Aaron Breck Gordon. Device. Sable, a gryphon segreant Or, grasping in each talon a sword proper, in chief a viscomital coronet Or, pearled argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with WORLINGER: Sable, a griffin Or maintaining a sword palewise proper. (Rietstap) The addition of the coronet in chief is worth only a minor point. It also conflicts with CULEHECH ("Sable, a griffin segreant Or") and EDOUARD D'ATH ("Sable, a griffin segreant, on a chief Or three thistles proper").

There is no SCA­standard viscomital coronet, in actual usage or in armory. (BoE, 2 Dec 84, pp. 3­4) The design shown here is what one finds in modern heraldry books. According to Virgule (who cites the Ilth Britannica), it is a design created in England at the Restoration: "It would not have been recognized by anyone in period, and is not used in other countries. In fact, this design is sometimes used by Italian COUNTS (Gayre, Some Aspects of British and Continental Heraldry, chapter 16)."

We would suggest he substitute a coronet embattled, to which he is now presumably entitled. We would also prefer that he draw the griffin in the conventional "rampant" position, rather than in a Florentine fighting pose. (12/1985)

Aase Jonsdatter. Device. Azure, a cross paty throughout argent and in dexter chief a sun Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with GREECE: Azure, a cross throughout argent. National arms and flags require two full points of difference. (01/1986)

Adela de Warren. Device. Per pale argent and chequy azure and argent, in dexter a mullet azure.

NOTE: This was submitted as per pale embattled, but the checky half of the field blends with the argent half to produce this effect anyway. The device appears to be a marshalling (by impalement) of "Argent, a mullet azure" with "Checky azure and argent," which is not permitted in SCA heraldry. (Rules IX.8). (01/1985)

Adele de Bretagne. (badge). A lute bendwise sinister proper.

NOTE: This conflicts with YOSEF ALARIC, "Azure, in saltire a trumpet inverted Or and a lute [edge on] proper." (SCA). There is one point of difference for the removal of the trumpet. It is also identical (by rotation) with EL OF THE TWO KNIVES, BADGE FOR KAY THE MINSTREL, Azure, a cracked lute bendwise proper." (SCA). (09/1984)

Adelicia sans Coeur of Gloucester. Badge. Or, a swan naiant sable charged with a voided heart Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with badge of WEST AUSTRALIA, "Or, a swan naiant sable.". (04/1985)

Adella Desmond. Device. Pean, on a saltire Or a rose gules, barbed and seeded vert.

NOTE: This conflicts with SUSANNAH GRIFFON, "Pean, a saltire Or, overall a griffin passant gules." (SCA). (05/1985)

Adrienne Diana Rainier. Device. Sable, a cat's head caboshed argent between in cross four lozenges ermine.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with FANDRAL SILVERFOX, "Sable, a fox's mask argent." (SCA) There is a major point for the addition of the lozenges (a group of secondary charges), and a minor for the difference between a cat's face and a fox's mask. (06/1985)

Aelfric Dromundr. Device. Azure, three lobsters tergiant Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with PRIEUR DE CHANTELOU: Azure, three crayfish Or. (Rietstap) It is also visually similar to FRANCE MODERN: Azure, three fleurs­de­lys Or. We accord national arms and flags (especially well­known ones, such as France) an added degree of protection; and since there is a reasonable chance that the two might be mistaken at a moderate distance, I'm afraid I have to agree with the commenting heralds who felt they conflicted.

DISCUSSION: The lobsters were submitted as "tergiant displayed." I don't believe that displayed adds anything of value to the blazon, for the artist or for the herald. How much variation is possible in the limbs of a lobster tergiant, and at what point does it stop being displayed and start being something else? (09/1985)

Aelfric of York. Device. Per chevron sable and argent, a pile throughout counterchanged, and a chief engrailed gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: The chief violates the rule of contrast as applied to "overall" charges. See the cover letter for the discussion. (12/1985)

Aethelleon of Darkwood. Name and device. Azure, on a bend sinister concave between two lioness' heads caboshed Or, two escallops azure.

REASON FOR RETURN: The given name does not appear to be correctly formed. ­leon is not a name element. The treatment of the bend is not heraldic. Please use a standard line of division, or choose another charge.

DISCUSSION: Anglo­Saxon given names are dithematic: they are formed of a first element called the protheme, and a second element called the deuterotheme. These elements, or themes, are drawn from a pool of words used for the purpose of forming names. Although many themes possess some kind of meaning, they are not "words" per se; you will not find them by picking a noun and an adjective at random from an Anglo­Saxon dictionary. AEthel­ is a common protheme. The closest deuterothemes I can find to ­leon are ­leof and ­leofu. (Searle 326) I would suggest one of these.

Aidan Davidson of Invernahaven. Name change (from Aidan Davidson).

NOTE: This was approved as Aidan Davidson in January, with the remainder of the name being placed in PENDING, to allow the College more time to comment on the Scottish name­form "(surname) of (place)." The additional interval has not produced sufficient factual grounds for me to reverse the present policy, so I going to let it stand. Invernahaven is the principal seat of the Davidsons, so the combination Davidson of Invernahaven is reserved.

Should anyone in the College find himself with sufficient time and materials, I would like to suggest a research paper on the subject, perhaps for one of the symposia. Crescent's request for background information on the original ruling is not unreasonable. (04/1985)

Aithne Luighseach Dar'aithne. Gyronny azure and argent, eight borage flowers in annulo within a bordure, all counterchanged.

NOTE: This infringes upon EDMUND PETHLTON, "Gyronny, argent and azure, each argent gyron charged with a cross crosslet fitchy vert, and a bordure counterchanged." (SCA). (08/24/1984)

Alain de Trois Rivieres. Device. Azure, in chief three mullets, one and two, and issuant from base three spears conjoined at fess point Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with REGIN BRAN HARALDSSON: Azure, three piles inverted conjoined in point and in chief three mullets of four points argent. (SCA) There is a point of difference for the tincture of the charges, but less than a point for change in type; and the visual similarity is very strong. (07/1985)

Alain Picot de Boisfeuillu. Device. Per pale argent and azure, on a bend cottised three battle­axes palewise reversed, all counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with AELFWINE DAES SUDGEMAERES: Per pale argent and azure, a bend cotised counterchanged, overall an elm tree eradicated proper; and with RODRIGO DE CERDANA (badge): Per pale argent and azure, a bend doubly cotised counterchanged. (SCA) The center axe also breaks the rule against counterchanging a skinny object along its long axis, although I"m willing to consider making an exception in this case. (The two surrounding axes suggest the nature of the middle charge.) (12/1985)

Alanna of Ravenwood. Badge. A raven volant to sinister sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with BRAN OF CORNWALL: Vair, a raven displayed sable. (SCA) There is a single point of difference, for the position of the charge. (01/1986)

Alasdair Francis MacDhomhnuill. Device. Azure, a chevron rompu argent between two Lochaber axes, blades inward, and a winged stag rampant Or.

REASON: The device conflicts with KENNEGRAE GILCHRIST, Azure, a chevron rompu between a cross moline and a dexter gauntlet clenched, all argent. (SCA) The maximum difference obtainable from changes to a single group of secondary charges is a major and a minor point.

DISCUSSION: The pattern "a chevron between three charges" (two in chief and one in base) is so common that, unless there is something else in the blazon that would render it ambiguous, there's no need to specify "in chief" and "in base." It is also unnecessary to repeat the tincture of the charges. Tinctures factor backward through the blazon, so the "Or" following the stag is understood to apply to the axes as well. (08/1986)

Alasdair Morgan Gunn. Badge for Lucius Vergilius Catulus. Or, goutty de poix, an escarbuncle azure.

NOTE: This conflicts with LORNA OF LEEDS, "Or, an escarbuncle of six flory azure." (SCA) There is a point of difference for the addition of the gouttes; the changes in the escarbuncle are heraldically negligible. (02/1985)

Albern Bran. Device. Sable, a mullet of four points dismembered elongated to base throughout gules fimbriated argent, within a bordure counter­compony gules and argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: We no longer allow complex voiding or fimbriation. This applies to most of the "abstract throughout" charges, such as bordures and chiefs, and to flora and fauna, as well as to interior lines, such as the technique of voiding known in mundane armory as umbration and in earlier SCA blazonry as chasing. Please redesign.

Albert von Drechenveldt. Badge. Sable, a decrescent argent, overall a bend sinister all within a bordure Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: The motif of a charge debruised by a bend or bend sinister and encircled by a border is the international road sign symbol for "no," now widely used in everything from novelties to advertising. Despite its heraldic antecedents, it is a recognizably mundane combination, and as such is inappropriate for use in the SCA.

DISCUSSION: This particular combination is specifically disallowed under section 5 of Appendix II to the Rules for Submissions. The classification is incorrect (the motif is neither offensive nor political, although such applications may be made of it), but I agree that the symbolism is contrary to the spirit of the Society.

The bend is the actually the correct width for a "debruising" charge. (12/1985)

Aldred von Lechsend aus Froschheim. Badge. Quarterly Or and argent, two chains joined in saltire throughout sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with COGNACCINI DE MONTALTO, "Or, two chains in saltire sable." (Rietstap) There is a minor point for the difference in field. (06/1985)

Aleana o'r Serennoggorwydd. Name change (from Aleana o'r Gorwydd Serennog); appeal.

REASON FOR RETURN: The examples submitted to support the appeal are based on known exceptions or modern examples. To the best of our knowledge, the name as submitted is grammatically incorrect.

DISCUSSION: According to the members of the College who can claim some familiarity with the Welsh language, the adjective normally follows the noun it modifies. As is common with many (if not most) languages, there are a handful of exceptions to the rule. Hen 'old', which occurs in most of the counter­examples cited in the appeal, is one of these exceptions. The other example, marchnerth ' 'horsepower', is a modern construct. Apparently, it is not uncommon for modern terms, especially technical ones, to be translated "straight," without regard for the usual word formation rules of the language that is acquiring them. (11/1985)

Alen Elegil. Badge. Or, a holly leaf vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with BETTY, "Or, a betony leaf proper." (Papworth 960) The difference in shape between a betony leaf and a holly leaf is at best a minor point. (06/1985)

Alessandra Alegretti. Device. Per bend Or and sable, a honeybee rising proper and a honeysuckle blossom Or distilling two gouttes d'Or. (Apis mellifera)

NOTE: The honeybee, much of which is yellow, does not contrast sufficiently with the Or field. We would suggest she make the bee a single color. (Changing the field to argent won't work, since this would cause the wings to disappear.). (12/1984)

Alexander MacGregor. Name only.

NOTE: The name is in technical conflict with Alasdair MacGregor of Glenstrae, last chief of Clan MacGregor. (12/1984)

Alexandra von Rothau. Device. Per pale argent and sable, a wavy­bladed dagger palewise throughout between two natural sea­horses erect addorsed all counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: "The Laurel office has held previously that a skinny object such as a sword should not be counterchanged along its long axis because of the lack of contrast." (BoE, 14 Jul 85, p. 17) Please redesign. (03/1986)

Alexandre Christophe de Nancy. Device. Azure, a fret between in pale an estoile of five rays and a phoenix, and in fess two lions sejant erect respectant Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: We feel this is visually too complex. Four of the five charges are of different types. Please simplify.

DISCUSSION: The convention is that estoiles have rays, and mullets points. (12/1985)

Algernon Blacksword. Device. Or, three swords sable, a bordure sable bezanty.

NOTE: The device conflicts with CEDRIC THE DARK, "Or, a swan naiant sable within a bordure sable bezanty." (SCA). (01/1985)

Alinor of Marionwood. Device. Purpure, a linden tree issuant from a crescent, all within a bordure Or.

NOTE: This is too similar to the arms of BETVA A BEDIVYN, "Vert, a birch tree argent, leaved as for autumn Or, within a bordure Or." (SCA) There is one point for the tincture of the field, and a minor (demoted from a major) for the tincture of the tree. The crescent, being visually a part of the tree, adds less than a full point before demotion, and less than a minor point after. The crescent is difficult to recognize in this configuration, and is poor heraldic style. (10/1984)

Alix la Gauchère. Device. Argent, in pale a unicorn couchant to sinister reguardant sable and a rose gules, between two roses gules, slipped and leaved, the stems crossing in base, vert.

NOTE: The device is poor style, as is apparent from the somewhat confusing blazon, and the stems of the roses are indistinguishable from a laurel wreath, which in the SCA is reserved to the arms of branches. Please redesign. (10/1984)

Allanna O'Brian of the Emerald Lake. Device (reblazon). Per chevron Or and purpure, a ford argent and vert.

NOTE: A ford proper is a base (wavy) barry wavy argent and azure (on a color field) or azure and argent (on a metal field). The term is a specialized one, intended primarily for canting; its tinctures are part of the definition, as with a fountain or a plate. While one could conceivably speak of a ford of two specified tinctures (as Master Wilhelm did with the device of MORWYNNA OF THE STORMY SEAS), and be understood, I do not feel this use is consistent with the purpose of the term. (11/1984)

Alysaundra merch Llewelyn. Name and device. Per bend vert and argent, a lion dormant within an annulet counterchanged.

NOTE: According to persons far better versed in Welsh than I, merch always mutates to ferch following a given name. If I understand correctly, this means that it will always mutate when it is used in a name. The applicant has specifically requested that we make no changes in her name without consulting her. The device appears acceptable. (04/1985)

Alyson Ariana Allyn ferch Rhys. Device. Sable, on a (pile) argent an Atlantic puffin statant reguardant proper, and in base a compass star argent. (Festicula arctics).

NOTE: 1) A pile should go 'most or all the way to the base; properly drawn, there would not be enough space between the pile and the base to accommodate a compass star. I would suggest she replace the "pile" with a chief triangular. 2) The belly of the puffin (which is white) vanishes against the argent background. 3) If the wedge is treated as a pile, this is technically too close to the BARONY OF MADRONE, "Sable, on a pile argent a madrone tree proper, in base a laurel wreath Or," and NEFRATIRI ANI, "Sable, on a pile between in base a decrescent and an increscent argent, a horse's head couped at the shoulder sable." (SCA) The charge in base doesn't quite rate treatment as a significant secondary, and the change in tertiary charge is only a minor point of difference. 4) If the wedge is treated as a chief triangular, the device conflicts with RHYANCE AP LLEWELLYN, "Sable, a bat­winged lion sejant affronty, wings displayed, on a chief triangular argent a Celtic cross sable." (SCA) There is a point for difference in type of primary­charge, and a minor for the tertiary. (11/1984)

Ambre d'Avignon. Device. Argent, on a chevron between two couple­closes azure, three garden rosebuds argent, a bordure azure.

NOTE: This conflicts with RHIANNON AP LLYR: Argent, on a chevron cotised azure, a raven displayed Or between two ravens displayed argent. (SCA) There is a major point for the border, and a minor for the changes in the tertiary charges. (08/25/1985)

Amelia des Lis. Device. Sable, on a bend sinister between two calla lilies facing inward argent another affronty azure.

REASON FOR RETURN: The sideways calla lilies are difficult, if not impossible, to recognize. Stylistically, all three ought to be in the same aspect. This conflicts with KEVIN PEREGRYNNE: Sable, on a bend sinister argent a peregrine falcon descending, talons extended and wings addorsed, azure. (SCA) [Major for addition of secondary charges; minor for change in type of tertiary.] It also conflicts with PEREGRINE I.D.A. DORAN: Sable, a bend sinister between a Latin cross and a Greek Orthodox cross, all argent. (SCA) [Major for type of secondaries; minor for addition of tertiary.) (03/1986)

An Tir, Kingdom of. Seal for Lion's Blood Herald. Goutty, a lion sejant affronty queue­fourché, crowned and in base two crossed trumpets.

REASON FOR RETURN: The crown is not an appropriate charge for use in a herald's seal. There are a couple of registered examples (Star and Vesper), but these are for Principal Heralds. (03/1986)

An Tir, Kingdom of. Title for Argent Quill Pursuivant.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with the title of the SILVER QUILL PURSUIVANT in Atenveldt. (05/1986)

An Tir, Kingdom of. Title for Lion's Blood Herald.

NOTE: Duplicate submission; title approved March 1986. (05/1986)

André de Foucault. Device. Sable, two lions combattant, tails forked and nowed, Or and argent, and in chief a compass star extended to base gyronny of sixteen argent and Or.

NOTE: According to the Rules for Submissions (IX.4), only gyronny of six and gyronny of eight may be composed of two metals. The device conflicts with ERIC BEARSBANE, "Sable, a lion, tail nowed, argent and a griffin combattant and in chief a compass­star Or." (SCA) (01/1985)

Andreas of Green Village. Device. Argent, four holly leaves vert conjoined in saltire fructed gules.

NOTE: This conflicts with KHADIJAHI OF HOUSE HAKIM, "Argent, a strawberry flower (Fraglilia virginiana) slipped of four fruit in cross and four leaves in saltire proper." (SCA) Technically, there is probably a major point of difference for the shape of the leaves; visually, there may be less. The charges correspond almost exactly in position and color. (01/1985)

Andrew Gillies. Device. Quarterly argent and sable,a gilly flower within a chain in orle counterchanged.

NOTE: A loop of chain in any tincture is reserved to knights in the SCA. (12/1984)

Andrew MacAlistair. Device. Per fess argent and gules, a mullet of eight points counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with LUEG Ancient: Per fess argent and gules, an estoile of eight rays counterchanged. (Rietstap)

DISCUSSION: There is also a potential conflict with ALARIC VON ROTSTERN: Argent, on an eight­pointed mullet gules, a griffin's head, a lion's head cabossed, and a wivern's head reversed, all erased and conjoined at the nape Or. (SCA) There is a major point of difference for counterchanging by a line of division, and a minor for removal of the tertiaries. This would be clear under the one­point tertiaries ruling if the latter applied to "charges" and not just "ordinaries." Is this reasonable?. (04/1986)

Angela of Rosebury. Device change. Gules, a pale offset and endorsed between two mascles argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: The central charge is visually confusing and difficult to identify. Please remove the endorses, or choose another charge.

DISCUSSION: A similar "pale fracted" was returned in the LOAR from the September 1984 meeting (ASA LEE DURANT, p. 13). I noted at the time that "In accordance with Brachet's suggestion, I would be willing to consider a pale offset, but would require a new emblazon and (since we will be coining a new term) a certain amount of concurrence in the College of Arms." I am still willing to consider the charge (without the cotises). (12/1985)

Angharad Severn ferch Taliesin o Glamorgan. Name change (from Angharad Severn o Glamorgan).

REASON FOR RETURN: "Taliesin may only be used so long as there is no other allusion to either the mythical, immortal Bard or the semi­historical, mortal master bard." (WvS, 21 Feb 84, p. 13) According to both Virgule and Brigantia, Taliesin is associated with Glamorgan. This constitutes a second allusion, and an apparent claim to be the daughter of the Taliesin of legend.

NOTE: You might want to advise her Grace that Glamorgan is the English name of the place. The Welsh form is Morgannwg, which mutates to Forgannwg following the preposition o. (Evans 324). (07/1985)

Angharad Severn o' Glamorgan. (badge). Argent, an African panther's head erased close, crowned sable.

NOTE: This conflicts with BOOTY, "Argent, a lion's head erased sable." (Papworth 911). (09/1984)

Anne Fawnehaven. Device. Argent, semy of hearts purpure, a unicornate pegasus passant, wings elevated and addorsed, sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with KATHLEEN OF RIVERROSE: Or, a unicornate pegasus statant sable. (SCA) There is a major and a minor point of difference for the change in tincture of the field plus the addition of the semy. We do not feel the change in the position of the pegasus is sufficient to bring this up to two full points. (09/1985)

Anne of Hendon. Badge for Household of Hendon. Azure, a loris (tree sloth) argent pendant from a tree branch fesswise proper.

REASON: Wood proper is a dark color, and may not be placed on an azure (color) field. We would suggest making the tree branch a metal. (08/1986)

Antara al Abbasid. Name change (from Antara Dawntreader of Dawn Haven) and device change. Sable, a lion dormant Or between in chief two mullets and on a base argent a mullet sable.

NOTE: Her old device is released.

REASON FOR RETURN: ' Abbasidrel turns out to be a dynastic name: "Any member of the dynasty (750­1258) of caliphs claiming descent from Abbas, the uncle of Mohammed." (Webster's Second) Virgule and Brigantia have also noted that the term is an Anglicization, and so would either take the English article the or else be placed in the Arabic form (which, unfortunately, none of us knows). We would suggest the applicant use a patronymic formed on Abbas.

The device conflicts visually with HEINRICH ALTMARK: Per fess sable and argent, a lion dormant Or, a sword inverted gules, and a key fesswise sable, one and two. (SCA) All the changes appear to take place in a single group of secondary charges. (08/25/1985)

Anthony of Hags Head (submitted as Tritain of Hags Head). Badge. Per pall rayonny argent, erminois, and azure, in fess a Tau cross azure and a mullet Or, and in chief a dragon's head to sinister azure issuant from the top of a tower sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is much too busy, especially for a badge, and the "top of a tower" is uncomfortably reminiscent of an SCA county coronet. Please redesign. (06/1985)

Anthony Ravenscroft. Device. Azure, three fleas passant Or.

REASON: Fleas have been declared inappropriate for use in SCA heraldry. "Magnifications of tiny insects for use as charges on arms is out of period." (WvS, 30 Jul 82, p. 7) "In keeping with medieval practice, tiny insects may only be used for canting purposes in the SCA. In this particular case, the flea has such a negative association that it really is not appropriate for heraldic display." (WvS, 21 Apr 83, p. 6). (08/1986)

Archon the Seeker. (device). Sable, a lozenge fesswise enhanced vert, fimbriated and charged with a lozenge, its chief and base points throughout, all within an orle argent.

NOTE: The change from a fimbriated orle to a plain one solves the complexity problem with his previous submission; unfortunately, he also modified the lozenge, and now it is too complex. There may be an additional problem with the submission. I am told that there is a science fiction/fantasy publication in which an entity known as the "eye of Argon" figures prominently. The College of Arms has a long­standing policy of not allowing a name and device to allude strongly to a work of fiction. Given the stylized "eye" in the device and the similarity of his given name (originally submitted as Arçon) to Argon, there appears to be an infringement. (09/1984)

Arianne des Jardins. Device. Or, two arrows in saltire and another palewise all inverted gules, surmounted by a fleur­de­lys purpure, between two pallets azure charged with an unstrung recurved bow and another reversed Or, in chief a bar dancetty, the upper points fleury, counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is much too complex. We count a total of nine charges of five different types (and four tinctures), in an unusual and complicated arrangement. Please redesign. (12/1985)

Arianwyn ferch Comyn o Klynydd Emrys. Name only.

NOTE: Mynydd mutates to Fynydd after the preposition o. The applicant has asked that we not make any changes to her name. (03/1985)

Arlyss o Gordon. Name and device. Sable, on a pile throughout Or between two goblets argent, two maple leaves stems crossed in saltire vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: Reaney (DBS 11) gives Arliss as a surname. Kolatch (the source cited in the LoI) is notoriously unreliable; can you find a better reference? The Irish preposition o seems out of place in a primarily English name; the more usual form would be to use de or of, or to drop the particle entirely.

The device conflicts with GREY NICHE, BARONY OF: Sable, on a pile Or between in base two estoiles argent, a laurel wreath vert. (SCA). (07/1986)

Armilda Astyages of Lydia. Device (reblazon). Per pale gules and argent, a swan naiant within a tressure counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: Current Society usage is that the term tressure is used only in the sense of a "double tressure", and is so qualified in the blazon. This question is addressed at further length in the cover letter. (03/1986)

Armilda of Lydia. (name change and device). Sable, in saltire a scimitar proper and a spear argent with four ribbons pendant beneath the head Or.

NAME: According to Brigantia, Astyages appears to be a title of office, "governor of a city," which combined with the name of one of the kingdoms in Asia Minor (Lydia) would make this name a claim to landedness. I'm afraid we'll need more documentation in order to accept the name. DEVICE: The semicircular notch at the back of the blade is the distinguishing feature of a seax. The charge depicted here is an heraldic sabre or scimitar, a sword having a broad curved blade. (Parker 509­510) This is too close to BARROW, "Sable, two swords in saltire argent, hilts and pomels extending to the base points Or." (Papworth 1107) Replacing one of the swords with a spear is a single point of difference. (09/1984)

Armilda of Lydia. (two badges). Or, the letter A sable. Sable, the letter L Or.

NOTE: The consensus of the College of Arms was that a single letter of the alphabet may not be registered as a personal badge. To quote Batonvert, "We cannot protect single letters, since anyone has the right to use his or her initials without regard to conflict. Since we cannot protect them, we should not register them." (08/24/1984)

Arnulf Adler. Badge. Sable, on an eagle displayed perched upon a sword fesswise Or, three fleurs­de­lys in fess sable.

NOTE: This conflicts with GAYTON, "Sable, an eagle displayed Or." (Papworth 304). (02/1985)

Aron of Katharinenstadt. Device. Azure crusily argent, a cross crosslet fitchy throughout Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with LANCELOT DE WESTWOOD, "Azure, a cross botonny fitchy Or." (SCA) There is one point of difference for adding the semy, but a cross botonny is only an artistic variation of a cross crosslet.

"In the early days the cross crosslet was almost invariably shown with the extremities rounded ... but as time went by it became not uncomnon to square the ends ... Exactly the same charge was involved in each case, the variation being purely a matter of artistic license; but the pedants of the Renaissance in their ignorance classified them as two distinct charges, giving the old name of cross crosslet to the later form (since that was the one in vogue at the time), and renaming the older form cross bottony."

(Roger F. Pye. A return to first principles V: Heraldry eternal. Coat of Arms VII(56): 338­339, October 1963.). (01/1985)

Arthur Fitzwilliam the Scholar. Device. Per pall azure, vert and sable, a pall argent between an eagle rising, a dolphin hauriant, and three wolves' heads couped affronty conjoined at the necks Or.

NOTE: The device conflicts with BENEDICT FINNIAN O'BRYAN, "Vert, a pall argent between a shamrock and two Celtic crosses Or." (SCA) There is a minor point for partial change in the tincture of the field, and a major point for difference in type of a group of secondary charges. This is also busy, particularly given the complexity of one of the charges (the wolves' heads). Please choose a simpler design. (03/1985)

Arval Benicoeur. Device. Per saltire Or and sable, a Maltese cross counter­ changed.

NOTE: This is in technical conflict with MOORE, "Per saltire gules and Or, a Maltese cross counterchanged." (Fabulous Heraldry #386). (10/1984)

Arwen Evaine ferch Rhys of Gwynedd. Badge for the League of Freebooters.* Sable, two thigh­bones crossed in saltire argent, within a bordure argent, semy of cat's pawprints gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with NEWTON: Sable, two shin­bones in saltire argent. (Papworth 340) The paw prints are enough like ermine spots in appearance that I can see no alternative to treating this as equivalent to "argent, ermined gules."

* The heralds at the meeting asked, is the prerequisite for membership that one be an orphan? ("With cat­like tread, upon our prey we steal ...) (10/1985)

Asa Lee Durant. (device). Azure, a pale "tracted" between in bend sinister an anvil and a mullet of four points Or.

NOTE: The pale, as drawn, does not appear to conform to either mundane or Society usage. In accordance with Brachet's suggestion, I would be willing to consider a pale offset, but would require a new emblazon and (since we will be coining a new term) a certain amount of concurrence in the College of Arms. (09/1984)

Asahla Telerion. Name and device. Or, a dromedary camel statant, and on a chief rayonny sable, an endless knot Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: To quote Silver Trumpet, 'The Teleri were the third and largest of the Three Kindred of the Eldar, and were also called Sea­Elves. Telerion means "of the Teleri", just as Silmarillion means "of the Silmarilli". Foster s Complete Guide to Middle­Earth, Ballantine, 1978.) To claim to be of Elven race is prohibited by RFS VII.5.' According to the OED, the word tellurian ("Earth­dweller"), of which this is said to be a variant, is a 19th­Century coinage.

The "endless knot" really isn't a suitable heraldic charge; the term does not adequately describe its shape. We feel this falls into the same category as Celtic knotwork. "Heraldry cannot describe or define any but the very simplest of knots." (KFW, 30 Jun 79, p. 71; in Prec II: 22) (03/1986)

Atenveldt, Barony of. Badge for the Order of the Palm of the Barony of Atenveldt. Sable, two palm trees conjoined in pile issuant from a base and a demi­sun issuant from chief, all within a bordure Or.

NOTE: The base and, to a lesser extent, the sun, merge with the border so as to become almost invisible. The overall effect is of a landscape. Please choose a more heraldic design. (02/1985)

Atlantia, Kingdom of. Badge for Meistersinger. On an escallop Or, a harp azure.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with BAYTON: Azure, an escallop Or (Papworth 679); and with the badge of LYONDEMERE: Barry wavy vert and argent, a lion's paw escallop Or. (SCA) There is no difference for the field (BoE, 20 Oct 85, pp. 2122); and the addition of a "tertiary" charge (the harp) is only a minor point. (05/1986)

Atlantia, Kingdom of. Badge for Queen's Champion. Two tridents crossed in saltire argent, surmounted by an escallop Or charged with a rose gules.

NOTE: The Rules for Submissions (X.4) limit the number of layers in a device to three. Even though the badge is fieldless, it will be displayed on a field, raising the number of layers to four. This is excessive for a device, and badges should be simpler than devices. Please simplify. (02/1985)

Attila of the Great White Stag. (name and device). Vert, a stag springing to sinister argent between a fleur­de­lys and a bar dancetty abased Or.

NOTE: The name Attila may not be used in conjunction with a white stag, in the name or the device. The mythological connection between Attila the Hun and the Great White Stag is too strong. (09/1984)

Averil du Bois d'Avignon. Device. Per bend sinister in pile abased argent and vert, in dexter issuant from pile point a violet purpure, slipped and leaved vert.

REASON: The line of division does not appear to be compatible with the medieval armorial style the College of Arms attempts to emulate. Please redesign. DISCUSSION: Elvin's Dictionary of Heraldry is not a good source. Many of the practices described and illustrated are extremely late, and by our standards, are poor heraldry. His terminology is confused, and some of the things he shows have never actually been used. The book is sometimes useful as a source for illustrations of charges described in other, more reliable works, but it cannot be trusted for anything else. (08/1986)

Axed Root, Canton of. Device. Or, an oak tree fesswise crown to sinister proper surmounted by a double­bitted axe sable and in chief a boar's head couped and a laurel wreath vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device is busy. There are four unrelated charges, each in a different tincture; and the laurel wreath, which is supposed to be a prominent part of the design, is almost lost. Please redesign. (06/1985)

Axel Hardrekson. Name and device. Vert, three recurved bows forming an inverted triangle, each drawn and nocked with an axe Or, within a bordure compony Or and sable.

NOTE: To quote Batonvert, "Although there are examples where the patronymic is formed from the father's given name and his nickname, such as Egill Skalla­Grimsson 'Egil son of Bald­Grim', the Norse did not form patronymics from plain nicknames, and, as far as I know, this was not a medieval practice in any culture." The historical example noted by the applicant ("Harald Thorkeld the Tall's son") includes the name of Harald's father (Thorkeld). It is also obviously an English rendition of the Norse form of the name, which makes us wonder how much of the example is attributable to the source, and how much to the translator/storyteller.

This configuration causes the charges to blend together visually. As drawn, they are not recognizable as bows, much less bows armed with axes. Please choose a more conventional arrangement. (02/1985)

Aylwyn de Tregarth. Device. Argent, five chevronels gules interlaced by three crosses crosslet fitchy sable.

NOTE: The College of Arms felt that this design was not consistent with either SCA or mundane heraldry. (12/1984)

Aylwyn de Tregarth. Device. Argent, five chevronels gules interlaced with three crosses crosslet fitchy sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with BAKISLEY: Argent, three crosses crosslet fitchy sable. (Papworth 670) The addition of the chevronels is a major point of difference. There is no additional difference for interlacing them with the crosses crosslet.

DISCUSSION: The submission was originally returned because "The College of Arms felt that this design was not consistent with either SCA or mundane heraldry." Pennon has appealed this decision, citing examples of charges interlaced with ordinaries and with other charges, drawn from Bossewell's Workes of Armorie, Berry's Encyclopedia Heraldica, Parker's Glossary., and Papworth's Ordinary.

Of the examples cited, only the one given in Bossewell is demonstrably period, and the publication date (1572) is almost a century after our putative 1485 cutoff date for heraldic style. This is important, since the question being considered is one of style. The examples are almost all simpler than the present coat; and the College's original objection was founded in part on the visual complexity of the design.

I should note, however, that the presentation of the mundane examples (particularly the one from Bossewell) swung most of the College in favor of the appeal. I am willing to sustain the appeal on these grounds.

Adding a bordure (as was suggested in the LoI) would remove the conflict with BAKISLEY; but the device is already on shaky grounds as far as complexity is concerned, and I feel this would push it over the edge. I would suggest reducing the number of chevronels from five to two or three, and then adding either a chief or a bordure. This would bring the interlacing more into line with the examples cited, and ought to unclutter the center of the coat enough for it to sustain an addition on the periphery. (09/1985)

Barry McFadyen. Device. Barry gules and argent, three trees vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts, alas, with BROSS: Argent, three trees vert. (Papworth 1118) There is a single point of difference, for the field, which is not sufficient between an SCA device and mundane arms.

DISCUSSION: "Barry is conventionally of six, as are paly, bendy, and the like, unless otherwise specified in the blazon"(HB, 20 Sep 71, p. 4) (10/1985)

Bartholomew of Wolfetwain. Badge for House Wolfetwain. Gules, a triskelion arrondi Or, overall a grey wolf's head erased to sinister proper. (Canis lupus).

NOTE: This conflicts with ERRYK BLACKWOLF, "Gules, a wolf's head erased reversed sable orbed and fimbriated Or." (SCA) (01/1985)

Bartholomew of Wolfetwein. Badge (appeal). Gules, a triskelion arrondi Or, overall a grey wolf's head erased to sinister proper. (Canis lupus)

NOTE: This submission was returned in January for conflict with ERRYK BLACKWOLF, "Gules, a wolf's head erased reversed sable orbed and fimbriated Or." (SCA) Solar Herald has appealed this decision, saying she counts a major point for the addition of the triskelion and a minor point for the difference in tincture of the wolves' heads.

The fur of a gray wolf "is usually gray mixed with black and brown, but may be nearly black or, in the Arctic, nearly white." (NCE 2998) This implies that the norm is a dark gray, rather than a light or silvery gray, so there is visually little difference in tincture between the two charges; and since Bartholomew's wolf could legitimately be emblazoned as sable, there is also no technical difference. (05/1985)

Beast Valley, Canton of. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with Beast Valley, a location "south of Wintertop, north of the Haunted Lands, and east of the Grazelands" in the game RuneQuest. (06/1985)

Ben Dunfirth, Canton of. Device (appeal). Per chevron Or and barry wavy azure and argent, two towers sable and a laurel wreath vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with DRAGAN VOLKOV, "Per chevron Or and argent, two towers sable, each charged with a sword inverted argent, and an enfield passant to sinister guardant proper." (SCA) I count a major point of difference for replacing the enfield with a laurel wreath, a minor point for changing half the field, and another minor for removing the swords from the towers. Most of the changes are concentrated in the lower half of the field. The laurel wreath has poor contrast against the blue part of the base, which reduces its visual weight. And the swords on the towers might easily be taken for loopholes, which reduces their importance as well.

DISCUSSION: The potential conflict was noted on the original submission by Vesper, Laurel Emeritus, and Brigantia; and on the appeal by Brigantia, Virgule, Vesper, and Crescent. (Brigantia noted on both occasions that the call was borderline. Laurel Emeritus supported the appeal.) It boils down to a judgement call on minor points of difference. This is the same conclusion I reached when I first considered the submission. I am therefore upholding my original ruling.

Ben Dunfirth, Canton of. Device. Per chevron Or and barry wavy azure and argent, two towers sable and a laurel wreath vert.

NOTE: This conflicts with DRAGAN VOLKOV, "Per chevron Or and argent, two towers sable, each charged with a sword inverted argent, and an enfield passant to sinister guardant proper." (SCA). (01/1985)

Benjamin of Wyvernwood. (device). Gules, on a chevron throughout Or five lozenges palewise gules and in base another Or.

NOTE: The lozenge in base is much too small; as drawn, the device is unbalanced. It is too close to DURYN THE RED, "Gules, upon a chevron Or, a wheel of five spokes between two double­axes gules." (SCA) There is one minor point of difference for making the chevron throughout, a second for adding the lozenge in base, and a third for changing the type and number of the tertiary charges on the chevron. (09/1984)

Bhalter de Fairmont. Badge. Vert, a fleur­de­lys Or.

NOTE: This is identical to CLERCY. (Rietstap) (08/25/1985)

Bitter End, Shire of. (device). Azure, a mullet of eight points elon8ated to chief and to base Or environed of a laurel wreath argent, all within an orle Or.

NOTE: This infringes upon the PRINCE OF ATENVELDT, "Azure, a sun in his splendour [Or] within a laurel wreath argent." (SCA). (09/1984)

Bjorn Rhys. (device). Per bend gules and sable, a bend wreathed Or between two falcon's heads erased to sinister argent.

NOTE: This infringes upon CHRISTOPHER OF'LION'S NEST, "Per bend gules and sable, a bend between a winged lion passant guardant to sinister and a raffia­covered wine bottle Or." (SCA) There is one point for type of secondary charges, and a minor point for tincture. It is also too close to ULRICH VON MATANUSKA, "Per bend sable and gules, a bendlet Or between a wolf's head erased argent and a tower sable, fimbriated Or" (SCA), which differs by a minor point for field, a major point for type of secondaries, and a negligible point (demoted from minor) for tincture of one of a group of secondary charges. Invecting the bend should be a sufficient change. (09/1984)

Blair Moonsong. Name and device. Sable mullety Or, a plate, on a chief triangular Or, a sun gules.

NOTE: Blair is a Scottish surname of territorial origin. (Black 81) According to the Rules for Submissions, "The mundane middle name may, on a case­by­case basis, be used as a given name in the Society name so long as it is not clearly inconsistent with period practice for the countries or cultures involved. The mundane middle name thus receives a greater benefit of the doubt when used as a Society given name, but not the blanket exception to the period rule granted to the mundane given name." (VII.3) Master Wilhelm has noted that "if he had a clearly period byname, such as Blair Dickson or Blair the Tailor," then he would be inclined to approve the name. I am willing to do the same. (01/1985)

Bran Gwyn ap Arthur ap Maelgwyn. Device. Azure, chaussé, a raven close argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with ROANE FAIRGGAE OF LOCHLANN, "Argent, on a pile throughout azure a harbor seal haurient argent." (SCA) There is a minor point for the difference between a pile throughout and chaussé, and another for the type of the tertiary charge. In addition, the raven strengthens the association pointed out by Batonvert between this name and that of Bran Davies, the albino son of King Arthur in Susan Cooper's The Grey King and Silver on the Tree. This is not acceptable under our rules. (10/1984)

Brandr Thoralfsson the Skald. Device. Vert, a harp reversed Or enflamed proper, on a chief rayonny Or an ash slip vert.

NOTE: The heraldic convention appears to be to depict a charge enflamed as outlined with flames, rather than actually burning, as is shown here. The device conflicts with RHYS IAN GLENOWEN, "Vert, a harp and on a chief Or a flanged mace fesswise sable." (SCA) We count a major point for the line of partition of the chief, and a minor for differences in type and tincture of the tertiary charge; we do not feel the changes to the harp constitute a sufficiently large minor to make up a second full point. (03/1985)

Brendan Mac Arthalan. Device. Per fess gules and sable, a sinister hand fesswise couped proper holding a sun Or.

NOTE: The device conflicts with KOUROST BERNHARD OF THE EAST WOODS, "Sable, a sun eclipsed Or" (SCA), and with RAKE, "Sable, a sun Or." (Papworth 1100) The hand, which is light in color, is visually a continuation of the sun, so I am inclined to treat the hand­and­sun combination as a modified sun. Visually, I find this to be a major point different from a sun eclipsed (KOUROST), a minor point from an unmodified sun (RAKE), and a slightly stronger minor point from a demi­sun. This is also extremely close to SUNSETSHIRE, "Per fess gules and vert, a demi­sun issuant from the line of division within a laurel wreath Or." (SCA). (02/1985)

Brendan mac Artuir ap Alan (submitted as Brendan mac Artuir ap Alain). Device. Per bend gules and sable, a sinister hand fesswise couped proper, holding a sun, all within a bordure Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with ELERIC SONN HVITTANN: Sable, on a sun Or, an anvil sable, within a bordure Or. (SCA) "The hand, which is light in color, is visually a continuation of the sun, so I am inclined to treat the hand­and­sun combination as a modified sun. Visually, I find this to be ... a minor point from an unmodified sun." (BoE, 3 Feb 85, pp. 11­12) I count three minor points: one for tincture of the field, one for type of sun, and one for removing the tertiary charge on the sun. (07/1985)

Brenna Cathleen the Hwistlere. Device. Azure, on a bend sinister invected between a pair of wings conjoined in lure and a pair of slippers in cross all argent, a wooden recorder proper.

NOTE: The slippers are not recognizable in this position; like boots and shoes, they should be shown in profile. (01/1985)

Brian d'Amarcian. Device. Per fess vert and Or, a fess gules and a dexter gore, in sinister chief a crescent argent and overall a sea­unicorn rampant argent tailed vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is complex, and the background is confusing. We question whether it is appropriate for a gore to overlap another charge (in this case, the fess), and suggest removing it altogether. (01/1986)

Brian Karlnar. Device. Argent, a cobra erect, head to sinister, the tail nowed, between three crescents gules.

NOTE: This is in technical conflict with IPSTANS, "Argent, a chevron between three crescents gules. " (Papworth 408). (12/1984)

Brian Kunaganos. (device). Argent, a cross parted and fretted purpure within a bordure sable.

NOTE: This conflicts with MALTON, "Argent, a cross patonce voided purpure within a bordure sable." (Papworth 634). (09/1984)

Brice Armbruster. Badge. A crossbow argent.

REASON: This conflicts with HEINRICH ARMBRUSTER, Gyronny of eight Or, gules, Or and azure, a crossbow proper. (SCA) There is a single point of difference, for the color of the crossbow. It also conflicts with THOMAS DOLAN ARBALISTER OF CAERLEON, Per pall vert, gules, and sable, a crossbow argent. (SCA, 7 Jul 86) Since this is a fieldless badge, there is no difference. Mundanely, the badge infringes upon KOREYWA, Gules a crossbow argent. (Rietstap) Virgule has noted that a change from argent to Or will not suffice, on account of BALISTE, Gules a crossbow Or, and VREEM, Azure a crossbow Or. (Rietstap). (08/1986)

Brigid ni Roane. Name change (to Sariya al Mus'ad).

NOTE: The only documentation provided for the name was the phone number of an Arabic scholar whom I could call for information. While this is a valuable resource to have, it does not provide the Laurel office with anything written for the files. It also doesn't allow the College the opportunity to learn from the information presented, to ask questions, or point out apparent problems, all of which are important parts of the submission process. (01/1985)

Brigitta Olavsdatter. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is uncomfortably close to the registered name of BRIGIT OLESDOTTIR OF LOCH REE. I would suggest she add a distinguishing place­name, so one name does not appear to be a shortened form of the other. (06/1985)

Brión Robor. Device. Azure, a pall Or between two swords in saltire proper and two reindeer's heads caboshed Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with MICHAL DOLINAR O"MOURNE DE STARHAVEN: Azure, on a pall Or, a Florida panther's head couped revered sable between three hears gules. (SCA). There is a major point for adding a group of secondary charges, and a minor point for removing a group of tertiaries. A case can be made for allowing a little more difference, since both groups consist of dissimilar charges, but the heralds at the Symposium seemed to feel that the two conflicted. Note also the arms of the town of ISSOUDIN: Azure, a pall between three fleurs-de-lis OR (Woodward 150).

DISCUSSION: We have blazoned these as reindeer's heads because they have two sets of antlers. The heraldic reindeer is distinguished from the stag "by double attires, one pair erect, the other pendent." (Parker 196). (08/10/1985)

Brion Thornbird ap Rhys. (badge for House Ellenwyn). Or, a chevron argent, fimbriated vert, between a crescent gules and a phoenix displayed, head to sinister, sable, all within a bordure vert.

NOTE: With four types of charges and five tinctures, this is too busy for a badge. Please simplify. (09/1984)

Brion Thornbird ap Rhys. (device). Or, a chevron argent, fimbriated, between two lions combattant guardant vert and a phoenix displayed, head to sinister, sable, in chief a crescent gules, all within a bordure vert.

NOTE: This is too complex for a device. There are five types of charges and five tinctures. Please simplify. (09/1984)

Brom Blackhand. Device. Per fess indented gules and vert, a sword inverted issuant from a stump snagged and eradicated argent.

