Ástrídr Oddsdóttir. Device. Lozengy ermine and vert, two corbies close respectant proper.

Conflict with Yamamoto (Hawley's Mon, p. 50), Two doves respectant. There is only one CD for fieldlessness, but the difference in type of bird is insufficient for the second here. (12/94)

Aarnimetsä, Barony of. Order name for Katkenneen Kynän Ritarikunta.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Aaron of the Black Mountains. Device. Argent, on a pile sable a Maltese Cross argent, a bordure counterchanged.

We need documentation for the motif of counter-changing a bordure over a pile before we can register this. (3/94)

Aaron Whyteshade. Badge. Or, a rose slipped inverted between two roses slipped all barbed and seeded proper interlaced with a sword fesswise between two more swords fesswise reversed sable, all within a bordure vert.

"A similar design was returned in July 1993 `because the arrows are pointing in four different directions, the blazon required to describe it would be so complex as to clearly show the non-period style of the submission.' We have the same problem here." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR November 1994, p. 15) "The arrows are not in a blazonable heraldic posture. They aren't fretted `in cross', as blazoned on the LOI, but more like `in crosshatch' -- with two arrows fesswise and two bendwise sinister. Moreover, because the arrows are pointing in four different directions, the blazon required to describe it would be so complex as to clearly show the non-period style of the submission." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR July 1993, p. 12) The style problem becomes even more pronounced with three each of two different types of charge. (5/96)

Aaron Whyteshade. Device. Vert, a phoenix rising Or from flames gules surmounted by a sword inverted sable all issuant from base in chief a crescent inverted Or.

Withdrawn from consideration by the submitter. (6/95)

Abaddon Barbarossa. Device. Per bend sinister sable and gules, on a cross formy Or a cross maltese gyronny sable and gules, a base Or.

While the argument that a Maltese cross is "four arms joined at a single point" is interesting, the visual reality is that it is seen as a single charge (a cross), and thus is seen as gyronny, not as four different charges each divided along a pale or fess line. The rules are quite clear that gyronny of two colors is not registerable. (3/94)

Abaddon Barbarossa. Name.

No evidence was presented either in the appeal or in the commentary that the given was ever used by humans, in or out of period. As a consequence, we are unable to register it here. (3/94)

Achbar ibn Ali. Badge. [Fieldless] A compass star issuant from each point a lightning bolt argent.

The overall effect of this badge is very modern, consisting as it does of a non-period charge treatment (the thunderbolts) of another non-period charge (the compass star). As such, it falls afoul of the strictures of RfS VIII.4. (Obtrusive Modernity) and VIII.4.d. (Modern Style).

Additionally, there is a visual conflict with the badge of Cerelia de Lacy of Sherborne, Purpure, an escarbuncle argent. There is the fieldless CD, but it takes the eye too long to sort out the other differences between the two in all the "busy-ness" of the charges. (1/96)

Adam Polotsky. Badge. Erminois, a brazier sable enflamed proper.

Conflicts with the badge of Henry IV, [Fieldless] A blazing firepot sable, fired proper. There is one CD for fielded versus fieldless. (3/94)

Adam the Unexpected. Name.

As was noted in the 4/94 return of Deirdre the Distracted (Ansteorra), no evidence has been presented to show that fairly abstract past participles like this were used as nicknames in period. Lacking such evidence, we must return the name.(2/96)

Adelicia Gilwell. Badge change. [Fieldless] A Catherine's wheel gules.

Conflict with Akimoto (Hawley's Mon, p. 68), A wheel, with one CD for fieldlessness, and with Jago (Rietstap), D'argent à une roue de six rayons de gueules (Argent, a wheel of six spokes gules), with the same point count. (9/94)

Adelicia Gilwell. Badge. [Fieldless] A Catherine's wheel gules.

Conflict with Iathus of Scara, Ermine, a cog wheel gules. There is the fieldless CD, but a visual comparison showed that the only difference between the two wheels is the shape of the "bumps" on the outer edge. (10/95)

Adriana Mendeith. Device. Per chevron argent and azure, two mullets and a unicorn passant counterchanged.

The device conflicts with Day (Papworth, p. 994), Per chevron argent and azure, three mullets counterchanged. There is only one CD for the change to type of the bottommost of three charges two and one. (9/94)

Aduke Ayoka Opo. Name.

The 1/93 registration of Leona Serwa offers both a precedent for registering Yoruba names and some information on how they are formed; however, no documentation whatsoever was provided with the submission form, so we are unable to verify either the individual elements or the manner in which they are combined. (9/95)

Aedhán Brecc. Device. Vair, a bordure Or semy of wolves passant sable.

The wolves are in no known heraldic posture [one of those suggested was "slinkant" ], and are not identifiable without recourse to the blazon, in violation of RfS VII.7.a. ("Identification Requirement. Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance."). This is being returned for redrawing the wolves more identifiably as wolves and in a clearly passant posture. (2/95)

Aelfric of the Black Arrow. Device. Gyronny gules and argent, an arrow sable.

Conflict with Ota (Hawley, p. 53), An arrow. There is only one CD for fielded versus fieldless. Additionally, the head and fletching of the arrow are drawn too small, which alone has been grounds for return in the past. (11/93)

Aelfwyn Huntingdon. Badge. [Fieldless] A tricorporate killer whale proper.

Because the orcas do not really have a discrete "head", the tricorporation of the beast does not work very well, making as it does identification a bit problematical. (See, e.g., RfS VII.7.a. "Identification Requirement - Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." and RfS VIII.3. "Armorial Identifiability - Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability.") (3/95)

Ælfgar Hæweneage. Device. Argent, a chevron sable overall a wyvern displayed azure, a bordure sable.

Many commenters noted that apparently a tincture was missing from the blazon (in fact, the chevron is, as many thought, sable rather than azure) which would reduce the identifiability of the wyvern unacceptably. This would normally cause the submission to be pended for research under the correct blazon. However, the wyvern is not drawn a azure, it is mixed azure and purpure in a way which is not describable heraldically. Please have him redraw with an azure wyvern if that is what he wants. (5/95)

Ælfgar the Irrepressible. Device. Checky argent and sable, a chief engrailed gules.

Conflict with Brock (Papworth, p. 371), Checky argent and sable. A chief is not a primary charge and so X.1 can not be invoked here, as a consequence there is only once CD for the addition for the peripheral charge. (4/94)

Ælflin Wodende. Name change from Affelin of Wodende.

Listed on the LoI as an appeal of a Laurel respelling, because the submitter is changing the construction of the given and dropping the particle, this should really be classified as a name change. (She isn't appealing the Laurel change, she's making changes of her own.)

The byname is fine. The diminutive suffix -(e)lin, however, is of Continental Germanic (CG) origin, and no one found any evidence for its use in Old English. The prototheme Ælf-, on the other hand, is only Old English; its CG cognate is Alb-, Alp-, Alv-, Alf-. The CG diminutive Alflin would be entirely acceptable and indeed is attested by Morlet in the form Albilinus; but since she allows no changes, we must return the name. (10/95)

Ælfwine Akeworthe. Badge. Vert, a tree blasted and eradicated argent and overall a sinister fist Or.

Conflict with Ioseph of Locksley (SCA), Vert, a tree eradicated argent. There is a CD for the addition of the overall charge, but as has been noted before, in period trees were often drawn with branches each ending in a single leaf, which is not sufficiently different from a tree blasted to allow us to grant a CD between them. (8/94)

Ælfwyn av Bornholm. Device. Azure, a sword inverted proper, flaunches argent each charged with a mullet azure.

Conflict with Roderick Gilchrist (SCA), Azure, a sword inverted proper, a pair of flaunches argent one charged with a dexter and one with a sinister wing vert. There is one CD, for the changes to the tertiaries. (10/94)

Ælric Kyrri. Device. Argent, on a cross azure a compass-star elongated to base Or, and a bordure embattled azure.

