other charge. In redesigning note that the flag of Syria, which has been seen much in the news of late, is "Per fess gules and sable, on a fess argent two mullets vert." (Our thanks to Master Gawaine for that reminder.). (01/1987)

Raonull Modar. Badge. A six-petalled rose sable.

Conflict with Wildenfels ("Or, a rose sable."), Sylvester von Beerburg ("Argent, on a rose sable, barbed vert, a death's head argent."), and the badge of the Queen of Ansteorra ("A rose sable, charged with a rose Or, thereon a mullet of five greater and five lesser points sable.") (09/1988)

Raonull Modar. Device. Gules, upon a passion nail inverted argent, a six-petalled rose sable.

The general consensus in the College was that the "passion nail" was so distorted as to be unidentifiable as anything other than a deformed lozenge. (05/1988)

Raonull Modar. Device. Per pale flory counterflory azure, ermined argent, and argent, in sinister a rose azure.

Silver Trumpet is correct in citing a technical conflict with both Alyanora of Vinca ("Argent, a periwinkle proper.") and the badge of Angharad of the Blue Rose ("A rose within a triangle voided azure."). Only a major point can be derived from the difference in field and the derivative change in position can count at most as a minor (It is noticeable that the sinister portion of the field is visually very close to an impalement of Alyanora's device). In the case of the fieldless badge, the current rules allow no difference to be derived from the field or from the derivative position change. (11/1988)

Raseem al­Mujahed. Device. Sable, an Arabian citadel Or and in chief two swords in saltire proper, all within a bordure embattled Or.

Unfortunately, this conflicts with the badge of Goldwyn of Britain ("Sable, a castle and in chief a compass star, all within a bordure embattled Or."). (12/1986)

Rask Ulfbjorn. Name only.

While "Rask" is a reasonably English form for the Scandinavian "Raski", the documentation provided suggests strongly that that is a diminutive form. As Crescent notes, more solid evidence is needed for its use given the existence of "rask" as a verb in English. (03/1989)

Rathlin Ogham Trilamhan. Name only.

Neither Rathlin nor Ogham are "common period Irish names" as the submittor's documentation states. A rath is an Irish ring fort and the term appears as the initial element in many Irish place names. Ogham is the name given to an early Celtic alphabet associated in many sources with Druidic learning. Also, the submitted byname appears to mean "three gauntlets" not "three hands" as the submittor believed. (02/1987)

Rathyen de Bures of Acton. Badge. Sable, a heart gules, fimbriated, between two oak leaves in pile argent.

While a considerable number of commentors appeared to feel that the heart was a "simple" enough charge to fimbriate, this falls in conflict with previous commentary which favoured limiting the use of fimbriation to ordinaries at the center of the field (for instance, in opposing the use of fimbriated crescents). While we grant that the heart is an essentially simple charge, the fimbriation here adds a degree of complexity that is inappropriate for a badge, diminishing as it does the immediacy of the identifiability of the gules heart. (08/1989)

Rayah Blackstar Banu. Name and device. Argent, a compass star elongated to base and on a chief embattled sable three hawk's bells argent.

By the submittor's own documentation, rayah is a common noun referring to a non-Islamic subject of the Sultan of Turkey and no documentation has provided for its use as a given name. The translation given for Banu ("Lady") implies that it might be a title, which would not be permissible in a registered name; documentation must be provided that this is not the case. The device conflicts with Ceinwen y Griffwn ferch Cynan ("Argent, a dolphin hauriant vert, on a chief embattled sable, three hawk bells argent."). While there are two points for difference of type and tincture of the primary charge, the devices are otherwise identical and the visual similarity is so overwhelming that the inference of kinship would be inescapable. (01/1987)

Raymond of Argentwood. Name and device. Sable, on a bend argent between two mullets of six points Or, three increscents palewise sable.

The use of the French adjective "argent" in this manner, prefixed to an English noun, does not seem to be period, although Silverwood would be fine. As he forbids even minor changes to his name, the name as a whole must be returned. The device does visually conflict with Aynsworth ("Sable, on a bend argent three crescents of the field.", as cited in Papworth, p. 233): the modification of the posture of the tertiaries is a distinction, not a difference. (01/1988)

Raynier Kiefsson. Name only.

Since Kief is not a given name, but a place name, a patronymic should not be formed from it. He might be Raynier of Kief, Raynier Kief or Raynier Helmcrusher (using the nickname indicated on his forms). (02/1987)

Rebecca of Lancaster. Device. Argent, a gore sinister azure, in chief a rose gules, barbed and seeded Or.

As one may not combine the White Rose of York and the name York, it is forbidden to combine the Red Rose of Lancaster with the use of the name Lancaster. This also conflicts with Cher de Bellvue ("Argent, a manticore rampant to sinister gules and a gore sinister azure. "). (03/1987)

Rebekka die Blonde Akrites. Change of name from Rebekka die Blonde.

As constructed the byname would mean "the blonde borderer" and involve a Greek masculine noun modified by a German feminine article and adjective, which is not permitted under our rules. The problem could have been ameliorated (although the result would not have been culturally probable) by changing the word order to "Rebekka Akrites die Blonde", but the submittor forbade any changes. (12/1988)

Rebekka die Blonde. Device. Purpure, on a bend sinister between two hearts Or, three hearts palewise purpure.

Conflict with Raynardine of the Glaive ("Purpure, a bend sinister between two glaive heads addorsed Or.") (02/1987)

Rees of Cambria. Name only.

Since Cambria is the Latin name for Wales, this name conflicts with several native princes of Wales by the name of Rhys (see Gruffudd, Welsh Personal Names, p. 83). (01/1987)

Regina Gunnvor Morgenstjerne. Device. Argent, ermined gules, a morningstar bendwise sinister sable.

Conflict with the badge of Macsen Aelian y ffyrdig ("An annulet Or debruised by a morningstar bendwise sinister sable, hafted proper."). (01/1989)

Regina Masquer. Badge for the Sisterhood of Oeorpata. Or, three links of chain in chevron, the uppermost link fracted to chief, vert.

By the submittor's own documentation the term "Oeorpata" is the name given to the Amazons by the Scythians according to Herodotus. Leaving aside the issue of the non-human origins of their namesakes, the combination of the name and the badge struck a number of the commentors as being to evocative of the Free Amazons of Marion Zimmer Bradley's Darkover (who are also called "the Sisterhood"), particularly as presented in the novel entitled The Shattered Chain. (12/1988)

Reginleif the Unruly. Badge. Sable, on a horse's head couped a flame gules.

Sadly, I am compelled to agree that this now conflicts with Cassandra of the East Winds ("Sable, on a plate a flame gules."). Since the tertiary charge placed on the primary charge is identical to that in Cassandra's device, complete difference of charge should not technically apply and there is a clear visual resemblance. (09/1986)

Renate Gabrielle Granvogl von Ramsau. Change of name from Renate Gabrielle Grossvogel von Ramsau.