NOTE: This infringes upon DUBHGLAS THE SCAVENGER, "Vert, a sword inverted argent, inflamed and issuant from an oak stock proper." (SCA) (10/1984)

Bronwyn ferch Rhys. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: The name conflicts with that of BRANWEN FERCH RHYS, approved in August 1984. (05/1986)

Brusi of Orkney. Badge. Sable, a leopard's face holding in its mouth a chevronel couped Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with ELWANGER, "Sable, a leopard's head Or" (Rietstap) and CLEDEROW, "Sable, a leopard's head Or jessant a fleur­de­lys argent." (Papworth 911). (03/1985)

Bryn Canol, Shire of. Device change. Per fess indented of three vert and argent, upon a pale counterchanged, in chief a laurel wreath vert.

NOTE: This conflicts with MELUCINE DE RONCEVERTE, "Vert, on a pale argent, a greenbriar slip vert." (SCA) [Major for counterchanging across a line of division, minor for type and position of tertiary.] A change in number, from one to two laurel wreaths on the pale, should be sufficient to raise the difference from a minor to a major. (03/1985)

Brynja of Byrrhyll. Device. Azure, three geese naiant in pall, heads to center, argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with BRUYELLES, "Azure, three geese argent." (Rietstap). There is a major point for the position of the charges. It is also too close to SHERYL OF THESPIS, "Azure, a swan naiant argent crowned Or." (SCA) There is a major point for the number of charges, and minor for the removal of the crown. (04/1985)

Burke Kyriell MacDonald. Badge change. Azure, a sun Or, eclipsed azure, overall a compass star elongated in pale argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts visually with WILLIAM OF HAVOC: Azure, a sun in glory Or, overall a sword inverted argent, with a copper hilt proper; and with WENDRYN TOWNSEND: Azure, a sun in glory Or. (SCA). (07/1985)

Cahlin o Tara. Name and device. Argent, a two­headed wolf sejant erect affronty sable and on a chief gules three crosses formy Or.

NOTE: "A man may not use 'of Tara,' as that was the seat of the High Kings of Ireland." (Wvs, 19 Jun 84, p. 12) This was extended to a general ban in my letter of 5 Jan 85 (p. 16). The College has also questioned the derivation of the given name; they have suggested Irish Coileán, Coilin, or Caolan as being more appropriate. The device conflicts with WOLFGANG VON VOLKERSHEIM, "Argent, a wolf rampant to sinister sable and on a chief gules a rolled scroll and a quill reversed Or." (SCA). (02/1985)

Caitlin ingen Chuimbrech. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: We would like to see some documentation for Chuimbrech. Brigantia, working from Thurneysen's Grammar of Old Irish and Strachan's Old Irish Paradigms, arrived at chuimrig as the likely derivative of comrig, but she can find no evidence for the verbal noun ever being used to indicate a "captive" (the translation given in the letter of intent), let alone being used as a given name (since it follows a patronymic particle). If the applicant wishes the Old Irish for "daughter of the captive," Mistress Alisoun suggests ingen chimbedo, from cimbid 'captive or prisoner'. (06/1985)

Caitlin of Amberwyne. (device). Per fess argent and azure, a lion passant and three roses counterchanged.

NOTE: This conflicts with WALL, "Per fess argent and azure, in chief a lion passant of the second." (Papworth 88) A change in the lion of partition (sorry ...) should be sufficient. (09/1984)

Calgaigch MacPhee. Device. Per pale vert and argent, a goose migrant to chief counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with STEFAN DEN STRASSENRAUBER: Per pale vert and Or, a double[­headed] eagle counterchanged. (SCA) We count at best a major plus a strong minor point of difference. In altering the device, beware of DAVID WESTERVILLE: Per pale sable and argent, a crane displayed legless Or. (SCA). (07/1986)

Calontir, Crown Prince of. Device. Purpure, a cross of Calatrava, in chief a crown, within a laurel wreath lying as on a border Or, overall a label throughout argent.

NOTE: This submission raised the question of whether or not it is appropriate for the arms of the crown prince to incorporate a crown or a laurel wreath. A quick check of the ordinary reveals instances of crowns being registered to crown princes (and at least one crown princess), as well as to several royal offices, so I do not think this poses a problem. The laurel wreath is another matter ­ it is specifically the mark of an SCA branch, and as such is appropriate only to the arms of the sovereign. There are two exceptions to this rule on the books, and I do not wish to create any more. (10/1984)

Calvinus Sinister. Name change (from Craig of Westermark); appeal.

NOTE: Lord Wilihelm located a copy of the edition of Yonge cited by Vesper in his letter of intent. The pertinent passage, taken from a section titled Cognomina, is as follows:

"In contrast to the hairy Caesar, we proceed to the opposite title that the great Julius might have borne, if he had not figuratively, as well as literally, hidden his baldness with a wreath of bays. Calvinus, the diminutive of Calvus (the bald), is worth mentioning, because it probably was the origin of the surname of Jean Chauvin, the Reformer; and was re­Latinized again by him into the Calvin by which he is known to controversy. The father of the Cid regarded as his great enemy one Lain Calvo, who is supposed to be, by one of the great Spanish corruptions, formed from Flavius Calvus."

This supports Brigantia's argument that Calvinus is a Latin cognomen (a personal nickname), not a given name. (05/1985)

Caoimhin McKee. Device. Counter­ermine, a rose gules barbed vert and seeded sable between in saltire four keys, wards to center, Or.

NOTE: This conflicts visually with YAROSLAV RURIKSSON, "Counter­ermine, a rose gules, barbed and seeded, surmounted by a sword inverted proper." (SCA). (03/1985)

Carlwyn George Ordragoun of Canterbury. Device. Azure, a pall and overall a swan statant, wings elevated and addorsed, argent, and a dragon rampant to sinister Or addorsed.

NOTE: The argent swan blends with the pall, and the device as a whole is not well balanced. The contrast problem could be dealt with by making the swan Or instead of argent. A more balanced design (incorporating elements of her original submission, and offered with the caveat that it has not been checked for conflict) would be, "Azure, a pall inverted argent between two dragons rampant Or and a swan statant, wings elevated and addorsed, argent.". (02/1985)

Caroline of Glen Gowan. Badge. Azure, a sea­cat "dormant in annulo" argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is a lovely picture, and beautifully drawn, but the cat is not in an heraldic position, and none of the heralds commenting on this submission (at the meeting or in the correspondence) was able to suggest a blazon that was both adequately descriptive and accurate. Please choose another position for the sea­cat. (06/1986)

Carreg Wen, Shire of. (name only).

NOTE: The name, which is Welsh for "white stone," conflicts with that of the Canton of the White Stone in the East Kingdom. Since the two are unlikely to be confused, a letter of permission from the existing branch would be sufficient. The name would probably be better as one word: Carregwen. (09/1984)

Cassandra ffowlke. Device. Per fess with a right step gules and azure, a camelopard passant proper, winged Or.

NOTE: I think it is important, with an unusual field division such as this, to place the charges so they will not obscure the line of division. With a field "per fess with a ... step," any large, central charge will tend to obscure one or both of the angles, making it difficult for the observer to tell if the field is per fess, per pale, or per bend (indented?). Two appropriately­shaped charges in bend sinister or in fess ought to work, as would placing the winged camelopard on a more jejune field. (10/1984)

Cathanar, College of. Device. Per chevron argent and gules, in chief a compass star and a spear fesswise in pale sable, the spear maintained in dexter by a sinister gauntlet sable and in sinister by a dragon's jamb erased vert, and in base a swan naiant argent environed of a laurel wreath Or.

NOTE: This has six different charges and five tinctures, which is far too complex, especially for the arms of an SCA branch. Please simplify. (04/1985)

Catherine de Hawkhead. Device. Bendy erminois and vert.

NOTE: This conflicts with ABREY, "Bendy of six, ermine and gules." (Papworth 291) According to the Rules for Submissions (XII.10), two field­only designs must differ in at least two of the stated categories. These two devices differ only in tincture. (02/1985)

Catherine du Fay. Device. Per pale sable and argent, on a fess two domestic cats couchant respectant all counterchanged.

NOTE: This is in technical conflict with ANCILLA THE PACKRAT, "Per pale argent and vert, on a fess counterchanged a rat statant to sinister panniered, gorged, and being led on a chain, by a frog statant to sinister, all counterchanged." (SCA) I count a major point for the changes in tincture and two minor points for the differences in type and position of the tertiary charges, yielding slightly less than two full points. (12/1984)

Catherine the White. Device. Vair, a bend between two bells argent.

NOTE: The argent charges blend in with the argent portion of the field, which fact was not pointed out, unfortunately, when the previous submission was returned. My usual policy in cases such as this is to grant an exception to the rule in question. In the present instance, however, we feel the contrast problem is too serious to overlook. I would like to apologize, on the part of the Laurel office, for not having caught the problem earlier. We would suggest she change the argent charges to Or; barring conflicts, this ought to do the trick. (12/1984)

Cathlin of Morecombe Bottome. Device. Erminois, a pile wavy sable, overall a swan, wings addorsed argent, gorged and chained Or.

NOTE: "A charge that is overall or surmounting another charge obeys the Rule of Tincture with respect to the field, not the charge(s) beneath it." (Rules IX.5) She might consider a field "per chevron inverted wavy sable and erminois," which would produce a similar effect. (01/1985)

Catlin Kavanaugh. Device. Per chevron sable and azure, a chevron argent between two fountains and a fleur­de­lis argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with WOLF MICHAELSON, "Per chevron sable and azure, a chevron argent and in base a wolf's head erased Or." (SCA) There are differences in type, number, and tincture of a group of secondary charges, but since they are applied to the same group of charges, the later changes demote, yielding less than two points. Alternatively, we could treat the two charges in chief as a group (worth a major point, since they're being added) and the charge in base as a less important secondary (two minor points, one demoted, for change in type and tincture). The result is still less than two points. (03/1985)

Catrina Highrider. Device. Azure, issuant from base a demi­sun Or, on a chief argent a D­ring snaffle bit sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with the state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA: Azure, a demi­sun rising Or, on a chief argent three garbs Or. (Low, Roll of Australian Arms, p. 46) The only difference is in the charges on the chief. We also feel it conflicts with OSRIC STANISLAUS IVYAROVICH: Azure, on a sun issuant Or, a drakkar in sail to sinister proper sailed gules. (SCA) It differs by the addition of a chief and two tertiary charges, at least one of which, in theory, is supposed to demote.

We would also appreciate some information on the D­ring snaffle bit, which appears to be a new charge. Is it known to be period? (12/1985)

Ceatta o Gulcleth. Name correction (to Ceatta ohoni Culcleth).

NOTE: The documentation enclosed with the original submission was for the given name and the locative. No documentation was provided for ohnoni, which is supposed to be Welsh for 'from'. There is no entry for ohoni in Y Geiriadur Mawr. The preposition from is normally rendered as o, which causes the initial consonant of the following word (Culcleth) to mutate (becoming Gulcleth). (02/1985)

Cecilia of Lindley. Device. Argent, a sun sable eclipsed Or, on a chief azure three garden roses argent leaved Or.

NOTE: This infringes upon GREGORY OF YORK, "Argent, a falcon striking proper, on a chief azure, three roses argent, each charged with a rose Or fimbriated sable, all barbed and seeded proper." (SCA) There is a point and a half for difference in type and tincture of the primary charge. The changes to the white roses on the chief are negligible. (10/1984)

Cedric Steinhauser. Device. Sable, a bend sinister between a tower and an eagle's claw, and on a chief Or, an anvil between two smith's hammers palewise sable.

REASON: The device is too complex: of the seven charges, six are of different types. Simplify. DISCUSSION: The tincture "Or" following the chief is understood to apply to the bend sinister, the tower, and the eagle's claw. There is a point at which factoring of tinctures starts becoming a liability instead of an asset. It would not be unreasonable to blazon this "... an eagle's claw Or, and on a chief Or. This effectively separates the blazon into two pieces (the bend sinister and its accompanying charges, and the charged chief), and reassures the reader that, No, you didn't accidentally omit a tincture. It is not incorrect to repeat tinctures; it is merely customary to be brief whenever clarity allows it. (08/1986)

Cedric the Bold. Device (reblazon). Ermine, a bend sinister gules surmounted by a raptor displayed reversed Or.

NOTE: A raptor is a bird of prey, such as a hawrk or eagle; the term does not describe a specific type of charge, but rather a class of charges. In addition, the bird shown in the emblazon is neither displayed nor reversed. (01/1985)

Cei Myghchaell Wellinton. Badge. A fool displayed guardant, clad in motley, proper.

NOTE: There is no "proper" color for motley. I would suggest making the fool's garb lozengy of a color and a metal, which is a reasonable heraldic approximation of motley. (04/1985)

Cein O'Madden. Name and device. Vert, on a tau cross throughout between two harps addorsed Or, three quatrefoils in chief vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: According to Brigantia, Cein is the genitive form of Cian. (This means that you would use "Cian" as the given name, and "Cein" in a patronymic.) A Tau cross throughout would be drawn as in the margin ­ the limbs would reach the edges of the shield, but the crossbar would not become the "chief." Please use this form, or choose another charge. (05/1986)

Ceithlenn nic Rauri. Name and device. Per chevron azure and gules, two mullets argent and a comet palewise Or.

NOTE: Is this "variant" of the Irish Gaelic name Caitlin based on a specific example, or is it made up? According to Batonvert, the spelling does not correspond to any reasonable pronunciation. (Brigantia hypothesizes a back­formation from the anglicized form Cathleen.) Both recommend she use Caitlin. The Scots Gaelic patronymic (after suitable linguistic gyrations) would be either ni Rhuairidh or ni Rhuadhri.

The device conflicts with DEPORODH OF RANNOCH, "Per chevron abased azure and argent, two mullets argent, and in base a birch leaf erect proper." (SCA) There is a minor point for changing the tincture of half the field, and a major point for replacing the leaf with a comet. Please note that an heraldic comet has a definite tail (known as its "beard"); see the illustration in the margin. (04/1985)

Cenwulf Godfyrht. Device. Or, an equal­armed patriarchal cross azure and a mount vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with GORDON THE RIGHTEOUS: Or, a Greek cross gules and a mount vert. (SCA) We count a major and a minor point of difference for the cross, and no difference for the mount. (03/1986)

Ceridwen Dafydd. (submitted as Ceridwen Dafydd of Cambria).

Appeal denied. Cambria is for all intents and purposes the same as Wales, and may not be used with the name of the goddess Ceridwen. (09/1984)

Ceridwen o Glamorgan ferch y Prydydd. Device. Azure, a bend Or between a mullet of ten points and a kettle argent.

NOTE: The name Ceridwen should not be used in conjunction with a cauldron or kettle ­ the cauldron of Ceridwen was the fount of poetry and knowledge. (The tale of Gwion Bach. The Mabinogi and Other Medieval Welsh Tales, pages 162­164. Edited by Patrick K. Ford. University of California Press, 1977.) The device conflicts with IAN MACANGUS, "Azure, a bend between a mullet of eight points and a tree eradicated argent." (SCA) It also infringes upon JAN ZLOTSLY MEC, "Azure, on a bend Or between two mullets of four points argent a sword gules." (SCA). (03/1985)

Charic Morgan. Name and device. Vert a cross crosslet potent and on a chief Or a bow sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: Char­ is not, to the best of our knowledge, a protheme, so its combination with -ric is questionable. The device conflicts with BECK: Vert, a cross raguly humetty Or, on a chief of the last three blackbirds proper. (Papworth 625) There is a minor point of difference for the type of cross (the two are fairly similar), and there are two minor points for type and number of charges on the chief. Beck's blackbirds are Ar. (proper), not pu. (purpure). (05/1986)

Charles Farquhar Gordon. Device. Argent, an enfield rampant gules, in base a sprig of three thistles slipped and leaved proper, a chief sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with ROBYN MACARTAIR: Argent, a fox rampant guardant gules and on a chief sable a chess knight between two chess rooks argent. (SCA) There is a minor point for the thistles, another for removing the charges on the chief, and a third for the difference between a fox and an enfield. (05/1986)

Charles Marquette. Badge for Household of the Black Orchid. Argent, a mullet of four points saltirewise azure, between in pale two roses gules, slipped and leaved vert, and in fess two orchids sable slipped and leaved vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is too complex for a badge. The use of more than one kind of flower in a device or badge is poor practice, especially in a single group of charges. Please simplify. (06/1986)

Charles of the Red Oakes. Device. Sable, semy­de­lis, on a bend cotised argent, two oak trees eradicated and blasted gules.

NOTE: This infringes upon HELLERD, "Sable, a bend between two cotises and six fleurs­de­lis argent." (Papworth 207) There is a minor point for the difference between six fleurs­de­lys and semy of them, and an additional minor for the tertiary charges. (10/1984)

Chenan du Cheval. Device. Pean, a ruined castle argent, overall a unicornate horse salient to sinister gules.

NOTE: Charges overall should not obscure the charges behind them; the ruined castle is not recognizable. Please use either a horse (without a horn) or a unicorn (with beard, tufts, and a lion's tail). (02/1985)

Cherie Ruadh MhicRath of Locksley. Device. Gyronny arrondi reversed, purpure semy of daisies proper, and azure, a cat to sinister gardant argent, lying upon its back and playing with a [pink] flamingo feather proper. (Phoenicopterus ruber).

NOTE: The cat is not in a recognizable heraldic position, and it was the consensus of the College of Arms that the overall effect of the device is also not heraldic. The color of a flamingo's feathers is apparently dependent on its diet, so there really is no "proper" color. In addition, if the feather is an important enough charge to warrant an involved blazon, then it is also important enough to be subject to the rule of contrast. Please redesign. (04/1985)

Christin d'Hiver. Device. Per pale dovetailed Or and azure, a chevron counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN. This infringes on GRUBER OF NUREMBERG: Per pale Or and azure, a chevron counterchanged. (Rietstap) There is a single point of difference, for the line of partition. (08/10/1985)

Christina of Islay. Device. Azure, a triskelion of three arrows embowed points outward Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This differs by only one point (for the arrangement of the arrows) from ARCHARD: Azure, three arrows Or. (Papworth 8) (05/1986)

Chrystofer Kensor. Device. Azure, a wolf rampant to sinister maintaining an axe argent hafted Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with ALAIR OF THE BLOODY FOUNTAIN: Azure, a wolf and a unicorn combattant argent. (SCA) There is a major point of difference for removing the unicorn, and a minor for the addition of the axe.

DISCUSSION: The point­and­a­half rule does not apply here because one of the coats consists of two dissimilar primary charges. I am not altogether convinced that this is a reasonable conflict, but it is consistent with our system of counting difference. This may be something we need to think about. (09/1985)

Ciaradh Mac Cu Uldah Mörkstjärna. Name only.

NOTE: Ciaradh appears to be a common noun, and not a given name. She might consider the given name Ciara, which is feminine. According to Brigantia, the patronymic form of the modern surname McCullough is mac Chonuladh, with the root Cu Uladh being first placed in the genitive case (Con Uladh) and then aspirated. The submitter might also want to consider the Irish form of Mörkstjärna (Swedish 'dark star'), which Batonvert says is rialt dorcha. (02/1985)

Clairiel du Vent Argent. Badge for the Cult of Clariel. Or, a slip of broccoli vert.

NOTE: A slip of broccoli is heraldically indistinguishable from a tree. This conflicts with VIEDMA, "Or, an olive tree vert," and PEARTON, "Or, a pear tree vert fructed proper." (Woodward 317; Papworth 1113) She might consider a stalk fesswise. The designation "Cult of Clariel" is not appropriate for registration with the College of Arms. (02/1985)

Clairiel du Vent Argent. Device. Per fess argent and tierced per pale gules, argent, and gules, a lozenge throughout sable charged with a mullet of six points elongated to base Or.

NOTE: The device does not appear to be consistent with either mundane or SCA heraldry. Please redesign. DISCUSSION: The chief problem here is with the field divisions, which are being used to construct a pair of abstract geometrical shapes. As frequently happens when ordinaries are combined in like fashion, the resulting blazon is confusing, and the overall effect is non­heraldic. (02/1985)

Clea de Hunedoara. (badge for Guildiya Sirinov; change in status).

NOTE: Household badges must be registered to an individual. The English transliteration of 'guild' would appear to be Gildiya, not Guildiya, and we have not been able to verify that Sirinov is correct. Please document them. (09/1984)

Cloondara, Shire of. Name chance (from Floating Castle).

NOTE: The name conflicts with the town of Cloondara in Ireland. Pale cites O'Connell, The Meaning of Irish Place Names, p. 25, where it is said to mean "meadow of the two ring forts.". (03/1985)

Colin Regehr. Device. Per pale gules and counter­ermine, a trèfle counterchanged and in dexter chief a mullet argent.

NOTE: Trèfle is the French for 'trefoil', and is used as such in mundane heraldry. (Dubois I 726; Parker 585) The trefoil depicted here is too skinny to be counterchanged per pale, and it is difficult to recognize. (Charges should be drawn to fill the available space.) If he will widen the charge, it can be blazoned "a trefoil slipped and couped," and would be acceptable. (02/1985)

Collette la Fleur des Jardins. Device. Per bend sinister azure and argent, two seagulls in bend volant to sinister argent and a sprig of three violets purpure, slipped and leaved vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with MARITSA DMITRIEVNA: Per bend sinister sable and argent, a Russian cross argent and a violet purpure, slipped and leaved vert. (SCA) We count a minor point of difference for changing the tincture of half the field, and a major point for changing the type and number of the charges in chief. All of the changes take place in the upper half of the field. (11/1985)

Colwin of Oakwood. Device. Per bend argent and Or, a bend gules, overall a mace sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: I'm afraid this does, in fact, conflict with THOPIAS WOLFGAME VON LAUER: Argent, a bend gules enfiled of an annulet sable. (SCA) The point and­a­half rule was intended to apply to cases where there is a dominant primary charge, such as single primary charge plus a charged chief. Here, there is a major point for replacing the annulet with the mace, and a minor point for the difference of half the field.

DISCUSSION: See the cover letter for various observations on maces. (10/1985)

Conmara O Mactire. Name only.

NOTE: Conmara appears to be a component of a surname, and not a given name in its own right. Brigantia has suggested that the applicant use Connor, from the Irish Conchobhar. (03/1985)

Conor Sigmundsson. (device). Gyronny azure and argent, a compass star counterchanged.

NOTE: This conflicts with the badge of MOBERIE OF TOR DENLY, "Gyronny argent and azure, a mullet of four points counterchanged." (09/1984)

Corwin du Mont de Maine. Device. Argent, a garden rose, slipped and leaved, between in pale two crescents, all between two flaunches sable.

NOTE: The name and device both allude to Corwin of Amber, the principal character in a series of novels by Roger Zelazny. The fictional Corwin's colors are black and white, and his symbol is a rose, usually rendered as argent on sable, but sometimes found (due, I am told, to a "famous error" on the cover of an early edition of one of the books) as sable on argent. The College of Arms has a long­standing policy of regarding allusions of this sort to be an infringement on the fictional character.

Master Wilhelm ruled in October 1982, and again in May 1983, that the name Corwin may not be used in conjunction with a white rose (of any kind). After reading over the comments on this submission (particularly Batonvert's, which convinced me that my ruling on CORWIN RENWALD was in error), I am extending the ban to include roses in any tincture. (02/1985)

Courtney Lettice de Varnay. Device. Per pale azure and Or, fretty overall counterchanged, on a chief per pale Or and azure two nag's heads erased respectant counterchanged.

NOTE: The device conflicts with PHILIP HARLECH OF EXETER, "Per pale azure and Or, a fret and a chief counterchanged." (SCA). (02/1985)

Crisiant ferch Eirian. Device. Argent, a chevron cotised sable, overall a wolf rampant gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device conflicts with that of RORY PHALEN: Argent, a fox rampant guardant gules between two flaunches sable. (SCA) There is a single point of difference, for change in type of secondary charge. (03/1986)

Crossings of the Red Spears, March of the. Device. Argent, two spears in saltire surmounted by a third palewise gules, the head of the center one environed of a laurel wreath vert.

NOTE: We did not receive any forms for this submission. The device conflicts with FERRAN DE MONTFERY, "Argent, an escarbuncle of spears offset deasil gules." (SCA) The laurel wreath should also be a more prominent component of the design. (03/1985)

Dafydd ap Hywel Trawsfynydd. Device. Per saltire Or and gules, on a saltire, two swords in saltire, counterchanged.

NOTE: The Laurel office has held previously that a skinny object such as a sword should not be counterchanged along its long axis because of the lack of contrast. The College of Arms concurs with Crux Herald in his earlier decision to return this submission. (03/1985)

Dafydd Bretnach an Dùn Breatunn. Device. Sable mullety argent, on a fountain a sea horse naiant Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with ELEANOR OF ALNWICK, "Sable, on a fountain a swan naiant argent." (SCA). (01/1985)

Dafydd Dercanraith. Name and device. Azure, a chevron cotised throughout Or between two enfields combattant and a sword palewise argent.

REASON: A chevron rompu is too complex to cotise. Please choose a simpler treatment for the charge.

Derc and anraith are Irish name elements, not Welsh, as the letter of intent implied, which misled the heralds who commented on the name. Please resubmit this, providing a little more documentation in the LoI. The following (taken from the submitter's source, pp. 30 and 32 of Ewen's History of British Surnames) should be sufficient:

­anraith occurs as the second element in the dithematic name Maolanraith 'chief of the storm"; and the descriptive surname Righdearph "of the red forearm" is glossed as derg "red" plus rig "forearm", alternatively rigdai "royal" plus derc "eye".

The submitter is presumably trying to form the descriptive "eye of the storm" in Irish Gaelic. (08/1986)

Dafydd Sean ap Hywel. Device. Sable, a demi­sun issuant from base and elongated to chief Or and in chief two mullets of four points argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with KAFFAR FIUIRLATH, "Sable, in chief a catamount passant guardant argent, maintaining in each forepaw an arrow inverted and issuant from base a demi­sun Or." (SCA) There is a point and a half for the differences in the charges in chief. (10/1984)

Dagonell Collingwood of Emerald Lake. Device. Barry wavy of eight vert and argent, on a bend Or three roses gules, barbed and seeded sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with GLAGGE ("Gules, on a bend Or, three cinquefoils gules"), cited in the letter of intent. There is a major point of difference for the field; but a rose and a cinquefoil are at best a minor point different, and when the two are tertiary charges, the difference is negligible. (03/1986)

Daibhi Iain Dubhghall. Device. Per pale indented argent and vert, on a fess counterchanged between a saber, blade to base, and a dagger fesswise, a swept-hilt rapier fesswise reversed, all proper, the blades counterchanged gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: The use of three different types of the same charge (a sword) ­­ not to mention the unusual manner of counterchanging the blades ­­ is visually confusing, and contrary to the spirit of heraldry. A similar, and heraldically acceptable, design would be: Per pale indented argent and vert, on a fess counterchanged between two swords fesswise, another reversed, the blades embrued, proper. Please suggest this to the submitter. (07/1985)

Damianós Arrianus Alexius Nicosiaios. Device. Argent, on a pale between two swords inverted sable hilted gules a Gorgon's head cabossed argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with LIN THE BAKER, "Argent, on a pale sable a garb Or." (SCA) [Major for addition of secondaries, two minors for type and tincture of tertiary.]. (03/1985)

Daniel de la Trompette d'Or. Device. Argent, on three piles in point throughout azure a straight trumpet between a natural trumpet and a natural trumpet reversed Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device conflicts with BRYAN: Argent, three piles azure. (Papworth) There is a single point of difference, for the addition of the group of trumpets. As Roger F. Pye has demonstrated, "piles in point" is the modern term for the way piles were always drawn in period, and medieval piles were also always "throughout." See the discussion for RANDAL OF KINGS HAMMER, 18 May 1986, p. 14.

NOTE: This should be drawn with the outer piles issuing from the chief, not from the corners. It could also be improved (in terms of classical heraldic style) by using only one type of trumpet.

Daphne of Ered Isen. Device. Sable, a sword inverted surmounted by a retort fesswise, in chief a label, all gules fimbriated Or, distilling from the retort a goutte d'Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: Under present standards, this device contains too many instances of complex fimbriation. It is my opinion that the Grandfather Clause would permit her to use her father's arms differenced by an unfimbriated label (in Or or argent), or to incorporate elements from her father's device (the fimbriated sword and retort) into an otherwise acceptable new design, but that this combination is excessive. Please see the discussion on the submission of RENA THORBJORNSDOTRIR (18 May 1986, pp. 18­20), from which this ruling is derived. (07/1986)

Davan Inn Spaki. Device. Sable, a staff bendwise sinister Or, overall an owl stooping affronty, all within a bordure argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This still conflicts with JAMES MACCHLURAIN: Sable, an owl argent (SCA); and with KNIGHTS OF THE WATCH: Sable, an owl displayed argent. (The World of Greyhawk) The staff is largely obscured by the body (and the sinister wing) of the owl. We would suggest reorienting it, to make it a more prominent part of the design. (01/1986)

Davan inn Spaki. Device. Sable, a wooden staff bendwise sinister proper, overall an owl stooping affronty argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: The wooden staff proper has insufficient contrast with the sable field. (RFS IX.5) This also conflicts with JAMES MACCHLURAIN: Sable, an owl argent. (SCA) There is a point of difference for the position of the owl, but we feel the staff (which is skinny, does not show up against the field, and is largely obscured by the body of the owl) is not a significant enough charge to contribute a full second point. Virgule has also noted the arms of the KNIGHTS OF THE WATCH: Sable, an owl displayed argent. (The World of Greyhawk). (07/1985)

Daved Shmuel ben Rachon. (device). Ermine, a golden eagle stooping, wings elevated and addorsed, proper, bearing in its beak a garden rose gules slipped and leaved, between two scarpes vert.

NOTE: Submission withdrawn at request of Principal Herald. (09/1984)

David Dimitri. Device. Per pale argent and vert, two single­arched bridges throughout counterchanged, a bordure gules.

NOTE: The charges are not recognizable as bridges. At the very least, they should be masoned, this apparently being the convention for charges (walls, arches, etc.) made of stone. Please resubmit this with a corrected emblazon. (01/1985)

Dearborne Grayson. Name and device. Or, on a pale between two swords inverted sable, three suns in splendor Or.

NOTE: Dearborne is a known place name (as in Dearborn, Michigan; ­borne means 'stream'), and so cannot be used as a given name unless a specific example can be found in period. Batonvert has suggested Der(e)bern(e) as a more likely derivative of Deorbeorn. The device conflicts with EMEREN-TIANA ROSE, "Or, on a pale between two chains palewise sable, a rose slipped and leaved Or." (SCA) [type of secondaries, type and number of tertiaries]. (04/1985)

Debra of Cyprus. Device. Pean, a sea­horse erect Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device conflicts with that of JANA SEASGAIR: Per fess wavy Or and sable, a sea­horse haurient counterchanged. (SCA) There is a point of difference for the tincture of the field, and a derivative tincture change (which is demoted to a minor point) to the sea­horse.

DISCUSSION: Visually, there is a difference in the tails of the two sea­beasts (Debra's is looped back on itself, while Jana's is annodated*), but I have been unable to establish that this is a definite difference, and not artistic variation. Haurient isn't a very good choice of terms; it's a fish­word (meaning "erect with head upwards") being used in place of the usual sea­monster word ("erect").

* annodated: bowed embowed, or bent in the form of the letter S. (Parker 11). (07/1986)

Decrease Mather. Name only (appeal).

NOTE: This name was originally returned by Master Wilhelm in December 1982. "This is a joke name on Increase Mather. Joke names are not allowed. The Puritan practice of using qualities as names appears to be out of period. Within our period, the Puritans appear to have used Old Testament names." Pale Herald has appealed this decision in light of my ruling on the "offensiveness" of joke names. (16 Dec 84, p. 4) He has also presented information on Puritan naming practices.

According to E. G. Withycombe (pp. xxxvii­xl), the Puritan "quality" names were most rife between 1580 and 1640. The practice was late in our period, and it was uncommon, even among the Puritans. Nonetheless, if we assume that occurrences of such names were evenly distributed over the years named, fully a third of the high period lies within the scope of the SCA. This seems to me a significant enough fraction to permit documented Puritan "quality" names, or names formed on this pattern, to be registered within the SCA, at least on a case­by­case basis. Although Pale's argument for Decrease is not conclusive, it is plausible, and I am willing to give it the benefit of the doubt.

The question of offensiveness is a knottier one, and it is not helped by Master Wilhelm's unfortunate use of the term "joke name" in this context. Joke names may take many forms. Miles Long is a period name embodying an obvious pun. John Of Somme Whyre is less blatant and requires some willingness to suspend disbelief, but is not altogether implausible. Thomas for the Interim makes sport of the process of choosing a Society name. Names such as these may startle on first hearing, but are soon accepted, and the fact that they are "jokes" remembered only when a shift in perception, such as the reaction of a newcomer, causes them to be reexamined.

Ting­nye­'dzin­gyi­seng­ge McPhee, with its anticlimactic byname, burlesques cross­cultural personas. This falls on middle ground ­ it is jarring enough to be disruptive, but it is also a logical consequence of a permitted practice, and so can neither be passed nor rejected without evoking a legitimate complaint. Kathleen Erin­go­burne­the­Bragh, on the other hand, is ungrammatical, and embodies an obvious, out­of­period, and (if you will pardon the expression) inflammatory reference, which is reinforced by the burning cup in the accompanying device.

It is my contention that "joke" is necessarily a pejorative attribute only to those whose perception of the SCA is straitened and humorless. If a name is offensive, or otherwise unacceptable, then it should be returned on those grounds, not simply because it has the capacity to entertain. The problem with Decrease Mather is not that it is a "joke" name, but that it is a parody of the name of the famous Puritan clergyman Increase Mather. It could legitimately be ruled offensive on these grounds. (This, in fact, is how I interpret Master Wilhelm's earlier ruling.) In any case, the name alludes strongly enough to the historical character to constitute infringement (just as "Marvin Luther" would infringe on the German leader of the Protestant Reformation). I am returning the submission for these reasons, with the suggestion that the submitter change his given name or byname to remove the problem.

As for the use of the name as an example in Appendix II of the Rules for Submissions, it is hereby struck from the record. (05/1985)

Deirdre Llyn Stormdreamer. Badge for Haven of the Silver Mist. Vert, a castle and on a chief per fess embattled vert and argent a pomme.

NOTE: The chief has the appearance of an SCA comital coronet (a coronet embattled, which is a reserved charge) set with a green stone. Please redesign. (03/1985)

Demian O'Boirne. Badge. Azure, in pale a plate and a seal displayed, head erect, tail sufflexed, argent.

REASON: This is not a standard heraldic position. It renders the charge unrecognizable, and recognition ­ lest we forget ­ is the raison d'etre of heraldry. DISCUSSION: Sufflexed, by the way, appears to be an SCA neologism. I was unable to find a source for it when I was editing Precedents.. I don't believe this qualifies as "standard heraldic language.". (08/1986)

Deorwine aet Earneleia. (device). Or, an eagle rising affronty gules, in chief an estoile of eight points azure, all within a bordure rayonny gules.

NOTE: This conflicts with AELFRAED AEDWALD OF DEVENNPORT, "Or, a phoenix azure rising from flames, within a bordure rayonny gules." (SCA) (09/1984)

Diarmuid MacSeumas O'Siodhachain. Name and device. Per fess sable and Or, a pale and six quatrefoils slipped, all counterchanged.

NOTE: Diarm(u)it appears to be a modern form of the given name most commonly found as Diarmaid. (Withycombe 84) The given name used in a patronymic must be in the genitive case; the Irish form (which the information sheet indicates that he wishes) would be MacS(h)eamuis. The applicant has asked that we not correct spelling or grammar. The device conflicts with SIMEON, "Per fess sable and Or, a pale counterchanged and three trefoils slipped of the second." (Papworth 1010). (12/1984)

Diego Miguel de Alderon. Name and device. Or, chaussé vairy argent, gules, Or, and sable, a natural panther rampant within a bordure sable.

NOTE: Alderon is cognate with Alderaan, the home of Princess Leia in Star Wars, and with Alderan, one of the Domains in Marion Zimmer Bradley's Darkover novels. The panes of vair are too small; drawn correctly, they will tend to blend with both the field and the bordure. Vairy of four colors has not, to the best of my knowledge, been accepted for use in SCA heraldry, and I am not convinced that it is desirable. Please choose a less complex design. (01/1985)

Dieter des Schwärzen Eichkatchens. Device. Per pale gules and argent, a squirrel sejant erect sable maintaining a sword inverted argent.

NOTE: The device conflicts with ORM THE DEFIANT, "Per pale gules and argent, a unicorn­headed lion salient grasping in both forepaws the blade of a sword inverted, counterchanged." (SCA). (01/1985)

Dinaris the Wanderer. Device. Azure, on a pile argent between two lightning flashes Or a double­bitted axe gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with ALINA DE MONTAGUE, "Azure, on a pile argent between two fleurs­de­lys Or, a sprig of holly vert, fructed gules." (SCA) There is a major point for type of secondary charges, and a minor point for type (and partial change in tincture) of the tertiary charge. This also infringes upon PASCQUAL CABAIZRUVIAS DE LA VARA, "Gules, on a pile throughout argent between two lightning flashes Or, a mushroom gules." (SCA) There is a major point for field tincture, and a minor for type of tertiary. (Given the medieval definition of a pile, I consider the difference between a pile and a pile throughout to be negligible.) The device also uses a modern lightning flash. "The modern lightning flash, with its bevilled lines, is prohibited as being out of period." (WvS, 19 Aug 83, p. 6)

DISCUSSION: Asterisk has suggested that the lightning flashes in this coat should be acceptable under the grandfather clause, because the original submission (which was returned by Laurel in November 1981) was made before these charges were banned. The grandfather clause is the doctrine that protects something that has already been registered from a subsequent change in the rules; it is sometimes extended to new submissions from the same person or from close relatives of the original applicant. (In its current manifestation, the grandfather clause derives from article IV.C.4 of the Corpora, and is echoed in article V.6 of the Rules for Submissions.) The applicant does not have a registered submission containing old­style lightning flashes, so the grandfather clause does not apply.

The term is also used in RFS XV, to describe the grace period (sometimes referred to as the "statute of limitations") for resubmissions. "Submissions that are returned for certain reasons and which are resubmitted with all stated reasons properly rectified within one year shall be exempt from any Rule changes adopted after the return ... on a grandfather clause basis." More than a year has passed since the return took place, so the grace period does not apply either. He might want to consider one of the currently­accepted representations of lightning: the so­called "lightning bolt," or (better still) an heraldic thunderbolt. (06/1985)

Donal MacMurtrie. Per chevron gules and ermine, on a chief embattled argent a demi­sun issuant from chief gules.

NOTE: The consensus was that a demi­sun issuant from chief, on a chief, did not appear to be period style. The convention is to have a demi­sun issuant from a part of the field. (08/24/1984)

Donal Winterwolf. Badge. Azure, on a snowflake argent, a wolf's head erased azure.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with the U.S. ARCTIC TEST CENTER: Azure, a snowflake points in pale argent. (MilOrd #1195) (08/25/1985)

Donald Thomas Maxwell. Device. Azure, a dove rising argent, wings displayed and inverted, on a chief Or three crosses crosslet gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts visually with BULLINGHAM: Azure, an eagle displayed argent, on a chief Or three crosses crosslet gules. (Papworth 308) (03/1986)

Dragolen Silverhelm. Name and device. Per pale vert and gules, a dragon rampant Or, maintaining in both forepaws a helm argent.

NOTE: 1) Dragolen does not appear to be a correctly formed Anglo­Saxon name; according to Batonvert, the vowel o would not have intruded between the protheme drag­ and the deuterotheme -lin. She suggests Draglin, Draglind as likely feminine forms of the name, and Dragland or the common monothematic name Drogo for a male. 2) One of the dragon's hind legs should be raised; as drawn, it is more statant erect than rampant. This infringes upon the BARONY OF RHYDDERIC HAEL, "Per pale vert and sable, a dragon rampant within a laurel wreath Or." (SCA) There is a minor point for change in tincture of half a divided field, and a point for the absence of the laurel wreath. The helm is not worth an additional minor point. (11/1984)

Dreiburgen, Barony of. Badge for the Dreiburgen Bards' Guild. Argent, a pile inverted throughout azure, overall a lyre, all within a bordure counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: The lyre counterchanged with the pile is complex and difficult to recognize. This is marginal. Inasmuch as it is a submission for a branch, and branches are supposed to set a good example, I am returning it with a request that they redesign. Brachet has suggested "Argent, a pile inverted between two lyres all within a bordure azure" and "Argent, on a pile inverted between two lyres azure another argent, all within a bordure azure", both of which appear to be clear of conflict. (04/1986)

Dreiburgen, Barony of. Badge for the Dreiburgen Bards Guild. Per pale azure and argent, on a pile inverted throughout between a drinking horn palewise and a quill, a tower, all counterchanged.

NOTE: This is too complex for a branch badge. Please simplify. (09/1985)

Drusilla of Northumbria. Device. Vert, a ring of three keys inverted argent and a chief embattled azure fimbriated argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: Fimbriation of chiefs (as well as bordures, flaunches, and "other such throughout abstract charges") was disallowed in Master Wilhelm's cover letter of August 19, 1983. (11/1985)

Dryw Sidar. Name and device. Azure, an owl and in base three chevronels braced argent.

NOTE: We would like to have some documentation for Sidar. The device conflicts with BEIRTAUT, "Azure, an owl argent" (Rietstap), and STEFFAN AP CENYDD OF SILVERWING, "Azure, chapé ployé invected, an owl close affronty argent." (SCA). (01/1985)

Dunham Wycliffe. Name (appeal).

NOTE: This submission was originally returned in August 1981 because Dunham is a surname, not a given name. Vesper has requested that an exception be made based on late­period English usage discussed by William Camden in his Remains Concerning Britain, and has further suggested that the Rules for Submissions be modified to take this usage into account.

Vesper's argument is plausible. It demonstrates that,late in our period, an English godfather sometimes gave his surname to his godchild as a given name. Dunham and Wycliffe are both documentable surnames, and were in use in England during this period. The proposed rules change is a straightforward application of this same argument: "We suggest that SCA names which are formed by using a late­period English surname as a given name and combining it with another surname which was used in late­period England be considered as exceptions to the general ban on the use of surnames as given names. These names would be considered on a case­by­case basis, and the submitt[e]r would have to show ... that the names in question were indeed late­period English surnames."

The problem with this argument is that it represents special pleading in a controversial area. The exceptions I grant generally involve extenuating circumstances, and are either based on a principle I feel comfortable with repeating or else seem isolated enough to have limited scope. An exception in this case would not be limited in scope, even without a rules change. Brigantia expressed the problem nicely:

"Can we say successfully that anyone can use a surname for a given name if they are using both a surname and a given name which are demonstrably existent in Tudor England? (This is what the evidence justifies.) The question will inevitably be asked why can't you use it in sixteenth century French or Danish names and then by extension why not in earlier names so that very quickly we will be at the point where a name like Thorbiornsson the Bold or Delacroix of the Flaming Sword, both of which are in violation of the 'spirit of the law', are legitimate by a kind of reductio ad absurdam."

In all fairness, the question "Is the use of surnames as given names a period practice?" is capable of being answered correctly in both the affirmative and the negative. The most liberal interpretation would be to say, "It started in period, so it is period," and allow surnames to be used as given names without restriction. The most conservative interpretation would be to say, "The practice did not become common until the Middle Ages were over," and disallow even those surnames that became given names during our period.

I consider our present policy to be a workable compromise between these two extremes. It treats the general practice as being out of period (thus removing the need to distinguish by country or period of persona, which is tricky when you're dealing with hybrids), but it permits exceptions when a specific name is shown to have been used in period, or when it is the applicant's mundane given name. (12/1984)

Ealdgyth von Froschheim. Device. Quarterly purpure and argent, nine roundels, 1, 2, 3, 2, and 1, counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: According to Pye, "If there were six or (fewer] charges the number was normally specified; if more than six they were considered to be semy." (A return to first principles: III ­ Semy. Coat of Arms VII(53): 206­208.) Semy should cover a defined area. I know of no way to blazon this configuration without enumerating the charges (which is incorrect) or resorting to barbarisms like "in lozenge." Please choose a more standard arrangement. (06/1985)

East Kingdom, Signet Office. Badge. Azure, a swan statant close reguardant ermine.

NOTE: This conflicts with SHERYL OF THESPIS, "Azure, a swan naiant argent crowned Or." (SCA). (01/1985)

East, Kingdom of. Talon Herald (name only).

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with the Order of the Serpent's Talon. "For Orders or heraldic titles, two names conflict if they are the same with only spelling differences, or if they differ only by the addition of one word or by an exact translation into another language." (RFS VI.4). (07/1985)

Edouard d'Ath. Badge. A demi­griffin Or maintaining between its talons a thistle, slipped and leaved, proper.