Conflict with Madeleine FitzRobert da la Foret (SCA), Argent, on a cross azure an escallop inverted Or, overall a bordure embattled counterchanged. There is a CD per X.4.j.ii. for the change to type of tertiary, but X.4.d. does not allow a second for the change in tincture to well less than half the bordure, and a visual comparison demonstrated the overwhelming visual resemblance. (5/95)

Ælric Kyrri. Device. Argent, on a cross cotised azure a compass-star elongated to base Or, a bordure embattled azure.

Conflict with Garth of Windhaven, Argent, on a cross cotised azure a heart Or pierced by a sword inverted proper. There is a CD for the addition of the bordure, but as this is not a "simple" device per X.4.j.ii, the change to type only of the tertiary charge does not apply. A visual check showed that the heart and sword combination appears as a visual unit, not as two charges, so we cannot grant a CD for change to type and number of the tertiaries. (3/96)

Aengas Macc Laídig. Device. Per chevron argent and gules, two wolves combattant sable maintaining a heart gules.

Conflict with ?ent (Chesshyre and Woodcock, p. 266), Azure, two greyhounds combatant sable. There is one CD for the change to the field, but nothing for either the maintained charge or for the difference in canines. (10/94)

AEsilief inn Harlogi. Name.

The byname, given as inn Hárlogi on her form, is incorrectly constructed for the desired meaning of `the Flame-hair', which in any case does not appear to be compatible with the literal nature of Old Norse bynaming. (The only period language in which a byname with this meaning has been found is Greek; synonymous constructions in other languages have consistently been returned, most recently Fiona Flamehair (5/93 LoAR, An Tir).) The actual meaning of the byname seems to be no more suitable. Since the only change allowed by the submitter is the substitution of Hárbrandr, which has exactly the same problems as Hárlogi, we must return the name.

Hárlogi, from hár `hair' and logi `[a] flame', isn't analogous to the attested hárfagri `fair-hair', since fagri `fair' is an adjective. Such noun-noun compounds are possible in Old Norse, but as in similar English compounds (e.g., sunrise) the first noun modifies the second. The construction hárlogi would therefore mean something like `hair-like flame, filamentous flame'; log(a)hár would be `hair of flame', but probably only in an unfortunately literal sense. Similarly, hárbrandr would mean `hair-like firebrand'. Two attested Old Norse words with meanings close to the desired sense are hárbjartr `bright-haired' (which probably refers to a very blond person) and rauhárr `red-haired'; as feminine adjectival bynames with the definite article these would become in hárbjarta and in rauhára, respectively. (12/95)

Aethelgar Sheldwich. Device. Or, a dragon displayed sable flaunches azure charged with a pair of talbots combattant erminois.

No emblazon forms were found for this submission. (6/94)

Aethelred of Ambrevale. Device. Checky argent and gules, on a chief triangular sable a cross of Jerusalem argent.

The charge in chief is drawn too deeply into the field to be a chief triangular, not deeply enough to be a pile (which would not issue from the corners of the chief), and cannot be a per chevron inverted field because it does not issue from the sides of the shield. It needs to be drawn as clearly one or another of these instead of, as here, somewhere in between. (9/94)

Agilwulf the Loud. Badge. [Fieldless] A shark Or.

Conflict with Barony of Jaravellir, Pean, a catfish naiant Or, with only one CD for fieldlessness. We have not generally granted a difference between types of natural fish. (8/95)

Agilwulf the Loud. Device. Sable, a shark naiant Or, on a chief argent three shark's teeth sable.

It was the overwhelming consensus of the commentary that the "shark's teeth" were unrecognizable, as is required by RfS VII.7.a., Identification Requirement. (9/94)

Agnes Daunce. Badge. Or, three mullets one and two pierced vert.

Conflict with Morgunn Sheridan, Or, four mullets in cross vert. There is one CD for the change in number of charges, but current research seems to indicate that mullets and mullets pierced (or spur rowels) were used interchangeably in period. As a consequence, no difference is currently granted between them. (5/96)

Agnes Daunce. Device. Or, on a fess sable between three roses azure, three spur rowels Or.

Conflict with Winterhey (Papworth, p. 789), Or, on a fess sable,three estoiles of the first. There is a CD for the addition of the secondaries, but though the change in type between spur rowels/mullets and estoiles is generally worth a CD, they lack the substantial difference in type necessary to apply X.4.j.ii., which is needed here for the second CD. (2/94)

Aifric Ní Fhaoláin. Device. Per fess argent and gules, a seawolf counterchanged.

Conflict with Die Niemeptscher (Woodward's Ordinary, p. 103), Per fess argent and gules, a sea-unicorn counterchanged. There is clearly a CD for the change to type of the primary charge; however, though we can see applying X.2 to unicorns and wolves, when they both have fish-tails, the differences between them are lessened to such a point that we do not believe X.2 can reasonably be applied. (3/94)

Aileve of Windhaven. Device. Or, a cross clechy sable within a bordure compony erminois and sable.

As with the November 1992 return of a device combining a gore sinister argent with a bordure ermine, the contrast here between Or and erminois is "nonexistent". The ermine spots do not serve to adequately delineate the Or portions of the compony bordure from the Or field. (10/94)

Ailig Lasairíana O'Chaudhlaoich. Device. Sable, a maunch erminois between three olive sprigs fesswise Or, fructed vert.

As the submitter would not allow the formation of a holding name, we are having to return the device as well. (11/93)

Ailig Lasairíana O'Chaudhlaoich. Name.

The documentation for the name is extremely weak, and some of it is incorrect. Ailig appears to be a post-period diminutive of Alasdair. Lasairíana appears to be a typo for Lasairíona, a feminine given name. The construction of the patronymic seems to be incorrect. The letter combination cau- does not appear to exist in Irish, and ó does not cause aspiration. (11/93)

Ailithir Loingseoir. Badge. [Fieldless] A brown hound's head erased proper gorged of a torse azure and Or.

In a situation analogous to this submission, Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme ruled that "The owls were blazoned on the LOI as brown owls ... proper, but no such type of owl exists.... [W]e insisted on a species of owl known to period Europeans." (LoAR of January 1993, p. 17) While both brown owls and brown hounds existed in period, they were not an identifiable individual breed. Indeed, the talbot, which was suggested as a possibility, by all of the evidence submitted were much preferred in either black or white. The Dun hound, another recommendation in the commentary, tends to be tawny or tan, effectively Or. The use of a "brown [X] proper", where X is not part of the name of the creature (as in "brown bear") and where a separate breed or species has a "widely understood default [brown] coloration", appears to be a way of attempting to add another tincture to the standard seven tinctures used in heraldry. Such should be discouraged. [As one of the attendees at the roadshow meeting noted, carrying the registration of a "brown hound's head proper" logically, we could then start registering "pink elephants proper". Surely this is not a situation where the College desires to go.] (8/95)

Ailred Mac Pìoba An Thòrra Dhuibh. Household name.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. Additionally, the LoI did not state the household name being submitted. (5/96)

Ailred Mac Pìoba An Thòrra Dhuibh. Name.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. (5/96)

Aine Callaghan. Household badge for the Dabbler's Guild. Vairy purpure, semy of bees Or, and argent.

Conflict with Napoleon (badge), Azure, semy of bees Or (registered elsewhere in this LoAR). There is only one CD, for the change to the field. There were an ample number of commenters who felt that Napoleon's badge, cited in the LoI, was of sufficient importance to protect. As a consequence, we are adding it to the list of protected items here. (1/96)

Aine Morgan na Dhiarmaid. Name.

Irish usage does not appear to allow double given names, and the definite article na is completely out of place here. She appears to have understood na Dhiarmaid to mean `of the tribe or family of Diarmaid'; approximately this meaning is already expressed by the modern Ní Dhiarmaid, and for an earlier period something like ingen Uí Diarmata `daughter of Ua Diarmata' seems to be compatible with documented practice. Aine ní Dhiarmaid or Dhiarmada would be an acceptable late-period form, and Aine ingen Uí Diarmata seems to be a corresponding early form; but since she allows no changes, we must return the name. If she wishes to keep something similar to each of the three major elements of the name, she might try Aine ingen Morggáin Uí Diarmata `Aine daughter of Morgg´n of the line of Diarmait'; Morggán is found at p. 702 of M.A. O'Brien, Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniæ. (12/95)

Aino Hurmawa. Name.