The submittor has appealed the modification of her surname to documented German forms, providing copies of her birth certificate and baptismal certificate (both issued in Munich) to demonstrate that her mother's maiden name was in fact "Granvogl". Under our current rules, this is not in itself adequate documentation since the form would seem to combine German and Italian forms and has not been documented in period. Crescent has provided a very interesting suggestion, based on the fact that a family by the name of "Grauvogl" was ennobled in Bavaria in the late eighteenth century, that the actual name form was in fact "Grauvogl" which would mean "grey bird". As the "n" and "u" in the old German printed script were (and are) commonly confused by American clerical staff when they appeared in names, this seems to be a likely possibility. Perhaps Aten could consult with the lady on this. (02/1989)

Renate Hildegerter. Device. Azure, a lily blossom argent within a bordure wavy Or.

Conflict with Aultain Moire O'Linnala ("Azure, a bar wavy Or surmounted by an arum lily argent.") and Kay Delafleur ("Azure, an Easter lily flower, leaved and slipped, proper, fimbriated Or."). In the former case, the only significant change visually is the substitution of a bordure wavy Or for the bar wavy Or: no additional difference for position should be derived since the position is intrinsic to the difference in kind between a bar and a bordure. In the latter case, the differences in the lilies, even counting the fimbriation, do not amount to a clear major point of difference. (In answer to the inevitable question: both of these submissions were registered at Heraldicon in August, 1979, and cross checking among submissions considered there was cursory to non-existent.) (11/1988)

Renato Belasario Pascucci. Name and device. Gules, on a bend between two lozenges Or, an arrow inverted sable, all within a bordure Or.

White Stag is correct in noting that the name of the great general "Belisarius" comes into Italian as "Belisario". In Italian pronunciation there is a significant difference between the two vowels. As the submittor allowed no changes of spelling except for the given name "Renato", the whole submission unfortunately had to be returned. (04/1989)

Renee of Dragonskeep. Device. Gules, a pegasus salient argent between three butterflies Or.

Alas! Virgule is correct when he states this is in conflict with Ababrelton, cited at #5025 of Lyon Ordinary II ("Gules, a pegasus salient argent.") This is also very close to Sylvia des Silence Argentius de Bois ("Gules, a winged unicorn rampant argent within a bordure rayonny Or."), although it is technically clear. (12/1986)

Renna of Battersea. Badge. A harp bag erminois, lined vert, disgorging to sinister a wooden harp proper.

After much consideration, we felt that the appeal must be denied. Although the badge has been modified since the original submission (a fact not mentioned on the letter of intent) so that the bag and harp lie on their sides instead of being inverted, the collocation of charges is still not clearly identifiable at a distance. While interesting, White Stag's theory that a scabbard or a quiver derive their identifiability from the items contained does not seem to be supported by the evidence, since both quivers and scabbards generally have a well-defined shape and both occur in heraldic and non-heraldic symbolism as separate entities. In this case, unlike the more generalized usage of a purse, which may legitimately have a number of different forms, the design depends on a specific form of harp bag, which is not reconstructible from the blazon. As Brachet (herself an expert harpist) has indicated, many forms of harp bag or case are possible, but the design depends on using this particular form. Unlike the quiver or the scabbard, the identifiability of this charge depends on the clear identification of the harp which is seriously diminished by its fesswise posture and the fact that a considerable part of the visible wooden harp, which is brown, lies on the vert lining. Note that the argument that some badges are not meant to be viewed at a distance and should not be considered for identification "across the field" is a red herring, as much as is the argument that "everyone knows whose badge this is so it is identifiable". We foster period heraldry which demands identifiability at a distance, not the "bookplate heraldry" of the Tudor period and later. (02/1988)

Renna of Battersea. Badge. A wooden Celtic harp proper issuant inverted from a harp bag inverted erminois.

There seemed to be general agreement that this was not period heraldic style and that the identity of the charges would be indistinguishable at any distance. (03/1987)

Renya Valeska Nyék of Levedia. Name only.

Leaving aside the issue of the credibility of the submittor in view of the contradictory documentation provided for the given name in Caid and in Atenveldt, there is no doubt that the given name is diminutive in form, almost certainly from Regina, and that there is no evidence for its independent use in period. Additionally, the documentation for "Valeska" comes from a dubious source (Wells, Treasury of Names, p. 156) which gives no date for its use and it may be doubted that this is a period form. Finally, although the documentation does show that Nyék is the name of a tribe, it is specifically stated that the usage is parallel to that of the name "Magyar" for a people and it is not shown that this tribal name would be used as a family name in the sense we use them. (11/1987)

Reva de Marisco. Name only.

The surname of place is documented from Richard de Marisco, Chancellor to King John. However, the source for the given name (Loughead) is very unreliable and the meaning given ("dreamer") suggests that it is derived from the French common noun "rêveur". (Other sources suggest it may be a modern anagrammatic name.) In any case, it is not documented as a period given name. (04/1990)

Reynald il Bianco. Device. Sable, three piles issuant from dexter argent, overall a pithon, wings displayed gules.

The submission was blazoned on the letter of intent as "piley from dexter" and the intent here seems to have been to have "Barry pily". However, the field is not evenly divided and, as the emblazon is drawn, is as blazoned above with argent piles are a sable field. This makes the pithon technically colour on colour. (10/1989)

Reynard de Foch of Ravenglass. Device. Pean, a saltire cotised argent, overall a fox rampant gules.

Conflict with Keturah Alansdatter of Sondre Lindelin ("Pean, on saltire cotised argent, a sprig of thyme vert."). (03/1989)

Reynard de Gournay. Badge for House Silver Antelope. Per pale gules and sable, an antelope couchant reguardant argent.

As the Royal antelope badges of England, in whatever posture they were placed, seem always to have been argent, Badger and Green Anchor are correct in seeing this as a conflict with the lodged antelope badge used by Henry V (Woodward, p. 594). This is only reinforced by the Stafford badges, one of which shows an antelope sejant on a livery field per pale sable and gules. (11/1988)

Reynard de Gournay. Name and device. Or, a pale azure, overall an antelope rampant counterchanged.

Conflict with Sladden ("Or, a pale azure."). It should be noted that the counterchange here significantly diminishes the identifiability of the already unusual animate charge and is therefore highly inadvisable. (10/1988)

Reynard le Gascon. Name only.

The famous French poetic version of "The Fox and the Grapes" begins "Un certain reynard de Gascogne"...(i.e., "a certain fox of Gascony"). This is rather too close... (10/1989)

Rhian Lyth of Blackmoor Vale. Device. Ermine, on a bend sinister wavy azure, a unicorn's head palewise, couped and sinister facing, argent.

Conflict with Anika Gael Quicksilver ("Ermine, a bend sinister azure surmounted by an open book argent, fimbriated Or."): as the book lies almost entirely on the bend and the fimbriation is virtually invisible, we are left with only the major point for the complex variation of bend sinister and the minor for type of tertiary charge. (02/1988)

Rhiannon Bloodsong. Name and device. Argent, in chief a wheel gules between two flaunches purpure.