REASON FOR RETURN: Brooke­Little states that crests are hereditary devices, and conferred by grant, which leads me to conclude (RFS V.1) that, under the present rules, we must treat crests as mundane badges. This submission therefore conflicts with the crest of AKAYS: A demi­griffin Or. (Fairbairn) Sigh ... (07/1986)

Edward Dragonslayer. Device. Per bend sinister azure and argent, a bend sinister counterchanged between a horse rampant to sinister argent and a dragon dormant vert, all within a bordure per bend sinister argent and azure.

NOTE: I'm afraid this pushes the limits of heraldic style in too many places. The device is structurally complex and difficult to blazon. Please simplify. DISCUSSION: There is recent precedent for a divided bend­and­bordure combination, in the device of ARLIN THROCKMORTON ("Argent, a bend per bend wavy sable and gules between two crosses moline sable, all within a bordure per bend wavy sable and gules"). Edward's device has a simpler line of partition, but it has a divided field and two unlike secondary charges (in different tinctures), which pushes it over the limit. (05/1985)

Edward FitzRanulf. Device. Quarterly Or and gules, four crosses couped counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with the arms of WALES, "Quarterly Or and gules, four lions passant gardant counterchanged." The discussion on the complete­difference­of­charge rule (RFS XII.4) states, "any use of more than three charges cannot invoke complete difference due to the visual importance of the arrangement." There is thus a single point of difference, for type of charge, since the tincture of the field and the tincture and placement of the charges are the same.

DISCUSSION: This submission was deferred from the March meeting, to allow time for the commenting heralds to consider whether this conflict was reasonable. It appears from the responses that there is not enough support in the College of Arms for a change to the complete­difference­of­charge rule. (06/1985)

Edwin von Elsass. Device (appeal). Per fess argent and azure, three round buckles counterchanged.

NOTE: This submission was returned (EDWIN VON REINHESSEN, Dec 1984) for conflict with WHISELFORD, "Per fess azure and argent, three annulets counterchanged." (Papvorth 5) Vesper has appealed this ruling, citing Rules XIII.A.1.c ("Two fields that have the same partition but differ in the tincture of each section differ by one major point") and XIII.A.2.c ("Counterchanging the field and charges counts as one major point").

The example given for XIII.A.l.c shows both halves of the field being replaced by tinctures that were not in the original field. Rule XIII.B.l.c limits the difference to a minor point if the tincture of one of the halves is retained, and XIII.B.7 allows only a minor point for permutation of tinctures between field and charges. I don't think there is any question of awarding a major point on the basis of XIII.A.l.c.

The example given for XIII.A.2.c involves a complete exchange of tinctures between an undivided field and an undivided charge. XIII.A.2.d ("counter-changing by a line of partition") divides a previously undivided field and charge. The term counterchange is obviously ambiguous, but the discussion for each of the rules gives a pretty good idea of the intended meaning, and neither of these meanings applies to the present case.

Visually, I feel this sort of counterchange carries more weight than an exchange of tinctures between the two halves of the field (for which I have been allowing a minor point), but less weight than the two types of counterchange enumerated in XIII.A.2, so it is at best a strong minor. (05/1985)

Edwin von Elsass. Device (appeal). Per fess argent and azure, three round buckles counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with WHISELFORD: Per fess azure and argent, three annulets counterchanged. (Papworth 5)

SYNOPSIS: This submission was originally returned in December 1984. Vesper appealed this ruling, citing Rules XIII.A.I.c and XIII.A.2.c. I returned the appeal in May 1985, with an abbreviated account of my interpretations of the cited rules, the rules I used to derive the "spirit of the law," and the visual weighing I had used to corroborate this. Vesper has appealed the ruling again, insisting that it represents a change in the rules, and offering an observation on this class of conflict.

DISCUSSION: As I noted in my previous return, the rules do not clearly address the question of how much difference this sort of counterchange contributes. I am of the opinion that the present question was not considered at the time the rules were drafted; this may be the first time it has been addressed. In any case, I attempted to derive the "spirit of the law" by looking for analogies in other parts of the Rules.

XIII.A.I.c "Two fields that have the same partition but differ in the tincture of each section differ by one major point." There is an implicit assumption here (reinforced by the examples given) that different tinctures are being used. In the other cases I was able to find of a partial change in tincture (XIII.B.l.c and XIII.B.7), the commonality brought on by retaining one of the original tinctures reduced the value of the change from a major to a minor point.

XIII.A.2.c "Counterchanging the field and charges counts as one major point." The sole example given is of a light charge on a dark field versus a dark charge on a light field. I believe this is the intuitive application of counterchanging to difference, and that the example limits the meaning of the term. Vesper's argument assumes that the term is unqualified, and that the rule may therefore be applied more broadly.

Within the context of difference, I have come up with the following possible applications of counterchanging:

1) "Azure, a bend Or" is the total counterchange of "Or, a bend azure." This is the type of counterchange used in the example for XIII.A.2.c. It counts as one major point. (The terms total and partial counterchange are taken from Shield and Crest, pp. 316 and 319­320.) [Tincture of field is changed; tincture of charge derives from field; no change in outline.)

2) "Per pale azure and Or, a bend counterchanged" is a partial counterchange of "Azure, a bend Or." This type of counterchange is addressed in XIII.A.2.d, where it is referred to as "counterchanging by a line of partition" (a more useful description than "partial"). It counts as one major point against SCA and important mundane armory, and as sufficient difference against all other mundane coats. [Tincture and division of field are changed; tincture and division of charge derive from field; change in outline.]

3) "Per pale azure and Or, a bend counterchanged argent and gules" is also a (partial?) counterchange of "Azure, a bend Or." This type of counterchange is not directly addressed in the rules. I haven't given it much thought, but could argue for a major and a minor point (or possibly two major points). [Tincture and division of field are changed; tincture of charge is changed; division of charge derives from field; change in outline.]

4) "Per pale azure and Or, a bend counterchanged" is a (rotational?) counterchange of "Per pale Or and azure, a bend counterchanged." This is the case at hand. [Tincture of field is rearranged; tincture of charge derives from field; no change in outline.]

Without qualification, an exchange of tinctures across the line of partition may be considered a degenerate case of both XIII.A.I.c and XIII.A.2.c. I feel the examples provide this qualification. Vesper's argument that the discussion is somehow separable from the rest of the rules is inadmissible. As a study of the Rules for Submissions will show, the discussion serves at different times to justify a rule, to limit it, to offer examples of its use, and occasionally to present additional rules. (My experience has been that the "rules" of SCA heraldry actually reside in four places: the text of the Rules, the discussion of the Rules, rulings on individual submissions, and patterns of use. Without all four of these, no one can hope to understand SCA heraldry fully. This is one of the things that makes our system of heraldry so complicated.)

I have been allowing only a minor point of difference for reversing the colors of a divided field. (The earliest example I could find was BJORN RHYS: 28 Sep 84, pp. 16­17.) I believe Vesper is correct in saying that this is not explicitly stated in the Rules, although it follows by analogy from XIII.B.l.b­d, and in light of the restriction implicit in XIII.A.l.c. (I think I picked it up from one of Master Wilhelm's point counts.) This policy also played a part in the decision.

The preceding discussion is actually somewhat misleading, in that it implies that the original conflict call was made technically (on the basis of a point count). The call was actually part visual and part technical, with each being used to corroborate the other.

I consider the interchange of tinctures to be less memorable, visually, than the more conventional forms of counterchange. I can generally remember whether a coat is light on dark, or vice versa; but I have a devil of a time remembering left/right or upper/lower. I know, for example, that Loch Salann's arms are party per bend, that the laurel wreath is bendwise, and that the colors are black and white, but I'm not absolutely sure how they're arranged. In the list above, I've noted the areas of change that each type of counterchanging brings about. Visually, I rank this type of counterchange (#4) between a simple interchange of tinctures of the field (which I have been counting as a minor point) and the first type of counterchange (#l). I would be willing to allow a strong minor point, but not a major.

The West's argument on light/dark patterning is interesting, but I think all it really does is demonstrate the amount of weight we give to changes in color, as opposed to changes in outline. (I seem to recall Master Wilhelm saying, a number of years ago, that the British College doesn't consider color at all, since arms are so often used without tincture.) This doesn't invalidate the observation; but it argues more strongly for a change in the way we count difference than it has bearing on the present submission.

As for the "new class of conflicts" that Vesper says my ruling opens up, I would like to point out that when researching "Per fess argent and gules, in pale two roundels counterchanged," he would have found "Per fess gules and argent, in pale two roses counterchanged" the same way he would have found "Per fess argent and gules, in pale two roses counterchanged." I do not see how one can only be found serendipitously or by accident until there is a major revision to the Ordinary" and the other reached by more rational or less iconoclastic procedures. If there is a problem here, it lies in having to look under rose for a conflict with roundel, not with the way the coat has been divided and colored.

ANALYSIS: The College was divided on the issue. About as many people thought there was visual conflict as felt there was visual difference, and roughly half recognized that the Rules are capable of more than one interpretation. Going back over previous comments, I find the division remains about equal.

There seems to be an undercurrent that people wish the two did not conflict. I attribute this to the fact that both coats are fairly simple, and one of them ­.'Ls mundane. If this is the way the College would like to go, I can see two possibilities:

1) We could reduce the amount of difference required between SCA and mundane coats, either across the board or for certain "simple" cases.

2) We could allow a major point of difference between the buckles and the annulets, on the assumption that a [mundane] herald could tell the difference, especially since these are the only charges to be considered.

Mind you, these are being offered as observations, not proposals. While neither is wholly unreasonable, both are likely to be controversial, and hence fraught with peril. (At least one of the comments on the appeal questioned allowing even a minor point for the buckles ... )

CONCLUSION: I find nothing to convince me that my initial ruling was incorrect, or that my interpretation represents a change in the rules. (10/1985)

Edwin von Reinhessen. Name and device. Per fess argent and azure, three round buckles, tongues upward, counterchanged.

NOTE: According to Obelisk, the wine province in Germany (the name of which is spelled Rheinhessen) is a modern construction. Our sources seem to bear this out. The device conflicts with WHISELFORD, "Per fess azure and argent, three annulets counterchanged. "(Papworth 5) We count one minor point for the interchange of tinctures, and another for the difference between round buckles and annulets. (12/1984)

Efan Gwyrddcalon ap Rhydderch. Name change (from Evan ap Rhydderch).

REASON FOR RETURN: According to Mistress Keridwen o'r Mynydd Gwyrdd, the proper form for the byname would be Calonwerdd " : "The noun comes first, and the adjective takes the soft mutation, which changes 'gwyrdd' to 'werdd'." The submitter has asked us not to make any spelling or grammar changes to his name. (09/1985)

Egil Bloodax. Badge. A double­bitted battle axe gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with ADELHARDT WERNER: Per pale purpure and Or, a double­bitted axe counterchanged. (SCA) There is a single point of difference, for the tincture of the axe.

DISCUSSION: The axe in the arms of THORVALD THORLYFSSON is indeed single­bitted. (03/1986)

Eirianedd o Randir Mwyn. Device. Argent, in dexter a hawk rising wings addorsed and inverted sable and issuant from sinister three piles fesswise azure.

REASON: The design is attractive, but I am uncertain what term, if any, may be applied to the charges issuing from the sinister. Piles should go most or all the way across the field, leaving no room for other charges. (I've written on this at considerable length on previous submissions.) DISCUSSION: Three alternatives have been proposed, two of them requiring further research, and one a new emblazon. If the "piles" are redrawn so as to curve downward, they will become the German charge known as "wolves' teeth". (See The Art of Heraldry, Plate IX, figure 87, referenced in Chapter XII, page 62.) These have been registered previously in the SCA, and I know of no objections of period or usage that have been raised against them. The second possibility is to investigate the charge or division described in Woodward as émanche or émanché. The practice is Continental. I'd like to know a little more about the period and usage, if this information can be found. Or it might conceivably be looked upon as a sinister flank indented. (Not dancetty, as it has only one side.) In either case, it would represent a new practice, and so ought to be reviewed by the College before being registered. (08/1986)

Eirik Rodbjorn. Device. Or, a grizzly bear rampant gules, maintaining a mullet azure.

NOTE: This infringes on D'ALBE, "Or, a bear rampant gules." (Rietstap). (02/1985)

Eirik Valnodhaar. Device. Gules, a cross and on a chief arment two drakkars addorsed sable sailed gules within a bordure counterchanged.

NOTE: A chief counterchanged by a bordure, although legal, is poor practice. The blazon requires, however, that the side and bottom bars of the cross also be counterchanoed, which has not been done. In addition, the bordure reduces the space available on the chief, squashing the charges, and the lowered horizontal bar makes this look like a Latin cross inverted, which some may find offensive. Please redesign. (01/1985)

Elaigne Kerr Benicoeur. Badge. A cur's head erased and sinister facing per bend azure and ermine.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with CHARLES BRADFORD: Bendy Or and gules, an alaunt's head sable erased, orbed gules, facing sinister. (SCA) There is a single point of difference, for the tincture of the dog's head. (07/1985)

Elaine Bel Monte. Device. Per bend sinister purpure and argent, a pair of balances Or and a mountain issuant from base vert.

NOTE: This conflicts with JOHN THE TRADER, "Per bend sinister purpure and vert, a set of scales Or and a sword inverted argent." (SCA) She might try writing Lord John for a letter of permission; Pennon Herald says he is willing to allow the conflict. (01/1985)

Elana Blakefenn. Gyronny vert and ermine, a cat couchant sable.

NOTE: This infringes upon CARE­CHERI OF THE FALLEN STARS, "Gyronny gules and ermine, a domestic cat dormant to sinister sable." (SCA) The difference in position of the cat is a major point, but changing the tincture of the solid half of the field is only a minor point. (08/24/1984)

Eldenath of Starhaven. Device. Vert, a dove volant to sinister holding in its beak a rosebud slipped and leaved argent, in chief three mullets of six points, and a base doubly arched Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: Her name was returned in the May letter, at which time I noted that "I am willing to accept Eldenath, with some reluctance, on the grounds that it is her mundane name, but only if there are no other Elvish or Tolkien references in the name or device." On the strength of the given name alone (Elda means "of the stars"; and also, loosely, "elf, elves, of the elves"), I would consider the three stars excessive. (Nenya, Narya, and Vilya?) We note also Elwing, wife of Eärendil the Mariner. "And it is said that Elwing learned the tongues of birds, who herself had once worn their shape; and they taught her the craft of flight, and her wings were of white and silver­grey. And at times, when Eärendil returning drew near again to Arda, she would fly to meet him ... Then the far­sighted among the Elves that dwelt in the Lonely Isle would see her like a white bird." (The Silmarillion, p. 250). (06/1986)

Eldenath of Starhaven. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: I am willing to accept Eldenath, with some reluctance, on the grounds that it is her mundane name, but only if there are no other Elvish or Tolkien references in the name or device. Elda means "of the stars"; and also, loosely, "elf, elves, of the elves." (Noel 136­137) Taken in conjunction with Starhaven, this is too much.

DISCUSSION: This was bound to happen eventually. Her mundane name is given as Eldenath de Vilya ­­ Vilya being "One of the Three Rings of the Elves, the Ring of Air, borne by Gil­galad and afterwards by Elrond; also called The Ring of Sapphire." (The Silmarillion, p. 354) As I have written previously (29 Dec 85, pp. 2­3), I feel the mundane name provision in the Rules (VII.3) is a necessary and important compromise. It is not absolute, however, and the present submission is one that strains its bounds. (05/1986)

Eldon Ungol of the Phoenix. Badge. Per chevron azure and sable, in dexter chief a sun Or and in base a spider inverted argent.

NOTE: Ungol is the Eldarin word for 'spider'. (Noel 202) The badge is a depiction (sun in blue sky, spider beneath surface of black mountain) of the lair of Shelob in The Lord of the Rings. The College of Arms has long considered this kind combined allusion to be excessive. The design is also unbalanced. (02/1985)

Elfarch Myddfai. Device. Or, a leopard­headed bear with eagle's talons sejant erect to sinister gules.

REASON: It is our feeling that the manner in which this application was presented to the College of Arms was such that the submission, and the issues surrounding it, have not been properly addressed. We also question the distinctiveness of the charge. DISCUSSION: The letter of intent stated, "The monster is made up of parts of only three beasts, and is therefore 'legal'." 'While Master Bruce and I both seem to re-call the number three arising in a context that had bearing on chimerical creatures*, we have been unable to locate the pertinent ruling. We can certainly find no rule that states that a monster made up of parts of three or fewer creatures is necessarily legal.

We found two rulings that have bearing on the creation of new monsters. The first, dated 10 March 1981, outlined existing policy; it barred monsters created between 1601 and 1966, or ones created out of animals not commonly known to Europe in our period. The second, dated 12 May 1981, imposed a moratorium on out­of­period and made­up monsters:

We will allow people to petition the College of Arms for acceptance of a particular monster, on a case­by­case basis. Such proposed monsters may be made up or out of period monsters. The question will be whether the monster is in keeping with period practice and whether the College feels it would be a good idea to allow its use in the SCA.

On reflection, I find that I have little problem with monsters that are created" by the addition of wings or fish tails. Both patterns are pretty well established in mundane and SCA armory, and the resulting creatures tend to be fairly distinctive. I've seen instances of conjoined demi­beasts that stand out well ­Yosef Alaric's delightful half­camelopard, half­dragon (Grimflaed?) springs to mind. Unicorn's horns, on the other hand, contribute little to the beasts onto which they are grafted, and in at least one case (the "unicornate horse") they blur the distinctions between existing charges.

I do not find the charge in the present submission distinctive. This might be due in part to the drawing. I feel it has to do with the contributions of the head and forelimbs (from two different sources) in proportion to the body.

Mistress Eowyn, as an heraldic artist, questions the recognizability of the position ­ rampant would be terrifically recognizable; sejant erect is less so. (This does not take into consideration the likelihood that a bear­like monster rampant contourné would run into conflicts.) In any case, because of the lack of distinctiveness, I am reluctant to approve it.

Of the five comments recorded against this submission, two object to the creation of a new monster, one questions the "rule" cited in the LoI, one finds the monster "truly ugly", and one does not address the issue at all. If we treat the submission as a de facto petition for the charge, then the College of Arms may be said, with roughly equal accuracy, to feel the charge is not suitable.

I will leave it to Vesper's discretion to decide whether to return this coat to the applicant, with a recommendation that he seek a more distinctive charge, or to resubmit it in such a fashion that it may receive fair consideration by the College of Arms.

___________

*Ones made up of parts of other creatures, like the chim(a)era of Greek mythology. (08/1986)

Elfriede of Rhosymedre. Name only.

NOTE: We would like to see some documentation for Rhosymedre. (03/1985)

Elien Rosamund. (device). Azure, on a pile throughout voided, in chief three nautilus shells palewise one and two argent.

NOTE: Submission withdrawn at applicant's request. (09/1984)

Elina Are Thrymsfostra. Name only.

REASON: We are familiar with Thrym only as the name of one of the Norse frost giants, and find the idea of being a giant's fosterling a bit excessive. Please choose another byname. (08/1986)

Elisheva bat Simon Halevy. Device. Or, a lion sejant gules bearing in its dexter forepaw an ewer azure.

NOTE: The device conflicts with GILLES OF LENNOX, "Or, a domestic cat sejant, paw extended, sable." (SCA). (02/1985)

Elizabeth d'Arcy of Lincoln. Name only.

NOTE: The name conflicts with Elizabeth Darcy, a major character in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. (01/1985)

Elizabeth von den Bleiberg. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: To quote Brigantia: "As 'Berg' is a masculine noun and 'von' takes the dative, the article must be the dative masculine form 'dem' or be dropped entirely, making Bleiberg a proper place name, i.e. 'von dem Bleiberg' or 'von Bleiberg'." The submitter has asked us not make any grammar corrections to her name. (08/10/1985)

Ellawin of Eaglewood. Device. Azure, on a pile Or an eagle stooping, and issuant from base an oak tree bifurcated and blasted throughout, all counterchanged.

NOTE: A pile extends most if not all the way to the bottom of the shield; properly drawn, there is not enough room for a charge to fit between the pile and the base. The charge issuant from base is not recognizable. In addition, the device conflicts with JAROMIR MIKHAILOVICH, "Azure, on a pile Or a sun gules." (SCA) There is a point of difference for the addition of the tree, but the change in type and tincture of a tertiary charge is only a minor point. (02/1985)

Ellen of Two Lines. Badge. A Roman numeral two Or.

NOTE: If she wishes to mark her possessions with the Roman numeral two, she may, but we really can't grant her exclusive use of the symbol. (02/1985)

Ellencwen Aergod seo Freothuwebbe. Name change (from Ellen Aergod seo Freothuwebbe); appeal.

NOTE: Master Wilhelm altered the given name from its submitted form in August 1984, saying, "You cannot use the title Cwen (= Queen) as a part of an SCA name." Pale has appealed this decision, submitting as documentation a letter from a Professor of Medieval Studies showing "that in fact Cwen does not claim royalty, as it was used by the Anglo­Saxons as we would use the word woman or wife."

Professor Baird's letter states:

Cwen in Old English does not ­ or does not necessarily ­ mean "queen." It is commonly used in Old English in the sense of "woman" in general, glossing, for example, the Latin word femina. A good instance of this usage in Old English is the phrase "Ealdra cwena spell" which is scarcely to be translated as "Old queens' tales," but rather "Old wives' (or old women's) tales," and in fact, glosses Aelfric's Latin phrase "anilis fabula." The word can, of course, mean "queen." but is by no means restricted to that sense.

Granted, cwen has a common non­royal meaning, but the royal connection is still present, and more important, it is recognizable. Cwen meant 'queen' (as well as woman') to the Anglo­Saxons, and it is the root of modern English queen. (Batonvert has noted that the Old English and Modern English forms are identical "in practical pronunciation.") The term is also the Anglo­Saxon variant authorized by Laurel in "Alternative Translations of SCA Titles," published in the Proceedings of the Caerthan Heraldic Symposium. This gives it the appearance of a claim "that one is a member of a royal family or is of royal birth," which is unacceptable. (RFS VII.4). (05/1985)

Ellisena de Bayonne. Device. Per saltire argent and azure, a sea­dragon erect vert and in dexter a cross crosslet fleury concave argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device is unbalanced, and we are unhappy with the cross, which is visually complex and difficult to reconstruct from the blazon. We would suggest she choose a simpler variety of cross, and add a second cross to balance the first. (06/1985)

Ellisif Flakkingskvinne. Name only.

NOTE: Batonvert found kvenna (the genitive plural of kona 'woman') but not kvinne, and believes the byname is incorrect. We weren't able to substantiate it either, and do not feel we can approve it without some documentation. (12/1984)

Eloisa von Metz. Device. Argent, two arrows proper flighted gules in saltire and overall a dogwood flower rules.

NOTE: The device conflicts with MARRIE BERCEAU DU CHAT, "Argent, two arrows in saltire inverted gules and overall a daffodil seeded proper." (SCA). (03/1985)

Elphin Alan Moray. (name and device). Per pale Or and purpure, a compass star within a mascle of chain per pale sable and Or, in chief two ravens close respectant sable and argent.

NOTE: Given the entry for St. Elphin in the Oxford Dictionary of Saints, this would appear to be an acceptable given name, so long as the device does not contain any of the symbols commonly associated with elves. A loop of chain in any tincture is restricted to knights of the SCA. (09/1984)

Elric of Moray. Device. Sable, three lozenges in chevron enhanced argent, overall a flamberge sword inverted argent, hilt fimbriated sable, all within a bordure argent.

NOTE: Even though the hilt of the sword is fimbriated, it does not show up well enough against the lozenges behind it. In addition, the lozenges are difficult to recognize in the emblazon, and their arrangement is not really reconstructible from the blazon. The overall effect is of an oddly­hilted sword, in which case it can be argued that this is only one point different from the SWORD OF CALONTIR: "Sable, a cross of Calatrava elongated to base so as to form a sword inverted, within a bordure argent." (SCA) Please redesign. (04/1985)

Elspeth of Harilow. Device. Vert, on a pale Or a unicorn's head erased sable, overall a chaplet with four heartsease proper, the leaves counterchanged. (Viola tricolor)

NOTE: The heralds commenting on this submission still found the chaplet of pansies too similar to a chaplet of roses. Both flowers are basically round (or round with lobes); and since there is no set tincture for regional roses, the pansy's coloring doesn't make it distinctive. If you are not a countess, it is best to avoid wreaths or chaplets of flowers altogether. (04/1985)

Elysabet de Warren. Device. Vert, on a pile argent, a staff sable entwined by an ivy vine proper.

NOTE: The charge drawn here is neither a pile (which does not intersect the corners of the chief) nor chaussé (which is throughout), but something in between. Please draw it narrower. The device conflicts with NICHOLAS OF THE HILL FOLK, "Vert, on a pile argent, a dragon rampant gules." (SCA) The only difference is in the tertiary charge. In addition, the staff with the ivy around it is disturbingly reminiscent of a rod of Aesculapius, which is a reserved charge. (01/1985)

Elysabet de Warren. Device. Vert, on a pile throughout between two snowflakes argent, a rod sable entwined of a vine vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: The staff with the vine about it is too reminiscent of a rod of Aesculapius, a charge we reserve to people with suitable medical credentials. This problem was pointed out on her previous submission.

I find the submission clear of the cited conflicts. (07/1986)

Emerald Glen, Shire of. Device. Or, a dragon dormant sable within a laurel wreath vert, on a chief ermine three cedar cones vert.

NOTE: A chief ermine on a field Or is considered a violation of the rule of tincture in SCA heraldry. (10/1984)

Emerick Cowper from the Wall. Device. Gules, a sword inverted proper surmounted by a barrel palewise argent, banded sable.

REASON: The device conflicts with DARTHULA CATRIONA MAC MHURICH, Gules, a Scots claymore inverted proper debruised by a rose argent, barbed and seeded proper. (SCA). (08/1986)

Emmerich of Vakkerfjell. Device (appeal). Or, three hammers gules within a bordure gules bezanty.

NOTE: This submission was returned in November 1983 for conflict with MAILLY et al., "Or, three hammers gules." The statement was made at this time that "The addition of a bordure semy is not sufficient difference from mundane arms, given the frequent use of bordures for cadency. Semy is not a charge, but counts as a treatment, like masoned." (WvS, 12Nov83, p. 9) Vesper has appealed this decision on the grounds that it represented a change in the rules, further noting that he saw no reason why a bordure "bezanty" should be considered less different than a bordure "charged with eight bezants." .

In his cover letter of 21 Apr 82, Master Wilhelm ruled that "Semy is a treatment of the field." The subsequent ruling on bordures derives directly from the earlier ruling on semy; in the absence of specific counterexamples, I must consider this an application of an existing rule, rather than a policy change.

The rules, in their present form, draw a distinction between adding a discrete number of charges (six or fewer) and semy of those same charges. The former case represents the addition of two groups of charges, which may be counted separately. A charged chief or bordure is thus worth a major plus a minor point. Semy, however, represents a modification of a charge or of the field. Adding a bordure gules bezanty is thus worth no more than adding a bordure gules masoned argent, a bordure embattled azure, or a bordure pean. Were we to modify an existing coat, however -­ to replace a bordure sable with one of the above -­ we could garner up to a point and a half. The addition of a bordure charged with six bezants would thus constitute sufficient difference from mundane arms, while a bordure charged with eight bezants ("semy of bezants," or "bezanty") would not. (12/1984)

Emrys Cador Anhrefn. Name change (from Emrys Cador).

REASON FOR RETURN: We have grave doubts about anhrefn (Welsh "disorder, chaos") as a byname. It struck some of the heralds as presumptuous, particularly in combination with Emrys, one of the names associated with Merlin. To quote Silver Trumpet,

To name oneself after a universal abstract concept is highly presumptuous. (John Eternity? Robert Cosmos?) Such descriptives are usually reserved for the Deity (as in "the Way, the Truth, and the Light", "the Word", etc.). Even to partake of some such abstractions is presumptuous. (John the Eternal, Robert the Cosmic.) RFS VII.5 forbids such names as this one.

There are some universalities of which a human might partake. Once could not be John Truth, for instance, but one could be John the Truthful. And so it is with this gentle: he might not be "Chaos", but he could be "the Chaotic".

Please document the practice or choose another name. (04/1986)

Emrys of the Oak. Name change (from Turlough MacArt the Red Wolf).

REASON FOR RETURN: The heralds commenting on this submission felt the combination of "Emrys" and "Oak" was too strong an allusion to Merlin. "According to certain historians, Merlin the Enchanter was imprisoned in a hollow oak in the Forest of Brocéliande by the maiden Vivien, and is still there." (Alberto Manguel and Gianni Guadalupi. The Dictionary of Imaginary Places, p. 55. Macmillan, 1980.) (05/1986)

Eoin MacUilleam Caimbuel a Lochandubh. Device (appeal). Gules, two icicles in chevron inverted between three bezants transposed (1 & 2) within a bordure Or.

NOTE: This submission was returned by Master Wilhelm in May 1983, on the grounds that, "The icicle is not a heraldic charge. What you have drawn is not recognizable." It was appealed and returned again in May 1984, at which time Master Wilhelm stated, "I agree that Parker lists icicle as an alternate name for a goutte inverted. For the sake of clarity we will just call them gouttes inverted. Note that Parker draws them with wavy outlines, not as your drawing has them. This device is still not a period arrangement and the icicles are not really recognizable." The appeal seeks to prove (1) that the icicle is an heraldic charge, (2) that these are properly drawn, and (3) that this is a period arrangement.

(1) Even though a term may be found in a heraldry book, this does not necessarily make it acceptable for use in SCA heraldry. The term may be non­euphonious, ambiguous, obscure, of doubtful provenance, or non­medieval in origin, all of which are sufficient grounds for not permitting it. Master Wilhelm acknowledged the definition of icicle in his second return, but he stated that, for the sake of clarity, he preferred to use the term goutte inverted.

(2) Parker defines an icicle as a "goutte reversed," and describes a goutte as "a figure of an elongated pear­shape, with the sides wavy." (pp. 290-292) Woodward defines a goutte as a drop, the shape of which is fairly well known, and the illustrations in Parker, The Art of Heraldry, and An Heraldic Alphabet depict gouttes of the shape described in Parker. I can find nothing to support the claim that many gouttes are drawn with straight sides, and the above quotation from Parker disproves the claim that "the text says nothing at all about the shape."

(3) Master Wilhelm's objection to the arrangement was specifically that it is not period. An objection of this sort needs to be met with either dated examples or analysis by someone qualified to speak authoritatively. (Note, for example, my commentary on JEANNE DE LA MER, above.) None of the examples provided bore a date; I believe all of them are modern.

One point not addressed by the appeal is Master Wilhelm's statement (which he repeated) that the charges blazoned as icicles are not recognizable. I agree with Master Wilhelm in this matter.

I am particularly concerned by the manner in which this appeal misrepresented its sources. Parker's discussion of icicles goes on to note, "Some heralds, however, call these figures Clubs, others Gouttes reversed, and others Locks of hair. The bearing seems to be confined to the branches of one family. [Harbottle]" (p. 292) An Heraldic Alphabet says, "The elongated gouttes bendwise in bend in the arms of Harbottle are sometimes blazoned icicles but it has also been suggested, and not without reason, that they may be hair bottles, that is leather bottles with the hair side outside." (p. 122) And, according to Baron Alfgar, the passage from Franklyn and Tanner actually says, "a goutte d'eau inverted often does duty for an icicle, but they may also be represented by piles wavy." In each case, the portion of the quotation tending to cast doubt on the validity of the term icicle was omitted; in the latter case, the alleged quotation was actually an inaccurate paraphrase.

If you cite a source, please make sure that it actually supports your argument. If the source doesn't support your argument, find another argument, find another source, or quote the source in its entirety and try to disprove the part you disagree with. (02/1985)

Eoin of the Torriloc Moors. Device. Or, a pall inverted between three stags springing sable.

NOTE: This conflicts with RAGNALD DE VIGNE, "Or, on a pall inverted sable three gloves erased, fingers to center, argent." (SCA). (01/1985)

Eowyn Amberdrake. Badge. A griffin and an enfield combattant gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with GARTH AP RONAN: Quarterly argent and sable, a griffin segreant to sinister gules. (SCA) There is a single point of difference, for the addition of the enfield. (05/1986)

Erich Hlodowechssun fon Hocheichhalu. Device. Or, an oak tree fructed and eradicated proper within a bordure engrailed gyronny sable and gules.

NOTE: This conflicts with ROWENA DE SEGOVIA, "Or, an orange tree fructed and eradicated proper within a bordure invected sable." (SCA) I count a major point for the line of partition on the bordure (engrailed and invected are distinguishable when applied to an ordinary), a minor point (demoted to negligible) for the tincture of half the bordure, and a weak minor for the difference in the type of tree. (10/1984)

Erik of Northhold. Badge for House of the Goldenfist. Or, on a sun gules a sinister fist couped Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with HAYS, "Or, a sun gules." (Papworth 1100) The fist, being a tertiary charge, is only a minor point of difference. (03/1985)

Erik Volstagg. Device. Or, on a saltire azure a sword and a double­bitted axe Or and on a chief azure three mullets Or.

NOTE: This is in technical conflict with BRUS, "Or, a saltire and a chief azure." (Papworth 1063) There are two minor points of difference, each for adding a group of tertiary charges. (01/1985)

Erroll the Gentle. Name and device. Argent, a pall azure between three turtles tergiant vert.

NOTE: Erroll is a surname, and does not appear to have been used as a given name in period. (Black 246, 32) The device is in technical conflict with IAN MACALISTER OF LANCASTER, "Argent, on a pall azure three daggers proper, points meeting at fess point." (SCA). (01/1985)

Ethelwulf Kildare. Device. Or, an Urnes­beast and in chief six roundels gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: The miniature emblazon circulated to the College of Arms and the emblazon submitted to the Laurel office show two completely different monsters. Please choose one of the defined varieties of Urnes­beast (see the article in the cover letter) and resubmit. (05/1986)

Evah de Yuste. Badge. Or, a cluster of grapes purpure, slipped and leaved vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with DRUYF: Or, a bunch of grapes proper. (Rietstap) (10/1985)

Evron Beaumaris the Gallowglass. Device. Per chevron Or and gules, two suns and a dragon dormant, head and tail curved to base, wings addorsed, counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with EDEN OF LION'S GUARD: Per chevron Or and gules, in base a griffin dormant Or. (August 1985) There is a major point for the addition of the suns, but we do not feel there is enough visual difference between the charges in base to make up a second full point. (10/1985)

Fael MacLoarn. Device. Per pale wavy sable and argent, a wolf passant counterchanged.

NOTE: The device conflicts with LUPIN AUF ILLERFELD, "Per pale sable and argent a wolf passant counterchanged." (Rietstap). (03/1985)

Falada of Englewood. Name (appeal) and device. Argent, a deer couchant to sinister regardant proper within a vine of ivy leaves in orle vert. (Dama dama).

NOTE: The comments on this submission indicate that Falada is not a reasonable variant of the Spanish given name Valada, due to differences in pronunciation between b and v in that language. In addition, Brigantia has noted (to a vigorous nod of agreement from one of the people on my staff) that Bambi's mother was named "Fala". Given the similarity of the given name and byname (I am further informed that the woods in Bambi were in England), plus the charges in the device, this submission is flirting dangerously with a literary infringement. Valada is probably an acceptable given name, but I would like to see a photocopy of the appropriate page in the reference cited. A number of the heralds commenting on this submission found the orle of ivy disturbingly reminiscent of a laurel wreath (although I do not remember this objection being raised when ALEEN DU VARNAY was submitted several years ago). Her alternate design conflicts with ANNE OF THE GOLDEN MANTLE, "Vert, on a plate a swan naiant, couped on the fess line, sable." (SCA) There is a major point for the semy, and a minor point for the change in tertiary charge. (12/1984)

Fanuidhol Bluesword. (name and device). Bendy barry bendy­sinister gules and argent, on a pale Or a sword inverted azure.

NOTE: A place­name may not be used as a given name, even in Elvish. Please choose another given name. The device conflicts with GIANCARLO AMATI DI FOGLIANO, "Fusily argent and azure, on a pale Or a rebec guies." (SCA). There is one point of difference for the field, plus a minor point for the tertiary charge. DISCUSSION: I consider this sufficiently different from CORRMACC NA CONNACHT, "Azure, on a pale argent, a sword inverted gules." (SCA).I count one major point for the tincture of the field, and another for division; the second point demotes, yielding one­and­a­half points for the field. The change in tincture of the pale is also a major point; since we have already counted a point for color, this one is demoted to a minor (half a point), for a total of two points of difference ­ which is all that is required. (09/1984)

Féamîr Bek. Device. Per fess sable and gyronny of four from fesspoint argent and vert, a cross patty convex fitchy, gules voided Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: I'm afraid this still conflicts with CALZIER: Sable, a cross patty fitchy Or. (Papworth 621) The Rules for Submissions allow a major point of difference between a plain field and one partitioned [equally] of a color and a metal (XIII.A.I.b), and a minor point if the tinctures of the partitioned field are of the same class (XIII.B.l.b). More than half of Fémîr's field is color, so I'd be inclined to allow at best a strong minor. The difference between a cross patty fitchy and a cross patty convex fitchy is largely artistic, and the voiding of the cross contributes no more than a small minor point. There is also a contrast problem between the colored outline of the cross and the field. (07/1985)

Fernanda de la Forêt. Device. Or, a single­headed chess knight couped at the shoulders vert within a bordure embattled gules.

NOTE: This infringes upon JANINA KATRINA, "Argent, a horse's head couped at the shoulders sable, maned of flames proper, within a bordure embattled sable." (Kingdom of the East, above). (10/1984)

Findlaech MacAlasdair. Device. Or, on a saltire nowy lozengy azure a shark naiant argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with CASSANDRA OF KHIVA, "Or, on a saltire nebuly azure a swan naiant argent." (SCA) There's a point of difference for the type of saltire, and a minor point for the tertiary charge. (10/1984)

Finnuala MacLeod. Badge/mon for Akira Takara. Sable, in base a Japanese sun of eight rays, the disc debruised by a three­tiered mist, all within an annulet of bamboo, all argent and fimbriated sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: We do not feel this mon is sufficiently compatible with European heraldry to be blazoned "with normal heraldic terminology" [IX.9]; and according to Monsho, the design is incompatible with Japanese heraldry as well. Please redesign. The name of her alternate persona appears acceptable. (12/1985)

Fiona Lachtna. Device. Vert, an estoile gyronny of twelve Or and argent, and on a chief indented ermine, three fleur­de­lis issuant from the line of division Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: There is insufficient contrast between the Or and argent parts of the estoile, and between the gold fleurs­de­lys and the ermine chief. According to the Rules for Submissions (IX.4), "A field or charge that is divided into more than two pieces (except for ... gyronny of six, and gyronny of eight) may not consist of all colors or all metals"; and RFS IX.5 states that "you cannot place ... Or on ermine."

DISCUSSION: The blazon was submitted as "a chief dancetty ermine, each point terminating in a fleur­de­lis Or," on the example of PLOWDEN: Azure, a fess dancette', the two upper points flory (terminating in fleurs­de­lis) Or. (Woodward 124)This suggests that the fleurs­de­lis are on the field, since the points are normally thought to point to base. Under the circumstances, I feel it is clearer to state that the charges are on the chief. The chief is a single­sided ordinary, and so is said to be indented, not dancetty. See the discussion in the Laurel cover letter of 28 August 1985. An estoile has six points by default. (10/1985)

Fiona of Clan Maxwell. Device. Sable, two scarpes between three mullets of eight points and a sun argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with KRISTOPHER KELSON, "Sable, two scarpes between as many martlets argent." (SCA). (02/1985)

Fiona of Clan Maxwell. Device. Sable, two scarpes Or between three mullets of eight points and a sun argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with CASSANDRA O'SHEA, "Sable, two scarpes Or between a dove close to sinister and a unicorn rampant argent." (5 Jan 85) DISCUSSION: This item is from Brigantia's letter of 13 March, the remainder of which consisted entirely of corrections. It would normally have gone into PENDING, to allow time for people to comment on the new device, but one of the people on my staff caught the conflict at the meeting, and we couldn't see holding it up. (04/1985)

Fionnghuala of Hill Haven. Device. Per bend sinister urdy counter­ermine and ermine, a lute bendwise Or, and on a chief Or a lion passant, all within a bordure gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device is too complex. Please simplify.

DISCUSSION: "The bordure is placed over all ordinaries, except the chief, the quarter, and the canton, which invariably surmount it." (Parker 73). (05/1986)

Flaming Gryphon, Barony of the. Badge for the Order of the Flaming Brand. Ermine, a gryphon segreant maintaining a sword Or, all enflamed proper.

NOTE: The gryphon and sword, as drawn, are not enflamed, but instead somewhat perversely fimbriated. After some discussion, we concluded that one could not successfully enflame a gold gryphon on an ermine field. "Flames proper" on ermine are red on the outside and gold on the inside. The gold part of the flames will merge with the gryphon, leaving nothing but an uneven red line to insulate the charge from the field. A gryphon is considered too complex a charge to fimbriate, so this is thin­line heraldry, which is not acceptable by SCA standards. The badge also conflicts with MICHIGAN NATIONAL GUARD, "A griffin segreant Or." (Military Ordinary #945). (11/1984)

Flaming Gryphon, Barony of the. Badge for the Order of the Gryphon's Plume. Ermine, a gryphon passant to sinister Or enflamed proper, maintaining a plume purpure.

NOTE: This has the same contrast problem as the badge for the Order of the Flaming Brand. (11/1984)

Flanna Dunwalton. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: Duplicate submission. This name was approved on the letter from the January 1986 meeting. (01/1986)

Flaxenadne of Dragon's End. Name only.

NOTE: We need some documentation for Flaxenadne ­­ where did the applicant find it, and from what language or culture does it supposedly hail?. (01/1985)

Freond Steorra, Shire of. Name and device (appeal). Argent, a dove azure within a laurel wreath vert, between three mullets of six points azure.

REASON FOR RETURN: "A name conflicts with another name if it looks or sounds enough like the other name to cause confusion." (RFS VI.4) "Fray­ond stay­or­uh" is close enough aurally to "On­stay­or­uh" to cause confusion, and Ansteorra, being a kingdom, merits a certain amount of extra protection.

DISCUSSION: On the potential conflict with GWYNETH FITZ­ROLF ("Argent, a rampion stalk proper between three mullets azure"), it should be noted that Gwyneth's plant is palewise (not wreath­shaped) and sports several prominent blossoms. The emblazon in the files is a black­and­white photocopy, so I can't be completely sure of the colors, but my notes indicate that rampion flowers are either blue or white (presumably blue, since the field is argent). This, together with the other changes, should be sufficient. (06/1985)

Freond Steorra, Shire of. Name and device. Argent, a dove azure within a laurel wreath vert, between three mullets of six points azure.

NOTE: According to Batonvert, the name should probably be a single word, Freondsteorra. It is close enough in pronunciation to Ansteorra for there to be aural conflict. Please choose another name. The device appears acceptable. (01/1985)

Fridhrekr Elfski Jonasson. Badge. Per bend argent and Or, a fret vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with EATON OF DUNMOYLIN: Or, a fret vert. (Rietstap) There is a minor point of difference between a metal field and a field divided of two metals. (RFS XIII.B.l.b). (07/1985)

Fuyuzuru Tadashi. Change of device. Gules, the Kanji character for mountain Or.

NOTE: This conflicts visually with M'ALPIN, "Gules, a crown Or." (Papworth 591) The Rules for Submissions (X.2) prohibit the use of "abstract symbols" such as letters and numbers in devices. I also do not feel we can grant exclusive use of a kanji to someone. (02/1985)

Gabriel Lightfoot. Device. Argent chapé and a heart sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This infringes on the Order of Preachers ("Dominicans"): Argent chapé sable; and on VAN RODEN: Argent, a heart sable. (Rietstap). (06/1986)

Gabriella Franchesca Calleja de Warre. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: The surname combines Spanish and French in a single phrase ( "street of the warren"), which we do not believe is correct. In addition, the sources consulted by the heralds who commented on this submission gave the Spanish for "street" as calle, not calle La. Please document both the translation and the construction, or choose another byname. (01/1986)

Garlon Dragonheart ap Rheged. Device. Azure, a dragon's head, sinister facing, within and conjoined at base to a heart argent voided azure.

NOTE: The design is better suited to a piece of jewelry than to a coat of arms; I believe we have returned similar submissions in the past. It also conflicts with ANNA GERTRUDE LEONHARDT, "Azure, on a heart argent a lion rampant azure." (SCA). (10/1984)

Garth Allmann. Name and device. Or, on a mullet purpure, a sabre­toothed tiger's head caboshed Or.