The byname is a reasonable 16th century spelling of modern hurmaava charming . Unfortunately, Aino appears to be a 19th century invention of Elias Lönnrot, the man who collected and edited folk poetry into the Finnish epic poem Kalevala. Since the submitter appears to want an authentic Finnish name, we recommend that she consult with Schwarzdrachen, Albion, or Shield. (5/96)

A'isha al-Aneed. Name.

The byname is inadequately documented. We need more than that an unnamed "native speaker" said so. Dictionary or language book citations (or better, photocopies), or a more complete explanation from an identified native speaker as to why it is correctly formed would be helpful. (9/94)

Aislinn merch Guincatan. Device. Per bend gules and sable, a natural leopard's head erased argent.

Conflict with the badge of Kasilda Kubasek, Gules, a natural leopard's head erased argent, spotted sable. There is only one CD, for the change to the field. (11/95)

Alain de La Rochelle. Device. Azure, on a bend between a sword argent and a Latin cross Or a greyhound rampant sable.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Alan atte Highcliffe. Device. Or semy of broadheads inverted gules, a chestnut Berber sagittary salient contourny proper.

The charge is entirely brown; the term "Berber" was intended to reflect that the human portion is not "flesh"-colored, but brown. Unfortunately, "Berber" is not a synonym for "brown-skinned"; no more than "Tuareg" would be a synonym for "blue-skinned". (Indeed, most commenters thought it referred to the fact that the sagittary had a torse about its head.) Nor does a mythological creature such as a sagittary fall under the "natural critters brown proper" precedent. As a consequence, we are forced to return this as being essentially unblazonable. (4/96)

Alan Járnhauss inn Hárlangri. Device change. Quarterly vert and sable, a wolf salient reguardant maintaining a ram in its jaws argent.

Conflict with Jonathan Crusadene Whitewolfe, Gules ermined argent, a wolf rampant argent. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. (5/96)

Alaric Liutpold von Steinman. Badge. [Fieldless] A tri-mount couped Or.

Conflict with William de Montgilt, Sable, a two-peaked mountain couped Or, capped argent. There is one CD for fieldlessness but nothing for the artistic variation of the mountain. (11/93)

Alaric of Wyvernwood. Badge. Sable, on a cross nowy argent a sword inverted gules hilted sable pommeled purpure between two ram's heads couped respectant sable.

Conflicts with John of Two Towers, Sable, on a cross nowy argent, a compass star gules and with Petroushka of Bohemia, Sable, on a cross nowy argent a sprig of parsley vert between three mullets sable and a heart gules. In each case, there is a maximum of one CD for the changes to the tertiaries. (12/95)

Alaric the Bearded. Device. Azure, on a chevron Or two anhks sable, in chief, a crescent argent.

Somehow none of the submission forms made it into the Laurel packet. Without the paperwork, we cannot process this submission. (8/94)

Alaric the Bearded. Name.

Somehow none of the submission forms made it into the Laurel packet. Without the paperwork, we cannot process this submission. Additionally, the commenters could find no support for this form of the byname. All of the variants found appear to be based on either "beard" or "with the beard". The use of the adjectival past participle does not appear to be documentable, and is therefor unregistrable. (8/94)

Alaric Wolfgang von Mellenthin. Name.

Though the family apparently goes back to the 13th century, no one was able to document von Mellenthin as anything but a modern form or to find a plausible period source. Since he does not allow part of the name to be dropped, we must return it. (9/95)

Alasdair James Lyon. Device. Quarterly ermine and azure, a winged man-tyger sejant guardant maintaining a sword Or.

Conflict with Leonessa des Belles Fleures, Azure, a winged lion sejant Or, beneath the forepaws two garden roses argent stalked and leaved proper. There is a CD for the field, but a visual comparison of the emblazons demonstrated that the only real difference is in the facial features and the maintained charge, neither of which is sufficient for a CD. (12/95)

Alastair James MacConnor. Badge. [Fieldless] Three holly leaves conjoined in pall inverted vert, fructed gules.

Conflict with Maddoc Arundel (SCA), [Fieldless] Three oak leaves conjoined in pall inverted vert, surmounted by an acorn Or. There is a CD for the fieldless difference, but given their similarity in outline, the difference in the type of leaves was insufficient to grant the second. (12/93)

Alastar the Arcane. Device. Sable, two skulls and a mandrake, a bordure argent.

And while the name does not in any way conflict with that of Aleister Crowley, the early twentieth-century writer on "Magick", the combination of given name, byname, and device certainly reminded more than half the commenters of him. Given the volume of that reaction, I believe that RfS I.3. (Inappropriate Claims) applies here. ("A name and piece of armory may reinforce each other and appear to make a claim that is not perceived in either item by itself. If someone reasonably educated in period and modern history and culture would perceive a claim, that claim will be held to exist even if it is unintentional.") (5/94)

Alastar the Arcane. Name.

It is very unlikely that a rare, scholarly word (meaning "hidden") borrowed from Latin in very late period would have been used as a byname in our period of study. (5/94)

Alatheia Fenwick. Device. Vert, a sun in his splendor and on a chief argent a cloud sable.

Alisoun Fortescue of Maplehurst, Vert, a compass star of sixteen points, and on a chief argent three mullets of four points vert. There is a CD for the changes to the tertiary charges, but nothing for the difference between a multi-pointed mullet and a sun. (9/95)

Albert Faulke of Sandford. Device. Per bend sinister azure and counter-ermine, a bend sinister argent.

Conflict with Rhianwen o Enrys Disberod, Per bend sinister gules ermined argent and gules, a bend sinister argent. There is only one CD for the changes to the field. (10/95)

Albion, Son of Robyn. Name.

The use of commas in registered names has been disallowed since at least the February 1990 as being unattested in period names. Albion is the oldest known name for Great Britain as a whole as early as circa 500 B.C.E. The mythological figure mentioned in the LoI was created to explain the ancient place-name. Names of mythological figures are generally disallowed unless shown to have been used by real humans in period. Albion appears never to have been anything but a place-name. Finally, the structure of the patronymic is very odd in English. Robynson would be the more usual form. (9/94)

Aleksandrina Petrovna Danilova. Badge for House Hidden Grove. Argent, a willow tree eradicated sable within an orle of ivy vines vert.

Though accidentally left off the blazon, the ivy vines are indeed, as most commenters correctly guessed, vert. Conflict with Kornhooper (Woodward, cited in Combo II, p. 259), Argent, a dry tree sable, with one CD for the addition of the ivy. Conflict also with Ruadhan of Shadowwood (SCA), Argent, a tree eradicated sable, its roots entwining two swords inverted in saltire, a bordure vert, with a CD for changing the type of peripheral charge, but nothing for the (minor) change to type of tree or for the maintained swords. (11/94)

Aleksandr Mikhail Evgenovich Svyatoslavin. Name.

The form of the name makes the submitter the son of Evgenii Svyatoslava, which is a mixed gender name, unattested in Russian naming forms. We could have corrected this and made the name Aleksandr Mikhail Evgenovich Sviatoslavov, but as the submitter allowed no changes or corrections whatsoever, we are forced to return this. (We could also modified the name so that he was the son of Evgenii and the grandson of a woman named Svyatoslava -- Aleksandr Mikhail Evgenovich Svyatoslavin vnuk.) (5/95)

Aleksandr the Traveller. Badge. [Fieldless] A parrot close argent, tailed gules.

As drawn, this conflicts with Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn (SCA), Per chevron argent and vert, in base a falcon close argent. There is a CD for fieldlessness, nothing for position on the "field" in a fieldless badge, nothing for tincture; therefore, any additional difference must come from type. Though X.4.e. would normally grant a CD for difference between charges considered different in period, the bird here is drawn so that it appears to be more falcon-like than parrot-like, making this a visual conflict. (6/95)

Aleksandr Yaroslavovich Vyetcikov. Badge. Counter-ermine, a winged natural tiger salient argent.