Although the bulk of the commentors did not share the minority view that he byname might cause offense through its "bloodiness", it does seem inadvisable in the context of the given name Rhiannon. As punishment for her supposed crime of killing her newborn son, Rhiannon was condemned to sit at the gate and tell (some sources say "sing") the story of her guilt, i.e., how she had been found with her hands smeared with blood on the morning after she gave birth and thus was presumed to have killed the child who had vanished in the night. The device unfortunately conflicts with that registered to Sebestain Hawkwood in December, 1988 ("Argent, a hawk's head erased and affronty gules between two flaunches purpure."). (03/1989)

Rhiannon ferch Llyr. Change of device. Argent, on a chevron cotised azure, three ravens displayed argent.

The situation here is more complex than a simple modification of a "grandfathered" device. The "Grandfather Clause" does cover the use of the birds with the name Rhiannon, a usage which is specifically forbidden under the current rules (see Eowyn Amberdrake's Glossary). However, the cited conflict with Quinlan of Sheare ("Argent, on a chevron azure, three quivers palewise argent.") is increased, rather than decreased or left the same since both devices now have tertiaries which are all argent. Under the current rules, Quinlan's device would have conflicted with Rhiannon's (although it would be a close call); in 1975, when his device was passed, more weight was given to a change in type or tincture of some of a group of tertiaries than we give now. This does not affect the fact that the proposed change brings the two devices closer together, which we cannot allow. If Quinlan were willing to grant permission to conflict, the situation would be different. (06/1988)

Rhiannon Gealeshier. Name only.

On the letter of intent the documented surname "Geale" and the name element "-shier" were cited from Ewen's History of Surnames of the British Isles with the comment that "this may be a correct construction for a British locative name". [Italics ours.] In point of fact, as Ensign has noted, the surname is documented as a Flemish name, not an English one and "-shier", like"-shire" is an English place name element. The two may not be mixed in a single word without documentation that this is a period occurrence. As the submittor allowed no changes whatsoever to her name, we could not try to find an acceptable alternate. (01/1990)

Rhiannon o Goed Niwlog. Badge. On a cross couped vert a compass star Or.

Conflict with Hussey (Papworth p. 658), Or, on a cross vert a mullet Or, as cited in the LoI. There is one CVD for fieldlessness, but only one change (of type) to the tertiary. Two changes are needed for the second necessary CVD. There is no difference between a cross and a cross couped on fieldless armory. (06/1990)

Rhiannon Wild Heart. Device. Azure, on a lozenge vert, fimbriated, a unicorn's head couped argent.

It is a long­standing policy that the name Rhiannon may not be coupled with horses or unicorns in view of Rhiannon's function as a horse goddess. (09/1986)

Rhianwen ni Dhiarmada. Device. Gyronny of six per pale gules and argent, a Kendal flower counterchanged, barbed vert, seeded Or.

After much consideration of Crescent's arguments and the counterarguments of other members of the College, we have decided that there is no compelling reason to consider the six-petalled rose with alternating argent and gules petals a legitimate variant of the (restricted) Tudor rose. While it is true that the Tudor rose did appear in period divided per pale and (more rarely) quarterly, we could find no instance of its appearing as a six-petalled flower with alternating white and red petals. Under normal circumstances the visual difference between the Tudor rose, which is counterchanged across the petal lines and the Kendal flower will be obvious. Unfortunately, these circumstances are not ordinary, since the complex field and counterchanging diminishes the effect of the parting. This being the case, we must consider this a visual conflict with Beverley "Quarterly argent and gules, a rose counterchanged, barbed vert.", cited by Trefoil and others. (09/1988)

Rhiganna of Segontium. Name only.

The coalescence of Latin "Regina" and Irish "Rioghan" (or any of there variant forms) is not only unlikely, but would not produce the form given. (09/1987)

Rhodri Longshanks. Badge. Quarterly one azure, two and three ermine and four gules, a cross bretassy Or.

No evidence has been provided for simple coats with fields quarterly of three tinctures in period. The strong appearance of marshalling is not diminished by the cross since that is quite commonly used with marshalled arms in German and Scandinavian armoury. (11/1989)

Rhydderch Heliwr. Name only.

The name is far too close in sound to the Welsh prince Rhydderch Hael who appears in the Arthurian matter as well as in historical sources. It is also in conflict with the Barony of Rhyddrch Hael. whose name was passed some years ago. (05/1987)

Rhyllian of Starfire Retreat. Change of name from Rhiannon of Starfire Retreat.

As Vesper himself comments, the submittor's arguments that the name is a dithematic Welsh name formed from a protheme "Rhy" and a deuterotheme "llian" do not hold linguistic water. Not only does Welsh not form random dithematic combinations, but the alleged name elements do not actually exist as such in Welsh. Since this is the case, it is impossible to consider this "a made-up name consistent with the structure, sound and spelling of existing medieval Welsh names". (01/1988)

Rhys Morwaywffen. Badge for House Morwaywffen. Argent, on a pale wavy azure, in pale a tilting lance and a chalice argent.

Reluctant as we are to call offensiveness, given the sexual and occult symbolisms of the cup and the spear or sword in this arrangement, we must reluctantly agree that a significant segment of the populace would feel this was inappropriate for use in the Society. (01/1987)

Rhys of Harlech. Device. Vert, a chevron and on a chief Or three pommes.

Conflict with Aurelius Forgan ("Vert, an oak tree blasted and erased, on a chief Or a stag's head caboshed between two roundels vert. "). According to DoD D5 negligible difference is to be derived from changing one attribute (here the type) of one of a set of tertiary charges which is otherwise identical (in this case identical in number, tincture and, for two of the three, type). (03/1987)

Rianna ferch Gerallt. Name and device. Azure, three lozenges and on a chief triangular argent, a unicorn couchant azure.

Rianna is dubious in its origins: the documentation for Rianna van Heiniken, alluded to in the letter of intent, was simply that it was a shortened form of Rhiannon. Since this was a diminutive, albeit one undocumented in period, there is a strong argument that it should not be permitted. A Welsh or Irish name similar in sound and meaning (e.g., Rhonwen) might be suggested to the submittor. By long- standing Society precedent, a name which appears so close to Rhiannon, whether it is derived from it or not, cannot really be used with a unicorn or horse as an element of the related armory. In any case the device conflicts with that of Ariana Zsigmondy ("Azure, three Celtic crosses and on a chief triangular argent, a wolf's head erased sable."). (01/1987)

Ricard of Sable Tree. Badge for House Black Oak. Sable, on an arrowhead inverted argent, a tree couped and blasted sable.

The household name conflicts with the name of the Order of the Oak, registered to the Barony of the Steppes in 1981. Unfortunately, although the submittor is quite correct that this is a period form of arrowhead, this form does not seem to appear as an arrowhead in heraldry, including the pictures that the submittor shows from Rietstap. This is in fact the spearhead of heraldry. As the submittor is an archer we assume that he desires an actual arrowhead, the heraldic form of which will not allow a tree to be of adequately identifiable size. (08/1989)

Ricard of Sable Tree. Badge for House Sweartac. On a pheon inverted argent, a tree couped and blasted sable.