NOTE: Garth is a surname, 'of the garth', i.e. the yard or the enclosure. (Bardsley 310; Reaney DBS 141) Withycombe posits that it is a modern form of Gareth, but she doesn't support her contention, and I suspect she overlooked the surname. Dunkling and Gosling arrived at much the same conclusion; they discuss this at some length in The New American Dictionary of First Names, pp. 153­154.

The device conflicts with the badge of ASTRA CHRISTIANA BENEDICT: On a mullet a cross crosslet. (SCA) Because Astra's badge is tinctureless, it reserves all colors. There is thus a single minor point of difference, for replacing the cross crosslet (a tertiary charge) with the tiger's head.

DISCUSSION: There is precedent for the use of prehistoric animals in SCA heraldry. "This is a borderline case, in that the mammoth was extinct in the Middle Ages. . ever, there were pictures in French caves which could have been seen, and a trade in Siberian mammoth ivory. (KFW, 22 Oct 76, p. 5; in Prec II:26) Master Wilhelm later admitted a saber­toothed tiger. "N. submitted this many years ago, when prehistoric animals were allowed. (In point of fact, there are cave paintings of sabre­toothed tigers, so this particular beast could have been known in period.)" (WvS, 14 Oct 82, p. 8)

Master Wilhelm's first sentence implies that, between 1976 and 1982, prehistoric animals had been banned; he was admitting one as a hardship case. I have not been able to find a ruling establishing this change. His second sentence invokes the same principle Mistress Karina used ­ that the animal in question could have been known to medieval Europeans, since it appeared in cave drawings. This suggests that, although he believed the charge no longer to be legal, he had not altogether abandoned this principle.

The Rules for Submissions (IX.7) specifically permit "any object, living thing, or design element known to humanity before 1601" to be used as a charge, so long as the College feels its use is "consistent with period heraldic style and practice." It can easily be argued that prehistoric animals, not being readily recognizable by the common swain­on­the­road, are not suitable tokens for purposes of identification, and are therefore inconsistent with period armory. There aren't enough instances on the books to establish a clear precedent, and the most recent acceptance I found intimated that such approvals were a thing of the past. On the other hand, the rule is worded in such a fashion as to encourage inventiveness ("any [thing] known to humanity" is a rather sweeping invitation). Rule IX.7 is more a statement of general principle than an out­and out rule ­­ it provides caveats in both directions ­­ so there isn't really a "letter of the law" to adhere to.

The upshot is that we have no clear policy on the use of prehistoric animals as charges. The comments on the present submission vary widely, and do not give me enough material to offer a reasoned decision. If the applicant wishes to resubmit with a saber­toothed tiger, please ask him to present his arguments for the use of such a charge, and the College can have it out at that time. (09/1985)

Garth the Wanderer. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: Garth is a surname, "enclosed ground, garden." (Reaney DBS 141) May we suggest the Arthurian given name Gareth?. (07/1986)

Garwulf Nightsbane. Device. Sable, a chevron between two mallets set chevronwise and a mullet of four points elongated to base Or.

REASON: This conflicts with ROBERT MANSEL, Sable a chevron between three mullets Or. (FabHer #303). (08/1986)

Gawain of Mistbridge. Badge for House Mistbridge. A wagon gules.

NOTE: This conflicts with the badge of JASPER GREENSMITH OF THE SEAGIRT GLEN, "A cart, issuant therefrom a dragon's head, wings and tail gules." (SCA). (04/1985)

Gelasia de Montfaucon. Device. Per fess engrailed purpure and azure, a natural sand dollar within a bordure argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with EUDAIMON OF ALEXANDROS, "Azure, a plate within two annulets rayonnant argent." (SCA) There is a minor point for the difference in field, and a major point for replacing the annulets with a bordure. The difference between a sand dollar and a plate has previously been ruled negligible. (02/1985)

Geoffrey Allyn Dawnstar. Device. Vert, on a pile inverted bendwise sinister throughout argent, a mullet of seven points gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts technically with NICHOLAS OF THE HILL FOLK: Vert, on a pile argent a dragon rampant gules. (SCA) There is a major point of difference for the orientation of the pile, and a minor point for the type of charge upon it. A second change in the "tertiary" (number or tincture, for example) would be sufficient to bring this up to a major point. The tincture of the pile was also omitted from the submitted blazon.

DISCUSSION: Society blazon does not use the term transposed for a pile issuant from base. (06/1986)

Geoffrey Cathan. Azure, a lion couchant to sinister within an annulet argent charged with eight roses gules, barbed and seeded proper.

NOTE: This is too close to THOMAS LONGSHANKS, "Azure, a lion dormant to sinister and a chief arched argent." (SCA) Although Geoffrey's annulet is distinguishable from a chaplet of roses (a chaplet is a ring of roses joined by foliage, not a circle with roses on it), he should probably be warned of the similarity. (08/24/1984)

Geoffrey fitz Alain. Device (appeal of blazon). Or, a scarpe between a winged lion passant gules and a Celtic cross sable.

SYNOPSIS: Pennon noted in her letter of intent that "He originally submitted a scarpe gules but it was passed as a bend sinister; he would prefer the scarpe, please."

REASON FOR RETURN: In the Fall of 1982, the College of Arms adopted the convention that the diminutive names of ordinaries are used only when there is more than one of the ordinary in question (or when the ordinary is otherwise reduced in importance, as in a "bar enhanced"). Since there is only one diagonal stripe, it is blazoned as a bend sinister rather than a scarpe, no matter how wide it is.

DISCUSSION: Artistic convention allows a certain amount of latitude in the width of an ordinary; it will tend to be wider when it is charged, and narrower when there is more than one, or when there are other surrounding charges. This submission may correctly be drawn with either a wide bend sinister or a narrow one (i.e., a scarpe); the blazon remains the same. (09/1985)

Geoffrey Sebastian Fitzwilliam. Device. Ermine, a pall sable, over all an urchin rampant to sinister Or.

NOTE: "A charge that is overall or surmounting another charge obeys the Rule of Tincture with respect to the field, not the charge(s) beneath it." (Rules IX.5) The urchin is technically Or on argent. (12/1984)

Gershom ibn Zabara. Device. Gules, a Jewish hat argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with KIM: Gules, a Jew's hat argent corded vert. (Rietstap) There also turn out to be a number of representations of a "Jew's hat," which makes it doubtful that the emblazon could be reconstructed from the blazon, and a couple of the heralds questioned the recognizability of the charge.

If a form can be found that at least appears to be a hat, I would be willing to reconsider; like Baron Alfgar, I rather like the idea. (10/1985)

Gideon ben Levi. Device. Per bend sinister argent and azure, a sinister mailed fist aversant sable, maintaining a horn purpure.

NOTE: The device conflicts with THOMAS FOR THE INTERIM, "Vert, a dexter gauntlet sable, grasping in saltire a rose gules, barbed, seeded, and slipped proper, and an artist's brush sable, ferruled and all fimbriated Or." (SCA) [Point for the field, minor for the charges held.] We are also bothered by the name GIDEON, used in conjunction with the horn, although I am inclined to agree with Batonvert: "The line between deliberate use of a charge to allude to a famous person and actual infringement is not very clear, but this seems to be the former case.". (03/1985)

Giles Devon. Badge. A double­tiered Japanese pine tree proper surmounted by a ken palewise argent.

NOTE: This sort of combination of Japanese and European design is not acceptable. According to Monsho, "the motif of a Japanese pine has only one tier." The charge is unrecognizable by both Occidental and Oriental standards. There is also no defined proper for a Japanese pine. Please choose another design. (05/1985)

Giles Hill of Sweetwater. Badge. Per bend purpure and vert, a unicorn passant, head lowered, argent, armed and crined Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with SELENA OF DRAGON'S BAY: Vert, a dapple grey unicorn statant. (SCA) There are three minor points of difference, for tincture of field, tincture of charge, and position of charge. (01/1986)

Gillian van Wald. Device. Plumetty gules and argent, a goose, wings elevated and addorsed, sable, holding in its beak a ring Or.

REASON: This conflicts with the Principality of CYNAGUA, Quarterly argent and Or, a swan rousant, wings elevated and addorsed, sable maintaining in its sinister foot a laurel wreath vert. (SCA) Visually, the only real difference is in the field. The two birds, as drawn, are indistinguishable. (08/1986)

Giovanni dei Fiori. (device). Per pale Or and argent, the whole semy of roses gules barbed and seeded proper, on a bend azure a harp between two roundels Or.

NOTE: I do not know of any precedent for a semy covering both halves of a divided field. The result is complex and awkward to blazon. A bend between six roses would probably be acceptable, as would a plain field semy of a much smaller number of roses. The latter would provide better contrast. (09/1984)

Giovanni dei Fiori. Device (appeal). Per pale Or and argent, the whole semy of roses gules barbed and seeded proper, on a bend azure a harp between two roundels Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: The design is too complex. Please simplify.

SYNOPSIS: This submission was previously returned in September 1984. At that time I noted that, "I do not know of any precedent for a semy covering both halves of a divided field. The result is complex and awkward to blazon. A bend between six roses would probably be acceptable, as would a plain field semy of a much smaller number of roses. The latter would provide better contrast." The submitter has appealed this, offering as precedent the device of ALIXIA AURORA AIRIELLE: Per pale vert and azure, both mulletty, a pale within a bordure Or."

DISCUSSION: My objection to the semy* was founded on two things: a ruling of Master Wilhelm's that "You cannot have semé overall like this, with [charges] overlying the lines of the chap?" (28 Mar 84, p. 11), and the lack of an established way of blazoning it. The usual SCA practice in the latter case is to make something up, a custom that has led to barbarisms such as the "bordurelet" and clusters of charges blazoned "in estoile."

When confronted with a coat that seems to evade the system of nomenclature, I tend to question the practice that requires the evasion. After all, if the language doesn't deal with the situation, it seems likely that the situation has never occurred before; ergo, we have prima facie evidence that the practice is out of period.

Now, asking questions of this kind too often is disruptive. You start looking askance at everything that passes in front of you; and it's hard to get any work done when you're looking up every other word in the dictionary. I therefore let a lot of these slip by. Other times I try to find an alternate blazon that avoids the problem. Frequently, I will look a term up, find it's being correctly used, and pass it. (If it seems interesting, and if I have the time, I usually mention this in the LOAR.) Sometimes I will approve a blazon, but question the terminology in the LOAR. And sometimes, as in the present case, I will raise the question as one of the reasons for returning a submission.

A single SCA example isn't very good precedent. It may be the product of ignorance, or sloppiness, or a practice that has since been abandoned. This doesn't mean the argument is invalid; just that there are others that may take precedence. Alixia's device has an ordinary along the line of division, so the semy does not actually cover the entire field; it is actually vert mullety Or on one side, and azure mullety Or on the other. I was looking for precedent for charges that overlapped the line of division.

The mundane instances cited by Treblerose (none of which, incidentally, are explicitly dated) may provide this precedent (it's hard to tell without knowing how they are emblazoned mundanely). I note that all of them are counterchanged, which doesn't answer my underlying question about the legitimacy of the present blazon.

However, if we accept Roger F. Pye's assertion that semy is a group of charges, then there is no reason the charges could not overlap the line of division. Despite the absence of examples, the practice would seem to consistent with mundane (and presumably period) heraldic practice. I still feel my question is a valid one, but on review, I find the underlying arguments are less strong than I believed them to be at the time. I therefore withdraw my objection.

This leaves the question of complexity (the second objection I raised), and for this I see no solution. We have (1) a low­contrast divided field, strewn with (2) a semy overall, which underlies (3) an ordinary, which is charged with (4) two different types of charges. Visually, there are four layers; and visually, the device is cluttered. I still feel that it needs to be simplified.

CONCLUSION: I am withdrawing my objection to the semy, but not to the complexity of the submission.

* Semant? Semé is the past participle of the French verb semer 'to scatter'. Semy of roses means "scattered [with] roses." You wouldn't refer to "a scattered of roses," however; you'd use the present participle and say "a scattering." The regular present participle of semer would be semant.

Well, it's a cute argument, but (a) it's pedantic, and (b) it overlooks the fact that a foreign word is being injected directly into an English sentence. In this context, semy is standing for the heraldic practice in which the term figures, and is either explicitly or implicitly italicized. As a word standing for itself, I guess it may legitimately be used as a noun.

End of digression. (11/1985)

Glas mac Carraig. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: Carraig 'crag, rocky outcropping' is not a given name, and so would not be used with the patronymic particle mac 'son of'. Batonvert has suggested de Carraig or O Carraigh as possible alternatives. (06/1985)

Glaspar MacNiall. Device. Or, a winged lion statant to sinister gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with METLAGE, "Or, a winged lion gules." (Rietstap) There is a single point of difference, for the position of the lion. (06/1985)

Glenda MacChlurain. Device. Per bend gules and argent, a bend counter­ermine between a wing and a demi­sun issuant from dexter counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: The wing is not in a defined position, and in this orientation is confusing to the eye. Please choose another orientation. (07/1986)

Gottfried von Kolberg. Device. Chequy azure and argent, on a pale argent a staff environed of a grape vine leaved and fructed proper.

NOTE: This conflicts with MELUSINE DE RONCEVERTE, "Vert, on a pale argent a greenbri[e]r sprig slipped vert." (SCA). (01/1985)

Graça d'Alataia. Badge. Per pale Or and vert, a chess pawn counterchanged.

NOTE: The pawn depicted appears to be a Staunton chessman, which is out of period (circa 1850). Most of the medieval chess pawns shown in Donald Liddell's Chessmen are of the form shown in the margin; this seems to me the shape most suitable for use in SCA heraldry. (02/1985)

Graeghafoc Scrobesbyrigscires. Name and device. Sable, a mullet of four points within and conjoined to an annulet Or charged with five pellets, between in pale two bars nowy couped and in fess two Gotlandic bird motifs respectant all within an orle of pheons, points inward, argent.

NOTE: The name and device were both returned by Laurel in February 1983. The submitter has appealed this decision. The applicant has provided an example of ­hafoc, ­havoc 'hawk' as a deuterotheme, but there is as yet no evidence that graeg 'gray' was ever used as a name element. We normally require that dithematic names be made up of known elements. Our experience has been that given names are drawn from a smaller subset of the language than bynames; the "adjective + noun" and "tincture + animal" models mentioned in the appeal are too sweeping. We would suggest he adopt a known Anglo­Saxon given name or construct one from documented elements, and use Graeghafoc or Scrobesbyrigscires as his byname. (See also PETER THE BARBARIAN, above.) It is true that most Anglo­Saxons had only one name. It is also true that if two people with the same given name lived in the same area, they would have acquired distinguishing bynames. Because of the size of the SCA (which covers considerably more territory than did the average Anglo­Saxon community), we must assume that there will eventually be someone else with the same given name; we provide for this by obtaining bynames in advance, before the need arises. (It is not enough to distinguish only the later ones. Owain could apply equally well to anyone with that name; but within our purview, there will be only one Owain the Stout.).

As for the device, I'm afraid the submitter has missed the point entirely. The essence of heraldry is not the manner in which shields are constructed, it is the designs people place on their shields (flags, seals, etc.) to identify the bearer. An Anglo­Saxon warrior might well have carried a shield that looked like this, but I have difficulty believing that some foe of his, his eyes traversing the advancing line of doughty men­at­arms, would pause and mutter under his breath:

"Well, look at that! A boss and two birds and a couple of reinforcing bars inside a whole bunch of rim clips! Why there's only one man in all the Danelaw has a shield like that! I'd know him anywhere!".

This is too complex for heraldry, in his period or in ours. Please choose one or two elements ­ the Gotlandic birds have potential ­ and try something simpler. (04/1985)

Graham MacRauris of Strathcarron. (name and device). Or, a boar's head and a boar's head reversed inverted conjoined at the necks sable within a bordure azure.

NOTE: Graham is a surname, not a given name; this is not acceptable under our current rules. I would also like to see some documentation for MacRauris. Inverting an animate charge is at best poor practice. With the two heads conjoined in this fashion, it becomes next to impossible to figure out what the "black thing in the middle of the field "really is. This defeats the purpose of heraldry. Please redesign. (09/1984)

Gretchen of Brookemeadow. Name and device. Per pale argent and Or, on a hurt a papillon per pale Or and argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with HURNE: Or, a hurt. (Papworth 1046) There is a minor point of difference for the field, and another minor for the addition of a tertiary charge. It also conflicts with GALLERON DE LA CHENILLE: Argent, on a hurt a wyvern volant to sinister argent. (SCA) Same count, except that the second minor point is for type, rather than addition, of the "tertiary".

Gretchen is a diminutive of the given name Margaret, and does not appear to have been used as an independent given name during the Middle Ages. Precedent is to say, "Register 'Margaret' as your formal name, and have your friends call you Gretchen." Since the device must be returned anyway, I am leaving this choice to the submitter. (05/1986)

Griffin ferch Rhys. Name change (from Deborah ferch Rhys).

NOTE: The name conflicts with Gruffudd (Griffin) ap Rhys, a famous 12th century prince of southern Wales. (01/1985)

Guillaume d'Anjou. Badge. On a mullet of six points fesswise argent a tau cross vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with HAGGARD: Azure, a mullet of six points 'Argent. (Papworth 989) There is a minor.point for the addition of the tertiary charge; the change in orientation is worth nothing at all. (03/1986)

Guillaume of Faireskye. Badge for House Faireskye. Azure, on a mullet of eight points Or, a mullet azure.

NOTE: This also conflicts with PAUL OF SUNRIVER. (see note on device). (04/1985)

Guillaume of Faireskye. Device. Azure, a mullet of eight points Or within an orle of mullets argent.

NOTE: The device and badge (below) both conflict with PAUL OF SUNRIVER, "Azure, a compass star Or." (SCA). (04/1985)

Gulliver Blackrune. Name and device. Or, a fess between and conjoined to a pile and a pile inverted [a triangle issuant from chief and another from base?], all between four cat's paw prints sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: Gulliver is a surname, and does not appear to have been used as a given name in period. P. H. Reaney derives it from Old French goulafre 'glutton'. (Bardsley 342; Reaney DBS 158)

The device is not particularly heraldic. It appears to have been created by drawing a geometric pattern, and then attempting to decompose this into known heraldic shapes. Designs of this sort have been returned in the past. "Although it is certainly possible to construct abstract shapes by combining various ordinaries, as has been done here, the blazon is usually confusing and the overall effect non­heraldic." (BoE, 28 Sep 84, p. 17) I feel, in particular, that this is not a legitimate use of the pile. Please redesign, perhaps using one of the geometrical crosses "throughout" as the central charge. (11/1985)

Gunnora Hallakarva. Device. Per bend Or and azure, a male kestrel rising proper maintaining in the dexter claw an axe and in the sinister claw a ring of three keys Or. (Falco sparverius)

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with FALKH OF RATISBON: Per bend Or and gules, a falcon rising, wings elevated, proper. (Rietstap) There is a minor point for tincture of half the field, and another minor for the charges held by the bird. (05/1986)

Gustav Athanasius von Hausenstadt. (badge). Sable, a pallium argent ermined gules.

NOTE: According to our references, the bishop's pall is a shakefork, not a pallium. The examples cited by Lord Gustav are for a different charge than the one he has depicted here. They also do not give any dates, so there is no indication of period usage, which is what Master Wilhelm required in his letter of 17 January 1984. (09/1984)

Gwendolyn Fitzalan. Device. Argent, upon a lozenge azure between in chief two forget­me­nots azure, seeded Or, a unicorn's head couped to sinister argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with PHILLIP THE FREEBORN: Argent, on a fusil azure a wolf's head erased argent langued gules and in chief two decrescents azure. (SCA) There­is at best a major point for change in type of secondaries, and a minor for the tertiary. There are no points of difference between a lozenge and a fusil. (03/1986)

Gwyddon Alexander MacGregor of Settmour. Device. Azure, a sword Or between in fess two comets palewise and in chief a decrescent argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with TAMARA FITZGLOUCESTRE OF THE WHITE BOAR: Azure, a sword Or entwined of a rose argent slipped and leaved proper between in fess two boars combattant argent. (SCA) Replacing the boars with the comets is a major point of difference (for type of a group of charges). Replacing the rose with the decrescent would normally be a minor point (for making "a major change to a minor element of the design"); since this is the second change in category type of charge, it is demoted. I don't see any way of bringing this up to a second major point. (10/1985)

Gwydion Darkmantle. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: The name Gwydion may not be used in the Society. See the discussion in the letter from the October 1985 Laurel meeting (KERRY MACGRYPHON, p. 8) and the accompanying cover letter (pp. 5­7). (12/1985)

Gwyn myrgh Myghal. Badge for Renée Carder. Two wool­cards fesswise, the dexter reversed and the sinister inverted, teeth meshed, argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: "Although the Rules for Submissions do not prohibit the registration of a fieldless badge for an alternate persona, neither do they specifically allow it ... After some reflection, I have concluded that this is inconsistent with established practice, and that it would not be desirable for us to permit it." (BoE, 24 Nov 84, p. 1) The charges here are drawn very much in perspective, which is not heraldic. Please select tinctures for the field and charges (or drop the secondary name), and choose another way of representing the charges. (07/1986)

Hagen of Vinland. Device. Or, a double­headed eagle displayed and on a chief sable, a castle between two swords Or within a bordure overall counterchanged.

NOTE: Although there is technically enough difference between this device and the arms of the Holy Roman Emperor ("Or, a double­headed eagle displayed sable"), the visual connection is inescapable, particularly since all the changes are made on the periphery. In addition, the charges on the chief do not leave enough room for an overlapping border. Please choose another design. (04/1985)

Haniya bat Baruch. Device. Argent mullety azure, a horseshoe inverted sable.

NOTE: "A horseshoe is, by default, in a 'U' orientation." (WvS, 28 Dec 82, p. 8) The device conflicts with ANNE DOUGLAS OF THE SEVEN STARS, "Purpure, mullety Or, a horseshoe inverted argent." (SCA) The outlines are identical. (02/1985)

Harald Ulfson. Device. Sable, a bear's paw print and on a chief argent a hammer fesswise gules.

NOTE: This is in technical conflict with FRIAR RANDALL, "Sable, a caltrop, on a chief argent, three caltrops gules" (SCA) and several others. (02/1985)

Harold von Schwarzwald. Name and device. Azure, a ship's wheel between three triangles argent.

REASON: The name of the Black Forest, I am told, takes a definite article, so this should be von dem Schwarzwald or vom Schwarzwald. The submitter has disallowed changes to his name.

The ship's wheel turns out not to be a period charge. "Even as late as the Mayflower (1620), ships were steered by a tiller below the half­deck, which connected directly to the rudder. (See Pictorial History of American Ships, John and Alice Durant, Barnes & Co., New York; 1953.) This is corroborated by the OED, which cites the first use of 'wheel' in connection with steering a ship in 1750. (See Vol. X, p. 905, under steering.)" [BDOM] The common heraldic wheels are the Catherine­wheel, Cart­wheel, Water­wheel, and Mill­wheel. (Parker 619-620.). (08/1986)

Hawkland Moor, Riding of. Device. Per bend Or and azure, a hawk stooping within a laurel wreath counterchanged.

NOTE: This conflicts with the SHIRE OF THE OSPREY, "Azure, an osprey stooping within a laurel wreath argent." (SCA). (02/1985)

Heatherwyne, Shire of. Badge. On a roundel argent, a millrind fesswise between in pale an anvil inverted reversed and an anvil sable.

NOTE: This was submitted as "on a mill stone argent, a millrind..." An heraldic mill­stone is basically a roundel charged with a mill­rind or fer­de­moline. (Parker 407) I do not believe it is possible to place additional charges on a mill­stone and still call it by that name. This thus becomes a charged roundel. "Roundels... may be charged with at most a single charge. Anything more complicated would look like a form of marshalling." (WvS, 15 Jul 83, p. 11) It also conflicts with EDWIN BERSARK, "Gules, a roundel so drawn as to represent a round shield battered in long and honorable service, * argent" (SCA), since the only difference is the addition of the tertiary charges.

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* Known in College of Arms folklore as a crumple. (01/1985)

Hector Philip Martel. Device. Gules, in pile two halberds, blades to center, argent surmounted by a chevron Or, in chief a tower argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with DURYN THE RED, "Gules, upon a chevron Or a wheel of five spokes between two double­axes gules." (SCA) There is a major point for the addition of the secondary charges, and a minor point for the removal of the tertiaries. (02/1985)

Heinrich Wolfhart. Device. Argent, a chevron inverted enhanced and in base a mullet of six points, both Or fimbriated azure.

NOTE: A chevron enhanced does not intersect the chief. The composition of the device is questionable, involving both "thin­line" heraldry and a great deal of white space, and several of the commenting heralds observed that it resembled the ribbon and pendant of some military order. Please redesign. (10/1984)

Helena de Argentoune. Device. Per chevron gules and sable, a winged stag salient to sinister, wings elevated and addorsed, argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with JAMIE MACRAE: Purpure, a winged stag rampant to sinister. (SCA) There is a point of difference for tincture of field, and at best a minor point (if that much) between salient and rampant.

DISCUSSION: The wings are more elevated and addorsed than erect; for an example of the latter, see Parker, p. 626. (10/1985)

Helmut Wolfgang von Drache. Device. Gyronny argent and gules, a dragon segreant to sinister vert, winged and bellied Or, maintaining a halberd azure.

NOTE: This conflicts with WILLIAM THESPOS DRAGONSCLAW, "Per bend sinister gules and sable, a dragon segreant to sinister Or." (SCA) There is a major point for the field, and a minor for the tincture of the charge. The halberd adds less than a minor point. I consider this barely clear of TALIESIN OF NORDOVEST UPON THE LONG ISLE, "Or, a dragon rampant to sinister vert, spined gules, breathing flames proper." (SCA). (10/1984)

Henrique Zarco. (device). Or, two eucalyptus sprigs in saltire vert surmounted by a kangaroo sejant erect proper. (Macropus giganteus)

According to Batonvert, there are several different kinds of kangaroo, in varying colors. Without the common name, we can't tell if Henrique's kangaroo is colored correctly, or if it will contrast sufficiently with the Or field. The one shown in the emblazon is dark brown, which shows up well; but according to the Fieldbook of Natural History (pp. 677­678), Macropus giganteus is the Great Gray Kangaroo, "general appearance furry grayish­white," which (1) is not the color of the charge shown in the emblazon, and (2) would not show up well against this field. Please find out the common name and coloration of the kangaroo, or else render it in a standard heraldic color. (09/1984)

Hester Lightwicke. Name and device. Argent, two ermine spots and a fleur-de­lys vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: The letter of intent misrepresented the documentation on this name; the citation in Withycombe (p. 107) for Hester/Esther being used "indifferently" is dated 1655, which is outside the 1600­1650 post­period "grey zone." The device conflicts with SEEUWBENS, Argent three fleurs­de­lis vert. (Rietstap) (08/1986)

Hikawa Murasaki. Device. Purpure, a pile wavy inverted throughout, and on a chief Or a roundel purpure.

NOTE: This is in technical conflict with the Crown Princess of the East, "Purpure, an Eastern crown and on a chief Or three roses purpure." (SCA) There is a major point for type of primary charge, and a minor point for difference in tertiaries. (12/1984)

Hrothgar Wulfsson. Device. Sable, a cross within and conjoined to an annulet, and on a chief invected argent, three Latin crosses sable.

NOTE: The cross within an annulet has been disallowed previously, as the astrological symbol of earth. (WvS, 22 Jan 80, p. 9). (02/1985)

Hussein al Rafadan ibn Osman. Device. Per pale sable and argent, a lotus affronty environed of a double­headed serpent respectant, nowed beneath each head and at the belly, all within a bordure counterchanged.

NOTE: As striking* as this is visually, the snake is not in an heraldic position, and I doubt that the emblazon could be reconstructed from any reasonable blazon. Please redesign.

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* As if any self­respecting snake would strike at a lotus blossom ... (10/1984)

Iain Canmore. Device. Gules, in annulo three plates one and two and three harps two and one Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with IRELAND: Gules, three harps Or, stringed argent. (Papworth 908) The composition of the device is poor, and not really amenable to non­"creative" blazonry. Please redesign. (07/1986)

Ian mac Brian. Device. Per fess azure and vert, a sword between in chief two arrows in saltire and in base a pair of wings in lure argent.

NOTE: Submission withdrawn at request of Solar Herald. (01/1985)

Ian mac Brian. Device. Per pale azure and vert, a sword argent between in chief two arrows in saltire inverted Or and a pair of wings conjoined argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with BENSON OF STANNINGTON, "Per pale azure and argent, a sword proper embrued." (SCA) There is a minor point for change in tincture of half the field, and a major point for the addition of a group of secondaries; the partial changes in tincture of the sword are not sufficient to raise this to two full points. (05/1985)

Ian McIvor. Or, on a bend azure between two thistles slipped and leaved proper, a triple­towered castle palewise argent.

NOTE: The submission was beautifully drawn. Unfortunately, it infringes upon DONNCHADH CAMERON THE UNFORGIVEN, "Or, on a bend gules between two thistles, slipped and leaved, proper a shepherd's crook Or." (SCA) I count a major point for the tincture of the bend, and a minor point for the tertiary charge. According to Master Wilhelm, it is sometimes possible to combine three distinct changes to a group of tertiary charges to get a full point of difference. In the present case, a difference in number (added to the differences in type and color) would be sufficient. (08/24/1984)

Ian of Treemoore. Device. Gules, on a fess between three monks' heads couped at the shoulders and a cross moline disjoined argent, three hearts sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: The cross is not recognizable. Please make it a more prominent part of the design, or choose another charge.

DISCUSSION: A number of the commenting heralds characterized the cross disjoined as "thin­line heraldry," which is either discouraged or disallowed (depending on the degree) in SCA armory. The practice is, however, period; Parker notes instances of this cross (often referred to as a cross recerceld or sarcelly) and its relatives in medieval rolls of arms. (Recercelé, by the way, turns out to be ambiguous; Parker's discussion of the term goes on for three pages. Gold Falcon did well to choose disjoined for his blazon.)

The examples in Parker show the voided crosses being used as the sole or principal charge, not as secondary or (what we would call) tertiary charges. This agrees with Society practice, which is to permit voiding and fimbriation ("thinline heraldry") on large charges with simple outlines, where the shape may readily be discerned, but not for smaller and more complex charges. Part of the difficulty with the present coat lies in the drawing ­ the lines should be thicker and the limbs less flared, so the fact that it is a cross stands out. (At first glance, this looks like four pairs of calipers in saltire.) More importantly, however, the cross needs to be used prominently, not as a single charge in base. (04/1986)

Ian Wallace of Llawhallen. Name only.

NOTE: The place name was spelled Llawhallen in the letter of intent and Llawhalien on the information sheet. Brigantia has asked if it might not be a typographical error for Llawhaden, "a small village and castle in Pembrokeshire not far from the site of Narberth." Which of these did the applicant have in mind?. (01/1985)

Igraine Torr de Valere. Device (appeal). Per chevron vert and lozengy purpure and argent, in chief a horse couchant Or, crined sable.

NOTE: This submission was returned in February for conflict with THEODOSIA ARCADIANA, "Per chevron abased sable and purpure, a unicorn dormant argent." The point count was as follows: major point for tincture of field; major point for primary charge, demoted to minor because this was the second tincture change; minor point for difference between unicorn and horse, demoted because this was the second change to the same charge; minor point for difference between couchant and dormant, demoted because this was the third change to the charge; no difference for position of line of division (the shift in Theodosia's device is only slightly more than would ordinarily be done to accommodate a sole charge in chief); no difference for location of charge (which in both cases is above the line of division). The result was one major point, one minor, and two deltas. This made it a borderline call. The visual similarity is fairly strong, and the differences between a horse and a unicorn are hard to spot when the latter is dormant, so I elected to take the conservative route and returned Igraine's device for conflict.

Reviewing the decision in light of Brigantia's arguments, I find myself arriving at the same point count as I did originally. Since this still makes it a borderline call, I feel the correct course of action is to uphold my original ruling. I do apologize, however, for not including the point count with the original return. (04/1985)

Igraine Torr de Valère. Device. Per chevron vert and lozengy purpure and argent, in chief a horse couchant Or, crined sable.

NOTE: This conflicts with THEODOSIA ARCADIANA, "Per chevron abased sable and purpure, a unicorn dormant argent." (SCA). (02/1985)

Ilaria Veltri (submitted as Ilaria Veltri de I'Ansari). Device. Azure, a greyhound rampant argent above a mount of three hillocks vert fimbriated, a bordure argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: Fimbriated mounts were disallowed in August 1983. This submission does not fall within the grace period, nor does it qualify as a hardship case. I'm afraid there are no grounds for the appeal. (03/1986)

Imran Yosuf le Scorpioun. Device. Gules, a swan naiant displayed affronty, neck embowed to dexter argent within an orle of escallops Or.

NOTE: This is enough like a pelican vulning itself (a charge reserved to the Order of the Pelican) to make us very uncomfortable. Please choose another position for the swan. (04/1985)

Ioseph of Locksley, the Rhymer. Badge. A cat rampant gardant argent, vested of a hat sable, a cape gules, and a pair of boots sable turned gules, and grasping in its sinister forepaw a swept­hilt rapier argent, hilted sable.

NOTE: This submission was previously returned in April 1983 for conflict with COTTON ("Vert, a lion rampant gardant argent"), and because "The Cavalier style is out of period, as is Puss in Boots himself." The appeal documents the individual articles of clothing as being in period, and the LoI notes that (1) there is precedent for animals dressed as humans in heraldry, and (2) although Charles Perrault's book of fairy stories is out of period, he was retelling folk tales that may well have been in period.

First of all, nothing in the appeal addressed the question of conflict. Removing the field (which was vert in the original submission) does not remove the conflict; in fact, it introduces possible conflicts with several other mundane coats. I agree with Batonvert that the original call was borderline (technically, there is less than a point; visually there may be a full point), but it was valid, and the heralds commenting on this question supported the original call.

Of greater importance, however, is the fact that the badge is recognizable as Puss in Boots. While there is precedent for badges of this sort (one of Master Ioseph's other badges is a representation of the Town Musicians of Bremen), I cannot recall any other instances, and the College of Arms has a fairly ancient tradition of disallowing strong literary and historical allusions. This badge may be construed as an infringement on the character of Puss in Boots, or as a proprietary claim thereto, either of which makes it inappropriate. Please redesign. (04/1985)

Irminsul the Improbable. Augmentation of Arms. Or, a Tau cross throughout between two billets and in chief two roundels, all within a bordure azure.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is not suitable for use as an augmentation. The design is complex and non­heraldic. Please redesign.

DISCUSSION: An augmentation is "a mark added to an existing coat of arms to commemorate some notable achievement." (An Heraldic Alphabet, p. 40) The form of the augmentation and its location on the arms must be specified. The fact that Mistress Irminsul uses this design as a maker's mark makes it even less suitable: arms may be borne with or without an augmentation, but the augmentation should not be used separately from the arms.

An augmentation ought to be suggestive of the reason it was given. Michael the Black, for example, bears the symbol of the University of Ithra, which he founded; and Robert of Dunharrow, the arms of the Exchequer of the West, which office he held for ten years.

A number of the heralds commenting on the submission perceived that it is actually made up of the submitter's initials (iTi). Letters of the alphabet may not be used in devices, and hence may also not be used in augmentations. In addition, this is a monogram, and monograms have specifically been disallowed. (WvS, 26 May 83, p. 15) [If she wishes a personal reference, Treblerose has suggested an ermine zule". A zule is an heraldic chess­rook.]. (10/1985)

Iron Dragon, Shire of. Name only.

NOTE: This conflicts with the Order of the Iron Dragon in the Principality of the Sun. (01/1985)

Isobel of Norfolk. Device. Gules, two ostrich feathers argent and a bell Or.

NOTE: This infringes upon GRIGGS, "Gules, three ostrich feathers argent." (Papworth 699). (10/1984)

Jack Alan Hartson. Name and device. Vert, on a sun Or eclipsed vert, a hart statant to sinister argent.

NOTE: A patronymic is formed from the father's given name, not his surname; the son of William Hart would be called Wilson, not Hartson. The device conflicts with PATRICK OF INNISFREE, "Vert, on a sun Or, a dexter hand appaumy couped at the wrist vert," and with KOUROST BERNARD OF THE EAST WOODS, "Sable, a sun eclipsed Or." (SCA) The sun does not appear to be consistent with SCA usage of eclipsed. (05/1985)

Jacqueline de Lyons. Device. Per chevron inverted argent and Or, a pall embattled sable between a fleur­de­lys azure, a lion rampant to sinister, and a cross paty fitchy gules within a bordure embattled sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device is too complex. Please simplify.

DISCUSSION: As a rule of thumb, the use of three or more non­identical charges in what would conventionally be considered a "group" may cause a submission to be returned as too complex. (BoE, 29 Sep 1985, p. 2) This is sometimes referred to as "slot machine heraldry". (05/1986)

Jade of Starfall. Device. Vert, on a pile wavy ermine, a double­headed eagle displayed sable, in base a compass star argent.

NOTE: A pile should extend most if not all the way to the base; properly drawn, there would not be enough room for a charge (in this case, the compass star) to fit between the pile and the base. This is also only two minor points different from PODMORE, "Vert, on a pile wavy ermine a Moor's head couped proper. " (Papworth 1024). (12/1984)

Jaeger the Knifemaker. Name and device. Sable, a winged lion sejant erect affronty, wings inverted, Or, forepaws resting on a sword inverted gules.

NOTE: Jäger (ä is anglicized as ae) is a German noun meaning 'hunter', and is not, to the best of our knowledge, a given name. The device conflicts with GAVIN KILKENNY OF KILCARREN, "Sable, a lion rampant affronty Or, maintaining in dexter forepaw a sword bendwise sinister enflamed and in sinister forepaw another inverted proper." (SCA). (02/1985)

Jael Aldis Devona. Device. Argent, a chevron between two garden roses purpure and a garden rose sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with MARLER: Argent, a chevron purpure. (Papworth 373) There is a major point of difference for the addition of a group of like secondary charges.

DISCUSSION: There are two schools of thought on this submission. One allows a major point of difference for the addition of a group of three purple roses, plus a minor point for changing the rose in base from purple to black. The other school asks, "How can one 'change' the color of something that was not there before?"

We have held previously that the addition of a modified charge (such as a roundel engrailed ermine) contributes no more difference than adding an unmodified charge (e.g. a roundel gules). This gets us away from absurdities such as the following: to "Azure, a fleur­de­lys Or" we add two bars Or and a bordure argent. We engrail the bordure, change the bars from Or to argent, and then delete the bordure. Depending on how creative you are at counting, you could get anywhere from two to five points for the addition of a pair of silver stripes. Not bad for a couple of minutes' work ...

We have also held, however, that the addition of a group of charges of different types may contribute up to a major and a minor point of difference ­ for example, "Argent, a bend gules" differs from "Argent, a bend between a sun gules and a fleur­de­lys azure" by a point and a half for the secondary charges. This is supported by Rule XIII.4, which allows a major point for the addition of a group of identical charges. (The rules are unclear on how the remainder of the group is to be treated ­ some people regard it as a second group of charges, others as "part of a group of secondary charges." [XIII.8])

There is a certain amount of justification in allowing a group of dissimilar secondary charges to contribute more than a single point of difference. They do carry more visual weight than a group of identical charges. A similar argument can be made in the present case, but the effect is nowhere near as strong. The eye is led to expect the rose in base to be the same tincture as the two in chief; it perceives (1) "three purple roses", (2) momentary confusion, (3) "oh, two purple roses and a black one." The distinction is clearer when there is a difference in type, and­clearer still when both type and tincture are changed.

CONCLUSION: While the change in tincture of the bottom charge adds some visual weight to the group, this is not sufficient to bring the device clear of the mundane conflict. The two are visually too similar. (08/25/1985)

James Galen MacGrew. Device. Gules, on a plate a wolf's head cabossed sable.

NOTE: The device conflicts with EDWIN BERSARK, "Gules, a roundel so drawn as to represent a round shield battered in long and honorable service, argent." (SCA) There is a minor point for the addition of the wolf's head (a tertiary charge). It also conflicts with BRAN MAC OENGUS, "Gules, on a plate between three death's heads argent, a raven stooping sable." (SCA) There is a point of difference for removing a group of secondary charges (the death's heads) and a minor point for change in tertiary charge. (02/1985)

Janos of Ratisbon. Device. Per pale sable and argent, a bull's head caboshed within a bordure counterchanged.

NOTE: This conflicts with OSMAN AL­KOREISH IBN KAIROS, "Per pale sable and argent, a lotus affronty within a bordure counterchanged."(SCA) Because the bordure is divided (and therefore not "simple"), the complete difference of charge rule may not be invoked. (Rules XII.5) There is therefore only a major point of difference for the type of the primary charge. This is also only a single point different from OLNEY, "Per pale sable and argent, a bull's head counterchanged. " (Papworth 912). (12/1984)

Janos von Ratisbon. Name change (from Janos of Ratisbon); appeal.

NOTE: In general, a preposition should agree in language with the noun which follows it. Von is German, and so would take the German name of the place, which is Regensburg. Ratisbon, the English name, is derived from Rathaspona or Radaspona, a Celtic village which earlier occupied the same spot, and calls for the English preposition of. Ratisbon may be an older name than Regensburg, but this does not make it German, nor does it indicate that Regensburg is out of period. Being older does not necessarily make something more period ­ in an organization whose focus is the European Middle Ages, a draft horse is far more period than an Eohippus. (05/1985)

Jason Heston. Badge for Company of the Hourglass. Per bend sinister sable and gules, on a pale argent an hourglass running vert.

NOTE: "Transparent charges are not in­period heraldry. Hourglasses were borne in solid tinctures." (WvS, 31 Oct 82, p. 13) This is also in technical conflict with PWYLL PEN TYRHON, "Sable, on a pale argent a decrescent gules." (SCA) There is one minor point for the tincture of half the field, and another for the type of charge on the pale. (01/1985)

Jason the Fletcher. Device. Vert, on a pall argent, three arrows, points outward, gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This differs only by the addition of a group of tertiary charges from FOURCADE: Vert, a pall argent. (Rietstap) (12/1985)

Jayne Gidle. Device. Per pale gules and Or, a sword within an orle of mullets of six points between two tressures, all counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: The Laurel office has held previously that a skinny object such as a sword should not be counterchanged along its long axis because of the lack of contrast. (07/1985)

Jeremea Gerber. Device. Argent, a fess between two drawknives with blades to center azure.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with BYRKIN (Papworth) and BILRIED (Rietstap), "Argent a fess azure," among others. There is a single point of difference, for adding the pair of drawknives.

DISCUSSION: The secondary charges were submitted as "tanner's knives," which drew a couple of objections. There are numerous examples of "occupational" knives in heraldry, so the term is correctly formed, but the tanner's knife is not among the ones listed in my references. I feel the charge is reasonable, however, and have blazoned it as a drawknife ­­ a generic name that may be found (usually with a picture) in many dictionaries. (10/1985)

Jocelyn de Biers. Device. Per bend argent and azure, a bear rampant sable and a mullet of eight points Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with WILHELM KARLSSON, "Per bend argent and azure, a brown bear passant bendwise proper and in saltire a double­bitted battleaxe and a hammer Or." (SCA) Visually, the only difference is in the charges in base. (04/1985)

Johan Wolfgang Falkan. Device. Or, on a pile throughout gules between two crosses paty azure, a stag's skull cabossed and attired argent pierced by a sword inverted Or.

NOTE: The device conflicts with VARGSKOL HALFBLOOD, "Or, on a pile throughout gules, a wolf's skull argent." (SCA) There is a major point for the addition of the crosses, and a minor for the difference in tertiary charges. This is also rather cluttered. (02/1985)

Johann Carl Otto Maximilian von Adlerturm. Badge. A rose gules barbed of five spear points between five crosses crosslet sable.

NOTE: This is visually too complex for a badge, even given the somewhat lax standards of SCA heraldry, and the base form (argent, a rose gules) runs into a whole raft of conflicts. Please redesign. (10/1984)

Johann Gewitter Sonderling. Device. Azure, a six­fingered hand apaumy couped at the wrist within six roundels in annulo Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with MICHAEL GYRFALCON OF ELDEN, "Azure, a white gyrfalcon's head erased proper within an orle of bezants," and KOBAYASHI YUTAKA, "Azure, a hurst of two trees couped proper within eight bezants in annulo. "(SCA) In each case, there is a major and a minor point for difference in type and tincture of the primary charge. Several of the commentators also objected to the six­fingered hand. To quote Vesper, "In some countries, at some times during our period, an extra finger was one of the outward signs of being a witch. This is one of the claims that was made against Anne Boleyn.". (12/1984)

Johann Götz Kauffman von Erfurt. Device. Per chevron inverted embattled enhanced argent and sable, in chief a double­headed eagle rising, wings displayed, gules, in base a goblet Or.