Conflict with Alienora di Paravano, Per saltire gules and sable, a winged lion rampant wings elevated and addorsed argent. There is one CD for the difference in the fields, but nothing for rampant vs. salient, and the College has long considered that "cats is cats" in the same manner that "swords is swords". (1/96)

Alessandra Giovanna Visconti. Name and device. Vert, a ship contourny sails unfurled between three roses Or.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Alessandra Giovanna Visconti. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Alexander de Saytoune na Ban Dharaich. Device. Argent, semy of hearts gules, a seahorse sustaining a lochaber axe azure.

The primary charge is not emblazoned as a seahorse, but as a fish-tailed horse head with human arms. As such, it follows no period (or, indeed, post-period) exemplars of which we are aware. (2/94)

Alexander de Saytoune na Ban Dharaich. Name.

There were two problems with the name. The first is the use of de with Saytoune, which is, in Lord Palimpsest's words, "probably not right", owing to the fact that Saytoune does not predate the 15th Century, well after use of "de" disappeared. The second, is that the Gaelic byname is unlikely in the extreme to have been used with what is essentially an English name. While the submitter allowed minor changes, we felt that dropping the "de" and either dropping the byname or translating it into English did not constitute minor changes. It was suggested that the submitter might consider Alexander Saytoune of Fairoaks. (11/93)

Alexander Listkeeper. Name change from holding name Carl of Carolingia.

It was suggested in the LoI that the byname might be justified as an occupational term for one who maintained the town fences, from Middle English liste "border, edge" and kepere "keeper, guardian, attendant". Close examination of the senses and citations recorded in the OED suggests that liste simply wasn't used in quite this way, even in its territorial senses. Rather, it seems to have connoted either a bordering strip or a kind of abstract boundary or limit. The one clear exception is its use, usually in the plural, to refer to a palisade or other barrier defining a space for combat and hence to the space itself; but this use appears to have been influenced by an unrelated but similar-sounding French word of the same meaning and in any case does not lead to a plausible occupational term. (2/96)

Alexandra de la Mer Verte. Device. Vert, a bend dovetailed between a penner and inkhorn and a cup Or.

Conflict with Estrid Svensdottir (SCA), Vert, a bend bretessed between a sun in splendor and a torch bendwise Or. There is only one CD for the changes to the secondary charges, but nothing for the difference between bretessed and dovetailed. (6/95)

Alexandra de Morteyn. Device. Ermine fretty vert, on a chief Or three pomegranates gules slipped and leaved vert seeded Or.

The gold chief on the ermine field is metal on metal. RfS VIII.2. notes that "Ermined furs or field treatments on a background of one of those tinctures [argent or Or] are treated as metals for contrast in the Society." The fact that the field has a charge on it (fretty) does not change its tincture or make it a neutral field. (9/95)

Alexandra Marie of Greenhaven. Device. Per pale sable and argent, two unicorns rampant addorsed counterchanged, on a chief triangular purpure a roundel per pale argent and Or, sinister half soleil.

The device is too complex. Though RfS VIII.1.a. notes a rule of thumb limit of eight which this submission does not exceed [there are four tinctures (sable, argent, purpure, and Or) and four types of charge (unicorn, chief, plate and sun)], combining that limit with a chief triangular and dimidiation of two of the charges (the "moon" and sun) pushes it beyond the bounds of acceptability. Given the short-lived use of dimidiation in period, we are not at all sure that we should register dimidiation in the SCA. Its use creates often serious identification problems, and tends to lead to some very unbalanced designs. (11/94)

Alexandra Stremouchova. Device. Per chevron ployé throughout Or and purpure, two broadarrows inverted and an orchid slipped and leaved counterchanged.

According to the OED, orchids "vary greatly in appearance, being often remarkable for brilliancy of colour or grotesqueness of from, in some cases resembling various insects and other animals." This being the case, there is very little chance that the blazon will accurately reflect and recreate the emblazon. We are having to return this because orchids seem to have no standard or standardized form. (11/94)

Alexandra the Eclectic. Name.

The earliest dated citation for "eclectic" in the COED is 1683, even outside of our "gray area". The word appears thus to be post-period. (6/94)

Alexandre de Vouvray. Device. Per pale azure and Or, two fleurs-de-lys and a sea-lion erect counterchanged.

Conflict with Fugger (protected above in this LoAR from the Drachenwald Letter of Intent to Protect), Per pale azure and Or, two fleurs-de-lys counterchanged. There is only one CD, for the addition of the sea-lion. (5/95)

Alexandria Elizabeth Vallandigham of Cambria. Device. Argent, on a mullet of seven points vert a griffin couchant Or, a bordure compony purpure and Or.

Conflict with Duncan Vitrarius (SCA), Argent, a sun vert, eclipsed Or. There is a CD for the addition of the bordure, but by the Rules nothing for either the type of primary or type only of the tertiary. (4/94)

Alexandria Elizabeth Vallandigham of Cambria. Device. Argent, on a mullet of seven points vert a griffin couchant, wings close, Or, in chief two mullets of seven points vert, a bordure compony purpure and Or.

The use of two different sizes of the same charge, especially when they then cause some confusion as to whether there is one group of primary charges or a primary charge and group of secondary charges, as here, has been cause for return in the past. (See, e.g., LoAR of March 1992, p. 15). Drawing all three mullets the same size, or choosing a different set of charges to go in chief, would cure this problem. (7/95)

Alexandria Morgan. Device. Purpure, on a pale argent an iris purpure, slipped and leaved vert.

Conflict with Giovanna Maria Hunyadi di Ghiberti (SCA), Lozengy azure and Or, on a pale argent a purple iris (iris pallida) slipped and leaved proper. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. (3/95)

Alexandria Morgan. Device. Purpure, on a pale endorsed argent an iris purpure slipped and leaved vert.

Conflict with Luerann Damask, Purpure, on a pale endorsed argent three roses azure, barbed and seeded proper. There is only one CD, for the multiple changes to the tertiary charges. (3/96)

Alexandria of Mazzara. Badge. [Fieldless] In bend sinister a bow sable and a shepherd's crook bendwise vert, fretted with an arrow bendwise sinister inverted sable, flighted vert.

As many of the commenters noted, especially in this arrangement, this has every appearance of being three different charges (bow, arrow, and crook) in a single group. As such, this falls afoul of the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a. (2/94)

Alexandria Schaler. Name.

Although the name is fine, there was no form in the packet, so we must return it. The submitter actually desired Schalit, an acronym formed from a Hebrew blessing. It appears that some surnames may have been formed in this way in period, though most examples are of much later date. However, the period examples mentioned by Kaganoff in A Dictionary of Jewish Names and their History (p. 18) fall into three categories: honorific names conferred on great masters of learning, abbreviations from places of origin, and abbreviations commemorating some special event in the life of the family. Schalit does not appear to fit any of these categories, and we would prefer to see better evidence before registering it. (4/96)

Alex of Kintail. Device. Per pale sable and Or, a cross formy throughout gules and overall a double-headed eagle-winged wyvern double-queued displayed per pale Or and sable.

The cross is somewhere between a plain Latin cross throughout and a Latin cross formy throughout. As such, it is ambiguous, and needs to be redrawn as one or the other. The overall charge also has problems of ambiguity. The use of eagle's wings make it nearly impossible to distinguish from a double-headed eagle, except the double-queued tail is clearly not a bird's. As this kind of ambiguity is precisely the kind of thing that heraldry seeks to avoid, it should be drawn more clearly as either an eagle or a wyvern. (5/94)

Algar de Devonshire. Device. Per bend vair en point and Or two crosses crosslet fitchy counterchanged.

The fact that the dexter cross is vair en point cannot be determined even in the full-size emblazon. (See RfS VII.7.a. "Identification Requirement - Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." and RfS VIII.3. "Armorial Identifiability - Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability.") The most frequent suggestion in the commnetary was to make the dexter cross azure. (3/95)

Alix de Lyon. Device. Or,in chief on a fess couped sable a fleur-de-lis Or and in base a horse salient.