As noted by Crescent, the primary charge depicted on the emblazon was not a pheon: a properly drawn pheon would not allow space for any rounded charge such as the blasted tree. Note that our Old English sources indicate that the household name is correctly formed. (02/1988)

Richard Anthony de Ravenswood. Name only.

As Crescent has noted, the name is in conflict with the household name of Ravenswood registered to Cigfran Myrdddrael Joserlin the Raven. (That the household name should not have been registered because that name itself conflicted with the previously existing Shire of Ravenwood is unfortunate, but irrelevant. . .). (05/1988)

Richard de Montfort of Hastings. Change of name from Ademar d'Excideuil.

We had to agree with Hund that the name conflicts with that of Richard de Montford, Count of Etampes: both his father and son were Dukes of Brittany and his graddaughter was Anne of Brittany who by her marriage to the King of France united Brittany to France. By the submittor's own documentation the "Montford" and "Montfort" are merely alternate spellings of the same name (Reaney, p. 243). (11/1988)

Richard Kenneth O'Donohue. Name only.

According to his forms his mundane name is Richard Kenneth O'Donohoe. NR11 specified that a submittor's Society name may not be identical in sound or spelling to his mundane name. (08/1988)

Richard le Arrogant. Name and device. Gules, in pale two annulets fretted in fess and a tower Or.

Conflict with the arms of the Kingdom of Castile ("Gules, a tower triple-towered Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 365) and Castell ("Gules, three towers Or.", ibid., p. 70). It is uncomfortably close to Sole ("Gules, a tower Or.") as well since it relies on the particular scale of the charges for difference. (02/1989)

Richard Longstride. Device. Per fess azure and argent, a mullet counterchanged.

Unfortunately, Seraph and Crescent are correct in pointing out a technical conflict with the tinctureless badge of Astra Christianna Benedict ("On a mullet, a cross crosslet."). Perhaps in the interest of good heraldry, she might be persuaded permission to conflict. . .? (12/1988)

Richard MacBirney. Device. Per pale sable and gules, a castle counterchanged, overall a pithon, wings elevated and addorsed, on a chief argent, three mullets of eight points sable.

Withdrawn by Triton Principal Herald. (08/1989)

Richard Marshall of Oldcastle. Change of name from Richard Corwin of Oldcastle.

Not only does this still uncomfortably close to the Richard Marshall, son of the William Marshall, but as Crescent has pointed out, since marshall is a rank, this has the appearance of claiming a title "marshall of Oldcastle" (cf. NR13b). (05/1988)

Richard of Ely. Change of name from holding name of Richard of Shire An Dubhaigeainn.

This return was omitted from the July, 1988, letter through a file error during the word processing merge that assembled the letter. There was indeed an abbot of Ely named Richard. He held office in the first years of the twelfth century and was responsible not only for the completion of the transepts and eastern end of the current Cathedral but also for the translation of the relics of St. Etheldreda to that structure. Although his tenure ended in 1107 and the building was not elevated to its current status as a Cathedral until two years later, contemporary ecclesiastical records indicate that Abbot Richard's campaign was a decisive factor in its increase in status. [Editorial Note: Anyone within a hundred miles of Ely should visit this Cathedral, for the Octagon offers a view of Gothic architecture at its most creative that cannot be found anywhere else.] (08/1988)

Richard Prugess. Name only.

The surname was coined by the submittor from the word "purge", but this was not done in a period manner. ("Purger" would be a period formation.) Pennon valiantly attempted to provide support for the name by analogies for the component portions of the name ("Pru" and "-gess"), but the components were not in fact separable from the given name. The submittor is advised to use a form having the meaning he wishes (e.g., "Purger") or a documentable form with a different meaning but similar sound. ("le Pugeis" or "Purkess", cited on the letter of intent would be possibilities.) (06/1989)

Richard Raedwulf. Name only.

The name is just too close to Richard Randolf. The possibilities for confusion are only increased by Richard Randolf's registered alternate persona of Randwulf Raedwulfing!. (11/1987)

Richard the Poor. Name only.

The name is a direct conflict with Poor Richard, the "alternate persona" of Benjamin Franklin. (08/1987)

Richard Wymarc. Device. Counter-ermine, a pall gules.

This conflicts by outline with Morgan Blackshield ("Pean, a pall Or.") (04/1988)

Richard Wymarc. Device. Counter-ermine, a shakefork gules.

Conflict with Michael Gerard Curtememoire ("Potenty argent and sable, a pall gules.") as well as the badge of Robert of Windkeep ("A pall couped, nowy triangular, gules,charged with a triangle of the tincture of the field.). (02/1989)

Richenda Istvansdatter. Change of name from Richenda de la Selva.

First of all the forms indicate that the submittor desired the modern Danish patronymic form in "datter", not the Old Norse form of "dottir" which is shown on the letter of intent. This cannot be supported by any of the arguments used. Moreover, the precedent cited (Ivarsdottir) in support of the mixture of Istvan with the Old Norse patronymic ending is a false one since Ivarr is in fact a documented Old Norse name (as noted in the pages of Geirr Bassi attached to the submission). The submittor would be well-advised to take one of the forms which are known to have been borrowed in Scandinavia (e. g. , Stefan) or choose a similar sounding Norse name to form the patronymic (e. g. , Stefnir). (03/1987)

Rickard Tristen O'Terry. Device. Gyronny of ten per pale gules and Or, a mullet throughout counterchanged, overall an eagle stooping, wings displayed, sable.

It was the consensus of the College that the counterchanged mullet, placed on the already complex field and overlaid almost completely by the bird, visually appeared to be merely a variant of field division (one member of the Laurel staff referred to it as a "field kaleidoscopy"!). This being so, it is in conflict with Serlo of Litchfield, cited on the letter of intent ("Gyronny gules and Or, a vulture close sable."). (10/1987)

Rikard Klasson Glada. Device. Gules, a fess lozengy sable and argent between a demi­sun and a kite displayed Or.

The College made the obvious assumption and saw the fess as essentially being "on a fess argent, lozenges conjoined in fess throughout sable" and suggested reblazoning the tincture division. In point of fact, the portions of the fess which abut the field are sable and, as such, have insufficient contrast. For a proper "lozengy" fess on this field, it would have to be argent with sable full lozenges. (04/1990)

Rioghbhardan MacInis the Lame. Device. Per fess azure and argent, a natural rainbow proper, clouded Or, and a Celtic harp proper.

There are several problems with the device. The rainbow in chief is treated like an ordinary and the clouds are couped by the edges of the field. While the natural rainbow is by precedent neutral, it does not have good contrast here and there was some feeling it was an excessive use of proper taken in conjunction with the harp proper. Finally, the choice of charges was unfortunate, taken in conjunction with the given name. As has been noted before, heraldic entities which may be perfectly acceptable in themselves can cause problems when conjoined (e.g., one can be Rhiannon, one can have horses on one's armoury, but one cannot be Rhiannon and have horses on one's device). In this case, the harp is problematic when taken with the given name. At least one herald also found the rainbow to contain an allusion to senior bardic circles, since only the most senior bards were allowed to wear seven colours (such as are contained in the natural rainbow). (03/1988)

Ríonach O'Melaghlin. Device. Per fess wavy argent and purpure, a harp and an otter statant counterchanged.