REASON: The triangular section drawn here isn't "per chevron inverted enhanced," it's halfway between chaussé and a chief triangular. Per chevron intersects the sides of the field, even if the line of partition is enhanced (raised) or abased (lowered). Please either draw the division correctly or make it a chief triangular. The bird is also in trian aspect (perspective), and needs to be redrawn in a more heraldic fashion. (08/1986)

Johann Lorinson. Device. Per chevron embattled argent and gules, in chief on a pellet five plates in cross.

NOTE: "Subordinaries such as ...roundels ... should not be charged so as to resemble an augmentation or display of secondary arms. In practice, this means: Don't charge them with ... more than one charge." (Rules IX.6) "Sable, five plates in cross" turns out to be the mon of KURIMOTO. (Mon 72). (01/1985)

Johanna of Dendermonde. Badge for Consortium Balneorum. Azure goutty d'eau, in saltire a recorder and a lute in profile Or.

NOTE: This conflicts visually with YOSEF ALARIC, "Azure, in saltire a trumpet inverted Or and a lute in profile proper." (SCA). (01/1985)

Johanna Reeves. Device. Or, a chevron between two horse's heads couped sable and a dragon segreant gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with VAN BEUSECHEM: Or, a chevron between three horse's heads sable. (Rietstap). (07/1985)

John of Lithia. Badge for Chateau Lithia. Per pale sable and gules, on a mullet Or, a fountain.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with the old­style tinctureless badge of ASTRA CHRISTIANA BENEDICT: On a mullet a cross crosslet. (SCA) There is no difference for the field (v. RICHARD OF BLACKBURY, 20 Oct 85, pp. 21­22), so the only change is the replacement of a tertiary charge. (12/1985)

John of the Pines. Device. Or, a pine tree proper and on a chief azure a cloud argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device conflicts with EADWINE BE BOCCE SELE: Or, a beech tree eradicated proper and on a chief azure a pair of gauntlets clasped Or and argent. (SCA) There is a major point of difference for the primary charge, and a minor for the tertiary. Please draw the cloud so it is more recognizable. (01/1986)

John Theophilus. Device. Azure, a cross, and on a chief argent, three hearts gules.

NOTE: This conflicts with GREECE, "Azure, a cross argent." National arms require a minimum of two major points of difference. (Not to mention the fact that the applicant has a Greek byname ...). (04/1985)

Johne O'Cuain. Device. Vert, six rustres Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with LISTON and HEWICKE, "Vert, six bezants." (Papworth 1053) There is a single point of difference, for type: complete difference does not apply when there are more than three charges. (See the discussion for EDWARD FITZRANULF, above.). (06/1985)

Jon of Harriston. Device. Or, a pegasus rampant to sinister sable within a bordure compony argent and sable.

REASON: This conflicts visually (and perhaps technically) with the badge of DAMALES REDBEARD, Or, a pegasus volant to sinister, wings elevated and addorsed, within a bordure sable. (SCA, 9 Mar 86) There is a major point of difference for the bordure, but the change in position of the pegasus is at best a weak minor point, if that much. DISCUSSION: The difficulty here is that the position of a winged beast volant is ill defined. We can recall instances of bodies courant and springing, and would doubtless find others if we searched the files. Since body position has been left to the caprice of the artist, we see no alternative but to disallow this, except in the most extreme cases, as a source of difference.

It is our recommendation that, in the future, no winged beast be blazoned as "volant." "Passant, wings elevated and addorsed" (or whatever) ­­ with a stricture to the designers to place their beasts in suitably heraldic positions to begin with ­ would avoid such ambiguities in future coats. (08/1986)

Jon Tall of Threehawks (submitted as Jontall of Threehawks). Device. Sable, two bendlets sinister argent and three falcons close affronty in bend Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with KRISTOPHER KELSON: Sable, two scarpes between as many martlets argent. (SCA) A succession of changes to the same group of secondary charges is worth at most a major and a minor point of difference. (07/1985)

Jörg Kratz. Badge. Argent, a stag's attires sable pierced of an arrow palewise proper flighted vert.

NOTE: Given the spiky nature of a stag's attires, we do not feel the arrow merits a full point of difference. This therefore conflicts with ZAKESLEY, "Argent, a hart's attire sable." (Papworth 948). (03/1985)

Juliane of Eashing. Device. Sable, a dagger inverted argent set with a gem gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with (1) ROBERT LEAVENWORTH: Sable, a dagger inverted argent beneath three sharks embowed in chevron Or (SCA); (2) UTA VON MAINZ: Sable, a sword inverted between the two halves of a broken chain fesswise abased argent (SCA); and (3) MARMION: Sable, an arming sword, the point in chief, argent. (Papworth 1103) Faceted stones are said to be out of period; is there any documentation to support the charge? (03/1986)

Justin Lymner. Device. Erminois, a dragon rampant within a bordure azure, charged with three fleurs­de­lys Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: A bordure of France (ancient or modern) may not be used in SCA heraldry. We would suggest he make the fleurs­de­lys argent, instead of Or.

DISCUSSION: The commenting heralds were divided on this question. The arguments boil down to (1) "All the instances we could find of bordures being used to show relationship to the French crown used 'France Ancient'," against (2) "If we proscribe a bordure of France Ancient, we should proscribe France Modern as well; the same issue of pretentiousness applies."

Although I dislike proscribing charges, I find myself leaning toward the second argument. The bordures are similar enough in appearance and meaning to create a problem if we allow one and not the other.

Crescent expressed the opinion at the meeting, and I agree, that France Ancient is an exceptional case. Our restriction of "Azure, semy­de­lys Or" should not be used as a basis for a general ban on other combinations (Brittany, Cornwall, etc.). The underlying principle may be the same, but I think the degree of recognizability is different, and it is this, not the principle itself, that justifies the ban on France Ancient. (10/1985)

Justinian Axon the Late. Device. Argent mullety, on a pile inverted azure, a sword inverted surmounted by two swords in saltire argent, all within a bordure counterchanged.

NOTE: We did not receive an emblazon sheet for this submission. The term modern pile is not acceptable, nor is the charge it is used to describe, and this seems a bit much for chapé. Please redesign, perhaps substituting a field divided per chevron for the wedge­shaped charge. (01/1985)

Kaj Hvalsgaard. Device. Argent, five pairs of bendlets sinister azure, overall a narwhal embowed proper. (Monodon monoceros)

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with KENNETH THE UNKNOWN: Argent, three pallets couped gules, overall a narwhal embowed proper. (SCA) The only changes are in the underlying secondaries, which are worth at most a major + a minor point of difference.

DISCUSSION: I have opted here for the blazon "five pairs of bendlets sinister" as being a little clearer than the alternative "five bendlets sinister gemels", although the latter is correct, and would be equally acceptable. (07/1986)

Kalida Ivanovna. Device. Sable, within a fireplace argent masoned sable, flames of fire proper.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with the recently-approved joint badge for the Arts and Sciences; Azure, a candle enflamed within an arch stooped argent. We could a major point for field and a minor for the "charge" within: the visual difference between a fireplace and an arch stooped is scant, and a corporate badge merits an additional degree of protection. (04/1986)

Kareia Talvi Madchen. Name and device. Azure, vetu, a long­haired domestic cat dormant argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: According to Brigantia, Kareia is the Greek name of a geographical district in Asia Minor. (The Biblical Kareah, it should be noted, was male, not female: NCE 1453.) The byname appears to be an attempt to form the epithet "winter maiden" using an undeclined Finnish noun to modify a German noun. Place names may not normally be used as given names, and we require that adjectives agree in language with the nouns they modify. (RFS VII.1, VI.2) The applicant has requested that we make no changes to her name without consulting her. The device appears acceptable, although the cat will need to be redrawn in the heraldic dormant position. (09/1985)

Karl Helweg. Device. Gules, a bull's head caboshed within a bordure wavy Or.

NOTE: This infringes on PONS DE CELLES, "Gules, a bull's head cabossed Or.". (03/1985)

Karl Helwig. Badge for House Golden Hawks. Azure, a sword argent hilted gules, overall a hawk perched, wings elevated and addorsed, within a bordure Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is identical to US FIRST AVIATION BRIGADE: Azure, a sword palewise argent hilted gules surmounted by an eagle Or, wings elevated and addorsed, in the attitude of alighting on the quillons, all within a bordure Or. (MilOrd #1243) (05/1986)

Karl von Alpenwald. Device. Per chevron azure and Or semy of fir trees vert, in chief a dragon courant, wings addorsed, Or.

NOTE: This conflicts visually with AMBER OF DRAGONHYRST, "Per chevron azure, a dragon volant to sinister Or, and argent, three oak trees couped vert." (SCA). (03/1985)

Karl von Süssen. Device. Vert, a stork passant, wings elevated and addorsed, argent, beaked, membered and bearing in its beak a fish Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with RICHARD DE TENEBRES: Vert, a stork passant argent, in base a sword fesswise Or. (SCA) We see less than a full point of difference for all the changes in the stork. (03/1986)

Katerina de Montfort. Device. Per bend sinister purpure and vert, on a plate a carrack with sails furled proper.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with the devices of ANNE OF THE GOLDEN MANTLE, "Vert, on a plate a swan naiant couped on the fess line sable", and SUMER REDMAENE, "Purpure, on a plate a rose gules seeded Or". (06/1986)

Kateryne the Healer of Hindscroft. Name and device. Azure, fretty argent, a violet purpure seeded Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: The lady is entitled to be styled "the Healer" (she is an M.D., which fact should have been noted in the LoI), but "the Healer of Hindscroft" is considered, by College of Arms standards, to be a title. (Cf. JASON OF ROSARIA; WvS, 14 Oct 82, p. 1) "Kateryne of Hindscroft, the Healer" would be acceptable.

Even with the fretting enlarged, as has been done in the emblazon, the purple flower does not have enough contrast against the blue part of the field. Please choose another color. (03/1986)

Katharine of the Mountains. Device. Vert, a long cross throughout Or, overall a Catherine's wheel counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with ADAMS, "Vert, a cross Or." (Papworth 621) There is single point of difference for the addition of the wheel; the change from cross to long cross is heraldically insignificant. It also conflicts visually with PADRAIGHCINE OHURTHILE, "Vert, on a cross nowy Or a shamrock vert." (SCA) The effect is of replacing one complex roundel with another. This is probably worth more than a major point, but it is less than the required two points. (06/1985)

Kathleen of the Golden Fingers. Device (appeal). Vert, on a bend sinister argent cotised Or three lumbar vertebrae sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: The lumbar vertebra is not a recognizable charge.

DISCUSSION: A quick check of several major references (Parker, Woodward, Papworth, Shield and Crest, An Heraldic Alphabet, and A Complete Guide to Heraldry) turned up instances of the following: the generic "long bone" (shank­bone, shinbone, thigh­bone, leg­bone), the skull (death's head), the jaw­bone (lower jaw), the human skeleton, and the "fanged tooth." This does not prove that the use of other bones is not heraldic or is out of period [in heraldry], but it does strongly suggest that heraldic usage is confined to these specific areas; and nothing the submitter has provided disproves this conclusion.

As I noted in my discussion on Lourana Moonwind (20 Oct 85, p. 2), period art is not necessarily a valid source for heraldic motifs. In the example provided by the submitter (a fragment of a polyptych with scenes from St. John the Baptist), the lumbar vertebra is part of a severed neck: it is identifiable by the context within which it is found. The same is true of vertebrae shown in human skeletons.

Heraldry is a system of recognizable symbols used for purposes of identification. Even in canting (which tends to use obscure names for symbols, rather than obscure symbols), the symbolic and artistic content is secondary to the recognizability of the bearings. If the charges cannot be identified, neither can the bearer.

I am reminded of a lovely quotation from an early set of College of Arms minutes:

If Her current Majesty complains about our heraldry, and offers to design her own, let us say to her, "Your Majesty, you are a creative artist, an expressive artist, and heraldry is a branch of mechanical drawing." (HB, 15 Feb 70, p. 7; in Prec I:58)

We would suggest she consider a whole skeleton; or perhaps a head and body. (11/1985)

Kathryn Blackhart. Device change. Or, a hart's head erased within a bordure embattled sable.

REASON: Conflict with HOLTZBERGER, Or a hart's head erased sable. (Rietstap). (08/1986)

Kathryn of Iveragh. Badge for the House of the Fervent Kip (#2). Or, a passion nail gules within a bordure rayonny azure.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts visually with WENDRYN TOWNSEND (Azure, a sun in glory Or), among others. (When rendered on a roundel, as is normal for a badge, the bordure rayonny turns this into "Azure, on a sun Or a passion nail gules.") She might want to consider another kind of bordure.

DISCUSSION: The designation "House of the Fervent Kip" was registered in March 1978. (10/1985)

Kathryn of Iveragh. Device (reblazon). Per bend sinister wavy sable and gules, in dexter chief three passion nails inverted bendwise in bend sinister gules enflamed Or and as an augmentation in sinister base an inescutcheon of azure, a demi­sun issuant from base Or within a bordure argent.

NOTE: The emblazon in the files clearly shows a face on the demi­sun, which makes it a sun in glory. If Baroness Kathryn wishes to alter this, we will need a new drawing. (11/1984)

Katinka Redbook. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: According to Lady Adelaide, the only diminutive of Ekaterina that stands by itself is Katya. We would suggest.she use either Katya or the full form of the name. (01/1986)

Kawagi Ishiyama Sazanami Shirosuna. Device/mon. Argent, in pale a cottonwood leaf and a Japanese stream sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: The stream shown in the device, although consistent with Japanese design (the submitter provided a considerable amount of documentation), does not appear to be one of the shapes used in mon; nor does its position appear to be consistent with the principles of Japanese heraldry. What is shown here appears to be a landscape. Please rework this in a more conventional, stylized fashion.

DISCUSSION: This submission does not conflict with any of the citations offered by Monsho. All five of the mon pictured are light on dark, while the one under consideration is dark on light. RFS IX.10 states that this is worth a major point of difference. In each case, there is also a change in type of one of the two major charges; and one of the mon (Yura and Yokose) has acquired an additional charge. I count at least two points in each case, which is sufficient even between SCA coats.

Against O'CONNER ("Argent, an oak tree vert"), there is a minor point for tincture [IX.10] and a full point for the addition of a major charge, which is sufficient between SCA and mundane. (12/1985)

Keara Calder. Device. Vert, a bend sinister between an Irish harp and a lymphad argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with TAV­ALANDIL: Vert, a bend sinister argent between a hawk close and a lightning bolt both Or. (SCA) A single group of secondary charges can contribute at most a major and a minor point of difference. (07/1986)

Keradawc an Cai. Device chance. Sable, a pheon inverted within three scimitars in annulo argent.

NOTE: This infringes on AVERENCK, "Sable, a pheon [point in chief] argent." (Rietstap) According to Virgule, "Rietstap is in the habit of specifying 'point in base' when that is meant." Lord Wilihelm checked the emblazon in Rolland's Illustrations to the Armorial Général (volume I, plate XCII1) and confirmed Baron Alfgar's supposition. (03/1985)

Keri Dietrichsdottir of Roosebeck. Device. Argent, two bendlets engrailed in chief and invected in base azure, overall a garden rosebud bendwise sinister Or slipped and leaved vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: The gold blossom is not visible against the argent field. Please use another color. (03/1986)

Keridwen o'r Mynydd Gwyrdd. Badge. Vert, a Hungerford knot, pendant there­from two hawk's bells argent.

NOTE: According to Rule IX.10, this differs by only a minor point (for tincture) from the mon of FUSE, "Sable, an agemaki argent. " (Mon 62) (The visual similarity between the charges is striking.). (12/1984)

Kevin O'Connal. Device. Gyronny of eight sable and argent, a mullet of three greater and three lesser points inverted counterchanged, an orle Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: We find this design visually confusing. The identity of the charge in the center is not at all clear. We would suggest using a solid mullet. (03/1986)

Kevin of Shadowdale. Device. Per chevron vert and argent, two towers argent and a portcullis chained sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with the SHIRE OF VIELBURGEN: Per chevron vert and argent, two towers argent and an imperial eagle sable environed of a laurel wreath vert. (SCA) I count a major point of difference for changing the eagle to a portcullis, and a minor for removing the laurel wreath. The only changes are to the charges in base. (08/10/1985)

Kevin O'Fiodhabhra. Badge. A furison Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: "Unfortunately, a furison Or is one of the badges of the Order of the Golden Fleece (Toison d'Or): it is used in the collar of the Order, or is shown independently, sometimes striking sparks or supporting the red ragged staffs of Burgundy. (See Carl von Volborth's Little Manual of Heraldry, p. 77, or his Heraldry: Customs, Rules and Styles, figs. 323 and 1207.)" [BDOM] Virgule has also noted VAN ETERSHEM: Sable, a furison Or. (Rietstap) A change to argent would conflict with SPRECHER: Azure, a furison argent. He says that anything else should be all right. (06/1986)

Kevin O'Fiodhabhra. Badge. An hourglass Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: Since there is no field, this conflicts with MARCELIS: Gules, an hourglass Or. (Rietstap) (10/1985)

Khalil el­Hadji. Device. Or, three piles wavy in point inverted throughout gules.

NOTE: This conflicts with COBHAM, "Or, three piles wavy gules." (Papworth 1028) There is a single point of difference, for the position of the piles. (02/1985)

Kief af Kiersted. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: Kief appears to be a place name, not a given name. (Please note that the submitter's source is an etymological dictionary of family names.)

DISCUSSION: Of the suggested variants listed in Star's subsequent letter of comment, I cannot find Cif, Cifing, or Kiefer in Searle's Onomasticon Anglo Saxonicum; and according to MacLysaght's Irish Family Names (pp. 176­177), Keogh is from Mac Eochaidh, which means that the initial "K" sound is the result of carrying over the consonant at the end of the patronymic particle. (Patrick Woulfe talks about this phenomenon in ' Irish Names and Surnames, p. 31. I believe I quoted the passage in a ruling a few months ago.) (11/1985)

Klee St. Cristoph Aelfwine. Name only.

NOTE: We are familiar with Klee as a surname only (Paul Klee, 1879­1940, Swiss painter: NCE 1487). Is there any documentation for the statement that it is a Dutch variant of Nicklaus?. (04/1985)

Knut the Inflammable. Badge. Or, a reindeer displayed gardant proper, and in base a fig leaf vert all within a bordure sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: The "reindeer" shown in the emblazon is a product of Hallmark Cards, Inc., and (as a glance at the tag will demonstrate) Hallmark considers it to be protected by copyright. The design as a whole is questionable, and not in particularly good taste. Please redesign.

DISCUSSION: A similar instance of a recognizable commercial product arose at the Great Conclave in 1979, when two or three people submitted identical coats depicting a piece of jewelry that was popular at the time. Mistress Karina ruled, "We all recognize that beautiful piece of jewelry; there are people making a living out of selling reproductions of it; in some senses it is copyright and in others it is in the public domain, and you cannot register it." I feel the same principle of inappropriateness (even without respect to the question of copyright) applies in the present instance.

It should also be noted that there is an heraldic reindeer, distinguished from the stag "by double attires, one pair erect, the other pendent." (Parker 196)

Several of the commenting heralds objected to the term displayed being applied to a quadruped. Unfortunately, there is specific precedent for this. In July of 1980, Master Wilhelm ruled that, "Since the references disagree and we have used displayed in the past in the SCA, I have decided to continue the use of the term for all animals. By default an animal displayed is affronty with all limbs extended radially outwards, with the head turned to dexter." (This was the famous case of "the seven vert ewes displayed.") I am willing to reconsider this ruling, but given its nature, I feel this is something that should be subject to both research and comment by the College. (10/1985)

Krysta of Starfall. Badge. Purpure, a scourge of three lashes ermine.

REASON: In light of past rulings barring (1) skinny charges counterchanged along the long axis, (2) vair cotises, and (3) ermine fimbriation, we feel that the handle and lashes of a scourge are too thin to display the characteristics of any of the heraldic furs. (The same is true, by analogy, of such a charge semy, fretty, etc.) If the intention really is to have a "fur­lined whip", might I suggest a more subtle pun: try making it sable.

DISCUSSION: The scourge is a documented heraldic charge, representing "the whip (by which name it may be blazoned) whereby certain saints and martyrs suffered, and which was self­inflicted by the flagellants." (Franklyn & Tanner, p. 295) As such, it is a religious implement, and may be found in the arms of Croyland Abbey. (Parker 345, s.v. knife) It may also be thought of as a farm implement (Shield and Crest, p. 213), and was the symbol of official rank in the Assyrian army. (Stone 545) It is my considered opinion that, in the absence of some additional allusion to reinforce its role as an instrument of slavery or torture (or a B&D symbol), the scourge or whip is an acceptable charge. (08/1986)

Krysta of Starfall. Change of device. Purpure, on a pile wavy ermine, a sword inverted gules, in base a mullet of six points argent.

NOTE: A pile should extend most or all the way to base; properly drawn, there would not be enough room for a charge (in this case, the mullet) to fit between the pile and the base. (01/1985)

Kuromori Kiriko. Device/mon. Sable, in annulo a Bengal tiger passant and in chief a pheasant volant to sinister argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: According to the comments made on this submission, this design is not consistent with the principles of Japanese mon (although it is quite appropriate for a piece of silk embroidery); and the design and the positions of the charges are not consistent with European heraldry, either. As with the preceding submission, this is basically a picture or "landscape." Please find a more heraldic way of representing the charges. (12/1985)

Kylan Javan McRoy. Device. Or, an axe palewise and another inverted reversed sable between two flaunches azure, each charged with a unicorn's head couped respectant argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with LOTHAR OF ROTHENBORG, "Or, a sword fracted sable hilted gules, between two flaunches azure." (SCA). (10/1984)

Lambert de Sur. Device. Azure, on a fess cotised Or, a fess gules, and in chief four crosses paty Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with WALTER OF THE WATCH: Azure, on a fess cotised Or, a tilting spear, point to sinister, vert. (SCA) There is a major point of difference for the addition of the crosses, and two minors for change in type and tincture of the charge on the fess (a "bar" vs. a "tilting spear").

DISCUSSION: This strikes me as unreasonable, but I have been unable to formulate a simple, logical, and uniformly applicable basis for an exception. The argument revolves around allowing more difference for the charge on the fess. Were there no ancillary charges, then a case could be made for treating the charge on the fess as a secondary (as it is in Walter's device); but this can be argued either way. (12/1985)

Lambert de Sur. Device. Barry of ten azure and Or, on a bend gules a comet argent.

NOTE: This infringes upon ELY, "Barry of ten azure and argent, a bend gules," and GAUNT, "Barry of eight Or and azure, a bend gules," among others. (Papworth 188) In the first case, there is a minor point for difference in tincture of half the field, and a second minor for the addition of the tertiary charge. In the second case, there is a minor for the tertiary and at best another minor for the changes to the field. (The difference in number of partitions is by definition negligible.). (11/1984)

Laurelyn FitzGalen of Longwood. Name and device. Vert, a seahorse erect, tail sufflexed, argent, ridden by a blond caucasian woman proper, vested argent, maintaining in her sinister hand a spear palewise proper.

NOTE: Laurelin is the younger of the Two Trees of Valinor, and is no longer an acceptable Society name. Of the two instances on record, LAURELLYN OF ISSTARR was approved prior to the publication of The Silmarillion, and LAURELYN DARKSBANE was passed as a hardship case. The device conflicts with ROWAN OF WINDTREE TOWER, "Per saltire sable and vert, a seahorse erect argent." (SCA) There is a minor point for the field; the addition of the rider and the change in position of the tail do not make up the difference. The design is also redolent of fantasy art, and is only marginally heraldic. (12/1984)

Leonie de Civronnay. Device. Per fess vert and Or, a mockingbird displayed perched upon a branch of ocotillo fesswise in flower, all proper. (Mimus polyglottis, Fouguieria splendeus Engelm.)

NOTE: By current standards, this constitutes excessive use of proper, and the contrast between the black­and­gray wings of the bird and the green field is poor. It also conflicts with BRAN OF CORNWALL, "Vair, a raven displayed sable." (SCA) There is a major point of difference for the field, but less than a point for the type and coloration of the bird and the addition of the branch. (02/1985)

Lester Westrodwin. Device. Vert, a pall Or semy of pommes, in chief three chevronels couped and braced Or.

NOTE: The chevronels in chief are not recognizable. Please use some other charge. (02/1985)

Liam Oge of Cocraig. Device. Azure, on a heart argent a "heart trefflé of one inverted in chief" gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with ANN GERTRUDE LEONHARDT: Azure, on a heart argent a lion rampant azure. (SCA) There are two minor points of difference, for changing the type and tincture of a tertiary charge.

DISCUSSION: The charge is period and appears to be legitimate, but we do not know its name. The College found the submitted blazon confusing, and no one was able to suggest a replacement. We suspect the charge may not be a heart at all, although that is certainly what the shape suggests. Perhaps one of the Continental armorials would yield a blazon for RIBBING (Sweden, 1295) or HANS ADO VON SEEBACH (no date). (11/1985)

Ljudmilla von Königsberg. Device. Per bend purpure and argent, a dove volant and a "saltorel flory conjoined with four crescents millsailwise" counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: The charge in base is lovely, but it is not found in any standard references, and the blazons we have been able to devise for it are either inadequate or confusing. She might consider replacing it with a Cross of Calatrava set saltirewise, or a saltorel fleury conjoined with four crescents facing inward.

In redesigning, watch out for KATHLEEN CUILEANN: Per bend azure and argent, in bend sinister a dove volant fesswise argent and a rose gules, barbed and seeded proper within a chaplet graminy of cornflowers and marigolds proper. (SCA) There is a minor point for the change in tincture of half the field, but we are not convinced the changes to the complex charge in base merit a full point and a half.

DISCUSSION: The College of Arms has created a number of ad hoc charges in the past (e.g., the Donnelly Knot and the Cross of Coldharbour), but this practice has for the most part been abandoned. Creating non­descriptive names for new charges only serves to confuse future generations of heralds and scribes. (12/1985)

Llawddu yr Anghymeradwy. Name change (from Erold of Lithostone, called Blackhand).

REASON FOR RETURN: According to Batonvert, llawddu (llaw 'hand' + du 'black') would make a fine byname, but it is no more a given name in Welsh Eh­an Blackhand is in English. I'm sorry, but even in Cymric, the name is still anghymeradwy 'unacceptable'. (08/25/1985)

Lleu ap Macsen. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: The only instance of Lleu of which we are aware is the demigod Lleu (or Llew) Llaw Gyffes, whom Charles Squire equates with the Gaelic sungod Lugh Lamhfada. I have disallowed it previously in the case of LLEW[ELYN] GOF. (November 1984) We will need to see some documentation demonstrating use of the name by humans. (08/25/1985)

Llewellyn o'r Glyn. Badge. In bend two battle axes bendwise sinister argent hafted Or, the one in base inverted, the blade of each overlying the haft of the other.

REASON FOR RETURN: See comment on the device, above. (07/1986)

Llewellyn o'r Glyn. Device. Per pale gules and sable, in bend two battle axes bendwise sinister argent hafted Or, the one in base inverted, the blade of each overlying the haft of the other, and in base a crescent Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is axequisitely drawn (sorry), but the blazon is tortuous, and I find the combination difficult to recognize. Please revise this so the axes do not overlap each other in this fashion; they deserve to be seen by all. (07/1986)

Lochac, Region of. Crux Herald (name only).

NOTE: They will need to add an adjective to render this title sufficiently different from that of the Rouge Croix Pursuivant. (12/1984)

Lochac, Region of. Order of the Silver Lilies (name only)

REASON FOR RETURN: Withdrawn at the request of the Principal Herald. (01/1986)

Lochac, Region of. Title for Centaurus Rouge Pursuivant.

REASON FOR RETURN: The title conflicts with that of the Centaur Pursuivant, in Atenveldt. You might try writing Mistress Marta for permission; I do not believe the latter title is in use any more.

NOTE: Silver Trumpet raised a question about the mixing of languages in the title, noting that "Rouge Dragon is one language, being Norman French for 'red dragon'," and suggesting Centaurus Rufus or Centaurus Ruber as an alternative. I don't believe there's a problem ­ I've seen examples of Latin being rather strangely assimilated into a number of languages ­ but I'm not a latinist, and don't claim to know how this works. Perhaps someone more knowledgeable can comment on the resubmission. (05/1986)

Lodevicus von Furstenwald. Device. Azure, on a chevron Or between three unicorns rampant argent, two swords, points to center, gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with DEGOLLE: Azure, on a chevron Or between three unicorns argent, three crosses azure illuminated gules. (Rietstap) There is a minor point for the addition of the tertiary charges. Note also the MARQUIS D'HAUTECOURT: Azure, a chevron Or between two unicorns salient respectant and a unicorn salient argent. (Rietstap) I count a minor point for position of the unicorns (salient is almost indistinguishable from rampant, and only one of the group is contourné) in addition to the minor for the tertiaries. (06/1986)

Logos von Schnecke. (name and device). Sable, a partisan bendwise argent surmounted by a snail shell to sinister Or.

NOTE: I was unable to find portisan in either the OED or Stone's Glossary: I assume this was a mistake for partisan. Logos is the Greek word for 'word', and does not appear to have been used as a given name. Schnecke is the German word for 'snail', not a place name; 'of the snail' would be von der Schnecke. The device appears acceptable. (09/1984)

Lon Warbeck MacMurray. Name and device. Argent, three piles in point sable and in base three mullets (2 and 1) pierced sable, on a chief invected azure, a Lockhaber axe fesswise reversed blade in chief argent.

REASON: As nearly as we can determine, Lon is a modern nickname for Alonzo or Lawrence. Batonvert has suggested Lonan (from Lon "blackbird") as the name of eight Irish saints. It is substantially the same as the submitted name, and it has the advantage of being consistent with the surname (MacMurray), which Alonzo, being Spanish, is not. I would suggest this instead.

Piles should extend most if not all the way to the base; properly drawn, there would not be enough room for a charge to fit between them and the base. If he can manage this without running into any conflicts, I would suggest removing the mullets, or perhaps placing them on the chief instead of the axe. DISCUSSION: The contrast between the chief and the piles is poor. It severely undercuts the line of partition; enough so that I would question how much difference the latter contributes, if any. It does meet our standard, however, and as I have discussed previously (22 Feb 86, pp. 3­4), that standard is fairly sound.

A case could be made for allowing the chief to be Or (unlike one pile, which may be fairly narrow, three piles must needs fill most of the chief), although this would not necessarily be an improvement. This suggests that a chief plus three piles is not an inherently "good" arrangement ­ meaning, it is difficult to devise a coat along these lines in which the charges remain distinct. This doesn't mean that the arrangement is "bad", simply that it is not...optimal; the best one could probably do would be to use a high­contrast color pair, such as red/black.

None of this is intended, by the way, as a criticism of the submission (except in the most literal meaning of the word). The question was brought up in the comments, and I'm feeling voluble ... (08/1986)

Lorene of Lircadia. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: 'Lorene appears to be modern. Dunkling and Gosling say it is a variant of Laureen, a "diminutive of Laura in use since the 1940s." (p. 243) She might want to consider one of the many period forms of Laura: Withycombe (p. 191) gives Laurencia, Lauretta, Laura, Lora, Loretta, and Lore; and Dunkling and Gosling add Lauricia, Laurina, and Laurentia from classical times. (10/1985)

Lorenzo Fabbrodino di Firerize. Badge. Per fess argent and barry wavy azure and Or, a mill gules and an armored leg embowed couped at the thigh argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is a landscape, and it is too complex for a badge. Please simplify. (01/1986)

Luciana di Ridolfi. Name change (to Luciana della Ridolfi) and device. Per bend sinister fleury counterfleury Or and gules.

NOTE: The examples cited by the applicant appear to be surnames of place: della Casa 'of the house', della Fonte 'of the spring', della Rovere 'of the oak', etc. (The preceding glosses were produced with the aid of my paperback Italian dictionary, and are not to be regarded as authoritative.) According to Brigantia, Ridolfi as a component of a surname is almost certainly patronymic in origin, so the preposition della is not grammatically correct. She suggests Luciana della Casa Ridolfi or Luciana Ridolfi as possible variants.

The device conflicts with SCHELCK, "Per bend sinister Or and gules." (Rietstap). (03/1985)

Lyn of Whitewolfe. Device. Gules, a pile wavy issuant from dexter base between in bend two roundels argent, each charged with a rose gules, barbed and seeded proper.

NOTE: The device conflicts with CUILLEAN LODBROG HOUNDSTOOTH, "Per bend sinister sable and gules, a bend sinister argent between two roses counterchanged, barbed, seeded, and fimbriated argent." (SCA) There is a major point of difference for replacing the ordinary, and a minor point for the tincture of half the field, but the changes in the secondary charges do not have enough visual weight to bring this up to two full points. (04/1985)

Lynnette of Lyonesse. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: The name infringes on that of Lynette, the sister of Lyonesse, lady of the Castle Perilous in Malory's "The Tale of Sir Gareth of Orkney That Was Called Bewmaynes":

"And thus sir Gareth of Orkeney was a noble knyght, that wedded dame Lyonesse of the Castell Parelus. And also sir Gaheris wedded her sistir, dame Lyonette, that was called the damesell Saveaige." (Thomas Malory. Works, page 226. Edited by Eugene Vinaver. Oxford University Press, second edition 1974.). (07/1985)

Madeleine Aurore des Mille Roses. Device. Azure, on a bend sinister between a castle triple­towered and a pitcher argent three pink garden roses, slipped and leaved proper. (Rosa ruca)

NOTE: This is in technical conflict with GWENDWYN THE SILENT, "Azure, a bend sinister between a winged unicorn counter­salient and a bat­winged manticore couchant argent." (SCA). (12/1984)

Magen of the Golden Unicorn. Device. Purpure, a wolf's head erased to sinister argent, and on a chief Or three compass stars gules.

NOTE: This conflicts with REATHA CARMINOUI, "Purpure, a mermaid in her vanity argent and on a chief Or three lions rampant guardant gules.". (11/1984)

Maili Donnel MacGregor. Azure, a chevron between two roses and a pegasus couchant to sinister, wings elevated and addorsed, argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with BEORN COLLENFERTH, "Azure, a chevron between a harp, an axe reversed and a sabre­toothed tiger statant argent" (SCA), and with PRENTISSE, "Azure, a chevron between three roses argent." (Papworth 423). (08/24/1984)

Mairghread Raoghnailt MhicRath ni Labhruinn. Device. Gyronny of four from dexter chief azure and argent, in dexter a Latin cross conjoined with a saltire couped gules charged with a sprig of fir club moss argent, a bordure sable.

NOTE: There are a number of problems with this device, each fairly small if considered by itself; but taken together, they go far enough outside the bounds of both mundane and SCA heraldry to make this unacceptable.

The chief difficulty is the charge on the cross. I do not know if the problem lies with the emblazon or the choice of the charge itself, but the fir club moss is completely unrecognizable. The two club mosses shown in the Fieldbook of Natural History, Shining Club Moss (Lycopodium lucid-ulum) and Common Club Moss (L. clavatum), are visually dissimilar. The former looks kind of like a fuzzy, droopy pall, and is not, in my opinion, a suitable heraldic charge. The latter at least looks like a plant, so it's obviously a sprig of something ­ not "good" heraldry, but it's probably within the confines of SCA practice. I don't know how either of these compares with fir club moss. The other problems are the unusual cross, its off­center placement, and the non­standard field division.

At the least, I would suggest moving the cross into the center of the field and enlarging it to take advantage of the available space. This should make it possible to draw a recognizable sprig. The design could be improved further by picking a recognizable variety of cross, and by replacing the sprig with something more common. (04/1985)

Mairi Morag MacLeoid of Loch na­h­Iolaire. Device. Sable, a tower argent enflamed to chief gules between two swords palewise in fess argent within a bordure argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: The red flames on the black field violate the Rule of Tincture. We would suggest "proper" flames, which are represented as red, outlined with Bold, when on a colored background. (05/1986)

Maksymiliana Agata Michalska. Device. Or, three bendlets enhanced sable, in base a serpent nowed vert.

NOTE: This infringes upon the arms of AMBROSINE DARCY, "Or, three bendlets enhanced sable and in dexter base a cross crosslet fitchy gules." (SCA). (10/1984)

Malachi Delacot. Device (appeal). Per bend sinister gules and sable, four lozenges conjoined in cross Or.

NOTE: Appeal denied. This still conflicts with IAN BRUCE MACCRAE, "Gyronny azure and gules, a key cross Or. " (SCA) The key cross in Ian's arms is only a minor point different from a cross of four lozenges. (see drawing). (12/1984)

Malcolm of Hibernia. (device). Vert, a falcon's head erased Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with US 39TH INFANTRY REGIMENT, "A falcon's head erased Or holding in the bill an ivy leaf vert." (Military Ordinary #788)

Mara of the Crystal Sword. Device. Vert, a chevron ermine between three horse's heads couped argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with JOBBER, "Vert, a chevron ermine. "(Papworth 377) The addition of a group of identical secondary charges is only one point of difference. It is also too close to BERINDON, "Vert, a chevron ermine between three griffin's heads erased argent" (Papworth 449) and several others. (12/1984)

Marc du Chaineau. Name change (from Marc of Esfenn).

NOTE: This name was returned in November 1984 under Rule VII.3, which states, "A member's Society name may not be identical to his/her mundane name." (The submitter's mundane name is Mark Duchaineau.) Vesper has appealed this decision, saying, "His SCA name uses the French rather than the English form of Mark, and returns to an earlier spelling of the surname. We feel that this is sufficiently different, since all that is required is 'not identical'. (Would Maire O Fiodhabbra be considered to be the same name as Mary O'Furey? This is the same sort of change.)".

The question boils down to, what constitutes "identity?" The standard I applied in judging the original submission was: Has there been a significant change in spelling or pronunciation? In this case, the answer was no.

In my March 2nd cover letter, I proposed dropping Rule VII.3 altogether, on the theory that we were attempting to legislate something that was basically a matter of personal taste. The responses I have received so far (from non­heralds as well as heralds) have supported the rule. The operative principle is the need to distance the mundane individual from his or her persona, and is thought by some to be almost as fundamental as the need to wear suitable garb.

If our intention is to create a rule for the sake of form only ­ one that imposes no actual restrictions ­ then the criterion proposed by Vesper ("not strictly identical") is sufficient. If we intend to enforce the "spirit of the law," then we ought to require a stronger degree of difference. Both points of view are valid.

The comments on this submission were more or less evenly divided. In light of the responses I have received to my proposal to drop Rule VII.3, and given the underlying reason that has been advanced, I believe we need to require slightly more than a simple difference in form. I am there-fore advancing the standard mentioned above (significant change in spelling or pronunciation) as a working definition. The minimum change (the one regarded as a loophole by liberals and conservatives alike) is probably the addition or removal of a single syllable (e.g., John Smith to John the Smith). A change between de and du (assuming the result is grammatically correct) would also be sufficient. Any comments?. (04/1985)

Marco Massimi. Device. Vert, between the horns of a decrescent argent three bezants in pale.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with the flag of SUDAN: Vert, between the horns of a decrescent, three mullets argent. The Rules for Submissions (X.3) require at least two points of difference from the flags of territorial entities, and I cannot see allowing two full points for changing a single group of secondary charges. (07/1985)

Marian Greenleaf. Device. Or, a point "flory counter flory" vert.

NOTE: It is my judgement that this line of division is too complex for use in SCA heraldry. (10/1984)

Marija Villen Oughten. Name and device. Argent, three hearts bendwise in bend purpure.

NOTE: Villen Oughten does not appear to be Welsh. Would it be possible to obtain photocopies of the documentation cited? The applicant has asked that we make no changes to her name without consulting her. The device appears acceptable. (05/1985)

Mark of Hole Sand. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: We never received an information sheet for this submission. (09/1985)

Martha Armorel McDonnald de Alvorada. Device. Vert, a lymphad in full sail between two demi­suns issuant from chief and from base argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with AEMELYE OCTAVIA, "Vert, a drakkar in full sail argent, targeted gules, and in base a crescent Or." (SCA) There is a major plus a minor point for difference in type, number, and tincture of the secondary charges, but we do not feel the changes in the ship are sufficient to raise this to two major points. This is also extremely close to MACKINDER, "Vert, a lymphad sails furled oars in action argent flags gules." (Papworth 1089). (02/1985)

Maureen Fionn Lochlannach (submitted as Maureen Fionn Lochlainneach). Device. Gyronny arrondi counter­ermine and azure, an iceberg argent.

NOTE: Most of the heralds commenting on this submission found the "iceberg" unrecognizable. An heraldic iceberg would probably be a mountain couped argent, with only the part above the waterline showing. (It was also pointed out that 90% of an iceberg is underwater, although I imagine this bit of knowledge is modern.) Please choose a more recognizable charge. (04/1985)

May Fayberry of Elphinstone. Device. Gules ermined argent, a pale sable, and overall a winged unicorn passant Or and in base a crescent argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: Although sable on "gules, ermined argent" is permitted by the Rules [IX.5), the contrast is poor, and the overall charges obscure the charge in A" question (the pale) even further. RFS IX.5 explicitly states that "The basic requirement in all cases is that there be sufficient contrast for clear visibility," and the pale is not clearly visible.

In addition, the charge in base is not an heraldic crescent, and the arrangement of the overall charges is such as to suggest a "rocking­unicorn." I do not know if rocking­horses are period. If they are, then it seems to me that a rocking­unicorn would make an acceptable charge; but it should be submitted as such, not constructed of heraldic odds and ends. Please redesign. (03/1986)

Megan Douglas. Device. Per bend azure and argent, a serpent glissant bendwise gules between a breadloaf Or and a domestic cat dormant sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: There are several style problems with this submission. (1) The serpent, which is by its nature a skinny object, obscures and is obscured by the line of division, making both difficult to recognize. (2) The conventional heraldic representation of bread is as a round cake, or manchet, usually borne on a baker's el. (Parker 450) The charge depicted in the emblazon is essentially a naturalistic representation, and is difficult to identify. (3) The use of three unlike and unrelated charges is poor practice. Please redesign.

DISCUSSION: A couple of the commenters asked if bread was ever baked in a pan in period. I don't know about rectangular pans, but my lady wife found a reference to circular bread molds used in both Rome and Pompeii in pre­medieval times. (Alexis Soyer, The Pantropheon, p. 38 and Pl. 7) (08/25/1985)

Melinda Angelanne von Hohen Kester. Name change (from Melinda Angelanne von Hohen Staffen).

REASON: Hohen staffen is a compound placename ("hohen" means "high"; my paperback Langenscheidt's doesn't give "staffen"). Kester is a pet form of the given name Christopher. (Withycombe 65­66) The combination of the two is not correct. We would suggest she drop the von Hohen­Staffen altogether, or replace it with Kester. (08/1986)

Melinda of the Silent Rose. Badge. A rose gules charged with three stalks of wheat as in a garb Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with the badge of Lancaster and with ROSENBERG: Argent, a rose gules seeded Or. (WoodOrd 74) (10/1985)

Meredith of Gwenedd. Name and device. Azure, a winged lion dormant within a bordure argent crusily moline azure.

NOTE: The place­name is spelled Gwynedd; according to Batonvert, this is grammatically significant. The submitter has asked that we not make any spelling corrections. The device conflicts with MAURFZNHA­IVRIAH, "Azure, an Assyrian gryphon couchant, gazing to chief, wings displayed, argent." (SCA) There is a strong minor point for the visual difference in appearance of the beasts, but the bordure is worth only one point (see EMMERICH OF VAKKERFJELL, below), which is not enough. (12/1984)

Merewyn de Courcy of Tavistock. (device). Argent, on a roundel vert a unicornate lion's head in sinister base erased, its horn environed of six mullets of six points in annulo, Or. (09/1984)

NOTE: The design, although pretty, is not heraldic. A circle of stars may surround an entire charge or group of charges, but stars surrounding only part of a charge is fantasy art. The off­center head is also not correct. Please redesign. (09/1984)

Merewyn della Fiore. Name and device. Per pale Or and sable, three lilies, stems conjoined, and in base two elm leaves, stems in saltire, counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: Quoth Brigantia, fiore is a masculine noun; thus 'of the flower' would be del Fiore, and 'of the flowers' would be degli Fiori. The applicant has asked that we make no changes in her name without consulting her. The device appears acceptable. (10/1985)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Badge for the Ninth Company of Meridian Archers. Per pale sable and argent, three mullets in pale and nine arrows fesswise points to sinister, all counterchanged.

NOTE: The badge appears to be two impaled coats, which is not allowed. (Rules IX.9) Nine arrows is too many to count (more than six of anything is semy), and the design is not such that it can be clearly blazoned without counting them. Please simplify. (04/1985)

Meyer Wolfram of the Black Forest. Name and device. Quarterly sable and ermine, two double­bitted battle­axes in saltire counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: Meyer is a surname. Please provide documentation for its use as a given name. The device conflicts with SKON: Quarterly gules and ermine, two axes in saltire counterchanged. (07/1986)

Michael Brithmar. Device. Per pale sable and gules, a wolf rampant argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with LOUIS, "Sable, a wolf rampant argent" [minor point for half a low­contrast field], and BREES, "Azure, a wolf rampant argent" [major point for field], among others. (Papworth 98). (02/1985)

Michael le Marin. Device. Quarterly azure and argent, a cross between to dexter two fleurs­de­lys and to sinister two hearts, all counterchanged argent and gules.