No one was able to find any period exemplars of fesses either couped or enhanced so far to chief. Without further documentation we are unable to register this motif. (3/94)

Alix Tiberga of Aachen. Device. Per bend engrailed azure and argent, a dragon dormant argent and three needles azure.

The name for this submitter had been pended in kingdom in March 1993 and has never been forwarded to Laurel. Without an accompanying name submission, we are unable to register this. (3/95)

Alleyn of Kent. Device. Gules, a chevron embattled potent between two reremice displayed and a tyger rampant Or.

The embattled line of division of the chevron is so badly broken up by the fur that while one can tell readily that "something" is going on there, it takes a little time to determine just exactly what. The complex line of division is simply not "readily identifiable", and ready identification is one of the hallmarks of period style heraldry. See RfS VII.7.a. ("Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance.") and VIII.3. ("Armorial Identifiability - Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability.")

Several commenters asked what the tinctures were of the chevron: they are blue and white, just as would be a chevron vair. Potent is a vair variant, and has the same default tinctures. (Had the blazon been "a chevron embattled potenty", now....) (5/94)

Allyn Min-Teanga. Name.

The byname needs a couple of minor changes to correct the grammar. The hyphen appears to be only a lexicographical device to indicate the construction and is therefore not part of the name, and the second element needs to be aspirated, resulting in mintheanga. However, as the submitter allowed no corrections whatsoever to the name, we are having to return it. (5/94)

Alysandra Elayna Meerkatze. Name.

Though the combination of double given names in English with a fully German byname is a little problematical, the biggest problem here is that meerkatze, which the submitter believes is a constructed byname meaning "sea-cat", is a real German word meaning "long-tailed ape". Since we were not at all sure that this actual meaning would be acceptable to the submitter, we are returning this so that she may reconsider its propriety in being associated with her. (6/95)

Alysoun Beauchamp. Device. Erminois, a Mugwort plant vert.

Conflict with Brobrough (Papworth, p. 1112), Argent, a slip of three leaves vert; Alonder (Papworth, p. 1113), Or, an almond slip fructed proper; Clan Gunn (Combo II, citing Fox-Davies), [Fieldless] Rose-wort proper; and Clan MacKinnon (Combo II, citing Fox-Davies), [Fieldless] St. John's wort proper. In each case there is a CD for the field, but nothing for either the type or tincture of the foliage. (2/95)

Alyssa Rose MacGregor. Badge. Purpure, on a pile argent a rose purpure barbed and seeded vert.

Conflict with Julian of the Purple Must (SCA), Purpure, on a pile argent two sprigs of laurel proper. There is a CD for the changes to the tertiary charge(s), but nothing else. (6/95)

Alyssa Rose MacGregor. Badge. Purpure, on a pile embattled argent a rose purpure barbed and seeded proper.

Conflict with William de Lacy of Sherborne, Purpure, on a pile raguly argent, a gauntlet aversant gules. There is a CD for the multiple changes to the tertiaries, but nothing for the difference between embattled and raguly. (11/95)

Amalthea bat Amal. Name.

No evidence has been found that Amalthea was a name used by humans in period. The only documentation for the name is that of the goat who was the nurse for Jupiter, as one of the two nymphs who fed the infant god on goatsmilk and honey, as a Roman sibyl who sold some books to the king of the Romans, Tarquin, and as a star in the constellation Auriga. We need some evidence of its use by humans in period before we may register this. (11/94)

Amanda Wyndeswyft. Device. Per bend sinister Or and gules, a pegasus couped at the breast wings elevated and addorsed issuant from the line of division sable and a feather bendwise sinister argent, a chief gules.

The chief on the large emblazon was only 3/4" wide (on a 5«" long shield). It is far too narrow to be adequately identifiable as a chief. (Indeed, at least one attending the Laurel meeting first thought it was a gules field with a pile fesswise.) It needs to be redrawn. (2/96)

Ambrosia of Avallon. Device. Or, a slip and on a chief vert three gouttes Or.

Blazoned on the LoI as "an olive slip", there was nothing even on the large emblazon to denote that this was an olive slip as opposed to any other kind (even a sprig of laurel would have been an adequate blazon). As a consequence, this conflicts with Nazar Druzhinin (SCA), Or, a sprig of three linden leaves and on a chief vert a cavendish knot Or. There is CD for the multiple changes to the tertiaries, but we cannot in good conscience see another for the change to number of leaves on the sprig. (4/94)

Amice Fayel. Device. Per chevron throughout ployé gules and argent, two lilies and a Fidelis knot counterchanged.

The Fidelis knot, as an SCA invention with only two registrations to date (the 1980 defining instance and a 1993 registration), is not sufficiently well-known or defined (outside of the Pictorial Dictionary) to retain as a registrable charge, nor does there appear to be sufficient interest to continue to register it in the future. (3/96)

Ana Ilievna. Name.

Withdrawn by the principal herald. (9/94)

Ananda the Fiery. Name change from Amba Aedhi.

The lingua anglica allowance is not intended to allow the use of English phrases as bynames in combination with given names of another language without regard to the naming practices of either language. Its only expression in the Rules for Submissions is found at the end of RfS III.2.a (Linguistic Consistency): `In the case of place names and other name elements frequently used in English in their original form, an English article or preposition may be used.' Precedent extends the allowance somewhat further, as explained in the 28 March 1993 Laurel Cover Letter:

Less codified, but of long practice, has been the translation of epithets into our lingua franca. Again, this follows a common historian's usage: Harald I of Norway, for instance, is far better known as Harald Fairhair than by the untranslated Harald Haarfagr. Eric the Red, Philip the Good, Charles the Fat, all are translations of the period names, not the period names themselves. SCA names are permitted a similar translation: a simple epithet, documented as a period form, may be translated into English. (We prefer to register the untranslated form, but I concede that such rigor doesn't always serve our clients' best interests.)

The use of lingua franca translation is extended only to single, simple descriptives. Given names, for instance, may not normally be translated into their putative meaning: e.g. Bear may not be used as a given name, even though it's the lingua franca translation of the given name Björn. Placenames, hereditary surnames, and bynames from different languages (e.g. French and German) likewise don't fall under the lingua franca allowance.

The English translation should be chosen to minimize any intrusive modernity: e.g. the Old Norse byname kunta is better translated as "wench" than as the intrusive "bimbo". (Well, actually, neither of those is exactly right, but there may be children reading.) Period terms are always preferable, but when necessary, we will translate documented period epithets into the Society's common tongue. That seems to be the best compromise between the needs of authenticity and ease of use.

Note that the discussion refers to documented period epithets. No evidence has been submitted to suggest that the Fiery is a reasonable English translation of an epithet from any period culture in which the Sanskrit name Ananda was used, or even that it is a believable period English epithet. (The 9/94 registration of Ananda of the Bells, noted in the LoI, seems to rest on the judgement that of the Bells is a reasonable English byname. Though the actual form should probably be with the Bells, it is at least close.)

In view of the problem with the byname, the question of whether Sanskrit Ananda is within the domain of the Society is moot. (Please see the Cover Letter for further commentary on this point.) (12/95)

Anastasia Byestewode. Device. Per pale Or and purpure, a pair of scissors, and issuant from chief, a ribbon in chevron counterchanged.

As noted in the September 1994 LoAR, p. 15: "The ribbon is an SCA invention. While the Armorial and Ordinary has five registrations of a ribbon, the most recent is 1984.... Its loops and twists are unblazonable, leaving a great deal of variation in appearance and making it virtually impossible to reconstruct accurately from the blazon alone, which would violate RFS VII.7.b. There seems to be no compelling reason to register the ribbon as an heraldic charge." The difficulty in blazoning the position and "draping" of the ribbon here falls to the same arguments; it isn't really "in chevron", but follows the outline of a medieval pavilion, with a loop in the middle of the drape where the "roof" meets the "wall" and with an extra twist farther down the "walls". There is no blazon anyone could suggest which would adequately reproduce the emblazon. (2/95)

Ancelin Daverenge. Device. Azure, a Greek chimera rampant argent.