The emblazon was omitted from the letter of intent, causing most of those who commented on this letter to omit comment on this submission. This sort of technical infringement would normally cause a submission to be pended, but the Laurel staff finds itself unable to include drawings of omitted emblazons at this time. We would urge Vesper to resubmit this with a proper emblazon as soon as possible. (06/1989)

River Haven, Barony of. Order of the Bridged Towers. Badge. Per fess argent and azure, two towers conjoined by a doubly-arched bridge Or.

The identifying upper portions of the towered bridge fade into the argent portion of the field to such an extent that the charge becomes unidentifiable at any distance. (05/1987)

Riverhaven, Barony of. Badge for the Order of the Bridged Tower. Azure, two towers conjoined by a doubly arched bridge Or.

Conflict with the mundane arms of Cassat ("Azure, a castle Or.", as cited in Papworth, p. 364). Crescent was quite correct in mentioning the strong resemblance of the conjoint charge to a standard depiction of a castle: there is not the required difference here. (02/1988)

Riverhaven, Barony of. Badge. Azure, two towers conjoined by a doubly arched bridge argent within a bordure Or.

By the cadency restrictions in AR23 this appears to conflict with Pount ("Azure, a bridge of two arches argent.", as cited in Papworth, p. 350). (11/1988)

River's Bend, Shire of. Badge. A cattail, slipped and leaved, proper, stem fracted to sinister.

It was felt that this conflicted visually with the badge of Elizabeth Idlewine for Castel Marecage ("Argent, a bulrush, slipped and leaved, within a bordure vert."). The addition of the bordure, which is a standard cadency mark, to a badge which was substantially the same seemed to demand a letter of permission. (08/1987)

River's Gate, Shire of. Device. Per fess engrailed argent and azure, a demi-sun issant from the line of division gules between a dolphin embowed and sinister facing azure, spined and finned gules, and a laurel wreath argent.

As noted by several commentors, this falls under the ban against "slot machine heraldry", i.e., the ban on more than two types of charge in the same group, which exists in both old and new rules (Tincture and Charge Limit, VIII.1.a). Were the sun truly a primary charge with the two charges on either side of it distinctively secondary, this would not be the case. However, the position of the sun issuant from the line of division guarantees that the sun cannot have the centrality and size which would clearly remove it from the group of three objects in pale. (01/1990)

River's Mist, Shire of. Name and device. Azure, a heron close and on a chief argent, a laurel wreath vert between two acorns proper, slipped and leaved gules.

There was a general feeling that "River's Mist" and "Riversmeet" sounded too much alike to avoid confusion (they are even in the same Kingdom) and that the laurel wreath here is just too small to fulfill the requirements AR9a. (03/1988)

Riverwood Tower, Shire of. Device. Ermine, a bend sinister azure between a tree eradicated proper and a tower sable, overall a laurel wreath vert.

There was a general consensus amongst the commentors that the wreath overall was excessive, especially since it obscured the tower to such a degree. The device needs to be simplified, possibly by placing several metal laurel wreaths on the bend sinister. (11/1987)

Rivka bat Shmuel Alfasi. Name only.

The submittor's documentation for given names indicated that "Rivka is the Hebraic pronunciation of Rebecca as Shmuel is the Hebrew pronunciation of Samuel." and copies of the Hebrew and English versions of the Torah were provided to demonstrate that these were Old Testament names. Unfortunately, the Torah uses the actual Hebraic forms, not the forms used here which are in fact Yiddish. Since Yiddish is indeed a period vernacular, largely compounded of German and Hebrew, this would be no barrier to registration. However, although Shmuel seems to be the regular Yiddish form for Samuel, Rivka appears to be a Yiddish diminutive form for Rebekkah (equivalent to the English "Becky"). The current rules do not allow the registration of diminutives not documented as independent names in period. As she allowed no changes to her name, a holding name had to be assigned. (06/1987)

Rjan Oslandering. Name and device. Vert, an ash leaf palewise within four twigs fretted and leaved at the ends, Or.

No documentation was provided to support the name and none of the commentors could document it. The device conflicts with Alanna ni Druhan ("Vert, a leaf within a bordure Or."). (09/1989)

Robert aus den Nordlichten. Change of name from Robert of Windkeep.

The name was originally returned because the byname means "from the Northern Lights" in German and there was considerable feeling in the College that this was tantamount to a claim of non-human origin. White Stag eloquently argues that this is an example of synecdoche (the figure of speech where the part stands for the whole, e.g., blade for sword, sail for ship, roof for house, etc.). Unfortunately, not only is German more given to pleonasm than synecdoche in its geographic names, but this is not truly a case of synecdoche, since the Northern Lights are not really a part of the human settled lands of the north. The preposition "aus" has a very specific sense of being "out of" or "having one's origin in" the noun that follows and in Germanic legend the Northern Lights are very much a domain of the superhuman. Alas! the analogue with the registered name of "Randall von Nordlichwald" is false since the missing "t" changes the meaning considerably from the translation given by White Stag: the German "nordlich" is an adjective simply meaning "northern" so that the place name is equivalent to "Northwoods". If his intent is really to convey that he is from the far north, the name "Robert aus den Nordländern", which is not so different in sound, would be perfect. . . (12/1988)

Robert aus den Nordlichten. Name only.

As several of the commentors noted, you cannot be "from the Northern Lights", as this would imply more than human status. (04/1988)

Robert Blackthorn. Device. Or, a bend azure between three blackthorn leaves, two and one, vert and a compass star of four straight and four wavy rays gules.

Conflict with Sula von Pferdenthal ("Or, on a bend azure, two horses' heads cabossed argent.") and Badye ("Or, a bend azure.", cited in Papworth, p. 191). (05/1988)

Robert Cattanach of Moravia. Device. Argent, on a bend sinister wavy azure, a catamount courant to sinister argent.

Conflict with Morgan Caitriona Bruce ("Argent, on a bend sinister wavy azure between two penannular brooches, openings to chief, pins bendwise sinister sable, a penannular brooch, opening to base, bendwise sinister, argent. In this case, it is hard to see how the position's of the animate and inanimate charges can be compared adequately. (03/1990)

Robert de Harcourt. Name only.

The name seems to be in direct conflict with that of the Robert de Harcourt whom Crescent's research indicates was the progenitor of the French branch of a family of great historical significance on both sides of the English Channel. (Note that, since the information derived from the mid-sixties Encyclopedia Britannica, which was notorious in historical circles for large-scale obliteration of historical material to allow space for the "modern", this information can hardly be said to be obscure! For those interested in methodological tricks, acquisition or library use of a pre-War Encyclopedia Brittanica can be a wonderful shortcut for mediaevalist documentation: long articles on mediaeval and Renaissance English and Continental history include heavy reference to original documents like the Monumenta and the Rolls series which were published in the last century.) (05/1988)

Robert Furness of Southwood. Device. Vert, a horseshoe within an orle Or.