NOTE: This is unbalanced. Heraldic convention is to use four identical charges, or to place one pair of charges in bend and another in bend sinister. (10/1984)

Michael von Essen. Device (appeal). Sable, a cross throughout enhanced to sinister chief gules, fimbriated, in dexter base a cobra coiled and erect affronty Or.

NOTE: The commenting members of the College were almost unanimous in opposing this appeal. Please redesign. (02/1985)

Michael von Essen. Sable, a cross throughout enhanced to sinister chief gules, fimbriated Or in dexter base a cobra coiled and erect affronty Or.

NOTE: The combination of the displaced cross and the fimbriation represents two departures from convention. While either might be acceptable by itself (the position of the cobra is such that it balances the cross, and the cross is a simple enough charge to be fimbriated), the combination is doubtful. Please ask him to reconsider. (08/24/1984)

Michail vom Shattenreich. Name and device. Argent, a cross gules surmounted by a seahorse erect maintaining a sword palewise, in sinister chief a mullet, all within a bordure sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: Vom Shattenreich means "of the Shadowed Realm." To quote Brigantia, "The realm of shadows is an ancient terminology for the underworld and this is one of the standard translations of that idea in the writings of German classical scholars." We feel this is excessive. The submitter has disallowed changes to his name. The device appears acceptable. (05/1986)

Michel l'Espiegle. Device. Azure, on a pale between four goblets Or, a rapier inverted azure.

REASON FOR RETURN: I'm afraid this conflicts with CHERIE DES JARDINS: Azure, on a pale Or, three crescents azure. (SCA) There is a major point of difference for the addition of a group of secondary charges, and a minor point for changing the type and number of a group of tertiaries. We would suggest that she alter the line of division on the pale (or possibly endorse it) to obtain the necessary difference.

DISCUSSION: This would also conflict under Batonvert's proposed chance to the rules on tertiary charges: "Charges on an ordinary should be considered full secondary charges if there are no surrounding charges." Michel's device contains a group of surrounding charges, so the proposed rule would not apply. (07/1985)

Middle, Kingdom of the. Badge for Archer General. On a pale blunted gules three pheons inverted Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: RFS XI.7 states that charges which issue from the edge of the field (such as pales) may not be used on fieldless badges "because there is no edge and so the shape is unspecified." Dragon's stated intention is that the charge be "cut off parallel to the edge of whatever field it is placed on," so it clearly falls within the intended scope of the rule. There is an additional problem here, in that there appears to be no way to specify that the edge of a charge conforms to the outline of the field (short of saying "couped so as to follow the edge of the field," which is likely to cause heart failure among the heralds). Dragon suggested blunted, as equivalent to the French term mossue. Elvin, Parker, and Franklyn (Shield and Crest) all treat mossue (which appears to be restricted in mundane usage to the arms of crosses) as meaning 'rounded'. Humetty might be a possibility; Brooke­Little says that "the couped ends normally, but not invariably, [follow] the contours of the shield." (An Heraldic Alphabet, p. 121) Unfortunately, this usage does not appear to be consistent, which makes me leery of adopting it. As for the problem with Rule XI.7, two possibilities have been suggested: a field (presumably argent) could be specified, or the charge could be made a billet. In either case, I feel a precise method of couping should be specified.

DISCUSSION: Franklyn states that "the word 'moussue' is of doubtful origin, but it may have been developed out of 'musa', an old word for a banana." (p. 77) I would have assumed that it was related to the French adjectives mousse, émoussé; from the verb émousser 'to blunt'. (07/1985)

Middle, Kingdom of the. Badge. Gules, a dragon salient argent.

NOTE: This infringes upon SCHONAU, "Gules, a winged dragon argent," and BOURGES, "Gules, a dragon argent"' (Rietstap) Salient is at best a minor point of difference from rampant, the assumed position of the charges in Rietstap. (05/1985)

Mihail le Rau de Pest. Name change (from Myghal mab Siarl an Gernow).

REASON FOR RETURN: According to Star, the correct Roumanian for the name is Mihail Räutäciós din Pest; he cites Grigore Nadris's Colloquial Rumanian, "an excellent work on Rumanian grammar," as his source. Silver Trumpet Crescent has also noted that rau is not merely "bad" or "naughty": the word means "evil, vile, wicked ... double­plus­ungood". If he wants something milder, that would be Sburdäul, "the Mischevious, the Wanton, the Wag", or possible Sceleratul, "the Rascal, the Unprincipled One." (Except that the word also needs to be rendered into the adjectival form.) He cites Axelrad's Roumanian­English Dictionary, with attached grammar.

The submitter has disallowed any changes or corrections to his name. (07/1986)

Mirrim Morningstar. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: Mirrim appears to be unique to Anne McCaffrey's Pern stories, which, being post­technological, are not considered compatible with the SCA. Would she be willing to accept Merriam? (01/1986)

Mists, Principality of. Badge for the Order of the Silver Spoon. Azure, a spoon in profile bendwise sinister within a bordure engrailed argent.

NOTE: A spoon in profile is only barely recognizable. Please turn it around so the bowl is dead­on. (10/1984)

Mithgiladun of Carillion. Name and device. Gules, ermined argent, a mullet of four points saltirewise surmounted by another crosswise, each gyronny of eight argent and vert.

NOTE: The name Mithgiladun combines elements from both Sindarin (mith 'gray', gil 'star') and Numenorean (adûn 'west'), and does not appear to be correctly formed. The compound star on the device is too complex, and the overall effect is not heraldic. Please redesign. (10/1984)

Mitsuhashi Masaie. Device. Sable, three chopsticks, two in saltire and one in pale, fretted through the points of a hexagon voided, all argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device conflicts visually with CLOVIA LUMI: Sable, a snowflake argent. (SCA) (12/1985)

Moonstone, Shire of. Name only.

NOTE: The name conflicts with HOUSE MOONSTONE, registered to Theresa of the Blue Rose. (03/1985)

Morgan Catriona Bruce. Device. Azure, a bicapitate wyvern sejant erect Or, the dexter head collared and chained, maintaining in the sinister talon a maunch, all within a bordure argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with SARKANYI GERO, "Azure, a three­headed wivern Or, armed and langued, wines doubled gules." (SCA). (01/1985)

Morgan Jaussara de Valletta. Device. Azure, a cross parted and fretted between in bend two escallops inverted and in bend sinister two decrescents argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with DOUBLER: Azure, a cross double parted argent. (Papworth 608) There is a major point of difference, for the addition of a group of secondary charges. (07/1985)

Morgan of Caer Graeme. Device. Sable, on a pale between two roses argent, barbed and seeded vert, an armored cubit arm, fist clenched, sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with MICHAEL THE LUCKY OF LANCASTER: Sable, on a pale between two mullets of eight points elongated to base argent, a sword inverted gules. (SCA) [Major type of secondary charges; minor for the type and tincture of tertiary.] It also conflicts with KATHERINE OF NORTHHALL: Sable, a pale between two open books argent. (SCA) [Major for type of secondaries; minor for addition of tertiary.] And it infringes on the mundane arms of KENINGHAM: Sable, a pale between two cinquefoils pierced argent. (Papworth 1004) [Minor (at best) for rose ­> cinquefoil; minor for addition of tertiary.]. (03/1986)

Morgan Sheridan. Badge. Vert, four mullets in cross Or.

NOTE: This infringes upon SORCHA AR MENEZ, "Vert, a triskelion of spirals between [in cross) four mullets pierced Or." (SCA). (03/1985)

Morgan Wolfsinger. Device. Sable, a wolf sejant ululant to sinister within a bordure argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with the badge of PATRI DE CHAT GRIS: Sable, a domestic cat sejant to sinister within a bordure argent. (SCA) There is a point for the type of charge, but the difference in elevation of the head is minimal, and the visual similarity makes us uncomfortable. (07/1986)

Moriah Elliot. Name only.

NOTE: Moriah is the site of the mountain where Abraham was to sacrifice Isaac (Gen 22.2); Mount Moriah is the biblical name of the hill of East Jerusalem, and the site of Solomon's Temple (2 Chron 3.1). (NCE 1832). (03/1985)

Motley just Motley nothing but Motley. Name and device. Sable, two arms conjoined at the shoulder in annulo, hands to base, clad in motley proper, in base a hawk's bell Or.

NOTE: While fools may have been known in period by names such as "Patch, "Clod," etc., it would appear that these were stage names, or aliases. The Rules for Submissions (VII.1) require a given ("birth") name for purposes of registration, whatever her professional name might be. (Master Wilhelm has suggested a registered name of Justina Motley ­ "known as Just Motley to her friends.").

There is not enough contrast between the ... uh ... "encumbrance of arms" and the sable field. There is also no "proper" color for motley.* I would suggest she make the sleeves in the emblazon lozengy of a metal and a contrasting color (such as gules), and perhaps exercise a bit of artistic license in delineation.

________________________

* There is, in fact, one borderline instance in the Society, but I doubt the College of Arms would care to accept my badge as precedent. (WvS, 14 Apr 80, p. 5). (02/1985)

Murdoc of Armagh. (device). Per bend argent, semy of deer tracks sable, and azure, a merrow sejant to sinister grasping a quill pen Or.

NOTE: The merrow is not an acceptable charge nor is this one shown in an heraldic position. Please redesign. (09/1984)

Murdoc of Armagh. Device. Per bend ermine and azure, a sea­dog rampant to sinister, tailed as a dog, grasping a quill Or.

NOTE: This conflicts, alas, with SCELLANUS OF SKYE, "Azure, a sea dog rampant to sinister and issuant from canton a quarter­sun Or." (SCA) There is a major point for the field (plain tincture to divided metal and color), and a minor for the removal of the sun. (04/1985)

Muriella of Sicily­Castile. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: It appears that this particular form of hyphenated surname is a designation used by modern historians to distinguish the different branches of a given royal house. According to Brigantia, "period practice would have been to link the two places with 'and' or 'et' or 'y' depending on the language. As a matter of fact ... this particular usage ... is nearly tantamount to claiming to be a member of the ruling family, if not the actual ruler, of the two places." The other heralds commenting on this submission expressed similar concerns. I would suggest she use just one of the place names (depending on whether she wishes to be known by where she is now, or where she's from). (07/1985)

Mynydd Coron, Shire of. Device. Argent, on a fess wavy between in chief two turtles tergiant and in base a laurel wreath vert, a snowflake argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: We did not receive any forms for this submission. (07/1986)

Myrddin Llygoden. Device. Per chevron azure and argent, two trees eradicated argent and a mouse courant proper.

NOTE: This conflicts visually with CANT0N OF FALCON'S AYRIE, "Per chevron azure and argent, in canton an oak tree eradicated argent, in base a falcon close gules within a laurel wreath vert." (SCA) There does not appear to be a default tincture for a "mouse proper"; according to my encyclopedia, the fur may be brown or gray. (NCE 1850). (01/1985)

Naomi von den Katzen. Device (correction). Per saltire sable and sable goutty d'eau, a saltire azure fimbriated between in pale a goblet and a heart fracted argent.

NOTE: Withdrawn at Solar Herald's request. (05/1985)

Nathon of Arindale. Device. Azure, a Latin cross throughout between in base two bears combatant argent.

NOTE: Given the distortion that occurs when a charge is drawn on a shield, I am not convinced that a Latin cross throughout is worth a full minor point. Some displacement of the crossbar can be expected because of the charges in base. This submission thus differs only in secondary charges from JON ST. VINCENT D'OUTREMER, "Azure, a cross between in bend an anchor palewise and a sword palewise argent." (SCA). (10/1984)

Nefratiri Ani. Badge for House Rhondoval. A wingless dragon tergiant erect, body and tail nowed fesswise, vert, breathing flames proper.

NOTE: The dragon is not in a recognizable heraldic position, and we have been unable to contrive a blazon that describes it adequately (i.e., from which the emblazon can be reconstructed). Please redesign. (02/1985)

Nikolai Grendal Gornych. Name and device. Argent, semy of double bitted axes and roses gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: The documentation submitted does not support the name Grendal.

To the best of our knowledge, the latter is the unique name of a monster in Beowulf; the proposed Russian derivation is grammatically incorrect. (03/1986)

Nonnie of Tornor Keep. Device. Per saltire purpure semy of cat's paw prints argent, and argent, a sword inverted proper.

NOTE: The device conflicts with NEAL GYRFALCON, "Purpure, on the pommel of a sword inverted proper a gyrfalcon reversed argent." (SCA) There is a major point for field, and a minor for removing the gyrfalcon. It is also too close to DIERDRE LLYN STORMDREAMER, "Per saltire azure and argent, in pale a sword between two compass stars argent." (SCA). (03/1985)

Nordmark, Shire of. Name and device. Per pale sable and azure, a chevron argent and overall a laurel wreath Or.

NOTE: The name conflicts, alas, with that of House Northmark, registered to ALDRIC OF THE NORTHMARK in August 1984. The device appears acceptable. (04/1985)

North Riding, Canton of. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: A riding is an administrative or geographical division. In SCA usage, a riding is a subsidiary of a province, just as a canton is a subsidiary of a barony. (Known World Handbook,, pp. 9­10) The designation is not correct, since Altavia (the parent branch) is a barony, not a province.

The usage also appears to be tautological: one would be "the North Riding" or"the North Riding of Altavia" (if Altavia were a province); but "the Canton of North Riding" is like "the Barony of the Shire."*

* Or "the Barony of Westermark"? Oh, well. (03/1986)

Nottinghill Coill, Barony of. Order of the Coill's Tripaliare (name only).

REASON FOR RETURN: Virgule and Brigantia both say that the Latin word ' trepaliare, cited as the root, is the infinitive form of a verb, not a noun. The literal meaning is "Order of the Coill's To Travail," which is grammatically incorrect. (10/1985)

Novus Matisco, Shire of. Device. Per pale azure and argent, a tower within a laurel wreath counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with WYNFLAED OF HAWKSMIR: Per pale azure and argent, a tower and in chief two hawk's heads erased addorsed counterchanged. (August 1985) There is a point and a half of difference for change in type and number of a single group of secondary charges. It is also visually quite similar to the PROVINCE OF SILVER DESERT: Per pale azure and argent, a ram's head cabossed within a laurel wreath, all counterchanged. (August 1985) The two are technically clear under the "transparent laurel wreath rule" (XII.6), but the West has argued that the "color patterning" is strong enough to offset this, and Rule XII.6 is specifically applied (in chorus, now) "on a case­by­case basis."­, Adding a bordure would take care of both potential conflicts, but it would bring the device into conflict with that of the CANTON OF DUN CALMA: Per pale azure and Or, a tower, the base environed of a laurel wreath, all within a bordure all counterchanged. (September 1985)

* We have some doubts about this, which is why it is mentioned as being "visually similar" rather than an out­and­out conflict. As one of the heralds at the meeting noted, "This argument virtually excludes simple branch arms ­­ so long as color is unchanged, a [blank] within a laurel wreath will conflict with any other [blank]. A sweeping conclusion. Do we wish to maintain this?" We promote this type of design by requiring the arms of a branch to contain a laurel wreath, prominently displayed. Rule XII.6 was intended to offset the conflicts this requirement creates. (09/1985)

Oak Heart, Shire of. Device. Argent, a bend between a heart gules environed of a laurel wreath vert and an acorn inverted slipped and leaved proper.

NOTE: This conflicts with JEROME OF MCKENNA, "Argent, a bendlet between in chief a dexter mailed fist from the sinister grasping a cross botonny fitchy and in base a lymphad sails furled and oars in action all gules." (SCA) There is a point and a half of difference for chances in the secondary charges. (03/1985)

Oertha, Principality of. Stellanordica Herald (Seal). Two straight trumpets in saltire, bells in chief, debruised by a compass star.

NOTE: This conflicts with PAUL OF SUNRIVER, "Azure, a compass star Or." (SCA) Drawn normally, the minor axes of the compass star merge with the trumpets; the resulting outline is too indistinct, we feel, to merit a major point of difference. (12/1984)

Ohan of Skaanland. Name and device. Per bend gules and sable, on a bend argent a lightning bolt azure.

NOTE: "Coined" means that a name is made up, not that its provenance is unknown. There is nothing wrong with asking the College of Arms for assistance in substantiating an applicant's claim, but you should make an effort to find out what the submitter had in mind, and to pass this information on in your letter of intent.

The device conflicts with US 11TH SPECIAL FORCES, "Per bend gules and azure, a bend argent." (Military Ordinary #265) There is one minor point for half the field, and another for the addition of the tertiary. (10/1984)

Olaf Askoldsson. Badge. Per pale sable and vert, a horned great helm affronty Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with POLIDOR HARALDSSON OF THE DENTED HELM, "Sable, a helm [affronty] pierced by a sword bendwise sinister inverted Or." (SCA). (02/1985)

Olaf Bearcrusher. Device. Counter­ermine, a pale embattled counter­embattled between two bears combattant argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts, alas, with the badge of MORRIGAN FITZROLF: Two polar bears combattant proper gorged of belled collars Or. (SCA) There is a single point of difference, for the pale; the field counts for naught. (01/1986)

Olexander Shevchenko. Device. Quarterly vert and sable, on a mullet of four points throughout Or a Ukrainian trident head azure.

NOTE: This conflicts with AELFWINE DUNEDOM, "Quarterly vert and sable, a mullet of four points throughout argent," and LEYANNA AUS DEM DORNWALD, "Sable, upon a mullet of four points throughout Or, pierced gules, a martlet volant bendwise sinister argent." (SCA). (02/1985)

Olga Handt. Device. Azure, a sinister hand couped fesswise maintaining a crescent argent,

NOTE: This conflicts with LUCE, "Azure, a crescent argent." (Papworth 594) There is a point of difference for the addition of the hand. (05/1985)

Olga Krombashnya Cherepansha. Name and device. Sable, a lion rampant guardant Or holding in its mouth a chain sable, within an orle of towers argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: Both bynames appear to be incorrect. No documentation was provided for Krombashnya, and Sea Wolf Herald was unable to find the element Krom­ in any of her references. "Fortress", she says, is Krepost. According to Lady Adelaide de Beaumont, who read over the documentation, the examples are all of imperative or adjective­noun formations. A noun­noun formation requires that one of the words be in a case other than the nominative. In addition, the documentation (Unbegaun 120) shows "potter" as cerepan, not cherepan. Lady Adelaide says the second byname should be Serepansha or Tserepansha.

The device conflicts with BROCAS: Sable, a lion rampant guardant Or. (Papworth 95) There is a single point of difference, for the orle of charges. The chain is not visible enough to be significant. (01/1986)

Orianna vander Delft of Winfield. Badge. A shamrock per pale counter­ermine and argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts, alas, with OLWEN OF BUCKLAND: Azure, a trefoil stalked argent. (SCA) There is a single point of difference, for the tincture of the shamfoil. (Or was that a trefrock? A Prufrock? Do I dare to eat a peach?). (03/1986)

Pascal Brendan Merredy. Device. Per pale raguly vert and argent, a mask of comedy dimidiated with a sun, both counterchanged.

NOTE: Despite the line of partition, this has the appearance of a dimidiated coat (which we do not allow). The charges are not recognizable. Please redesign. (02/1985)

Patrick de la Schawe. Device. Vert, on a bend sinister Or a hare courant to sinister azure.

NOTE: The device is in technical conflict with AMBER OF OAKDEN, "Vert, a bend sinister Or, in bend three acorns bendwise sinister counterchanged," and CRUSAR THE RANGER, "Vert, on a bend sinister Or a star of David between two mullets of six points gules." (SCA) In each case there is a major point for the difference in secondary charges and less than a full point for the tertiaries. (12/1984)

Patrick the Temperate. Device. Vert, two flanged maces crossed in saltire argent, overall an inverted tankard Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device conflicts, unfortunately, with WILLIAM OF WOODLAND: Vert, a tankard Or within an orle of crosses crosslet fitchy argent. (SCA) The inversion of the tankard is not visually evident, so the only real change is the replacement of a group of secondary charges. (03/1986)

Paul of Somerton. Device. Vert, a chevron between a sword fesswise and an open scroll Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with STERLING OF TOAD HALL: Vert, a chevronel Or between two bulldogs statant respectant argent, each gorged of a collar sable, studded argent, and in base a squirrel sejant erect Or holding in its forepaws an acorn argent capped Or. (SCA) All the changes take place in a single group of secondary charges.

DISCUSSION: In the Fall of 1982, the College of Arms adopted the convention that the diminutive names of ordinaries are used only when there is more than one of the ordinary in question. Artistic convention allows a certain amount of latitude in the width of an ordinary; it will tend to be wider when it is charged, and narrower when there is more than one, or there are other surrounding charges. One charge is thus a chevron, no matter how wide it is, while two or more are called chevronels. (08/25/1985)

Paulette of Falcon Cree. Device. Argent, a lioness couchant to sinister sable, gorged Or, a bordure sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with MOSHE PANTERA DEL FUEGO NEGRO: Argent, a natural panther salient incensed of flame, all within a bordure sable. (SCA) There is a major point for the position of the beast, but the difference between a natural panther and a lioness is negligible. (10/1985)

Pawel Aleksander od Zerania. Device. Argent, on a pale azure between in chief two hurts, a man at arms, armed cap­a­pie and maintaining a lance and shield, argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts, alas, with MELLISSANDE MARSETOILE: Argent, on a pale between two mullets of eight points elongated to base azure, another argent. (SCA) There is a major point for the type of the secondary charges, a minor (which would be significant on a heater but not on a lozenge) for their position, and another minor (which is supposed to demote because it is the second change from the same category) for the type of charge on the pale. We did not feel the two minors were strong enough to add to a second major point. We would suggest she make the man­at­arms the primary charge, alter the line of division, or possibly endorse the pale. (07/1985)

Peadrus Ocie. Device. Or, a sun gules between two killer whales haurient respectant proper. (Orcinus orca).

NOTE: This conflicts with HAYS, "Or, a sun gules" (Papworth 1100), and with DAVID OF WHALESHAVEN, "Or, two orcas haurient respectant proper and in chief a compass star azure." (SCA) DISCUSSION: It is generally a good idea to note the tinctures of "proper" charges in the letter of intent. Killer whales proper are black with white markings (say the habitués of Sea World and Marineland). (04/1985)

Percival de Courcée. Device. Or, chapé rayonny azure, a heart gules.

NOTE: This conflicts with LASTIC (Rietstap) and CORTI (Woodward 202), "Or, a heart gules." There is a major point of difference for the field. (03/1985)

Peter fra Marstal. Device. Per pale gules and argent, a fess counterchanged, in dexter chief a patriarchal cross Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with OTMARSCHALK: Barry­counter­barry of three pieces gules and argent. (Rietstap) I count a minor point of difference, for the cross in dexter chief.

SYNOPSIS: This submission was originally returned in February 1986, for conflict with BAN= ­ Per pale argent and gules, a fess counterchanged. Vesper has appealed this decision, arguing that we should allow a major point for the addition of the cross (as a significant secondary charge), or else treat it as a strong minor, and allow it, in conjunction with the strong minor point for the field, to constitute sufficient difference from the cited coat.

DISCUSSION: I can see allowing a strong minor point of difference for the addition of the cross, but not a major point. The Rules imply (XII.3), but do not state, that a major point is the most you can get by adding two minor points. This is the interpretation I was applying at the time of my earlier ruling. In the course of a discussion at TYC, however, I learned that Master Wilhelm felt one could sometimes add two strong minor points to obtain sufficient difference from mundane arms. (See the cover letter for a digression on the mysteries of minor­point arithmetic.)

At this point, it becomes a judgement call as to whether there is enough visual difference to warrant this much technical difference. Opinion in the letters of comment tended to support the original conflict call, and in the absence of other considerations, I would be inclined to defer to this joint opinion; but Virgule has found an even closer conflict, which renders this particular question academic.

Nicely put. (07/1986)

Peter Na' Marstal. Name and device. Per pale gules and argent, a fess counterchanged, in dexter chief a patriarchial cross Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: Our knowledge of Danish is admittedly limited, but we believe the preposition should be fra. Please document the grammar of the name.

The device conflicts with BANEIT: Per pale argent and gules, a fess counterchanged. (Papworth 708) There is a minor point of difference for interchanging the tinctures, and another for the addition of the cross. (01/1986)

Peter the Barbarian (submitted as Retep the Barbarian). Badge. A cross couped and quarterly­pierced sable.

NOTE: This conflicts with DOROTHEA OF CAER­MYRDDIN, "Argent, a cross patty sable." (SCA) There is a major point of difference for the type of cross. I am also inclined to agree with Brigantia's judgement, and consider this less than a point different from DAKENFIELD, "Argent, a cross quarter­pierced sable." (Papworth 606). (04/1985)

Petrina the Herbalist. Device. Per pale gules and sable, on a pale Or a sprig of moneywort sable, flowered gules.

NOTE: This conflicts with CATRIONA NI BHRIAIN, "Per pale gules and sable, a pale between two harps Or." (SCA) There is a major point for removing the secondary charges, and a minor for adding the tertiary. It also infringes upon MELUSINE DE RONCEVERTE, "Vert, on a pale argent, a greenbriar slip vert." (SCA) I count a point and a half for tincture, and a weak minor for the addition of the tertiary. And it differs by two minor points (one for field, one for tertiary charge) from the flag of BELGIUM, "Per pale sable and gules, a pale Or.". (10/1984)

Petros the Unmerciful. Purpure, a chevron Or between three dexter fists aversant, thumbs to base, argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with THALASSA ILON OF SOILKA, "Purpure, a chevronel Or between in chief two scimitars fesswise conjoined at the point proper and in base a flamed tulip proper." (SCA) In addition, the College felt that a fist "thumbs down" was not an acceptable heraldic charge: it is difficult to recognize, the position does not seem to be heraldic, and the combination has strong enough negative connotations to make it an undesirable element of a coat of arms. (08/24/1984)

Phillip MhicRath of Locksley. Badge. Azure, a swept­hilt rapier Or and another argent, both inverted and entwined to form a pall, between in base a decrescent argent and an increscent Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: SCA heraldic practice does not allow an ordinary to be wreathed of two colors or two metals, because of poor contrast. (WvS, 21 Apr 83, p. 9; et seg.) Entwining the blades of the rapiers has much the same effect, and makes the charges difficult to recognize. Please redesign. (07/1985)

Phillip of Meadhe. Badge for House Mead. A demi­wolf statant conjoined at the waist to a demi­cat statant to sinister Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with ABRAHAM BEN AARON, "Gules, two Sassanian horned winged demi­lions statant addorsed conjoined Or." (SCA). (01/1985)

Phoenix's Mark, Shire of the. Name (appeal) and device. Per pale azure and argent, a phoenix within a laurel wreath counterchanged and on a chief per pale argent and sable, two roundels counterchanged.

NOTE: Appeal denied. Phoenix's Mark is too similar to March of the Fenix. Mark and march have the same roots (ME marke, OF marche, OHG & OS marka) 'boundary'. Phoenix's Mark is a possessive construct, meaning literally "Mark of [the) Phoenix." The two names are equivalent in form, even though mark is being used here in a different sense ('sign'); the chance of confusion is too high. Please choose another name. The device appears acceptable. (02/1985)

Piers DeGrey. Device. Potent, on a pale gules, three beehives Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with "Vair, on a pale gules three trefoils Or." (Papworth 1006) The heraldic references seem to agree that potent originated as an artistic variation of vair. There is at best a minor point of difference between the two. (03/1985)

Politikopolis, Shire of. Name and device. Argent, two chevronels gules between two griffins combattant azure and a castle sable environed of a laurel wreath vert.

NOTE: Polis is the Greek noun meaning 'city'; politikos is the adjectival form 'of the city'. The branch is thus "City of the City" (not "city of promise" or "city of fellowship"), which is incorrect. The device is busy, especially for the arms of an SCA branch. Please simplify. (03/1985)

Rabiah of the Misty Mountains. Device. Vert, three chevronels interlaced and in chief a fir tree argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device conflicts with that of JOANNA DE LISANE: Vert, three chevronels interlaced, in chief between two compass­stars a fleur­de­lys voided argent. (SCA) There is at best a major and a minor point of difference for changing a single group of secondary charges. We also did not receive a correctly­colored emblazon of this submission. (05/1986)

Rabiah of the Misty Mountains. Name and device. Vert, three chevronels interlaced, and in chief a fir tree Or.

NOTE: Brigantia and Virgule have both questioned the accuracy of the entry for Rabiah in Muslim Names, noting that Rabia is the name of two months in the Moslem calendar. I would like to see some confirming documentation. The device conflicts with ALLESLEY, "Vert, three chevronels braced ... a chief Or." (Papworth 551) There is a point of difference for replacing the chief with a tree. DISCUSSION: This was a difficult call to make, and the grounds for my decision were as much subjective as objective. If the ellipsis masks an and, then no additional difference is possible; if it hides an overall charge, then the two coats are clear. The only visible difference is the type of a single secondary charge, which seems too small a hedge against the possible conflict. Perhaps another source can yield a more complete blazon. (05/1985)

Rachel Nam Beanntan. Name change (to Rhea).

REASON FOR RETURN: The documentation submitted does not clearly demonstrate that Rhea was used by humans in the Middle Ages.

SYNOPSIS: The submitter appealed this to the Brigantia office, submitting as documentation an entry from The Dialects of Ancient Gaul by Joshua Whatmough. On the basis of her experience in philology, Mistress Alisoun concluded that the information in the volume was not reliable. The submitter then exercised her right to appeal this to the College of Arms. The College concurs with Lady Brigantia's judgement in the matter. (10/1985)

Ragnarr Arnbjornsson. Name only (appeal).

REASON FOR RETURN: We have not received any documentation to support the appeal. (09/1985)

Ragnarr Arnbjornsson. Name only.

NOTE: According to The Old Norse Name, the genitive form of ­bjorn is ­biarnar, so the correct patronymic would be Arnbiarnarson. The applicant has requested that we not alter his name to correct grammatical errors. (12/1984)

Ragnvald Joransson Ek. Device. Gules, on a lozenge throughout palewise argent, an acorn slipped and leaved vert.

NOTE: This conflicts with the COUNTS VON GRAVENECK, "Gules, a lozenge ar-gent." (Woodward 182) There are minor points for the change in the lozenge and the addition of the tertiary charge. We also feel it is too close, visually, to TANYA OF THE OAK, "Argent, a sprouting acorn slipped and singly leaved proper within a bordure gules." (SCA). (04/1985)

Ralph Randulfus of Rye. Device. Ermine, a wolf on its back azure balancing a tun proper on its paws.

REASON FOR RETURN: The wolf is in a non­heraldic position, and its tincture was omitted from the letter of intent. (07/1986)

Ranold of Skye. Name.

NOTE: According to Brigantia, this name conflicts with that of the founder of Clan Ranald, who was also king of the Isle of Skye. (10/1984)

Ranthulfr Asparlundr. Device. Per fess, per fess gules and argent, and sable, two griffins passant counterchanged and an aspen leaf inverted argent.

NOTE: To quote Brigantia, "The division of the upper portion of the field reinforces the impression of two devices combined here. There really is no completely neat way of blazoning this in English blazon, which probably tells us something." Please redesign. (02/1985)

Ranulf of Wolfshaven. Badge. A wolf's head erased within an orle of oak leaves stems to center argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with CONRAD OF NORTHFIELD, "Sable, a wolf's head erased within a bordure argent" and SIEGFRIED DER WACHSAME KREUZFAHRER, "Per pale vert and gules, a wolf's head erased close argent." (SCA). (02/1985)

Reginleif the Unruly. Badge. Sable, on a horse's head couped umbrated argent a flame proper.

REASON FOR RETURN: Although there are period examples of umbration, it is not considered "good" heraldic practice, and has been banned from use in the SCA. Please redesign.

DISCUSSION: Umbration, or adumbration, is known in SCA armory as "chasing." "Chased means voided but with the interior details and lines still showing as well as the outline." (WvS, 22 Jan 80, p. 3; in Prec III: 14) The practice was disallowed in April 1982, as part of the general ban on "thin­line heraldry" that also restricted voiding and fimbriation. (03/1986)

Regulus the Traveler. Name and device (appeal). Or, two gores sable and a cock enraged gules.

NOTE: Given the period examples of both Marcus Atilius Regulus (NCE 2296) and St. Regulus or Rule (Farmer 349), I consider Regulus to be an acceptable given name. As Brigantia has pointed out, however, the Roman and the Scot are both associated with specific travel legends, which under our present rules constitutes conflict. (This is a point I would like to address when the rules are reviewed this coming Spring. You might want to make a note of it, and bring it up again then.).

A considerable number of the people commenting on this submission, most particularly the ladies, found it offensive. The problem is not one of "quibbling over suggestive wording"; it is of the labial image formed by the two gores, with a bright­red cock hovering at the aperture. In view of the objections raised, I have no difficulty in disallowing this submission under article V.3 of the Rules for Submissions, as detailed in Appendix II, item 2, "anything that displays or suggests pornographic images or practices, such as ... overly explicit anatomical details, or other allusions.". (10/1984)

Reiger von Rostock. Device. Azure, two swords in saltire surmounted by a sword inverted, the tips surmounted by three wolf's heads cabossed argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: The device conflicts with NORTON: Azure, three swords one in pale point upwards surmounted by two in saltire points downward argent. (Papworth 1109) The wolves' heads are a major point of difference, but we do not feel the orientation of the swords is sufficiently visible to contribute the needed additional minor. (03/1986)

Rena Thorbjornsdottir. Device. Argent, a mascle azure and overall in saltire a hammer inverted hafted of a lighting flash and a single­bitted axe gules within a bordure sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: The modern lightning flash (known informally as a "shazam") is no longer a permitted charge in SCA heraldry. We do not feel the Grandfather Clause extends to this case.

DISCUSSION: The nomenclature currently in use is as follows. A lighting flash is the modern depiction of a "line" of electricity ­ bevilled, and tapered at both ends. The term came into use fairly early in the history of SCA armory. (HB, 26 Jan 72, p. 2) Master Wilhelm began discouraging them around November of 1982, and banned them outright in his August 1983 LOAR. (p. 6) At this time, the so called "period" lightning flash was adopted ­ "embattled lines of even thickness with large barbs at both ends." (21 Feb 84, p. 10) These later became known as lightning bolts, to differentiate them from the no­longer­permitted lightning "flash". (17 Aug 84, p. 2) Finally, there is the thunderbolt ­ the famous "winged exploding cigar" that can be found in most heraldry books.

The arms of Thorbjorn the Graysides, Rena's father, are: Argent, in saltire a single­bitted axe and a hammer inverted hafted of a lightning [flash] gules, all within a bordure sable. Rena has reversed the primary charges (the heads are now to sinister, rather than to dexter) and added an underlying mascle. This was the basis for the invocation of the Grandfather Clause.

In its purest form, the grandfather clause is the doctrine that protects something that has already been registered from a subsequent change in the rules; it is sometimes extended to new submissions from the same person or from close relatives of the original applicant. The current manifestation derives from Corpora IV.C.4, and is echoed in article V.6 of the Rules for Submissions. (BoE, 9 Jun 85, p. 11).

Most of the heralds commenting on this submission objected that "this is not a cadenced form of her father's arms, but simply a differenced form, and thus something new." This argument is not strictly true; the only real distinction between differencing and cadency is intent. A mark of cadency is "a variation in the same coat of arms intended to show the descent of a younger branch from the main stock." (OED) Since this is derived from her father's coat, it is cadenced. Unless you are familiar with both coats, however, this is not obviously the case, and therein lies the difficulty.

The SCA view of cadency extends only to the "standard" marks ­ the English brisures (label, crescent, etc.), and plain (uncharged and unmodified) chiefs and borders. It does not take in mirror­imaging (which is normally a point of difference, although I don't think I'd count one in this case), nor does it apply to the addition of a charge underlying the primary charges.

There were also some objections to the composition of the device ­ that, with the mascle, it was too busy; or that the original coat was not particularly heraldic in style, and the addition of the mascle made it less so. The central figure consists of three non­identical charges, so it qualifies as a "complex group" under the rule of thumb advanced in my September 1985 cover letter, although this is undercut to some extent by the arrangement.

If this were a new submission, it could be returned on two grounds: the use of a disallowed charge, and style or complexity. The first of these is a definite problem; the second is borderline, and could be called either way. The coat is derived from her father's, however, and cadency is A Good Thing, which argues for its approval, in spite of the problems.

The applicable principle here is a rule of thumb sometimes referred to as the "Rule of Two Weirdnesses" ­­ one borderline practice ("weirdness") is marginally acceptable, but it costs the applicant the benefit of the doubt; if there is a second problem, the aggregate is sufficient to return the whole, and perhaps to insist that all the problems be corrected (since the submission needs to be revised anyway). Two isn't a hard number ­ this is a subjective judgement, so the arithmetic tends to be analog, rather than digital ­­ but it's a convenient quantity for expressing the idea of "more than one." The fact that Rena's coat is derived from her father's offsets some of the objections, but not all of them.

CONCLUSION: It is my judgement that the Grandfather Clause would permit Rena to use her father's arms, unreflected, with the addition of an obvious standard mark of cadency (such as a label), or to incorporate her father's lightning­hafted hammer into a new device; but that the changes that have been made in her present submission bring it outside the scope of the Grandfather Clause, so the latter no longer applies. (05/1986)

Rendulf of Dunlapia. Device. Azure, a seagull volant argent within an annulet Or.

NOTE: This infringes upon RORIK FREDERICSSON, "Azure, a grey goose (Anser anser) volant bendwise proper." (SCA) There is a point for the addition of the annulet, but there are no changes in tincture, and the difference in position of the bird is at best a minor point (if that much). (10/1984)

Reynard des Montaignes. Badge. Gules, a foxglove blossom Or.

NOTE: This conflicts visually with KLOCK, "Gules, a bell Or." (Rietstap). (03/1985)

Reynard des Montaignes. Device change. Barry dancetty argent and azure, a fox's mask gules.

NOTE: This conflicts with the British 10th Armoured Division, "Sable, a fox's mask gules marked sable." (MilOrd #782) The sable marking lies so far within the bounds of artistic license as to be negligible. (03/1985)

Reynard the Brown. Badge for Refsheim. Argent, a fox courant to sinister gules encircled by a serpent nowed back on itself sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: The representation of the serpent is a form of interlace, which is not acceptable in SCA heraldry. The charge is unrecognizable, and its position is not something that can reasonably or accurately be blazoned. Please redesign. (07/1985)

Reynardine of Lochac. Badge. Per pale vert and purpure, a windmill, sails set saltirewise, Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with TER MEULEN: Vert a windmill Or. (Rietstap) There is a minor point of difference for change in tincture of half the field. (11/1985)

Reynardine of Tara. Name change (from Reynardine of Lochac); appeal.

SYNOPSIS: The name was originally returned by Master Wilhelm in June 1984, on the grounds that "A man may not use 'of Tara,' as that was the seat of the High Kings of Ireland." Vesper appealed the rejection, arguing that "Neither the name alone, nor the name in combination with the device or badge, are presumptuous." The appeal was first processed in October 1984, at which time I stated that I was unwilling to uphold the current ruling (that a man could not be of Tara, but a woman might), and I requested the opinions of the College on what restrictions we ought to place on the name. Based on the information at hand, I concluded that Tara did not appear to be "the sort of place from which ordinary folk might hail" (classing it with Avalon), and in January 1985 I prohibited the name altogether.

Vesper has appealed this ruling, arguing (1) that Tara is not the Irish equivalent of Avalon, (2) there are a number of places named Tara in the world, so the name is not unique, and (3) Tara was abandoned by the O'Neills in the 6th century, and was not a royal seat after that time.

REASON FOR RETURN: The historical and mythological connotations of the place name Tara are such that it does not appear to be a normal place of human habitation. Some attribute this to the magical and religious associations of the site; others to its place in history and legend as the seat of the High Kings of Ireland. The fact remains that many perceive the byname of Tara as a presumptuous claim. Until this objection has adequately been met, I am unwilling to permit use of the name.

DISCUSSION: (1) I did not say that Tara is the Irish equivalent of Avalon. I said, "This would seem to place Tara in the same category as, say, Avalon" (i.e., a place with which humans may be associated in story, but not "the sort of place from which ordinary folk might hail"). I would suggest that Vesper go back and read the entire paragraph in the LOAR, that my remark might be taken in the context in which it was made.

The use of Avalon as a parallel example was a reference to a discussion which took place in the correspondence several years ago (precipitated, I believe, by TERREL OF AVALON) over whether one could be "of Avalon." It was suggested at one point that Avalon was another name for Glastonbury. As I recall, this was countered with the argument,that the mythological connotations took precedence over the historical or archeological ones.

(2) None of the other Taras cited has been shown to have existed in period. The uniqueness of the name does have some bearing on the case; but we mustn't forget that the question of "presumptuousness" hinges largely on what people are likely to perceive. The assumption being made here is that Goodman Jack will think of the place in Ireland (if not the southern plantation), but not, say, the one in Yugoslavia. I must certainly conclude that Tara of the Kings is what the applicant had in mind; otherwise, he wouldn't have written "Tara is a place in Ireland where my persona was born" on the submission form.

(3) It has not been shown that Tara was a place of normal human habitation after the O'Neills departed. All we have to go on at this point is the statement that "there was a battle there in which the Danes were defeated in 980."

CONCLUSION: The association of Tara with magic and with the kings of Ireland is strong enough that, pending solid evidence refuting it, I must proscribe Tara from SCA use.

FOOD FOR THOUGHT: One of the people on my staff dug up a book (I believe it was titled Irish Kings and High Kings), part of which I found time to read. As I recall, one of the arguments made by the author is that the legends of Ireland are for the most part inseparable from its history ­ even if something didn't happen, or didn't happen the way the legend has it, succeeding generations of Irishmen accepted the legend as true, making it an integral part of their culture. If this is true, then the associations with the Tuatha Du Dannan, or with one of the royal families of Ireland (whether or not they were High Kings at the time), may be implicit in the name of Tara. It would seem to follow that any perceived associations (magical or royal) are supportable, regardless of the later history of the place. I can't prove any of this (I didn't even keep a bibliographic record of the book), but it seemed an interesting enough theory to be worth mentioning. (09/1985)

Rhiannon of Starfire Retreat. Device. Per saltire Or and purpure, a compass star counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with LLYWELLYN AP MADOG: Per bend sable and Or, a compass­star counterchanged. (SCA) I count a major point of difference for the change in field, but only a minor point for the charge, since its division and tincture are derived directly from the field. (05/1986)

Rhiannon of Wye. Device. Vert, a pair of wings conjoined argent within a bordure Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with DAEGAN OF RAVENSWOOD, "Vert, a pair of wings conjoined argent, in chief three estoiles Or." (SCA) There is a point of difference for type of secondary charges. (05/1985)

Rhys ap Rhodri. Device. Vairy vert and argent, a wyvern passant, tail forked, each fork terminating in a morningstar, and elevated above its head, Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with PERCIVAL DE TOULOUSEE, "Per fess indented azure and gules, a wyvern passant Or." (SCA) There is a major point for the field, and a minor point for the tail. (03/1985)

Ricardo de Alaedo (submitted as Ricardo del Alaedo). Device. Vert, on a ball of flames between three mullets of four points Or a saltire couped within and conjoined to an annulet sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with KRISTEN AHEARN: Vert, upon a ball of flame Or a bull rampant to sinister, head lowered, sable. (SCA) There is a major point for the addition of the mullets (a group of secondary charges), and a minor for change in type of the tertiary. (07/1985)

Richard Blackbury. Badge (appeal). A tricorporate fox gules, marked proper. (Vulpes vulpes)

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with THORFINN HROLFSSON: Gyronny of six argent and azure, a tricorporate lion gules. (SCA)

SYNOPSIS: This submission was originally returned in June 1985. I noted at the time that the rejection was based on the assumption that "since the badge may be displayed on any field, the field contributes no difference. Batonvert feels there is an unspecified assumption that the background of a fieldless badge is undivided. If this is true, then there may be an additional point for the division of the field in Thorfinn's arms. The rules are ambiguous on this point, and I have been unable to find any specific rulings to clarify things."

Vesper's appeal stated that "in considering fieldless badges, and conflicts against fieldless badges, we have always assumed that the badge would be displayed on a 'plain' field, and that dividing the field would add a point of difference. The boundary between the two tinctures of a divided field, which remains even when all color is removed from the field, provides a difference in a line drawing of the device or badge ... Please note that many recent fieldless badges would have been in conflict with devices if we had applied the rule in the same manner as was done here, and that several devices have passed recently which would have conflicted with fieldless badges had we not regarded the addition of the line on the field as a full point. We strongly think that our interpretation on the display of fieldless badges should be established as the official interpretation ... so that we do not, by passing fieldless badges, prevent people from registering good simple heraldry."