The primary charge is not a chimera of any defined type, having the body of a wingless dragon with the head of a goat and the head of a lion on either side of a dragon's head and neck. It is certainly not a "Greek" chimera, which has the body and head of a lion, a dragon's tail, and a goat's head grafted to the small of the back. As a consequence, both recognizability and reproducibility as required by RfS. VII.7.a. and b. suffer too much to allow us to register this. (9/95)

Ancellin Fitzalan of Newe Castle. Device. Per pale gules and azure, a sea-frauenadler argent.

Conflict with Giovanni di Giacomettino, Azure, a winged merman argent, and Alexandra of Cat's Heart, Barry wavy azure and vert, a winged mermaid displayed argent. In each case there is a CD for the field, but nothing for posture (which is identical) or for the minor differences among the types of the winged humanoid sea-monsters. (1/96)

An Crosaire, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Serpent Torque.

The word "torque" used in the sense here is dated no earlier than 1834. As such the term is quite post-period. (4/95)

An Crosaire, Barony of. Order name for Plume of the Ange Rouge.

In addition to lacking a designator, the "Feather of the Red Angel" seems to be a step too far from even the exemplars presented by Archive for knightly orders: e.g., Order of the Golden Angel. See RfS III.2.b.ii.

It was also suggested that the name would be better entirely French than this odd mixture of French nouns and adjectives and English particles. (4/95)

André de Chasseron. Device. Or, three piles in point gules, on a chief enarched azure, a sword reversed Or.

Conflict with Grome (Papworth, p. 1029), Or, three piles gules, on a chief azure two helmets close Or. There is only one CD, for change in number and type of the tertiary on the chief. (3/95)

André de Saint Michel. Name for alternate persona of Andrew Scarhart.

No forms for the alternate persona name were included in the Laurel packet, as a consequence, even had there been no other problems this would have had to have been returned. One example of a byname formed in a verb plus noun pattern does not adequately support any and all combinations of verbs plus nouns. Most of the commenters found the byname extremely unlikely, especially given the very late date for this meaning of "scar". Bynames of this nature date from much earlier than the 1555 citation for scar. (4/94)

Andreas Tillman von Severin. Device. Or, a hunting horn reversed gules, stringed azure, and a chief checky argent and gules.

Conflict with Orange ((Papworth, p. 948 and Woodward, Combo II), Or, a buglehorn stringed and virolled gules. There is only one CD, for the addition of the chief. (2/94)

Andrew Maklaurene. Device. Azure, three comets fesswise in pale and on a chief argent three crescents gules.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. (5/96)

Andrew Maklaurene. Name.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. (5/96)

Andronicus of Emerald Marsh. Badge. Barry wavy argent and vert, a griffin segreant contourny, wings inverted, sable.

Though blazoned in the LoI as sable, the monster on the large emblazon form was quite clearly drawn as brown. As we could not reblazon this as a "brown griffin proper", we are forced to return this. He might try sable. (3/94)

Andronicus of Emerald Marsh. Name.

In period the word "emerald" was applied only to the gem, not to a color. As emeralds are not normally found in marshes, the place name is extremely unlikely. Would the submitter consider "Greenmarsh"? (3/94)

Angelena of the Wild Roses. Device. Or, a dragon rampant sable, and upon a chief sable a garden rose fesswise reversed slipped and leaved Or.

The "garden rose bud" is not identifiable as such; as drawn it was mistaken for a stalk of wheat. Would the submitter consider a standard heraldic rose slipped and leaved? (8/94)

Angelena of the Wild Roses. Name.

Angelena was stated to be a diminutive of the submitter's legal name. The legal name allowance only covers the exact form of the submitter's legal name, not variants or diminutive. We need documentation for Angelena. No documentation was submitted for the byname, nor did any of the commenters find any support for it. We need documentation that "of the Wild Roses" is a period byname or follows a specific pattern of period bynames. (8/94)

Angelina Crispiana d'Avignon. Device. Azure, a winged lion passant guardant argent between three fleurs-de-lys Or.

While clear of Warden of Tel Persie, cited in the LoI, with CDs for the change to the type of the secondaries and the addition of wings to the lion, as noted in the July 1992 LoAR, p. 23, "The use of multiple gold fleurs-de-ly on blue is not permitted in SCA armory." (6/94)

Angharad ferch Donovan. Name.

RfS III.1.a. requires that "Each phrase must be grammatically correct according to the usage of a single language." Here we have a Welsh patronymic particle (merch) combined into a single phrase with an Anglicized variant of an Old Irish surname (Ó Donndugháin), which itself appears to be from a compound meaning "brown Dubhán". The combination is unlikely in the extreme, and it does not follow "the usage of a single language" as required by the RfS. (11/94)

Anisah al Nawaar. Device. Argent, a cross indented vert, overall a daisy azure.

The daisy is just barely "overall", a style which has been cause for return in the past. Because the Rules for Submission require that overall charges must contrast with the field, such charges must be sufficiently on the field to avoid contrast and identifiability problems with the charges they overlie. (1/95)

Anisah al Nawaar. Name.

No documentation was presented that the "byname" could be used with the article, and all of the documentation either submitted or found later by the commenters (and Laurel) showed only Nawaar without the article. (The equivalent in English would be analogous to documenting "Robert" and "James" as given names and submitting "Robert the James".) (10/94)

Anlon MacMatha. Badge. [Fieldless] An equal-armed Celtic cross vert pierced of a mullet.

The "piercing" of the cross here is essentially an attempt to use a tinctureless (or rather, omni-tinctured) tertiary charge. Such have been disallowed for some time. "It is not possible to eclipse something `of the field' on a fieldless badge." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR February 1991, p. 18)

It is true that we have registered fieldless badges consisting of a charge which has been pierced, but in these cases the piercing was part of the definition of the charge (e.g., a mascle, a rustre) and can hardly be considered as being in the same category as a "cross pierced of an (omni-tinctured) mullet". (1/96)

Anna Katherine von Argenthal. Device. Per pall arrondy azure, argent and vert.

Conflict with Crispus Alexander, Gyronny of three arrondi gules, Or and purpure. There is only one CD, for the change to the tinctures. (8/95)

Anna of Eichenwald. Device. Per pale azure and sable, a bird rising wings elevated and addorsed argent.

Though blazoned as a dove on the LoI, the bird here has none of the distinguishing features of a dove. As such, it conflicts with Fotherby (Papworth, p. 304), Gules, a falcon argent rising argent, holding in the dexter claw a oak branch proper acorned Or. There is a CD for the field but nothing for type of primary charge between a generic bird and any other specific bird. (8/94)

Anne Isabella del Gardin. Device. Purpure, a pentaskelion arrondi and on a chief argent, an ivy vine reversed vert.

We need some documentation of the pentaskelion arrondy as a period or compatible charge. It is so large a step from a triskele (which itself is not a period charge so far as we can tell) that we need additional evidence of its acceptability before we can register it. (10/94)

Ansteorra, Kingdom of. Badge for Hospitaler's office. Or, on a mullet of five greater and five lesser points sable a lantern dependant from a cubit arm fesswise argent.

Conflict with David of Mecca, Or, on a sun sable, a sword argent, all within a bordure embattled sable and with Astra Christiana Benedict, On a mullet a cross crosslet. Against David of Mecca there is a CD for removing the bordure. The tertiary charges here, however, are a single visual unit, so there is not a CD for changing type and number of tertiaries, and multi-pointed mullets and suns are not considered voidable charges, so X.4.j.ii. does not apply to grant a CD for significant change to type only. Versus Astra Christiana Benedict, there is only the fieldless CD, because as above there is no CD for the change to type of the tertiary charge, and mullets of five greater and five less points are not seen as sufficiently different from the default mullet (of five points) to grant a CD between them. (10/95)

Antartus Valentior. Device. Plumetty argent and vert, a sledgehammer and overall a single horned anvil reversed sable.