Conflict with Ceara ni Sirona ("Vert, a gryphon dormant within an orle Or"). Vesper requested that the "Complete Difference of Charge" leniency be granted for charges which involved orles as well as those which involved bordures or chiefs. After much consideration, we have decided that this is not an advisable path to pursue. As Crescent noted, the rationale behind this in part involved cadency: the bordure and the chief were preeminently charges added to indicate cadency in period and, as such, would be automatically "added" to a base device to indicate the "parent" armoury. This is not the case with orles which are almost always a primary design, rather than a cadency mark, and therefore are less likely to be "transparent" to an onlooker. Moreover, as Treble Clef has indicated, under normal circumstances, the very nature of the orle diminishes the primary charge in size, seriously reducing its identifiability. (09/1988)

Robert Green. Name only.

Unfortunately, the name conflicts directly with the Elizabethan playwright and poet whose name was also Robert Greene. The Oxford Companion to English Literature devotes nearly as much space to his life and works as it does to Marlowe, which is a fair measure of his importance. Several of his works have a fair vogue in the Society, some for their social interest (his writings on "coney catching", for example), others for their period humour (The Honorable History of Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay) or for their interest for later Shakespearian works (e.g., Pandosto from which Shakespeare "borrowed" for A Winter's Tale). (11/1988)

Robert Grey. Name only.

The name conflicts with that of Robynne the Grey, registered in November, 1989. (05/1990)

Robert mac Neill mhic Donnachaldh of Inchmagranach. Device. Gules, three wolf's heads erased, on a chief potenty argent, three thistles gules.

As Crescent has noted his last submission, although returned on other grounds, came perilously close to infringing on the arms of Struan Robertson (it was submitted under the name of Robert Struanson). If I may quote Crescent, "Now we have Robert ... macDuncan ... and a device which Is a major­plus­minor from both Duncan and from Robertson. This is compounded by the fact that the Duncan/Duncanson families are related to the Robertson clan, as evidenced by the similarity of their coats; the Duncans also use the Robertson tartan .... This is too much to ask of coincidence; in my opinion, the submitter is trying, by his choice of name and device, to lay claim to a specific mundane coat." The name and the device together constitute infringement. To pass the name, we have returned the device. (09/1986)

Robert MacDonachie. Name only.

Unfortunately, as the submittor's own documentation indicates, MacDonachie is equivalent to "son of Duncan". This places the name in conflict with Robert Duncanson, Fourth chief of Clan Donnachaidh who was the eponymous founder of the house of Robertson of Struan (Moncreiffe, The Highland Clans, p. 211). (12/1987)

Robert MacGillivray. Device. Sable, on a saltire argent a boar's head cabossed gules and in chief a thistle argent.

Conflict with Diane of the Golden Chalice ("Sable, on a saltire argent a chalice Or enflamed sable.") (02/1987)

Robert of Coldcastle. Device. Azure, a boar's head erased and on a chief argent, a tower azure.

Conflict with Shand ("Azure, a boar's head couped argent, on a chief of the last three mullets gules."). Using a complex line of division would bring it easily clear. (07/1987)

Robert of Ferness. Device. Per chevronelly gules and Or and Or, in base a ship in full sail charged on the sail gules with a candle argent, enflamed Or.

By long-standing Laurel precedent (dating back to August, 1983), the sails of ships may not be charged with the sole exception of charging with a laurel wreath in the case of branch arms. Note that the field depicted was not actually "chevronelly" since the upper portion began and ended with gules traits and thus was not evenly divided. (05/1989)

Robert of Maitland. Name only.

As Habicht noted, Robert Maitland was one of the noble hostages for James I in 1424 (Black, Surnames of Scotland, p. 575). (10/1988)

Robert of the Woodlands. Name only.

Conflict with the registered name of Robert of Woodsende. (11/1988)

Robert of Vaux. Name only.

Conflict with Robert de Vaux, as his name is given in Reaney. Robert was one of the richly rewarded companions of William the Conqueror and Domesday Book shows him with apparently extensive lands in Essex and Norfolk. Note: though a miniature emblazon was included in the letter of intent, it apparently was not the intent of the East to submit a device for this individual. (08/1987)

Robert the Illuminator. Device. Vert, on a pile between two arrows in pile argent, an oak leaf vert.

This return was omitted from the July, 1988, letter through a file error during the word processing merge that assembled the letter. Under the current rules, there is a technical conflict with Nicholos of the Hill Folk ("Vert, on a pile argent a dragon rampant gules."). (08/1988)

Robert Wolfheart. Device. Per saltire dovetailed gules and azure, a wolf statant reguardant argent, charged on the breast with a heart gules, in chief three wolf's heads cabossed Or, each maintaining in its mouth a heart argent.

Under both the old rules and the new, this is unacceptably complex and generally poor style. Under the old rules, there is the problem of the use of the line dovetailed with a gyronny of two colors which is problematic at best. When added to the four hearts in two tinctures, three heads and whole canine, it is just too complex for period style even without the anomaly of the heads holding the hearts in their mouths. Under the new rules the gyronny of two colours would not be permitted at all, much less with a complex division line, and the four tinctures with three types of charge (four, if you categorize secondary and tertiary charges of the same type as visually different in weight) are just too much. (11/1989)

Robert Wolfheart. Correction of blazon of returned device. Gyronny dovetailed gules and azure, a wolf statant reguardant argent, charged on the breast with a heart gules, in chief three wolf's heads cabossed Or, each maintaining in its mouth a heart argent.

When this was returned in November, 1989, the field was misblazoned as "per saltire" resulting in confusion for several commentors, including Brigantia, when reading the commentary on the style of the submission. (01/1990)

Roberta of Rowan. Name change from Roberta Rowan.

There has been no convincing evidence presented that "Rowan" by itself can be considered to be a placename, as the grammar of the name would demand. From a linguistic point of view , she may have "Roberta of the Rowan", which makes Rowan the tree, or "Roberta of House Rowan", using the unregistered household name, or the already registered "Roberta Rowan", which follows the pattern of similar names in Reaney and other sources. (01/1987)

Roberto de España. Device. Gules, on a bend between two crescents argent, three compass stars gules.

Under the old rules, this would conflict with Ian Leslie of Lilgairen ("Gules, on a bend between two Celtic crosses patty argent, three thistles proper."), Robyn of Mania ("Gules, on a bend argent a raven displayed palewise, wings inverted, sable grasping in its beak a rose flower to sinister, gules, slipped and leaved vert.") and the mundane arms of Robert Liddell ("Gules, on a bend between a cross crosslet fitchy in chief and a fleur-de-lys in base argent, three spurroweles of the first."). Under the new rules, only the conflict with Liddell still holds. (11/1989)

Robin de Montvert. Device. Argent, a lion statant erect, bearing a drawn bow and a quiver proper, in chief two annulets gules.