DISCUSSION: The commenting heralds were split down the middle on this issue. Brigantia and Batonvert, who supported the appeal, noted that Vesper's argument follows from RFS XI.7, which requires that unconnected charges on a fieldless badge all be of the same class of tincture. "If it were assumed that divided fields were feasible with fieldless badges, this requirement would not be sensible."

This isn't strictly true ­ the requirement could stem from an assumption that making the charges the same class of tincture provides better intrinsic contrast, or creates simpler and more "badge­like" badges. The reason given in the discussion of XI.7 may be nothing more than an attempt to offer a concrete justification for an abstract concept. An examination of the wording of the Rules will, I believe, demonstrate the credibility of this hypothesis.

The heralds who opposed the appeal felt either that there was too little difference between the charges or that there was nothing to prevent a fieldless badge from being displayed on a divided field. The latter argument is probably best expressed in the following comment by Silver Trumpet:

Period usage of badges permitted them to be displayed on whatever field served best. Thus the swan badge of the De Bohuns could be displayed on a sable field, as it was in a stained­glass window in Westminster Abbey, or it could be displayed on a party field of sable and gules, as it was in the standard of Sir Henry de Stafford (heir to the De Bohuns; c. 1475). (See Boutell's Heraldry; I'm using the 1966 edition, p. 166 and Plate XVII.)*

The fact that a badge could be displayed on a standard, which was parted per fess of the livery colors, as well as on a plain field, says to me that it could be displayed on any field, plain, party, or fur. Since it may be displayed on any field, a badge gains no difference for the field. The holder of a fieldless badge may certainly put it on a party field; he ought to have no fear of conflicting with fielded armory.

Display on a standard is a legitimate use for an SCA badge. I'm afraid that the West's subsequent argument that "it should be the business of the College to educate the populace in the correct usage of these badges" does not sufficiently answer this objection.

ANALYSIS: I feel that both points of view are valid; and when taken in the abstract, they are about equal in weight. I don't see a clear theoretical solution. On practical grounds, I think the key issues are the legitimate use of fieldless badges, and the question of conflict between devices and badges.

Silver Trumpet's argument shows that, in mundane armory, a fieldless badge could be displayed on either a plain or a divided field. The same is presumably true of the SCA. We could, if we wished, specifically protect the per­fess division (the field of display used in a standard), or require that the field be registered; but this would only make the Rules more complex, and it would work against our efforts to encourage people to use badges "in the period fashion." I also have strong doubts about the enforceability of this kind of rule.

The motivation here is to try to make it possible for a fieldless badge (Richard's) to be similar to an SCA device (Thorfinn's) ­­ in other words, to reduce the difference requirement between them. I think this is a desirable goal, but creating an artificial field difference is not the right way to go about it. It adds complexity to the Rules, rather than reducing it; and it allows a legally­displayed badge to "conflict" (as we currently view conflict) with properly­used arms.

I think the only workable approach is to set fieldless badges aside from all other armory, to be judged by different standards. Our chief concern would be whether a fieldless badge conflicts with another. It has been suggested, for example, that fieldless badges not be considered to conflict at all with nonfieldless armory, or that the overall point count be lower, or that there be only "whole" units of difference (no bandying with fractions). All of these, however, would require a change in attitude on the part of the heralds ­ our perception of what "conflicts" ­­ which we would, in turn, have to communicate to the populace. Any other approach would be a half­measure, and I do not think it would work.

CONCLUSION: Since a fieldless badge may legitimately be displayed on a divided field, the field contributes no difference. If this generates unreasonable conflicts, then we need to rethink our definition of conflict between regular and fieldless armory.

* p. 167 and Plate XXVII in the 1973 edition; see the index under Bohun/badge and standard. (10/1985)

Richard Blackbury. Badge. A tricorporate fox gules, marked proper. (Vulpes vulpes)

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with THORFINN HROLFSSON, "Gyronny of six argent and azure, a tricorporate lion gules." (SCA) We count less than a major point of difference between the two tricorporate beasts. [The preceding count is based on the assumption that since the badge may be displayed on any field, the field contributes no difference. Batonvert feels there is an unspecified assumption that the background of a fieldless badge is undivided. If this is true, then there may be an additional point for the division of the field in Thorfinn's arms. The rules are ambiguous on this point, and I have been unable to find any specific rulings to clarify things. This ruling is based on the more conservative interpretation.]

DISCUSSION: This was submitted as a "fox proper," with no genus and species, common name, or coloration specified. I assume it is intended to be the common red fox (Vulpes vulpes). "There is great color variation among them, but the tail is always tipped with white, and the legs, feet, and tips of the ears are always black. The rest of the coat is commonly reddish; black, silver, and cross (reddish, with a dark, cross­shaped region on back and shoulders) are among the variations which may appear in any red fox litter." (NCE 991). (06/1985)

Richard Grombley. (device). Azure, a double­headed eagle displayed and on a chief Or a mask of tragedy and a mask of comedy respectant azure.

NOTE: A mask in profile is very difficult to recognize. Masks should be drawn affronty. This submission conflicts with ELIZABETH NIC DHIARMID, "Azure, a hawk close and on a chief Or two roses gules, barbed and seeded proper." (SCA) There is one point of difference for a hawk close vs. an eagle displayed, and a minor point for the differences in the tertiary charges. (09/1984)

Richard Seaton. Device. Argent, a sword fesswise between in pale two quills fesswise within a double tressure embattled counterembattled grady, all azure.

NOTE: It was the consensus of the College of Arms that this tressure should not be allowed. Batonvert noted that "It is not directly analogous to a double tressure flory counter­flory, which is ornamented with discrete charges, or with a double tressure with a line of partition, since the 'grades' are not regularly spaced." Please redesign. (03/1985)

Richard Seaton. Name only (appeal of submission returned at kingdom level).

NOTE: The name was returned by the East College of Heralds for conflict with the hero in "Doc" Smith's "Skylark" series. The applicant has appealed this decision to the College of Arms, on the grounds that he has been using this as his pen name for a couple of years, that only a small percentage of the Society populace has ever read the books in question, and that the name is period and was borne by no real person of importance.

The College of Arms has a longstanding policy of not permitting names that conflict with those of major characters in science fiction and fantasy stories. The fact that the applicant has been using this as his pen name is not really relevant; we would not permit it if it were his mundane name, either. And given the high percentage of science fiction fans in the SCA, his assertion that few folk have read the books is one he will have difficulty proving. The College of Arms and the Laurel office concur with Brigantia in her decision to return this submission. (01/1985)

Richard Tyler of Swiftwater. Device. Azure, on a pile wavy Or in chief a rose, overall a fess gules.

NOTE: "A charge that is overall or surmounting another charge obeys the Rule of Tincture with respect to the field, not the charge(s) beneath it." (Rules IX.5) This submission violates the Rule of Tincture. Brigantia has noted that she disagrees with this definition; see the cover letter for the text of her comment. (03/1985)

Richard Tyler of Swiftwater. Device. Per chevron inverted wavy Or and azure, a fess and in chief three roses gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with DEVEROX: Ermine, a fess and in chief three roses gules. (Papworth 715) There is a major point of difference for the field. It also infringes upon BITTERLY: Or, a fess gules and in chief three cinquefoils of the second. (Papworth 714)

DISCUSSION: There are actually two kinds of change being made to the field here: a change in tincture, from Or and azure (or just plain Or) to ermine; and the addition of a line of division. It is possible to obtain more than one point of difference for field only when a change in tincture or partition is accompanied by the addition or deletion of a field treatment or semy. (RFS XIII.A.I.g) I seem vaguely to recall that Master Wilhelm considered the ermine spots to be a semy in this instance, but I could not find anything to support this. I have taken the conservative tack here, and treated ermine as a tincture. I believe this is how it would be treated mundanely. (10/1985)

Richard von Wolff. Name and device. Per bend sinister vert and azure, a sun within the arms of a crescent argent.

NOTE: German von is used with the name of a place, which Wolff is not. Richard der Wolf would appear to be correct, as would just plain Wolff without the von. The device conflicts with CHANDRABALA, "Vert a kris reversed above a crescent argent" (SCA) and MINSHULL, "Azure, a crescent enclosing an eight­pointed estoile argent." (Papworth 594) In addition, the star within a crescent was a badge of Richard I; taken together with the name Richard, this is pushing things a bit. (12/1984)

Robert de Cambrai. Device. Quarterly argent and checky Or and sable, in bend two hawks' heads couped to sinister sable.

NOTE: The consensus of the College of Arms, and of the Laurel meeting, is that this constitutes quartering. (12/1984)

Robert Herring. Device. Quarterly argent and gules, a roundel between in bend a lyre and a bow bendwise sinister, strung and with arrow nocked, sable and in bend sinister two sea­horses sejant Or.

REASON: The device is busy, and has a strong visual appearance of quartering, which we do not permit. Please simplify. (Note that the chief group ­ the charges in the four quarters ­ consists of three different types of charge.). (08/1986)

Robert I'Eveque. Name only.

NOTE: L'Evêque is French for 'the bishop', which is not allowed. (Dubois I 297) Bishop is one of the titles specifically proscribed by Rule VII.4. (05/1985)

Robert of Alwynn. (name only).

NOTE: Alwyn(n) is a given name, and may not be used as a place name. Please drop the of, or substitute a patronymic particle for it. (09/1984)

Robert of Starmount. Badge. Per pale and per chevron azure and argent.

NOTE: This is only a minor point of difference (for interchange of field tinctures) from PEDDER, "Quarterly per pale and per chevron argent and azure." (Papworth 1036). (03/1985)

Robert Struanson. Name and device. Gules, three wolves' heads erased and on a chief argent, three thistles gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: Struan is a Scottish place name, and the surname of the family around whom James Clavell's books Tai­pan and Noble House are based. A patronymic is formed from the father's given name, not his surname; the son of William Struan is called Wilson, not Struanson. The device conflicts with DUNCAN: Gules, three wolf's heads erased argent langued azure, on a chief argent, a hand and wrist couped holding a dagger inverted proper between two mullets gules. (Lyon Ordinary II­3489) The only differences are in the tertiary charges. (07/1985)

Roberta Rowan (submitted as Roberta of Rowan). Device. Azure, a unicorn statant to sinister argent and in chief three mullets Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with LEANNE OF MAYWOOD: Azure, a unicorn trippant to sinister argent, armed, crined, pizzled and cullioned Or. (SCA) There is a point of difference for the addition of the secondary charges, but the differences between the unicorns are not sufficient to add up to a full second point. (07/1986)

Robin de Shealladh. Badge for Hidden Lair. Sable, two cat's eyes in fess Or, pupilled sable within a bordure Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with the logo for the musical Cats. (It was noted that, since the border is a standard mark of cadency, these must surely be the arms of the sequel: Kittens.). (08/10/1985)

Robyn of Deira. Device. Per chevron rules and vert, a chevron sable fimbriated between a decrescent, a sun and a stag passant Or.

NOTE: The device infringes upon FIONA O'MORAIN, "Vert, a chevron sable, fimbriated, between three estoiles Or." (SCA) [Minor for field, major for change in secondaries.). (03/1985)

Roegnvaldr the Finn. Device. Per pale argent and sable, a mullet of ten points within a bordure counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts (both visually and technically) with the badge of MICHAEL GERARD CURTMEMOIRE: Per pale argent and sable, a compass star within a bordure mullety all counterchanged. (SCA) We count two minor points of difference. It is also right on the borderline against OSMAN AL­KOREISH IBN KALROS: Per pale sable and argent, a lotus affronty within a bordure counterchanged; and against JENNET OF TWO MINDS: Per pale argent and sable, a sun in his splendour throughout of the field, rayed and featured counterchanged. (04/1986)

Roger de Peregrine. Device. Argent, a falcon's wing displayed sable within a bordure gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with BERGIUS OF GLEN KIN: Argent, a wing displayed and elevated sable. (Lyon Ordinary II­6026) There is a single point of difference, for the addition of the bordure. (The slight differences in the orientation of the wing, if any, fall within the bounds of artistic license.) (08/25/1985)

Roget du Callet. Device. Per fess gules and argent, a boar's head erased sable between in chief two boar's heads erased argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with the US 30TH INFANTRY REGIMENT, "A boar's head erased sable armed and langued gules." (MilOrd #747) There is a major point of difference for the additional group of boar's heads, but because the military badge is fieldless, there is no difference for the field. It is also stylistically questionable: it appears to be an incorrect drawing of "Per fess gules and argent, two boar's heads erased argent and another sable." (04/1985)

Rosalinde De Witte. Device. Per saltire gules and sable, four needles in saltire, points to center, within an annulet argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with KOMIJRA SHIMITSU: Sable, two chevronels couped counter­couched within an annulet argent. (SCA) There is minor point of difference for the field, and between a minor and a major point for the charges within the annulet. (06/1986)

Rosamund de Chastemont. Device. Per chevron azure and Or, a tower argent masoned sable and in saltire a desert rose gules and a lilac argent, both slipped and leaved vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: The argent blossom on the Or field violates the rule of contrast. In addition, although the flowers have not actually been blazoned as proper, we feel this combination is excessive. It could be improved by drawing the plants more distinctly, so the eye sees something more definite than "a bun ' ch of wildflowers," and (better still) by using the same kind of flower, in the same tinctures. (10/1985)

Ross Colin MacGregor. Name only.

REASON: Ross is a surname, and did not become a given name until comparatively recently. Please choose a given name (such as Colin). (08/1986)

Ruaidhri ui Domhnaill. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: The name infringes on that of Rory O'Donnell (1575­1608), Earl of Tyrconnell, son of Hugh Roe O'Donnell. ("Strike for old Erin/O'Donnell Abu!") The addition of a distinguishing byname would be sufficient. (05/1986)

Ruth de Lorient. Device. Per fess dovetailed ermine and azure, in base a horse passant argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with PATRICE D'CILLA: Sable, in base a horse passant argent, in canton a dove descendant gules, fimbriated argent. (SCA).There is a major point of difference for the field, and a minor point for removing the dove.

DISCUSSION: Vesper has requested a clarification of the state of Patrice's arms. As nearly as I can determine, the following is what happened: 1) On 17 May 1975, Vesper (Karina) submitted Patrice's original arms (with a Pegasus rampant) to the College of Arms. 2) On 15 June 1975, Brigantia (Alfgar) pointed out that this was an "egregious infringement" on his own arms. 3) On 30 June 1975, Laurel (Ioseph) approved Patrice's arms as submitted. 4) On 17 Nov 1975, Vesper (Wilhelm) submitted a change to a horse passant. 5) On 20 Jan 1980, Laurel (Wilhelm) approved the change he had submitted as Vesper. The Laurel files contain a couple of line drawings (one of them an almost illegible photocopy) of Patrice's original submission, and an emblazon sheet (with a Blake street address) of the change. (07/1985)

Ruth Stewart. Device. Azure, a sand dollar between two bars wavy and in chief six birds volant argent.

NOTE: The small charges in chief are not recognizable; I would have to treat them as seal, and I know of no way of powdering only part of a field. Three or four martlets would be acceptable. (10/1984)

Sabia Gunnhild Hunang. (badge). Gules, a Celtic reindeer statant reguardant argent.

NOTE: This is too close to BOIS, "Gules, a stag statant argent collared and chained Or," and JONES, "Gules, a stag standing at gaze argent attired Or." (Papworth 59) According to Mistress Eowyn Amberdrake, this sort of treatment of the reindeer's antlers is found in Celtic illumination. (08/24/1984)

Sáerlaith as an Fhasaich. (device). Pean, a pall inverted Or surmounted by a snail shell to sinister gules, all within a bordure Or.

NOTE: The bordure was omitted from both the blazon and the emblazon on the letter of intent. Please resubmit this so the College may properly check this for conflicts. (09/1984)

Saerlaith as an Fhasaich. Device. Sable, three batwinged snails displayed affronty Or, shelled gules.

NOTE: As much as this appeals to my sense of the perverse, I'm afraid that the charges really aren't recognizable without a blazon. This seems to be true of a great many charges affronty. Please choose another charge. (05/1985)

Saif al­Sokkr Shaddir bint Rajah. Name only.

NOTE: Raia, Rajah is from a Sanskrit word meaning 'king, prince'; "used as a title of noble rank for Hindus, and also applied to Malay and Javanese chiefs." (Webster's Second) Bint Rajah 'daughter of [the] Rajah' has the appearance of a claim to royal parentage, and would be perceived as such by much of the SCA, even if it can be shown that Rajah was a common given name (which has not been done). We would also like some documentation for Shaddir. Please advise the applicant that Saif is a masculine given name. (02/1985)

Saint Martin's Field, Shire of. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: The name conflicts with "the celebrated church of St. Martin in the Fields, London, and its choral Academy conducted on disc after disc by Neville Marriner.". (07/1985)

Sakura Kita Maikeru. Device. Sable, in dexter base a wave of three crests and in sinister chief an increscent conjoined in annulo, in bend a triple­flowered branch of cherry blossoms, all argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: The design is busy, and difficult to blazon in conventional heraldic terms. Please choose a simpler design.

DISCUSSION: The documentation provided with the submission (taken primarily from Mon: The Japanese Family Crest) seems to indicate that this design is at least to some degree consistent with Japanese mon. There are instances of waves conjoined "in annulo" with other charges, of charges within such enclosures, and of bendwise sinister crescents. It would appear, therefore, that one of the reasons given for the return of his previous device ­ that it was "not proper Japanese style" ­­ was incorrect.

I would be happier, personally, if the charges in the device were more discretely recognizable. I don't think it's absolutely necessary that it be obvious to the Western eye what a charge is supposed to represent (although this would certainly be nice), but I would like to be able to tell how many charges there are. (07/1986)

Sarolta Hunyadi. Device. Per fess embattled grady azure and argent, a horse's head argent and a horse's head inverted and sinister facing sable conjoined at the neck.

REASON FOR RETURN: Inverting an animate charge is at best poor practice, as is the use of rotational symmetry. With the two heads conjoined in this fashion, the charge is difficult to identify; like Brachet, we thought at first that this was a sea­horse. Please redesign. (08/25/1985)

Sarra Elizabeth Graeham of Birnham. Device. Per chevron Or and gules, two crosses formy fitchy sable and a falcon displayed Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts visually with CIARAN OF KELLS: Per chevron Or and gules, three crosses fitchy in fess enhanced sable and a cup Or. (SCA) (03/1986)

Saxus of Arunshire. (device appeal). Per pale azure and argent, three tau crosses voided counterchanged.

NOTE: Appeal denied. A tau cross voided on a plain field, or three non­voided crosses counterchanged, would probably be acceptable, but the multiple (and therefore smaller) crosses voided and counterchanged are not sufficiently visible. (09/1984)

Scorched Earth, Shire of. Device. Gules, a tower within a laurel wreath, all within a border rayonny Or.

NOTE: The name of the branch was returned in March for conflict with TERRA TORRIDA. The device appears acceptable. (05/1985)

Scorched Earth, Shire of. Name only.

NOTE: The name conflicts with the Shire of TERRA TORRIDA, whose name means "dry or parched earth." 'the two are unlikely to be confused, so a letter of permission would suffice. [The seneschal, according to the February issue of Southwind, is: Master Zsoltan Kovacs (Kirby Wise). P. O. Box 531, Bouse, AZ 85325.). (03/1985)

Seamus of the Cats. Azure, a bend sinister between a tyger rampant and a lion rampant to sinister Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with BIAIR DUBOIS, "Azure, a bend sinister between a cat sejant guardant and a dove close Or." (SCA). (08/24/1984)

Sean Blackthorn. Name and device. Argent, a pall between three blackthorn bushes sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: The name conflicts with that of John Blackthorn, hero of James Clavell's novel Shogun: the device with ROZ: Argent, a pall sable. (WoodOrd 111) (04/1986)

Sean O Miadhachain. Device. Argent, a Celtic harp proper and on a chief vert a castle between two penny whistles fesswise argent.

REASON: This conflicts with ANN ETHERIDGE OF SOMERSET, Argent, a harp proper, stringed sable, entwined about the pillar three thistles slipped and leaved proper. (SCA) The thistles contribute too little, visually, to bring the point­and­a­half for the charged chief up to a full two points. DISCUSSION: The penny whistles ought to be drawn in their most recognizable aspect, with the holes toward the viewer. (Since this conceals the mouthpieces, they will then become indistinguishable from flutes. Oh, well.). (08/1986)

Sean O'Rioghbhardain de Muscraige. Name only.

NOTE: Withdrawn at applicant's request. (01/1985)

Seanne Alansyn. Device. Vert, a seadog rampant Or within a bordure compony counter­compony vert and argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with IAROSLAV OF THE PRIPIET MARSH, "Argent, a seadog rampant within a bordure embattled argent." (SCA) There is a point and a half for difference in tincture, but a bordure counter­compony is close enough in form to a bordure embattled to be worth at best a weak minor. (01/1985)

Sebastian of Maidenhead. Badge for Gareth Sebastian. In bend two roses argent slipped and leaved and in bend sinister two thistles slipped and leaved proper, the four conjoined in saltire at the roots.

NOTE: Although the Rules for Submissions do not prohibit the registration of a fieldless badge for an alternate persona, neither do they specifically allow it, and this appears to be the first time anyone has tried to do so. After some reflection, I have concluded that this is inconsistent with established practice, and that it would not be desirable for us to permit it at this time.

The Rules for Submissions permit a person to register only one device. For the last several years, however, we have allowed someone to register a badge, together with a designation (the name of an alternate persona), with the assumption that this "badge" would function as the alternate persona's "device." A fieldless badge, however, is intended to serve as a mark of ownership. Although the charges are primarily color or metal, the rules of contrast are less strict for a fieldless badge than they are for a device. If we register a fieldless badge for the use of an alternate persona, we are effectively registering a device that is not bound by the rule of tincture.

The present submission is a case in point. It cannot be displayed on any simple field without either the stems and thistle blossoms (color) or the rose blossoms (metal) violating the rule of tincture. This is something we would not allow in a device or a regular badge. I do not see how we can permit it in the badge for an alternate persona. (11/1984)

Sebastian of Maidenhead. Device. Ermine, a pale purpure and overall a lion statant erect Or, maintaining in his forepaws a fountain.

NOTE: "When a charge is placed overall or surmounting another charge, the Rule of Tincture applies primarily between that charge and the field, not between that charge and the charge/s it lies on top of." (WvS, 17 Jun 83, p. 3) This ruling was upheld in the 22 Apr 84 cover letter. The argent part of the fountain also blends with the argent part of the field. This submission has poor contrast, and is in technical violation of the rule of tincture. DISCUSSION: Salient means 'springing'; an animal in this position has its forepaws together and its body inclined. We have reblazoned the lion in the submission as statant erect. (11/1984)

Sendri O'Harrell. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: Sendri turns out to be an obsolete form of sundry. (OED 452) Since it has been identified as a "common word" (RFS VII.1), it may not be used as a "made­up" name. (10/1985)

Seosamh O Choda. Badge. Per pall Or, purpure and argent, a cauldron sable, a harp argent, and a bunch of grapes purpure.

NOTE: It was the consensus of the College of Arms that this is too busy for a badge. (01/1985)

Septentria, Barony of. Device change. Gules, three chevronels braced argent surmounted by a laurel wreath vert, and in chief a bear passant argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: We did not receive an emblazon for this submission. (07/1986)

Seran ferch Berwyn o Aberteifi. (device). Per pall barry wavy argent and azure, argent, and vert, in pile two newts tergiant inverted abased counterchanged.

NOTE: The argent part of the "chief" blends with the argent half of the field. (09/1984)

Serena Verran. Device. Vert, a pine tree and on a chief argent, three quatrefoils vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with BRYAN MAC DHUGHAILL AN BODHADAIR: Vert, a crossbow bent palewise and on a chief argent three shamrocks slipped vert. (SCA) There is a major and a minor point (under the point­and­a­half rule) for difference in type of primary charge, but the change from shamrocks to quatrefoils is too weak a minor to add up to a second full point. (05/1986)

Sergio Descarado. Device. Or, a bend azure, in chief a triple­towered bridge gules over a river azure, in base a heart gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with FREDRIC OF CASTLEROCK: Or, a bend sable between a three­towered castle and a griffin sejant erect to sinister gules. (SCA) There is a major point for change in tincture of the bend and a minor for change in type of the charge in base. We do not feel the difference between the bridge and the castle is sufficient to make up a full second point. (12/1985)

Seth Magnus Tavistock. Device. Sable, a chief triangular gules, overall a cubit arm in armor aversant, fist clenched, argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: The chief gules on the sable field violates the rule of tincture, and we question having a charge on the field that overlaps the chief. If this is redrawn as a field division (per chevron inverted gules and sable), it will infringe on the badge of the Queen's Order of Courtesy of the East Kingdom: On a dexter glove aversent argent* a rose azure charged with another Or. (SCA). (07/1986)

Shattered Crystal, Shire of. Badge. Three mascles interlaced in pale argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with the mon of HIBINO: Sable, three diamonds in pale voided. We count less than a major point of difference for interlacing the charges. (05/1986)

Shindea de Jilbear. Name and device. Vert goutty d'eau, a dragon in decrescent, wings elevated and addorsed.

REASON FOR RETURN: Shindea neither looks nor sounds like a given name, and Jilbear does not appear to be a plausible phonetic spelling of Gilbert. The dragon is not in an heraldic position. Please choose another name, and redesign. (10/1985)

Shoshonnah Jehanne ferch Emrys. Device. Paly bendy azure and argent, a falcon rising, wings elevated and displayed, maintaining in its dexter talon a lily, all within a bordure Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: The field is visually indistinguishable from BAVARIA (lozengy bendwise argent and azure), which has, alas, been proscribed. "As in the case of France ancient, I am forced to agree ... that the Bavarian field should be reserved." (WvS, 17 Jan 84, p. 9) (08/25/1985)

Sigulf Karlnar. Device. Sable, an octopus with tentacles in base maintaining an axe in each arm Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with THOMAS AP THOMAS, "Per bend sinister azure and sable, a kraken inverted bearing in the dextermost and sinistermost tentacles two axes argent." (SCA) There is a major point for the tincture of the multi­legged creature; the remaining differences are all demoted minors. DISCUSSION: "The tentacles, being the business end of the kraken, would in normal position be in chief, and a kraken inverted would be tentacles in base." (RoH 1, 25 Apr 71, p. 7; in Prec I 35). (02/1985)

Silver Swords, Shire of. (device). Azure, three swords inverted in pile between a chevron enhanced throughout argent, charged with a laurel wreath vert, and a bar gemel wavy abased argent.

NOTE: This is poor style, as is evidenced by the rather involved blazon, and needs to be redesigned. Making the swords all palewise and replacing the chevron with a chief would improve the composition considerably. (Please note that the foregoing design has not been checked for conflict.). (09/1984)

Sionann Morgean ni Domnall Tir Conaill. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: The name does not appear to be what the submitter intended, and it contains at least one grammatical error. I thought it better, under the circumstances, to pass on Brigantia and Batonvert's comments, and let her decide which form she would like to register. Batonvert says this is rather long for a traditional Celtic name. She might want to consider shortening it to a given name and patronymic or given name and place name.

DISCUSSION: Sionnan appears to be made up, although Batonvert doesn't think it sounds unreasonable. The usual Irish form for Janet is Sinóad. Brigantia suggests that she might also want to consider Siobhan, or the diminutive form Siobhainin. Morgean is also unusual; the usual Irish form of the Welsh name Morgan is Murchadh. Mistress Alisoun suggests the Irish feminine name Muireann as perhaps being more appropriate. The patronymic particle ni requires the aspirated genitive form of the parent's given name, so it should be ni Dhomnaill (or the modern ni Dhomhnaill). And finally, to be "of" Tir Connell, she needs to insert the preposition o. (01/1986)

Sophia Magdalena of Mataria. Device. Azure, a double­bitted axe argent, hafted Or, surmounted in base by a crescent argent, all within a bordure Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts visually with DAMON CRAGDWELLER (né CRAIG OF WESTERMARK): Purpure, a double­bitted axe Or debruised by an eye argent irised azure, all within a bordure Or. (SCA). (01/1986)

Sorcha of Sherwood. Device. Per pale purpure and purpure semy­de­lys, a chevron and in base a swan naiant argent.

NOTE: Semy should cover a defined area, not part of a field. The effect here is visually confusing and unbalanced. Please distribute the fleurs-de­lys across the entire field. (03/1985)

South Downs, Barony of the. Badge. Per pale sable and azure, a pale argent and overall in base a wall gules masoned sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: I'm afraid this violates the Rule of Tincture. The gules wall must be judged against the sable­and­azure field, and that's color­on­color. The same would be true if this were a base embattled. (05/1986)

South Downs, Barony of. (badge). Per pale sable and azure, a pall enhanced conjoined to a pall inverted abased, surmounted by a fess, all within a bordure argent.

NOTE: Althouoh it is certainly possible to construct abstract shapes by combining various ordinaries, as has been done here, the blazon is usually confusing and the overall effect non­heraldic. In addition, what is depicted here infringes upon the mon of Hachioji­city, Japan. (09/1984)

South Downs, Barony of. (badge).Per fess embattled, per pale sable and azure, and gules.

NOTE: This badge has insufficient contrast. The field is divided into more than two pieces and consists entirely of colors, and it is not one of the recognized exceptions. (Rules IX.4) Please redesign. (09/1984)

Southreach, Shire of. Name only (appeal).

REASON FOR RETURN: The name conflicts with that of the SHIRE OF SOUTHERN REACHES.

SYNOPSIS: This submission was returned by Master Wilhelm in March 1984. They have appealed the ruling on the grounds that (1) "the names both look and sound sufficiently different in the opinion of the shire, and each phrase means something entirely different," and (2) the Shire of Southern Reaches is defunct. The point was also raised, in the correspondence, that (3) the two branches are some 12000 kilometers apart.

DISCUSSION: (1) Rule VI.4 states that "a name conflicts with another if it looks or sounds enough like the other name to cause confusion." Southreach and Southern Reaches are both visually and aurally similar; enough so that someone not personally familiar with the two branches is going to confuse them. I also believe that what we in the SCA would refer to as "the Southern Reaches" would have been known in the mundane world as "Southreach" ­­ in other words, the two names are linguistically identical.

(2) Names of defunct branches are protected, just as the names and arms of inactive and deceased SCA members (not to mention mundanes) are protected. While it may be true that the arguments supporting this practice are no better than the ones opposing it, the fact remains that a decision was made, long ago, to protect such names, and that this policy has been upheld more than once, by the Board as well as by the College of Arms. We can stretch the point, on occasion, when the forms of the names are different (such as the Canton of White Stone vs. the Shire of Carreg Wen), but this is out of the question when the two are nearly indistinguishable, as in the present case.

(3) Geographical proximity really isn't relevant. Modern technology makes it possible for a single kingdom to administer lands on two separate continents, and the great freedom of movement of our members means that two people who lived 12000 kilometers apart yesterday may be neighbors tomorrow. Many of our contacts are impersonal (through newsletters and such), and this lack of personal knowledge increases the chance of confusion.

Virgule has also noted that "the South Reach is a major portion of Earthsea in the trilogy by Ursula LeGuin," which raises the issue of a second potential conflict. (08/10/1985)

Sovany Barcsi Janos. Name change (from Janos a sovany Barcsi).

NOTE: Given the potentially sweeping effect of this change (if we adopt Hungarian word order for this name, we ought to do it for all Hungarian names, as we have for Japanese), we will need some documentation on the antiquity and scope of the practice, as well as on the practice itself. (12/1984)

Soviny Barcsi Jinos. Device change. Azure, a horse salient paly Or and gules atop a mount of three hillocks vert, its forelimb an arm in armor brandishing a scimitar argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: The green mount on the blue field violates the rule of tincture as it is practiced in SCA armory. We also did not receive any forms for this submission.

SYNOPSIS: Lord Jinos noted in his letter of intent that "The device is, quite clearly, in violation of the English Rules of Tincture; it is, however, in perfect keeping with Hungarian heraldry. It is the submitter's wish to possess a Hungarian device." He buttressed his argument with period examples drawn from A ,European Armorial and Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, and with undated citations from haif­a­dozen other sources; and he further noted the provisions made in the Rules for Submissions for heraldic practices drawn from other cultures.

DISCUSSION: The case is a compelling one, as is evidenced by the number of commenters who either supported it outright or found themselves leaning toward it unwillingly.

The following points spring to mind:

1) SCA heraldry is more concerned with contrast than much of mundane armory. We do not permit bordures or chiefs to break tincture, nor do we consider the ermine furs to be neutral. We restrict cases where one may use "proper." We frown on fields parted of more than two colors (and some object even to two). The Laurel rulings of the last five or six years have tended to be increasingly restrictive in this area. For us to allow vert on azure ­ a combination we consider to be "low­contrast" in comparison to others ­ would be inconsistent with established principle.

2) We have known for a considerable number of years that there were numerous instances of "false heraldry" (violations of the rule of tincture) in Continental armory, not to mention JERUSALEM. Appendix F of Woodward is devoted to proving the "multitudinous instances" of Les Armes Fausses. We have also known of the "other tinctures" to be found on the Continent ­ bleu­celeste and iron­grey, for example ­ and of the "stainand colors" (murrey, sanguine, tenné). The point is that we have steadfastly refused to allow such practices to "intrude upon the purity of Society heraldry" (HB, 20 Sep 71, p. 3); and that chief among the arguments against them is the issue of contrast.

3) The argument proceeds largely from a persona story. Persona stories can be useful beasts, when you're attempting to divine the submitter's intentions, or to adapt linguistic advice to a specific time period or culture; and they may even provide a plausible argument for a questionable or borderline practice; but they're dangerous to stand on. Personas are a matter of personal whim. We cannot regulate them, nor can we be regulated by them.

As was the case with DUNHAM WYCLIFFE (16 Dec 84, pp. 16­17), this submission argues for a special­case exception to a general rule. I noted at the time that "The exceptions I grant generally involve extenuating circumstances, and are either based on a principle I feel comfortable with repeating or else seem isolated enough to have limited scope." An exception in this case would not be limited in scope. The objections raised by Virgule are justified:

I do not like a trend toward special ... exceptions; and I am even more disturbed by basing them on persona. Are we going to end up with a plethora of special persona rules? And how do we explain to someone who demands "How come HE got away with it?" And if the lieges allegedly can not understand the present rules, how are they going to deal with something like that?

It needs to be borne in mind that SCA heraldry is a compromise. Our system is compounded of elements drawn from many different places and times. It can never be made completely "pure", nor can it accommodate every request, no matter how reasonable.

CONCLUSION: This is a case where SCA practice, rather than a specific mundane or medieval practice, must prevail.

AFTERWORD: Two points, very briefly. (1) There are, as I recall, instances from both Ioseph's and Wilhelm's tenures of green mounts on colored fields. I am specifically considering these to have been superseded as precedents by subsequent rulings. (2) Since the grounds for the submission were the admission of a "foreign" practice to SCA heraldry, I have confined the discussion in my ruling to this issue. This does not rule out rejection on other grounds. (04/1986)

Stanislaus Blachuta. Device. Argent, a decrescent sable within a mullet pierced azure.

NOTE: This conflicts with the badges of ASTRA CHRISTIANA BENEDICT, "On a mullet a cross crosslet," and AELFWYNN GYRTHESDOHTOR, "Argent, a mullet of nine points pierced azure." (SCA) (10/1984)

Stanislaus Blachuta. Device. Ermine, on a mullet azure between three wolves courant sable, a plate charged with a decrescent sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: The central charge is too complex. As most of the commenters pointed out, it is visually four layers. In addition, the ribbons or scrolls issuing from the wolves' mouths do not appear to be correct. I believe I have seen such in the attributed arms of saints, but I can't lay my hands on any examples at the moment, and I doubt this is an appropriate usage for mainstream heraldry. (The SCA usage howling or ululant indicates that the beast's head is thrown back, as if baying at the moon.) Please simplify the coat, and remove the scrolls from the wolves' mouths.

DISCUSSION: Gold Falcon noted in his LoI that "There was considerable comment within the College of Arms that the crescent within the mullet [on his previous submission] was not period style but this point was not mentioned in the return." Actually, none of the comments I have on file mentions this at all ­ one comments on the number of layers, one on the blazon, and all of them on conflict. There was a problem with the miniature emblazon, which showed the two conjoined ('pierced' in perspective); but the full­sized emblazon had had some corrective surgery performed on it with Liquid Paper. Discrepancies of this sort are not uncommon, and I assumed it meant that the submitter had been advised of the problem.

Since the question has been raised, I will note that the mullet, as drawn, does look like an attempt to represent perspective. There should be an appreciable gap between the two charges. I would also prefer that the decrescent be drawn in the conventional heraldic manner, with a ridge down the middle and the horns tucked in, although Mistress Eowyn tells me that crescents are not always represented in this manner in period drawings. (09/1985)

Stargate, Barony of. (Order of the Silver Tower; name only).

NOTE: Submission withdrawn at request of Principal Herald. (09/1984)

Starhaven, Shire of. Name and device. Azure, a shuttle palewise argent within a laurel wreath and in chief two estoiles Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: I'm sorry, but even with permission, Starhaven is too close to the Barony of Starkhavn. The device appears acceptable.

DISCUSSION: This is not, by the way, a conventional heraldic shuttle, although shuttles of this sort have been registered previously. See the examples under weaver's implements in Parker. (12/1985)

Stefan Albrecht Kaltstahl. Device (appeal of submission returned at kingdom level). Argent, a cross portate to sinister gules between two mullets of eight points and a tower azure.

NOTE: Whether or not the cross portate is period, it clearly does not take well to having charges placed around it. This device is badly unbalanced, and it does not appear to be compatible with either medieval or SCA heraldry. The College of Arms and the Laurel office concur with Gold Falcon in his decision to return the original submission. (10/1984)

Stephen Axehelm l'Etrange. Device. Purpure, a sea­gryphon erect argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with JOCELYN OF FAIRFAX: Purpure, a winged seaunicorn erect, wings addorsed argent, within a bordure Or. (SCA) There is a point of difference for the bordure, but the changes in type and position of the winged sea­creature do not add enough additional difference. (12/1985)

Stephen Locksley. (device). Vert, on a pale between, to dexter, an arrow inverted and a key wards to sinister in saltire argent, and to sinister the same, a panther rampant azure.

NOTE: This is too close to MELUSINE DE RONCEVERTE, "Vert, on a pale argent a greenbriar slip vert." (SCA) Addition of a group of secondary charges is only one point. (09/1984)

Stephen Villen Oughten. Name and device. Or, a lion rampant to sinister guardant within a cloth belt in annulo knotted in base sable.

NOTE: Villen Oughten does not appear to be Welsh. Would it be possible to obtain photocopies of the documentation cited? The applicant has asked that we make no changes to his name without consulting him. The device appears acceptable. (05/1985)

Sternwulf von Drakenwijk. Name and device. Purpure, six wolves passant guardant in annulo argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: ' Sternwulf does not appear to be correctly formed. Stern Istart is a common noun, and does not appear to have been used as a protheme. The device conflicts visually with HASTINI CHANDRA: Purpure, eight elephants passant in annulo, trunks conjoined to tails, argent. (SCA) I count a minor point of difference for the type of charge, and another minor point for number.

DISCUSSION: The device also conflicts, technically, with CASSANDRA CERNAKOVA: Purpure, six crescents in annulo argent. (SCA) The complete­difference­of­charge rule applies only when there are three or fewer charges. [XII.4] I questioned this application of the CDOC rule when it came up in March 1985 (Edward FitzRanulf, pp. 21­22), but the response from the College was unfavorable. The more I think about this, the less reasonable I find it.

It seems to me that a coat consisting of up to six identical charges, in a standard arrangement, ought to be able to invoke the CDOC rule on a case­by­case basis. As the number of charges increased, the requirement that the charges be distinctive would also have to increase. While it is not completely unreasonable to call "six wolves" against "six horses," one would expect a competent modern or medieval herald to be able to distinguish "a lion" from "a horse." (11/1985)

Stonehaven, Shire of. Name only.

NOTE: Submission withdrawn at Principal Herald's request. There is already a Shire of Stonehaven in the Middle Kingdom. (01/1985)

Stuart of Lindley. Badge. Or, a cross potent set saltirewise azure.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts visually with DE BROGLIE: Or, a saltire ancrie azure. (Woodward, Pl. XV)

DISCUSSION: Rotational conflict applies only against SCA armory or "important mundane or fictional arms (such as national or royal arms or flags)" (RFS XII.7), so there is no conflict with "Or, a cross potent azure." (Virgule has noted that the latter are the attributed arms of St. Amarand.)

Actually, there is some question as to whether the rotation rule ought to apply to mundane armory at all:

In talking with Mr. Brooke­Little, I discovered that mundane heralds consider rotation to be a significant difference. Therefore the rotation rule shall not apply between SCA submissions and mundane arms/badges, but instead only between SCA submissions. We have to worry about it because of the use of round shields on the field and the painting of the submissions on objects that can be rotated. (WvS, 26 May 83, p. 4)

I can't find any indication that this ruling was reversed, but it wasn't incorporated into the August 1984 edition of the Rules. Was this an oversight, or was it intentional?. (10/1985)

Stuart Osric de Becquet. Device (appeal). Per pale argent and gules, two boars combattant counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with BISHTON, "Per pale argent and gules, two lions combattant counterchanged." (Papworth 149)

DISCUSSION: The "new simplistic rule" referred to by Mistress Graidhne in her appeal is to be found in the discussion on complete difference of charge. (RFS XII.4) "Complete difference means that the charges are quite different in outline, so that their shapes can be seen to be different from far away. A horse statant is not completely different from any other four­legged animal statant, as the basic shape is the same, but it is completely different from a cross or a pale. The degree of difference of appearance required is greater for the cases with two or three charges than for just one, as the same arrangement does add extra similarity." Since boars and lions are both four­legged animals, complete difference of charge does not apply.

The revised point­and­a­half rule doesn't apply either, since neither of the coats contains a single dominant primary charge. The sense of overall difference (which is what the point­and­a­half rule is supposed to recognize) is missing. (06/1985)

Stuart Osric de Becquet. Device. Per pale argent and gules, two boars combattant counterchanged.

NOTE: This conflicts with BISHTON, "Per pale argent and gules, two lions rampant combattant counterchanged." (Papworth 149). (01/1985) (01/1985)

Sud degli Alpi, Shire of. Name.

NOTE: According to the Italian instructor with whom one of the people on my staff spoke, Sud degli Alpi is a form that would be used as a modifier or to indicate a direction ("over there"), but it would not be used to name a place. (10/1984)

Susan of the Black Forest. Device. Sable, a "hurst" of pine trees argent, a bordure compony gules and argent.

NOTE: A hurst is a grove or clump of trees, occurring normally "either upon a mount in base or upon a chief." (Shield and Crest, p. 160) I can find no examples of a free­floating hurst, nor can I determine how else to blazon this submission. (10/1984)

Tahtadan Kiliç. Name and device. Sable, five swords crossed "in mullet" between as many crescents, all argent.

NOTE: It would appear from the forms that Tahtadan is intended to be the given name and Kiliç, the surname. Kiliç does indeed mean 'sword', and from the example of Kiliç Arslan appears to have been used as a surname; and as nearly as I can determine, Tahtadan translates as 'wooden'. (Ingilizce­Türkçe Redhouse Sözlügü [Redhouse English­Turkish Dictionary], pages 989 and 1139. Redhouse Press, 1974) What we are lacking is some indication that Tahtadan was also used as a given name.

The device is visually confusing and is not conducive to conventional blazon. Please simplify. (10/1984)

Talan ap Rhys. Device. Per bend sinister sable and gules, a pair of wings conjoined and in chief a trefoil argent.

NOTE: This is in conflict with REYNE, "Gules, two wings conjoined and displayed argent." (Papworth 1122) There is a minor point for difference of half the field, and another minor for the addition of the charge in chief. (10/1984)

Talkative Tim the Tentmaker. Device. Vert, two chevronels between three tau crosses Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts, alas, with AUBUGEOIS DE LA VILLE DU BOST: Vert, two chevrons Or. (Rietstap) There is a single point of difference, for the addition of a group of secondary charges. (07/1985)

Talric of Sangborn. Device. Argent goutty­de­sang, on a fess azure a cubit arm palewise maintaining a sword fesswise reversed and a cubit arm palewise inverted maintaining a sword fesswise argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with TIMOTHY STONEWALL, "Argent ermined gules, a fess sable masoned argent." (SCA) There is a major point of difference for the tincture of the fess and a minor point for the charges; the difference between red gouttes and red ermine spots is insufficient. (06/1985)

Tamara Colette of Misthaven. Device. Or, a pall vert between a ferret statant and two lozenges sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with FREDERICK THURSTON: Or, a shakefork vert between three longships reversed sable. (SCA) There is at best a major and a minor point for a group of secondaries, and the difference between a pall and a shakefork is not sufficient to bring this up to two full points. This also infringes upon BEORNSTAN HUNIGBIN: Or, on a pall vert a mullet of three greater and three lesser points Or. (SCA). (07/1986)

Taras Andreievich. Device. Argent, an ass rampant gules pierced by a comet bendwise sinister azure.