The plumetty field treatment here does not appear to be a valid period variant. (4/94)

Anthony Navarre. Device. Sable, a lion passant contourny and a bordure argent semy of compass stars elongated to base azure.

Conflict with Patri du Chat Gris, Sable, a cat counter-s'elongeant within a bordure argent. There is only one CD for the addition of the tertiary compass stars. A comparison of the two emblazons demonstrated the overwhelming similarity of the postures of the two cats. (4/96)

Antinous Dracontius. Device. Pily barry Or and gules, a skull argent enfiled through the sinister eye socket by a snake erect sable.

The blazon does not adequately describe the posture of the snake (RfS VII.7.b. requires that "[e]lements must be reconstructable in a recognizable form from a competent blazon."), nor could any of the commenters come up with a blazon which would. The difficulty in creating an adequate blazon only underscores the non-period style of the device. (6/94)

Antoinette du Vallon. Device. Argent, a cat sejant regardant sable within seven pawprints in annulo purpure.

Conflict with Meggison (Papworth, p. 69), Argent, a lion sejant sable. There one CD for the addition of the pawprints, but nothing for either the type of cat or its head position change. (4/94)

Anton Tremayne. Badge. [Fieldless] A cross botonny gules charged with a crescent argent.

The weight of the commentary was that a cross botonny is not a simple enough primary charge for X.4.j.ii. to apply, and that this submission is indeed in conflict with Pilkington (Papworth, p. 652), Argent, on a cross botonny gules another of the first, with one CD for fieldlessness but nothing for the change to the type only of what is effectively the tertiary. (12/93)

ANTWERP, City of. Device. Gules, a castle triple-towered between in chief a pair of hands in chevron inverted argent.

Though the city itself is important in later period, and its arms relate to the legend of how the city received its name, the arms do not otherwise appear to be of sufficient importance for us to protect them. (6/95)

Anysia of Carpasia. Device. Per bend sinister sable and azure, a bend sinister Or between a sea-unicorn contourny reguardant and a dove migrant argent.

The LoI accidentally dropped the tincture of the bend, leading everyone to believe that it was argent. This would normally be reason to pend it. However, in this case, the bend is, in fact, drawn unacceptably narrow (indeed, I suspect modern heralds would blazon it as a "ribband" or some such; it is certainly narrower than a bendlet. It needs to be redrawn thicker). Additionally, the "sea-unicorn" is simply a "unicornate seahorse", a disallowed charge. It needs to be redrawn as a sea-unicorn, with beard and more goat-like than horse-like traits. The "dove" is not particularly dove-like. There is nothing about it that would suggest that it is anything but a generic "bird". (9/94)

Aoife ingen Gharbain. Name.

Aoife is a late spelling of the given name, while ingen is an early spelling, and the use of gh in the patronym but not in ingen is inconsistent. The name would be fine as Aífe ingen Garbáin, which is early, or as Aoife inghean Gharbháin, which uses a later orthography. It seems very likely that mixtures of early and late orthographic features can be found at some point; conceivably a combination like this one can be justified. But it is an exception to the patterns found in the available data; lacking both specific justification and detailed information on the sequencing of Irish orthographic changes, we are unwilling to depart from documented practice. Unfortunately, she allows no changes, so we must return the name. (2/96)

Aonghas Cu. Device. Per pale Or and azure, a Celtic cross estoile within a bordure counterchanged.

A cross estoile is a post-period charge; combining it with an annulet to create a "Celtic cross estoile" makes it two steps from period style. This second step is one step further than the College is normally willing to go (cf. the "Rule of Two Weirdnesses" in the Glossary of Terms). (6/96)

Aonghas of Clan Campbell. Device. Quarterly gules and argent, a boar's head couped close proper within a bordure Or.

Though blazoned as "proper" and emblazoned as "brown", there does not seem to be a default "proper" for boars (and therefore, boar's heads); there appears to be a wide variation in the coloration of those found in nature. Might we suggest one of the standard heraldic tinctures? Sable would probably do him well here. (6/94)

Aonghus Donnchaid Mac Leòid of Sea March. Name.

So far no evidence has been presented for period Gaelic use of double given names. Since Donnchaid is in the genitive case, it may be intended as a reduced form of the patronymic mac Donnchaid; this usage has been found in Ireland, but so far not in our period. Aonghus mac Donnchaidh mhic Leoid and Aonghus mac Leoid would be documentable forms of the Gaelic part of the name, and the locative, which refers to a shire in Trimaris, would be registerable under the lingua anglica allowance; unfortunately, he permits no changes, so we must return the name. (Note that the accent on Mac Leòid is a modern Scots Gaelic innovation that should be removed in any future submission using this element.) (2/96)

Aonghus Gunn Fear-Cuairt. Name.

Aonghus is one of the standard modern Gaelic spellings of the name Englished as Angus. Gunn is not correct in this form in a Gaelic name; the Norse name Gunna was adopted in to Gaelic as Guinne, with an adjectival side-form as Gunnach. 'Angus son of Gunna' would be Aonghus mac Guinne or Aonghus Gunnach. The hyphenation in fear-cuairt is either modern or an artificial dictionary spelling to show the composition of the term. Gaelic bynames seem in general to precede the patronymic, so the name in Gaelic would appear to be either Aonghus Fearcuairt mac Guinne or Aonghus Fearcuairt Gunnach. Though the submitter allowed changes which kept the sound of the name, neither of the two suggested versions here does that very well. We are therefore returning it so that he may decide how he wishes to proceed with the name. (9/94)

Araki Yatarou Takeyoshi. Device. Gules, a triangle inverted between three triangles one and two, all between three broadarrows inverted argent.

The arrangement of the triangles does not appear to be a period arrangement, but a modern artistic style. The device overall is neither good Japanese style nor good European style. (5/94)

Aralyn Ermintrude of the Falling Waters. Device change. Azure, a frauenadler displayed argent armed and crined Or within an orle of mullets argent.

Conflict with Janet Breakstone, Azure, a harpy displayed grasping in her dexter talon a human skull, all proper. There is a CD for adding the mullets, but the harpy in Janet's badge is mostly argent with a "flesh-colored" upper torso, effectively also argent and, even if considered as Or, far less than one-half the charge (which would be necessary to allow a CD for tincture). (8/95)

Aranwen Ddryw ferch Rhodri. Device. Purpure, on a chevron argent between in chief an increscent, a crescent and a decrescent and in base a sun Or, a cat couchant guardant vert.

The right-at-the-rule-of-thumb-limit for complexity of RfS VIII.1.a. (with four tinctures and four different types of charges) combined with the added "busy-ness" of the crescents in different orientations makes this a visually overwhelming design. Were the crescents all in the same orientation, or were there either fewer tinctures or types of charges used, this would probably be registrable; but the combination here pushes it over the edge of acceptability. (9/95)

Ardal of Stonegrave. Device. Vert, a pile Or between two wolves salient addorsed argent a bordure potenty of one trait vert and Or.

"A bordure compony where one tincture is identical to the field should not be permitted." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 27 September 1987, p. 8) We have a similar problem here, where the seriously compromises the identifiability of the bordure, making it appear that the edge of the shield is very oddly embattled. This falls afoul of RfS VIII.3, Armorial Identifiability. (9/95)

Ariane de Brie. Device. Gules, a cross of four lozenges argent.

Conflict with Switzerland, Gules, a cross couped argent, and the Knights of Malta, Gules, a Maltese cross argent. In each case there is a clear CD for the change to type of cross, but they are not sufficiently different for X.2. to apply here. To quote from the results of Palimpsest's research into what types of changes to a cross constitute a single cadency step (as opposed to sufficient difference): "The closest [analogues to the current submission] I have found are the various arms of Banester (spelled variously as Banester, Banaster, and Banastre) in Papworth pp. 606-607. In all cases with an argent field and a sable cross are crosses plain, flory, of four fusils, humetty pointed, patonce, patty, and sarcelly. All but the first two are explicitly period, the first two having no date given. If nothing else this shows a wide variety of cross changes used to show cadency. In particular this includes the cross of four fusils, equivalent to that submitted here. Various other doublets between various crosses can be found, but these are the most relevant I have found." Based on this research, it would appear that the type of change from a cross couped or a Maltese cross to a cross of four lozenges is but a single cadency step; sufficient for a Clear Difference, but insufficient to apply X.2. for sufficient difference. (4/96)

Arianna ny Shane. Device. Per chevron azure and vert, two unicorns rampant and a pegasus passant argent.