Conflict with Leigh ("Argent, a lion rampant, in dexter point an annulet gules."). (11/1986)

Robin MacLeer. Device. Argent, on a pale vert between two escallops inverted gules, a seahorse Or.

Conflict with Gwydion Pendderwen ("Argent, on a pale vert, a crescent above three acorns Or."): there is a major point for adding the secondaries, but the changes to the tertiaries do not equal a major point of difference under the current rules. (12/1988)

Robin MacLeer. Device. Vert, semy of escallops gules, a natural seahorse within a bordure Or.

The gules shells on the vert field violate the rules for contrast under both old and new rules ["colour on colour"]. Note that his name was registered in the form used above not as "Robin Macleer" as it appeared on the letter of intent. (02/1990)

Robin of Berkshire. Device. Quarterly argent and azure, an antelope statant gules within a bordure compony argent and azure.

Unfortunately, this gorgeous device has to be returned due to the ban on the use of compony borders where one or both tinctures are of the tincture of the field. Using a plain tincture such as gules would resolve this. (04/1989)

Robin of Northumberland. Name only.

As the Aethelmearc Herald has noted, this name is in conflict with that of Robert, Earl of Northumberland. He was a major player in the conflict between Stephen of Aumale and William Rufus (and chose the wrong side).Robert is sometimes called by the family name "Robert de Mowbray", but contemporary sources tend to use his title more commonly. (01/1990)

Rocco d'Argento. Device. Per pale gules and sable, in fess two scorpions tergiant argent.

Conflict under both rules with the badge of Sigurjon Haraldson ("Gules, in fess two scorpions argent."). (04/1990)

Rodney Wilhelm Czensny. Badge. Argent, a hawk's head, erased and sinister facing, gules.

Technically, this is in conflict with the device of Garanhir of Ness ("Argent, a wolf's head erased and sinister facing gules."), as noted by Crescent. In point of fact, it is difficult to see how more than a single major point of difference can be derived here since both heads are more or less identical to dexter and base, differing only in the addition of the wolf's ears and the outline of the face. As Sir Garanhir has a rather latitudinarian attitude towards conflict, a letter of permission could probably be acquired, however . . . (03/1989)

Rodrick of Scarborough. Device. Or, a chevron engrailed throughout between two towers and an owl gules.

(04/1987)

Rodrik of Tanglewood. Device. Per bend Or and azure, ermined Or, in chief a dragon salient, wings addorsed, azure.

Conflict with Johann der Feuerwehrmann ("Per bend Or and azure, a dragon volant and a hammer bendwise counter­changed."). (09/1986)

Roen Dentelliere de la Voile Rouge. Change of name from Charolette Keri O'Donelle of the Misty Hills.

The given name was stated to be "the Irish name Rowan as it would be spelled by a French monk or priest after only hearing it once." Unfortunately, not only is this somewhat debatable, but this is also a documented period English spelling for the name of the French city of Rouen (Reaney, p. 296). Therefore, it cannot be accepted as a constructed variant. Note that she has forbidden any changes to the name with the notations "spellings are deliberate" so that the name as a whole had to be returned. (08/1987)

Rogier de la Roche sur Yon. Device. Azure, a bend sinister between three sea-goats erect, two and one, Or.

Conflict with Blair duBois ("Azure, a bend sinister between a cat sejant guardant and a dove close Or.") (02/1987)

Rognvaldr Buask. Change of name from Rognvaldr the Finn and device.

Per chevron argent and sable, a chevron gules, in chief two hammers in chevron sable, in base and surmounting the chevron a mullet of ten points argent. Pedantic language lesson: the reflexive is not passive: it is the voice of the verb which indicates that the subject of the verb is acting upon himself (herself/itself). Thus, even were "buask" a participle, it would not generally mean prepared, but rather "preparing himself" or "having prepared himself". In fact, however, by the submittor's own documentation and the entry under "busk" in the OED which derives busk from an assimilated reflexive "bua-sk", this is not a participle but a normal verb. Therefore, this must be considered not a name, but rather a sentence: "Rognvald prepares himself". Moreover, the examples in the material provided by the submittor suggest that this usage is generally used with an accompanying modifier (usually a prepositional phrase) which indicates for what the individual is preparing himself. This device is not period style: the mullet overlapping the entire bottom half of the shield, including the ordinary is eccentric to say the least. (04/1988)

Rolf Gunnarsson. Device. Or, a monkey rampant, maintaining in its dexter paw a goblet and in its sinister paw a pipe sable.

Brachet is correct in citing Gilles of Lennox ("Or, a domestic cat sejant, paw extended, sable.") as a conflict: there is a major point for the difference of posture, but the differences of shape between the two beasts are confined to the heads (and even there largely to the ears as the monkey is depicted). The nearly invisible charges maintained cannot carry this clear. (04/1989)

Rolf Longbow. Device. Per fess argent and sable, issuant from the line of division a stag's attires sable.

Conflict with Zakesley ("Argent, a hart's attire sable.") as cited in Papworth, p. 948. The attire issuant from the line of division is very poor style. (08/1987)

Rolf Rustig of Redshadow. Device. Or, a centaur salient gules, maintaining in both hands a sword palewise sable, enflamed gules.

Conflict with Collach O Choda ("Or, a female sagittary salient sable, the human torso proper.") and Cassandra of Blackhowe ("Per fess indented counter-ermine and argent, a female centaur rampant preparing to throwfrom her sinister hand a javelin bendwise gules."). (11/1988)

Rolland Kyle of Kincora. Device. Gules, two chevronels between two lions rampant, reguardant and addorsed, and a lion sejant guardant, all Or.

Conflict with Esterne ("Gules, two chevronels Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 542). (06/1989)

Romana Luisa Leonore de la Vega y Navarre. Change of name from Romana Luisa Ayesha de la Vega.

When the name was registered in October, 1987, "y Navarre" a final portion of the name was dropped, primarily because it tripped the name over the "four languages" limit and the French form "Navarre" was felt to be inappropriate as part of the phrase which composed the otherwise Spanish surname. Additionally, a number of the Laurel staff felt uncomfortable with the use of the name of an independent kingdom in a usage which is commonly used in Spanish to indicate descent from the rulers of a particular area. The appeal addresses the former issue by changing the language of one of the middle names and demonstrating that the kingdom of Navarre was part of mediaeval Spain. That this is true is somewhat irrelevant, however, since it does not address the fact that "Navarre" is not the Spanish form of the name which would follow "de la Vega y". It also does not address the problem of potential presumption here, a problem which is enhanced by the submittor's documentation which indicates that "Vega was used in midieval [sic] Spain in Navarre. They were Viscounts." (06/1989)

Ronna Rosgaile Soilean Soilleir. Name only.