NOTE: The device is extremely poor style. It also conflicts with JIANE OF OCUIRIN, "Argent, a horse forcené gules, animé and allumé azure." (SCA) DISCUSSION: This is actually a rebus ("a word represented by a picture"). Canting consists of a simple pun or allusion, usually on the surname of the bearer. (01/1985)

Tearlach the Profane. Device. Vert, two mallets in saltire within an orle Or.

NOTE: This conflicts visually with COLLEGE OF ARMS, "Vert, two straight trumpets in saltire, bells in chief, Or." (SCA) The trumpets and the mallets have the same basic shape: a long, skinny stem flaring out at one end. We feel the probability of confusion is too high. (03/1985)

Terence Irondragon. Device. Gyronny of eight from sinister chief gules and sable, a dragon rampant to sinister argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: Gyronny from chief is listed in the Rules for Submissions (IX.4) as one of the partitions that may not be made up of two colors. Please use a regular gyronny, or choose a different color combination (such as changing one of the field tinctures to Or). (05/1986)

Tezar de Aeolus. Name and device. Azure, a winged lion passant to sinister, coward, wings elevated and addorsed, Or and in chief a mullet of eight alternating straight and wavy rays argent.

NOTE: De Aeolus is a patronymic construction, which makes us mighty nervous; Aeolus was the Greek god of the winds. The device infringes upon LEONESSA DES BELLES FLEURES, "Azure, a winged lion sejant Or, beneath the forepaws two garden roses argent, stalked and leaved proper." (SCA) DISCUSSION: "On a case­by­case basis, we will allow made­up names that sound OK but which cannot be demonstrated to be consistent with period naming practices in a specific language, country or culture, so long as they are not shown to be clearly inconsistent with period naming practices." (WvS, 22 Apr 84, p. 4) I am willing to approve the given name Tezar on these grounds. (I cannot do so now because I have had to disallow the byname, which is required by Rule VII.1, and Rule VII.8 provides for the construction of a holding name only if there is a device or badge to be registered. Though this be madness, yet there is method in't.). (11/1984)

Thalin Stonefriend. Device. Per bend sinister azure and argent, two ship's wheels in bend counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with KATHERINE­THERESIA OF FRANKE­HESSIAN: Per bend sinister gules and argent, two escarbuncles counterchanged. (SCA) There is at best a minor point of difference between a wheel and an escarbuncle. (12/1985)

Thea O'Malley. Name only.

REASON: Thea appears to be a modern given name, a pet form of Dorothea. (Dunking & Gosling, p. 413) She might consider Dorothea (Withycombe 87­88), the saint's name Thei (Farmer 104, s.v. Day), or perhaps one of the forms of Alethea. (Withycombe 12­13) The latter is borderline, appearing in England in the first part of the 17th C., but I would be inclined to permit it. (08/1986)

Theodric der Sucher. Device. Or, two bendlets sinister between two decrescents sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts, alas, with ROBBENRAET: Or, two bends sinister sable. (Rietstap) There is a single point of difference, for the addition of a group of secondaries. (05/1986)

Theresa of the Ebony Rose. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: The name is too close to that of THERESA OF THE BLUE ROSE, and we have not received the copy of the letter of permission we requested. (09/1985)

Thomas ap Llewellyn. Badge. Argent, a wild man statant affronty gules clad in a loincloth sable maintaining in his dexter hand a sword inverted argent hilted sable enflamed gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with GILHAM: Argent, a savage gules holding a club over the shoulder vert. (Papworth 952) Assuming the savage is also affronty (which seems to be the default), we do not see a full point of difference for the details of the figure. (12/1985)

Thomas of St. John. Device. Per bend sinister embowed to base sable and argent, a bend sinister embowed to base between two gitterns bendwise sinister counterchanged.

NOTE: The device conflicts with JONTAN OF ICELAND, "Per bend sinister sable and argent, a bend sinister between a flanged mace and a double­bitted axe counterchanged." (SCA). (02/1985)

Thomas of Tenby. (device). Argent, a martlet displayed gules between two flaunches conjoined to a base sable.

NOTE: The base conjoined to the flaunches does not seem to be consistent with period heraldry. This is also in conflict with RORY PHALEN, "Argent, a fox rampant guardant gules between two flaunches sable." (SCA) There is one point of difference for replacing the fox with a martlet, but I can allow no more than a minor point for the addition of the base. (09/1984)

Thóra Arnketil. Device. Per bend argent and azure, two piles, triple­pointed, bowed and counterposed, in fess two hearts counterchanged.

NOTE: The commenting members of the College of Arms strongly opposed this field division. Without specific knowledge of the plate in Elvin, the emblazon is not reconstructible from the blazon. Please redesign. (10/1984)

Thordis Hakonardottir. Argent, on a bend.azure between two crosses gurgitee gules, three battleaxes palewise argent.

NOTE: The name infringes upon that of THORA HAAKONSDOTTIR, approved at the meeting of 12 August 1984. The device is too close to ANGELITA DE CABALLO RUBIO, "Argent, on a bend azure between two horses' heads erased voided gules a heart palewise argent." (SCA) Replacement of the secondary charges is a full point, and the change in type and number of the tertiary charges is an additional minor point. The cross gurgitee was defined in October 1976 as "a new, heraldic name for an ancient solar symbol." It occurs in the arms and badge of GWYNNETH SANQUEBARR. (08/24/1984)

Thorgard the Black. Sable, a bend sinister between issuant from chief a dragon's head and neck bendwise sinister and issuant from dexter base a serpent's tail bendwise sinister argent.

NOTE: Wrapping the Midgard Serpent around one's shield is not, to the best of our knowledge, consistent with either mundane or Society heraldic practice. The submission is also in conflict with SIGURD GREYWULFE, "Sable, a bend sinister between a wolf rampant to sinister and an axe bendwise sinister embrued proper" (SCA) and others. (08/24/1984)

Thorin Njalsson. Name change (from Seamus MacCuraidh of Glenerochaidh).

REASON FOR RETURN: Thorin is a dwarf­name, both in Norse mythology and in the writings of J. R. R. Tolkien, and as such may be considered a claim to be of nonhuman origin or descent. (RFS VII.5) "You cannot use the names of Middle Earth or Norse dwarves. They were not human." (WvS, 23 Jan 81, p. 9)

SYNOPSIS: The submission included a fairly lengthy argument for the use of dwarf names, and in particular Thorin, by humans. The key points of the argument were summarized as follows:

"First, Thorin exists as the name of a dwarf in the Prose Edda, and numerous examples of the use of derivatives of dwarvish names as human names exist, and one example of the use of a dwarvish name in unchanged form as a human name exists. Second, the elements Thor­ and ­in are legitimate name elements in Old Norse, and Thorin thus represents a legitimate coinage. Thirdly, numerous examples exist of the Old Norse tendency to name individuals after gods or supernatural beings."

DISCUSSION: The first argument draws the conclusion that, because the dwarf names Alf 'elf' and Vig 'battle?' also occur in human names, the human names must be derived from the dwarf names. I think it is much more likely that the dwarf and human names are drawn from the same linguistic pool, particularly since these same elements may be found elsewhere. Thor­ is, in fact, a common protheme. The suffix ­in, however, is extremely rare. Batonvert suspects that it is a form used to turn a protheme into a monothematic name. The formation would therefore appear to be valid, though uncommon. This supports the second argument, that this is a legitimate coinage. All this really proves, however, is that the dwarf­name Thorin is formed according to the same principles as human names, which is not necessarily surprising.

The third argument attempts to draw too sweeping a conclusion. Of the examples cited, the names of the gods Thor, Frey, and Tyr occur only as pro-themes, and the dwarf names Alf and Vig are elements in their own right. With the exception of Vali, no instances are given of humans being named after gods, or dwarves, or elves. To establish a pattern of "free" usage, which is what is claimed, one would need to present instances of a number of specific names being used directly, not simply alluded to. In addition to the problems noted above, I observed one fallacy and one oversight in the text of the arguments. The fallacy was expressed in the statement that "the fact that the name thus coined happens to be a dwarvish name is no barrier to its appropriateness." William and the Bastard may both be correctly combined to form a name, but the result is a recognizable conflict, and is therefore inappropriate. Thorin is a recognizable dwarf name, and must be dealt with as such.

This leads us to the oversight, which is the problem of perception. Let us say that I could demonstrate that the name Odin was actually used in period by humans. If Goodman Jack meets a person named Orm Odinsson, he is going to assume that the guy is claiming to be the son of the god, because that is how he perceives the name. A case in point is Tudor ­ a perfectly good given name ­which, because of the House of Tudor, is widely recognized as a "royal name," and must therefore be proscribed.

CONCLUSION: The documentation presented is not sufficient to support its conclusion, and even if it did, the fact that Thorin is likely to be perceived as a dwarf name by the average SCA member might still make it unacceptable.

POSTSCRIPT: Actually, I am less concerned with this particular example than I am with the arguments presented (the effect of which is potentially sweeping). It needs to be demonstrated either that a given "special" name was used repeatedly by humans in period, or that many names in the same class were so used. Even then, we will have to weigh the effect this might have on other members, who would want to know why their pantheon is being discriminated against. (07/1985)

Thorold Bjornssen. Device. Or, a gurges gules within a bordure embattled sable.

NOTE: The device conflicts with THOMAN SHADAN SECARIUS, "Or, a gurges gules, overall a dagger inverted sable." (SCA) DISCUSSION: SCA precedent notwithstanding, a gurges is a charge until proven otherwise. (04/1985)

Thoronnaur en Sinder. Name and device. Per chevron abased argent and azure, an eagle displayed, wing tips elevated, gules, and in base a mullet of four points argent.

NOTE: En means 'of the', and Sinder is very close to Quenya Sindar 'GrayElves'. (Noel 139, 190) The byname is a claim to non­human origin, and is not acceptable. (Rules VII.5) The device conflicts with STEVEG STEVEGSSON, "Per chevron argent and azure, a swan displayed gules issuant from a demiegg in base argent." (SCA). (02/1985)

Thorvald the Indomitable. Device (appeal). Azure, on a pile bendwise sinister indented Or, a hammer palewise sable.

NOTE: This submission was returned by Master Wilhelm in August 1984, with the statement, "The combination of Thor­ plus the hammer plus the lightning­flash-looking pile is too evocative of Thor, the thunder god." Brigantia has appealed this decision, noting in particular that a device containing a Thor's hammer was registered to THORBJORN GUNNARSON in June 1983.

Master Wilhelm's ruling invoked the principle of not allowing a name and device both to allude strongly to the same literary or historical character, together with a value judgement to determine whether or not the allusion was "too strong." I find myself in agreement with this ruling. In addition to the points cited by Master Wilhelm, my staff has noted that Thorvald is derived from roots meaning "Thor's power," and that the Indomitable, a term redolent of power, is not at all inappropriate for a god. While I agree with Brigantia that a Thor­ name plus a hammer (even a Thor's hammer) is not a claim to divinity, the pile (which emanates from the hammer) is reminiscent of modern depictions of electricity, and the additional references in the name serve only to strengthen the association. (05/1985)

Thorvald Wulfaersson. Device. Argent, a fess cotised gules, overall a raven displayed, head to sinister, within a serpent in annulo reguardant, head to base sable, the head and tail bound together with a cord.

REASON FOR RETURN: The raven, which lies almost entirely on the fess, does not have sufficient contrast; and the design is such there is no way to make the overlying charge larger (it is hemmed in by the serpent) or the underlying charge smaller. The design is also somewhat busy. I would suggest combining the basic motif (the bird within the serpent) with some outlying charge (a chief, base, or bordure); this ought to provide the needed difference from Haakon Redbeard, while moving enough of the visual weight out of the center of the coat to relieve both the contrast problem and the complexity. (05/1986)

Thorvald Wulfaersson. Device. Argent, a raven displayed, head to sinister, within a serpent in annulo reguardant, head to base, sable, the head and tail bound together with a cord gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is close enough to HAAKON REDBEARD ("Argent, a raven displayed with wings inverted proper, on its breast an inverted tau cross Or") to make us extremely nervous. There is a major point for the addition of the serpent, but I am not convinced that the changes to the raven (position of head and wings, and removal of the Tau cross ­ which is not inverted in the emblazon in the files) add up to a full second point. (06/1985)

Thorwulf Blueshield. Device. Azure, chaussé argent, in pale a wolf's head erased argent and in saltire a sword inverted proper and a pen argent, all between two tilting spears in pile azure.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is too complex. The sword and the feather are too small to be recognizable, and we would recommend bringing in the lines in chief so they form a pile throughout, rather than chaussé. In redesigning, watch out for ROANE FAIRGGAE OF LOCHLANN: Argent, on a pile throughout azure a harbour seal haurient argent. (SCA). (01/1986)

Timon Graham of Drakeswood. Device. Or, a sinister gore sable, and in dexter chief a bear's head erased close to sinister gules.

NOTE: This conflicts with REGULUS OF VINHOLD, above. There is a point of difference for replacing, one of the gores with the bear's head. (05/1985)

Tokugawa Turasai. Name and device. Sable, a Karabana (Chinese Flower) within six Name (waves) argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: It has previously been determined that, as far as the College of Arms is concerned, the names of the clans with an hereditary claim to the shogunate of Japan are equivalent to the surnames of royal families in Europe, and so may not be registered. I agree with this decision, and am upholding it. Tokugawa may not be used.

DISCUSSION: The fact that many Tokugawas never rose to the shogunate is beside the point. They were born with the name. When someone in the SCA assumes the name Tokugawa, he is making a conscious choice to do so, and to evoke all that the name means ­ particularly the Tokugawa shogunate. This is how it will be perceived by other SCA members. The argument that the shoguns "were ministers, not sovereigns" is academic. They wielded sufficient power to cause the Europeans to regard them as kings (the Emperor, I have been told, was thought to be equivalent to the Pope); and this is how they are most likely to be thought of by the membership of the SCA. It also doesn't matter that the Tokugawa shogunate lies outside the period of the SCA. So does the House of Windsor; and we proscribe that, too. In each case, the problem is the same ­ the perception that someone is claiming to be "of royal blood", whatever the culture or century. (05/1986)

Torgul Steingrimsson. Device change. Sable, a tyger sejant erect affronty Or, pendant from each forepaw a metal cuff and broken chain sable, fimbriated Or, on a chief argent, a crown inverted between two crowns gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: The. crown is a reserved charge, required of the arms of a kingdom and permitted as a mark of honor in the arms of a royal peer. Inverting the crown demeans it, which is inappropriate, and may be considered offensive, especially by other royal peers.

DISCUSSION: The fimbriated chains are covered by the grandfather clause, since he is in effect adding a charged chief to his existing arms. Inverting one of three identical charges on a chief is poor practice. (03/1986)

Torhthelm Eadmunding. Device. Azure, a dolphin hauriant and on a chief embattled argent three mullets sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: A truly lovely design, but the tinctures of the dolphin and the chief were incorrectly specified on the letter of intent, so the College has not had an opportunity to check it for conflict. (07/1986)

Torin Carson of V'tavia. Name and device. Per fess sable and azure, a tau cross throughout Or between in chief a mullet of eight points elongated in fess argent and two swords inverted Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: Torin is a variant of Thorin, a dwarf­name in Norse mythology (and borrowed wholesale by J. R. R. Tolkien); the latter has ruled unacceptable for use in the SCA. According to Batonvert, "The shift from initial Th to initial T is very common in Old English, and if there had been a Norse or Old English name Thorin, I would have readily justified Torin as a valid variant form." In addition, the registered form of the branch name is vatavia (without the apostrophe).

Although the individual components of the device are reasonably heraldic (with the possible exception of the cross), the combination is fairly complex, and the blazon awkward. Please redesign. (01/1986)

Torleif Nachtjgger. Device. Per pale sable and argent, a mullet of six points between in fess two comets, heads to base, counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts visually with ELRIC OF EREHWON: Per pale sable and argent, in base a mullet between in pile two lightning flashed counterchanged. (SCA) (10/1985)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Drakkar Herald (name only).

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with Drakkar Pursuivant in Atlantia. (12/1985)

Tuvor Sabledrake. Badge for House Luciter. Per chevron raguly azure and Or, a comet fesswise and a mullet of four points counterchanged.

REASON FOR RETURN: Most of the heralds commenting on this submission found the charge in chief unrecognizable. Please draw either a conventional heraldic comet (with a beard, not an erratic tail) or the Bayeaux tapestry rendition that has become popular of late.

Brigantia has said that the medieval or classical form of the household name would be 'iter lucis: it is apparently more consistent with the way such names were manufactured, and it avoids possible confusion with the name Lucifer. Please use this instead of Luciter. (01/1986)

Tycho Fugger. Device. Per bend sinister gules and sable, a bend sinister argent between an antelope rampant Or and an increscent argent.

REASON: Conflict with AQUEL OF DARKSTED WOOD, Per bend sinister gules and sable, the trunk and three branches of a blasted oak tree all couped counterchanged and fimbriated argent, overall a bend sinister argent. (SCA) All of the changes are to a group of secondary charges, which is worth at most a major and a minor point of difference. DISCUSSION: Society convention is that the charge is called a bend sinister, rather than a bendlet, when there is only one of them. (Diminutive names are reserved for the plural, or when the charge has otherwise been diminished in importance, such as by being enhanced.) This is just what it's called, not how it's drawn. (08/1986)

Tymn the Mysterious. Name only.

NOTE: We feel the name conflicts with the sorceror "Tim" in Monty Python and the Holy Grail. The spelling, Tymn does not appear to be consistent with English orthography. If he's interested in an eccentric variant of Tim, he might consider Old German Thiemno, or perhaps one of the forms of the Irish given name Tadhgh. (Withycombe, pp. 281­282, 274). (01/1985)

Unspeakable Name, College of the. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: This is an unsuitable name for a branch of the Society. Please choose another.

DISCUSSION: The most obvious candidate for "the unspeakable name" is the 'sacred tetragrammaton' or 'ineffable name' ­­ the four­lettered name of God (represented in English as Jehovah) which the Jews considered too sacred for utterance. While I hesitate to brand a single reference as excessively religious," I think the connection is inescapable; it can easily be perceived as sacrilegious, and the likelihood of people taking offense is too high.

The name is also reminiscent of the writings of H. P. Lovecraft, which Mistress Karina characterized as "at the same time fictional, nonhuman, magical, AND offensive"; and the reference to the name of the Shire of Shittimwoode is clearly, if indirectly, scatological. (08/25/1985)

Urho Waltterinen. Badge. Argent, in fess a snail shell reversed and a snail shell sable.

NOTE: This is in visual conflict with the badge of ROBIN OF GILWELL, "A moustache pointed." (SCA). (10/1984)

Urho Waltterinen. Device. Counter­ermine, on a fess nowed doubly to chief and singly to base argent, a snail shell reversed and a snail shell sable.

NOTE: This conflicts with ORSON DIE GROSSE MAUR, "Counter­ermine, a fess embattled argent masoned sable." (SCA) There is a major point for the change in the line of partition of the fess, and a minor point (demoted from major) for replacing the masoning with the snail shells. No additional difference is possible because all of the changes have been made to the same element of the coat (the fess). (10/1984)

Uriah Lightfoot. Device. Azure, a lion sejant Or, and in sinister chief a crescent argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with LUZ: Azure, a lion sejant crowned Or. (Rietstap) (12/1985)

Ursula d'Arcy. Device. Purpure, on a pale endorsed Or, an iris purpure slipped and leaved vert.

NOTE: This conflicts with WILLIAM OF BLACKMOOR, "Purpure, on a pale between two double­bitted axes Or, a sword purpure." (SCA) There is a major point of difference for change in type of secondaries (endorses vs. axes), and a minor point for the tertiary charge. (03/1985)

Val Coeur, Shire of. Name and device. Or, a heart gules maintained by two coneys sejant erect sable, in base a laurel wreath vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: The name conflicts that of the SHIRE OF COEUR DU VAL. The chances for confusion are high enough that I would not normally allow this at all, even if the existing branch gave permission. This is a hardship case, however, and there are differences in word order and meaning (however subtle this may be to a non­French speaker); so if it can be shown that the group submitted prior to June 1982 (when COEUR DU VAL was approved), and if they can obtain permission, I will make an exception. The device has the form of an achievement of arms, with the rabbits serving as supporters, and the laurel wreath, the compartment. The style, as Brigantia noted, is "not the best," but it would probably have been acceptable through the end of 1981, if not later; and the doctrine that the arms of branches should set a good example seems to date from about May 1983. As with the name, if the original submission took place before June 1982, I will grant a hardship exception. DISCUSSION: A hardship case is one in which a submitter deserves special consideration due to chronic errors on the part of the heralds. It should not be confused with the grandfather clause. (07/1985)

Valbairn Graycroft of Deeside. Name and device. Azure, a chevron engrailed to base between six hearts, four and two, argent, and three hunting horns reversed Or.

NOTE: Valbairn appears to be coined along the lines of a surname, rather than a given name, and we do not presently allow surnames to be used as given names. There are several problems with the device. The number and arrangement of the charges on both sides of the chevron is non­standard, as is modifying only the lower edge of an ordinary. Please redesign. (10/1984)

Valgard Stonecleaver. Badge. Or, a scourge of three lashes counter­ermine.

REASON: See discussion under KRYSTA OF STARFALL, above. (08/1986)

Vashti of the Flaming Tresses. Device. Purpure, a flame between in pale two estoiles and in fess an increscent and a decrescent Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with KATYA WANDERER: Purpure, a saltire between in pale two mullets of four points and in fess an increscent and a decrescent Or. (SCA) There is a major point for changing the type of the primary charge, and a minor point (which demotes) for changing part of a group of secondaries. (07/1985)

Vasili iz Naitemneshoi Dollina. Device (appeal). Gules, three seraph's heads argent, winged Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: Conflict with MAYDESTONE: Gules, three women's heads couped at the shoulder argent, hair disheveled Or. (Papworth 936)

SYNOPSIS: Lord Vasili has had a rather hard time of it. Gules, a seraph's head Or proved to be identical to a coat in Rietstap. Gules a seraph's head argent was returned for the same conflict. Gules, three seraph's heads argent was held to infringe upon Gules, three savage's heads affronty [erased] argent. I noted at this time that "He needs an additional minor point. A partial change in tincture (such as making the wings Or) would be sufficient." Unfortunately, Gules, three seraph's heads argent, winged Or turned out to be too close to Gules, three women's heads couped at the shoulder argent, hair disheveled Or. Dragon has appealed this most recent return, noting that "Lord Vasili and the Middle, acting in good faith, accepted Lord Laurel's direction. Lord Laurel, now it seems, calls conflict with his own suggestion." He has also noted that seraph's heads are by default affronty, while the default position for human heads is in profile.

DISCUSSION: In order to make more efficient use of time and space, I have to resort to a certain amount of shorthand in writing the LoARs, picking and choosing what I will repeat, or what I will spell out to the Nth degree.

Despite the attempts that have been made to impute this particular characteristic to me, I will not undercut the role of the College of Arms in commenting on submissions, particularly in matters of conflict, by offering guarantees I am not in a position to fulfill. I do not have access to Renesse (the ordinary to Rietstap), or to the first volume of the Lyon ordinary; nor, for that matter, do I even have the time to pursue such questions in Papworth, Woodward's, or the half­dozen other references to which I do have access. (Note the frequency with which I return or "pend" a submission because it was misblazoned in the letter of intent, and so could not be properly researched.) I rely on the commenting members of the College of Arms to provide this necessary function.

When I offer advice in matters of conflict, it is usually to pass on a suggestion made in one of the letters of comment, generally qualified with a phrase like "you might try" or "barring other conflicts." (I cannot, for example, guarantee that an SCA submission won't be registered in the interim upon which the suggested coat would infringe.) Alternatively, I may indicate how I would choose to interpret the rules of difference in a certain case. This kind of advice I do consider binding, and it was the kind of statement I was trying to offer. "Your submission needs an additional minor point of difference. The amount of weight that may be accorded a minor point varies. I would consider a partial change in tincture to contribute sufficient visual weight to bring you clear of the present mundane conflict."

Because I was addressing a commenting member of the College of Arms, rather than "one of the lieges," I did not proceed to qualify my statement further. "Please bear in mind that this advice applies only to the discussion at hand. You and your kingdom herald are, as always, responsible for ensuring that any changes you make do not subject you to other possible conflicts." I assumed that, in this case, my audience was sufficiently experienced to be aware of the caveats. I appear to have been mistaken. Please accept my apologies for any confusion my lack of explicitness may have caused.

My December 1985 letter actually gave two reasons for returning the modified coat. The first­named, and primary reason, was that no blazon was given in the letter of intent. Without an accurate blazon, the commenting heralds could not be expected to do the conflict research; and even with the original return in front of them, they couldn't be completely certain they had it right, since I suggested a class of change (with a specific example), not an exact blazon.

On the question of the default position of maiden's heads, Parker (p. 313) says that they "are drawn as the head and shoulders of a woman ' affronty, couped below the breasts, her hair dishevelled, and usually wreathed with a garland of roses." He notes MAYDENSTUN among his examples.*

* I am indebted to Treblerose for bringing this to my attention. It was new to me, and it just goes to show, as J. P. Brooke­Little remarks in his preface to the Robson Books edition of An Heraldic Alphabet, that

You can study heraldry until you are azure ... in the face but inevitably discover, from time to time, that you really are quite vert ... I have found this over and over again but, never forget, herein lies the fun and if heraldry ever ceases to be fun [meaning, among other things, when you cease to discover just how green you are] ­­ chuck it.

Personally, I do not feel that three seraph's heads should conflict with three man's heads, even if the tinctures are the same. There is a clear major difference between the coats ­ they belong to two different people ­ and when the coats aren't cluttered with the life history of their owners, this should be sufficient. This is not, however, how our system of difference works. However much I may dislike this ­ (and my staff can tell you how much I balked at returning the earlier coat in January 1985) ­­ I cannot offer a replacement system of difference, and it would be irresponsible of me to try to substitute "it's clear because I think it should be" for our present system of difference, no matter how flawed that system may be. Personal discretion only goes so far. It is incumbent upon me to treat this as a conflict.

Lord Vasili, I would suggest that you look into either a change in the number of the charges or a parted field. This would, I think, improve your chances of finding a design comparable in simplicity (although not, perhaps, as elegant) that does not infringe on an existing coat. (07/1986)

Vasili iz Naitemneshoi Dollina. Device. Gules, three seraph's heads argent.

NOTE: This conflicts with VIGNE, "Gules, three savages's heads affronty erased argent," and VICTOR, "Gules, three savage's heads affronty argent." (Papworth 936) There is a major point for difference in type of head; he needs an additional minor point. A partial change in tincture (such as maiking the wings Or) would be sufficient. (01/1985)

Vasili iz Naitemneshoi Dollina. Device. Gules, three seraph's heads argent, winged Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: No blazon for the submission was given in the letter of intent. The device conflicts with MAYDESTONE: Gules, three women's heads couped at the shoulder argent, hair disheveled Or. (Papworth 936) There is a single point of difference, for the type of head. (12/1985)

Vatavia, Barony of. Badge. Azure, semy of dragonflies Or.

NOTE: This conflicts with the Napoleonic badge, "Azure, semy of bees Or," and infringes upon France Ancient, "Azure, semy­de­lis Or." The complete difference of charge rule applies to one, two, or three charges. (Rules XIII.4). (01/1985)

Verden Ddraig Ryfelgar. Name and device. Per bend Or and purpure, a griffin segreant counterchanged.

NOTE: Verden is a surname. (Reaney DBS 363) He still needs a given name. The device conflicts with ALFONSO DE CASTILLE, "Or, a griffin segreant sable." (SCA). (02/1985)

Vladimir Bloodaxe the Rus. Device. Argent, a double­headed vulture displayed gules maintaining in base two battleaxes inverted in saltire sable.

REASON FOR RETURN: As drawn, the double­headed vulture is not recognizable. Vultures are probably best represented in profile; displayed, they are indistinguishable from eagles and other raptors. Please choose another charge, or find a more distinct position. I'm inclined to consider this a conflict with MILTON: Argent, an eagle displayed double­headed gules armed sable. (Papworth 296) (03/1986)

Vladimir Nachtkind. Name only.

NOTE: Perhaps we are being overly sensitive, but we find the combination of Vladimir (a given name commonly associated with Dracula) and Nachtkind (German 'night child') excessive. ("Listen to them ­ the children of the night. What music they make!") We also did not receive any forms for this submission. (05/1985)

Volsung Redbeard of Kimaden. Name and device. Gules, a wolf salient to sinister argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: According to Virgule and Brigantia, Volsung is the eponymous ancestor of the tribe of the same name in the Volsunga Saga. If the submitter can find other instances of Volsung used as a given name in period, he should be able to use it; otherwise, I'm afraid we have to treat it as a byname. (Master Wilhelm's original rejection states that "The Volsung were a particular group of heroes," which suggests that, even as a byname, it may still be off limits. I don't have enough information on hand to tell.) Mistress Alisoun has suggested Valgard (from Njal's Saga) and the Saxon name Wulfstein as possible alternatives; Master Wilhelm has volunteered Wolsind or (as an anglicized form) Volsind. Perhaps he'd like to try one of these.

The device conflicts with LOWE: Gules, a wolf statant argent (Papworth 98); and with WEISSENWOLF: Gules, a wolf rampant argent. (Woodward 228) In each case, there is a single point of difference, for the position of the wolf. ("Salient to sinister" is a position, just as "passant" is. The orientation is not counted separately.) Adding a bordure ought to take care of the conflicts cited, but the device will have to be resubmitted with one added, so it can be checked again. (We only consider one version of a submission at a time.). (09/1985)

Waldemar Eriksson. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with Waldemar IV, Duke of Schleswig, son of Eric I of Schleswig (died 1272); and with Waldemar V, Duke of Schleswig, son of Eric II of Schleswig (died 1325). (07/1985)

Warrick of Standen. Name and device. Per pale argent and sable, a Latin cross fourché between in base two doves displayed counterchanged.

NOTE: The sources cited do not support the argument that Warrick is a given name. Reaney (DBS 372) treats it as distinct from Warwick, but he still considers it to be a surname, as does Black. (p. 802) The device conflicts with the AUGUSTINE HOSPITAL OF ST. MARY LE GRAND, "Per pale argent and sable, a cross moline counterchanged." (Papworth 617) There is a major point for the addition of the doves, but the cross depicted here is too similar to a cross moline to contribute any additional difference. (04/1985)

Wealhhnutu, March of. Device. Per pale argent and vert, a Gila monster statant proper, and on a chief per pale vert and argent a laurel wreath counterchanged three walnuts proper. (Heloderma suspectum; Juglans sp.).

REASON FOR RETURN: The laurel wreath really isn't recognizable in this configuration ­­ it has to be stretched out to encompass the three walnuts on the chief, causing it to look more like a bough or sprig. Brigantia has suggested placing the Gila monster between three walnuts, with the laurel wreath on the chief; or the nuts on the chief and the laurel wreath around the beastie. (07/1985)

Weland Fogeater of Yulewood. Name and device. Barry wavy argent and azure, a Sutton Hoo helmet affronty sable, detailed argent, on a chief azure, a sprig of holly between two owls close addorsed argent.

REASON: Weland or Wayland was "A wonderful and invisible smith of English legend...a supernatural smith and king of the elves." (Benét 1193) As a given name, we consider it to be "famous and unique" within the intent of RFS VI.4; it may not be used. The helmet does not appear to be a suitable heraldic charge, and the combination of magical and mythical references in the name and device is excessive. My advice to the submitter would be to pick one or two elements, and redesign around these. DISCUSSION: "Detailed" serves the same purpose in this blazon as "marked" does in the blazon of an animate charge­it indicates that a significant portion of the charge has been executed in a second tincture, without attempting to describe exactly what part has been colored.

The College has questioned whether the "Sutton Hoo helmet" is a suitable charge. Laurel has ruled on past occasions that specific artifacts should not be used as heraldic charges. At the Great Conclave in 1979, Lady Karina returned several instances of a piece of jewelry (I believe it was a Scythian stag), and Master Wilhelm instructed an applicant to redraw a charge "so that it is not an exact copy of the Oseburg vessel's figurehead." (24 Oct 79, p. 15) There may be enough counter­examples in SCA heraldry to override these rulings (I can't think of any offhand), but the objections to this particular submission were sufficient to warrant, at the very least, declining to register it until the issue has been resolved.

Finally, and most difficult to express, there is a question of the overall symbolic content of the name and device. The "pagan" helmet, the holly, the owls, "Yulewood", the questionable humanity of the epithet "Fogeater", and the name of Weland the Smith, all interconnect and combine in enough ways to make even me leery. As Kraken observed, "This is not heraldry, but some sort of personal symbolism that has no place in heraldic art." (08/1986)

Welfengau, Canton of. Name only (appeal).

NOTE: The appeal addressed itself primarily to refuting the argument "that the citizens of Guelph, Ontario, would object to the idea of being subjects of a medieval warlord, which is one interpretation of the suffix 'gau'." Unfortunately, this was not among the reasons cited when the original submission was returned. "Guelph in period (Welf in German) was a major faction in the Holy Roman Empire and/or Italy that feuded with the Ghibellines (German ­­ Waiblingen). Welfengau thus, in period, would mean their land. Guelph was not a place name in period. There is also a prohibition against using the current mundane name of the area a branch is located in. Given these combined problems, the name Welfengau is not acceptable as a branch name." (WvS, 12 Nov 83, pp. 8­9).

The questions that need to be addressed are (1) is this name too similar to the mundane location of the branch (RFS VIII.3­5), and (2) does it infringe upon the surname Guelph, which is proscribed for personal use (RFS VII.4)? The appeal needs to be revised to address these issues. (01/1985)

Westermark, Barony of. Badge. Two piles palewise throughout argent, and in base five plates in annulo, all within a bordure argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: Fieldless badges may not have bordures, nor may they use charges (such as piles) which issue from the edge of the field. Please specify a field or choose an enclosing charge (such as an annulet), the shape of which is defined. The design is also complex, particularly for the badge of an SCA branch.

DISCUSSION: "Fieldless badges may not use charges that issue from the edge of the field, like a pale, gore, flaunches, chief, etc., because there is no edge and so the shape is unspecified." (RFS XI.7) "The College will not register a badge without a field that has a division of the field or an ordinary or subordinary that depends on the shape of the field for its own shape. This means that you cannot register a fieldless badge with a pale, because if a pale is on a lozenge it is pointed at both ends, while on a heater it is straight at both ends. A badge with a field has the field in the shape of a roundel. A badge without a field is just the charge(s) it contains. If you want just a mullet on a pale for a badge, blazon it as a mullet on a billet." (WvS, 24 Feb 81, p. 5)

Unlike a device (or one of the secondary devices we register as tinctured badges), which is expected to fill (and therefore conform in shape to) the background on which it is displayed, a fieldless badge is free­standing. The shape of its outer edge must be fixed. In the present case, the bordure defines the shape of the upper edge of the piles, but it does so in terms of its own shape, which isn't defined. Defining one unknown in terms of another still leaves you with an unknown. (08/25/1985)

Westermark, Barony of. Badges. (1) Azure, a "W" throughout argent and in base five plates in annulo, all within a bordure argent. (2) Gules, a "W" throughout argent and in base five plates in annulo, all within a bordure argent. (3) Purpure, a "W" throughout argent and in base five plates in annulo, all within a bordure argent. (4) Sable a "W" throughout argent and in base five plates in annulo, all within a bordure argent. (5) Vert, a "W" throughout argent and in base five plates in annulo, all within a bordure argent.

REASON FOR RETURN: No formal restriction is placed on the number of badges a branch may be submit because it is assumed that branches may have good and constructive reasons for more than one badge. This is an abuse of the privilege. Please advise them to pick one. (03/1986)

Westermark, Barony of. Five badges (appeal). (Azure, gules, purpure, sable, vert), a "W" throughout argent and in base five plates in annulo, all within a bordure argent.

REASON: The design is still complex, this is still an abuse of privilege, and the extortion threat with which the submission concludes is an affront to the Society's ideals of chivalry and courtesy. (08/1986)

Wilhelm von dem Bajwarischen Berg (submitted as Wilhelm von der Bajwarisch Haufen). Name and device. Azure, a chevron, in chief a plumed helm between two pairs of spears crossed in saltire, and in base a plumed helm Or.

NOTE: Von requires the dative case, so der becomes dem and Bawarisch acquires the ending -en. The German word for 'mountain' is Berg; Haufen means 'heap, pile'. (The amended name should be run by the College of Arms a second time, to make sure I haven't introduced any new errors.) As Vesper and Brachet have pointed out, a "plumed helm," in heraldry, would be something along the lines of a great helm with a whacking big feather for a crest. It is clear from the submitter's documentation that he has a specific kind of Roman helmet in mind; it would help us to know its name. The submission conflicts with RODERICK AP CENYDD, "Azure, a chevron between a label and a stag's head Or." (SCA) There is difference in both type and number of a group of secondary charges, yielding one­and­a­half points. (11/1984)

Wilihelm Roderick FitzLovel. Badge. On a billet gules a wolf rampant Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: It was the consensus of the College of Arms that this appears to be a display of the arms "Gules, a wolf rampant Or" (the MARQUIS DE ALBERTAS: Rietstap). This means, unfortunately, that the advice we've been giving on fieldless badges is wrong: we don't want someone to "use a billet instead of a pale." The discussion at the Laurel meeting yielded the guideline that the underlying charge should probably be a "thing", rather than a convex geometric shape. Using a complex line of division on the outside edge of the charge would probably help, too. The problem is one of perception: if the underlying charge looks too much like one of the standard shapes upon which arms are borne, then the badge is going to look like a miniature display of those arms. (06/1986)

William Blackstone of Blackmoor. Name only.

NOTE: The name conflicts with that of Sir William Blackstone (1723­1780), the noted author of Commentaries on the Laws of England, and with WILLIAM OF BLACKMOOR. (SCA). (03/1985)

William Nighthawk of the Wastes. Device. Argent, a tower sable, the portal and ramparts enflamed proper, between in fess two crosses of Celtic interlace, all within a bordure vert.

REASON FOR RETURN: "Knotwork is not, by and large, heraldic. A few simple knots have made it into mundane heraldry (e.g., Bowen knot) or into Society heraldry by definition and the circulation of drawings (e.g., Donnelly knot), but your elaborate interlace cannot be described or defined." (KFW, 27 Au, 80, p. 3; in Prec II:22) There is really no reasonable way to describe these crosses so an artist can draw them without having seen the emblazon. Please choose another, more common form of cross. (07/1985)

William of Bellwood. Device. Sable, a chevron checky sable and Or and in dexter chief a lion passant Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: The chevron does not have sufficient contrast ­­ half of it vanishes into the field, leaving the viewer with a confused visual impression. A charge checky, compony, or counter­compony should not be placed on a field which is the same tincture as part of the charge. (07/1985)

William of Brittany. Device. Per pale vert and argent, a spear palewise and a chief embattled counterchanged.

NOTE: The College of Arms felt that counterchanging a skinny object along its long axis was poor style and had insufficient contrast. (10/1984)

William the Hermit. Device. Azure, a bend sinister between a dragon passant, to sinister and an owl close to sinister argent.

NOTE: The device conflicts with GIVENDWYN THE SILENT, "Azure, a bend sinister between a winged unicorn counter­salient and a bat­winged manticore couchant argent." (SCA). (02/1985)

Willow of the Wood. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: Submission withdrawn by Principal Herald. (07/1986)

Wind Dragon, Shire of. Name only.

NOTE: The name conflicts with that of the SHIRE OF WYNDWYRM. Wyrm is an archaic spelling of worm 'a serpent, snake, dragon'. (OED) (03/1985)

Winter's Gate, Barony of. Order of the Silver Swan (name only).

NOTE: The name of the Order conflicts with that of HOUSE SILVERSWAN. (SCA). (12/1984)

Wolfgar of Tyrone. Device. Vert, in pale a wolf's head erased and an eagle displayed Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with ELMESLEY: Vert, an eagle displayed Or (Papworth 304); and with MAELGWYN DDA: Vert, a wolf's head erased within a bordure rayonny Or. (SCA) In the first case, there is a point for adding the wolf's head; in the second, a point for replacing the eagle with the bordure. (05/1986)

Wolfgar of Tyrone. Device. Vert, three eagles displayed, heads to center, between as many wolves' heads erased, necks to center, all in annulo, Or.

REASON FOR RETURN: This arrangement of charges is difficult to blazon clearly, the individual charges are not recognizable, and the overall design is visually confusing. I'm afraid this really isn't heraldic. Please choose a more conventional design. (08/25/1985)

Wolfgarr der Airegar. Name and device. Sable, a mullet of five pheons, hafts conjoined, Or.

REASON: We were unable to find Airegar in any of the German dictionaries we consulted. Mine gives Krieger for warrior"; it this what the applicant wanted? (Star has also suggested Ehriger, which has the same pronunciation. He didn't offer a translation, and my dictionary doesn't list it. Ehr­ seems to mean "honor".). The device conflicts visually with the badge of ASTRA CHRISTIANA BENEDICT, On a muller, a cross crosslet. (SCA) In redesigning, watch out for DE PENSHORST, Sable a mullet Or. (Papworth 990) If these were drawn as five separate pheons, the difference would be more visible. (08/1986)

Wyndmere, Shire of. Name only.

REASON FOR RETURN: The name conflicts with that of Windermere, the largest lake in England, which figures (variously spelled) in half a dozen entries in the Armorial. (NCE 2988). (05/1986)

Xenon of Gray Tower. Name and device. Azure,a chevron argent surmounted by a unicornate natural seahorse Or between three mullets argent.

NOTE: Xenon does not appear to be a correctly formed Greek given name. The noble gas of the same name was discovered in 1898, and is out of period. (OED) The device is too similar to the arms of ARNOTT, "Azure, a chevron between three mullets argent. " (Papworth 459). (12/1984)

Yosef Alaric. Name correction (to Yosef Alaric of the Baliset).

NOTE: "A balisette is a musical instrument in Frank Herbert's DUNE, which makes it out of period by at least several millennia." (KFW, 30 Jun 79, p. 74; in Prec II, p. 3) [The quotation is from the Conclave letter, on the name of ALANA BALISETTE.] "BALISET: a nine­stringed musical instrument, lineal descendant of the zithra, tuned to the Chusuk scale and played by strumming. Favorite instrument of Imperial troubadours." (Frank Herbert, Dune, page 514. Berkeley Medallion, 1977.).

Although the epithet "of the Baliset" appears on Yosef Alaric's original submission form, I can find no evidence that it was ever approved. His name and device appeared in Ioseph of Locksley's acceptance letter of 31 Jul 84. The office copy of this letter has the epithet written in by hand, but this was apparently done at a later date by someone other than Ioseph. Since we know the term to be non­period, I do not feel I can approve the correction without a more certain indication that the omission was accidental. (10/1984)

Yrjö Kirjawiisas. (change of device). Ermine, a lion rampant between three battle­axes sable.

NOTE: This conflicts with BROUGHTON, "Ermine, a lion rampant sable." (Papworth 75) According to the Rules for Submissions, "Adding or removing a group of identical secondary charges counts as a major point of difference." (XIII.A.4.b, p. 27) He needs an additional minor point. DISCUSSION: The other conflicts cited were WEEKES, "Ermine, three battle axes sable" (Papworth 12) and HOURI THE SAVAGE, "Argent, a lion rampant sable, armed, orbed, and langued gules." (SCA) Under rule XII.9, Master Yrjö's submission differs from WEEKES by the addition of the principal charge ­ in this case, the lion ­ which causes the battle­axes to be demoted to secondary charges. The device is technically clear of HOURI THE SAVAGE, although a case could be made for reducing the importance of the secondary charges because of questionable contrast with the ermine field. (09/1984)

Yseult of Broceliande. (device). Argent, eight scimitar blades radiating from center azure.

NOTE: This is in visual conflict with HERST, "Argent, an eight­pointed estoile argent." (Papworth 694). (09/1984)

Yvonne von Bremen. (device). Argent, three pallets sable between two griffins combatant vert.

NOTE: This conflicts with ARMSTRANG, "Argent three palets sable." (Papworth 1014) Addition of a group of secondary charges is only one point. (09/1984)

Zenobia of Rebelswood. Device. Argent, a unicorn rampant between in chief two arrows palewise gules.

REASON FOR RETURN: This conflicts with JIANE OF OCUIRIN: Argent, a horse forceny gules, animee and alumee azure (SCA); and with CRATFORD: Argent, a unicorn salient gules. (Papworth 983) The charges in chief are worth only a minor point. (01/1986)



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