From the letter of intent, it appears that the submittor desires a Gaelic name meaning something like Ronna the Clear­Sighted of the Bright Eyes. While such an epithet would be unusual in Gaelic and is rather tautological given the conventions of Gaelic naming, it would be an acceptable "fantasy­style" epithet.However, the submittor does not allow any changes to her name and the grammar is not correct. Ronna is the submittor's mundane given name and therefore is acceptable. "Rosgail" is a somewhat unusual Gaelic adjective for "clear­sighted", but the form given is the genitive singular feminine, not the nominative which must modify the given name. "Of the Bright Eyes", as translated, is somewhat tautological as well as ungrammatical since by the submittor's own documentation the primary meaning of "soilleir" is "clear" in the sense of "not dark" and both the submittor's documentation and Mac & Mac (p. 39) gives as one of its meanings "clear­sighted, shrewd". The adjective that appears to be particularly associated with "bright eyes" as we know the term is "soillseach". Also, for the byname desired you would put the eyes into the genitive plural which by the submittor's documentation would be "nan sùl". Adding the adjective in the correct case would produce: "Ronna Rosgail nan Sùl Soillseach". (A fine point of Gaelic grammar: if an adjective follows a feminine plural genitive noun whose nominative plural ends in "­an", the adjective uses the appropriate nominative plural form. See Mackinnon's Gaelic: An complete course for beginners, pp. 4­42.) (03/1990)

Rórik hávathamikill af Gotlandi. Name only.

Despite our high respect for Countess Brynhildr and her expertise in Old Norse (it's what she does for a living. . .), we have to have some idea of why she thinks it is O.K. to register this name form, specifically we need to have documentation of the meaning and construction of the elements in this name, information not included on the letter of intent or on the forms. (09/1989)

Rórik Mikill á Hávada af Gotlandi. Name only.

Insufficient documentation was provided to determine the grammatical accuracy of the bynames or their plausibility of the form "Mikill á Hávada". Unfortunately, the intent of the submittor as to the intended meaning of the byname is unclear. (09/1988)

Rory Daughton. Device. Or, a fess sable between a horse courant azure and a pomme.

Conflict with Meurs ("Or, a fess sable.", as cited in Papworth, p. 706). (07/1987)

Rory mac Feidhlimidh. Device. Chevronelly vert and argent, a cat's head caboshed sable.

Conflict with Lenore of Lynxhaven ("Or, a lynx's head cabossed sable, orbed Or."). (06/1988)

Rosamund de la Bonté. Device. Argent, a unicorn's head couped sable, on a chief purpure a plate between a decrescent and an increscent argent.

After a comparison of the two emblazons, we have come to the conclusion that this does in fact conflict with Lyralyn de Lac Noir ("Argent, a beardless unicorn's head couped sable, maintaining a thistle proper, on a chief azure three mullets argent."). Note that the three tertiaries are thematically unified, but the "phases of the moon" are not really period style. (08/1989)

Rosamund de la Bonte. Device. Per fess argent and purpure, in pale a unicorn's head couped sable and a plate between in fess a decrescent and an increscent argent.

Note that the letter of intent and the submittor's forms had the given name as Rosamyn. This is not the registered form of her name nor is it the form that had previously been submitted. If she wishes to use this form, she must file a change of name. At the time the previous submission was returned, Laurel noted "Note that the three tertiaries are thematically unified, but the "phases of the moon" are not really period style." The same is true now and the stylistic problem has only been increased by taking them down to the field from a chief. Now there are four charges of at least three different types in a single (if eccentric) group on the field. This is a variant of "slot machine heraldry" and certainly is not period style. (03/1990)

Rose Mary of the Golden Light. Device. Per bend purpure and Or, a sun counterchanged.

Conflict with Bruce of Brandy Hall ("Purpure, on a sun in his splendour, a dagger gules"): there is a major point for counterchanging along the line of division and a minor for the addition of the tertiary charge. It also conflicts with Llywellyn ap Madog "Per bend sable and Or, a compass star counterchanged".): only a minor point can be derived from changing the colour in the two devices and taken with the change in type of primary charge, the two are not sufficiently different. (02/1987)

Rosemary of the Woods. Device. Argent, on a chevron sable between three sprigs of rosemary vert, three butterflies displayed argent.

Visual conflict with Anthea MacGillivray of Cairnagad ("Argent, a chevron sable between two sprigs of rowan vert, fructed gules, and a lynx in summer phase sejant erect proper perched on a horn fesswise."). The fructing is too minor a detail to carry the foliage in chief clear to the point that we could feel comfortable with this after a comparison of the emblazons. (04/1989)

Rosemund Longfellow. Device. Pean, a sword bendwise argent piercing a garden rose gules, in sinister chief a Latin cross gules, fimbriated, all within a bordure Or.

There was a general feeling that this submission skated on the far side of period style: the unbalanced arrangement of the charges, the manner in which the low contrast garden rose was pierced by the sword, rendering it even more unidentifiable, and most of all the fimbriation of the small, clearly secondary cross. In the cover letter to the March letter of intent, it was ruled that fimbriation and voiding would not be considered excessive if it were applied to a "plain ordinary" placed in the center of the shield. In this case the ordinary is plain enough, but is visually peripheral and, taken with the other anomalies, pushes this submission over the edge of acceptible style. (05/1989)

Rouland Carre. Badge. A passion cross azure, issuant from a stag's tires gules.

Conflict with the famous mediaeval insignia of St. Hubert, patron of hunters, alluding to his conversion after seeing a staf with a passion cross between its antlers. The allusions to the Jagermeister logo in several comment letters which used that as an example of the badge were somewhat misleading since that logo uses a full stag's head and the badge appears as commonly (or even more commonly) in period with oonly the attire. The insignia does not appear to have been tied to a specific tincture in period: while the hunter's badges probably were usually metallic for practical reasons, iconographic sources show it in a variety of tinctures. Note that this differs from such common insignia of saints as the escallop of St. James of Compostela and the wheel of St. Catherine which passed into common usage in heraldry in being a composite of two otherwise common charges. (07/1989)

Rowan Blackflame. Device. Or, a sinister hand appaumy couped argent, enflamed sable, within a bordure gules.

After considerable debate, we have come to the conclusion that a hand appaumy or averse, couped and enflamed, is so suggestive of the black magic charm known as a "Hand of Glory" that it should not be used in Society heraldry. As Batonvert noted, the OED description of the Hand of Glory does seem to support the previous precedent set in the case of Bertrand de Flammepoing (December, 1980). However, it is also clear that a significant proportion of the populace, particularly those with only a casual acquaintance with the occult, will interpret this charge as a "Hand of Glory". Certainly, several commentors in the College of Arms did. While the depiction of the "Hand of Glory" is by no means uniform in medieval and Renaissance woodcuts and paintings, it regularly appears as a typifying emblem of the abode or gathering place of witches and generally the preserved hand is shown associated with flame, either with the fingers enflamed or the whole hand enflamed (the latter appears more commonly in popular woodcuts, perhaps because of the technical limitations). As far as we can tell from a search through the Armorial and the files, the only "hand enflamed" which has ever been registered in the Society is in the badge of Aliskye Mac Kyve