After a comparison of the emblazons, this does indeed conflict with the badge of Eduard von der Kiebitzwiese, Per chevron azure and verb a sword fracted chevronwise and a horse passant argent. The sword pieces on Eduard's badge are separated widely and are placed in the same positions on the field as the unicorns here. As a consequence, there is no CD for number of charges (from one sword fracted to two unicorns). And because a pegasus is not significantly different from a horse, X.2. cannot apply for significant difference to the type of all the charges. Thus there is only one CD, for the change in type to half the group from sword pieces to unicorns. (4/96)

Arianna Rosa Cristina Veneziano. Device. Azure, a greyhound rampant argent collared gules maintaining a fleur-de-lys Or.

Conflict with Jonathan Crusadene Whitewolfe, Gules, ermined argent, a wolf rampant argent: there is just one CD for changing the tincture of the field, since we do not grant difference for type of canine. Conflict also with Robina Wyclif, Azure, a wolf rampant argent maintaining a spear Or flying to sinister a pennoncelle gules, fimbriated, all within a bordure Or; the only CD is for removing the border. Conflict also with Dorcas Dorcadas, Sable, a three-headed hound rampant, one head reguardant, argent, langued gules; there is a CD for the field tincture, but nothing for the difference in number of heads. (2/96)

Arianwen ferch Anna. Device. Argent, a pall inverted azure between three pegasi segreant sable.

Conflict with Catina of Loch Salann (SCA, 12/93), Argent, a pall inverted azure between two cats salient respectant guardant and a chalice sable. There is only one CD for the change to type of the secondary charges. (7/94)

Arianwen ferch Gareth. Device. Azure, a German panther rampant contourny argent.

Conflict with Jatskow (Combo II, from Woodward), Azure, a panther rampant argent, crowned Or. There is but one CD, for the orientation of the monster. (4/94)

Arianwen verch Morgan. Device. Argent, a chevron vert between two violets and a willow tree eradicated proper.

There were no name or device submission forms in the packet, so we must return the name and the device, though no one found any problem with either. (9/95)

Arianwen verch Morgan. Name.

There were no name or device submission forms in the packet, so we must return the name and the device, though no one found any problem with either. (9/95)

Arielle ní Sheanáin. Device. Argent, a bend counter-ermine between a domestic cat sejant guardant gules collared and chained Or and a falcon close proper.

There is no defined "proper" for a falcon. Falcons come in a number of types, whose coloration differs not only from species to species but often between the male and female of each species. (6/95)

Arinaga Yoshiakira. Name.

Both elements of the name are nanori, or `formal names'; unfortunately, a name consisting of two nanori and no surname does not appear to follow period Japanese practice. (9/95)

Arinwald Rotstein. Badge for House of the Golden Cock. Per chevron inverted azure and vert, on a chevron inverted Or another gules between a bezant charged with a sprig of three cherries gules and two cockerels addorsed tails crossed in saltire Or.

The overall effect of this badge is one of excessive complexity. It is right at the limits of the rule of thumb for complexity outlined in RfS VIII.1.a., with four tinctures and four different types of charges. Added to that is the unusual arrangement of having the birds' tails cross, and the unbalanced motif of having one of three secondaries charged with a tertiary. Like Palimpsest, Laurel is "not sure that any [one] of these count[s] as a full weirdness, but surely five semi-demi-hemi-weirdnesses are sufficient for a return." (9/95)

Arioch dow Morgue. Name.

There is here, as is frequently the case with similar cases, problems created when simply taking words out of one or more dictionaries and combining them to create a byname. In a Scottish onomastic context dow can only be an English spelling of dubh `black'. The COED does in fact give `a haughty demeanor' as one definition of morgue; the earliest citation is from 1599, and the word is said to be French, of unknown derivation. Such a late date (the penultimate year of our period of study!) does not support a byname of this sort, which stopped being formed in this way in England some centuries earlier in favor of inheritable surnames. There are a number of documented bynames/surnames with similar meanings ((the) Da(u)nger(o)us, (the) Proud(e), Toproud, Overproud, etc.), but substituting any of these would far exceed the minor changes we felt were permissible to make without further consultation with the submitter.

While there is some small possibility of the use of Arioch as a given name in a Puritan context, you might suggest to him that Arich, a form of Eirik that occurs in Domesday Book, would not only be much more likely as a given, but would also match the earlier forms of the bynames better than the Babylonian name found in the Bible he submitted. (6/95)

Arion of Aspenwyn. Name.

Arion appears to be by the submitter's own documentation to be a unique name, that of a semi-legendary ancient Greek poet and musician. (The only other Arion found was a "fabulous horse", the offspring of Poseidon and Demeter.) We need documentation of its use by other humans in period before we may register Arion. (11/93)

Arlith Arliss o' Gordon. Device. Sable, on a goblet within an orle argent a Scandicus neume sable.

The emblazon is not reconstructible from the blazon. The scandicus neume is not only a very specialized (read: obscure and hard to look up) musical notation, from the documentation the one submitted is only one of several of different specific forms that it may take. As a consequence, there is no reasonable way of ensuring that the blazon will recreate the emblazon. (See RfS VII.7.b.) Even blazoning it as only a "musical note" is not adequate, as the scandicus neume is not anything like what most people picture as a musical note. (9/94)

Arlith Arliss o' Gordon. Name.

Both the prototheme Ar- and the deuterotheme -lith are of doubtful standing. Ström (who is more trustworthy than Searle) doubts that there is an OE prototheme Ar-, noting that Searle's examples are "very few" and "of a late date and of a suspicious nature". It is therefore hard to justify any OE construction with Ar-, even with an undoubted deuterotheme. The only undoubted example of -lith is in the feminine name Hildelith. If only one of the two themes were a bit questionable, we might take a chance; as it is, Arlith seems to be out of the question. (8/94)

Armando de la Rama Caida. Name.

Most of those who commented on the byname, which means `of the fallen branch', found it implausible, and in fact it departs from available models of period Spanish bynames in both form and meaning. In the available period examples of the form de <article> <object>, the object of the preposition is an unmodified noun. Moreover, such bynames seem to correspond semantically to Middle English bynames with atte and with the: de la Puente and atte Brigge `at the bridge'; de los Mulos `of the mules' and Withehounds `with the hounds' (occupational, for a handler); de la Calza `of the hose' and Wythemantel `with the cloak'; and de illa Fornera `of the (female) baker' (for a son, servant, or husband) and atte Maydenes (for a servant of the maidens). Fallen branches are both ordinary and ephemeral; it is hard to see how anyone would have come to be known either for having a noteworthy fallen branch (`with the fallen branch') or for living near one (`at the fallen branch').

Perhaps la Rama Caída can be justified as the name of an establishment; but at present we have no evidence for Spanish use of sign names, let alone their nature. It is even possible that an acceptable case could be made for the stylistically more authentic de la Rama as a locative. But these cases have not been made, so for now at least we must return the name. (10/95)

Arngrim Björnsson. Name.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Arnolt Brekeswerd. Device. Sable masoned, on a pile argent masoned sable between two hawks' heads erased respectant argent, a hawk striking to sinister gules.

The device lacks the symmetry and balance of period style heraldry. which lack the counterchanging of the field treatment over the primary charge only serves to reinforce. In fact, it reminded more than one commenter (and most of those at the Laurel meeting) of "a bird caught against the wall by a searchlight". A number of commenters questioned the propriety of counterchanging a field treatment over a charge in this manner. Certainly no one was able to find any period exemplars of such, bringing into question the propriety of such a counterchange. (4/94)

Arnolw Rabenhertz. Badge. [Fieldless] A sword inverted proper embrued gules entwined by a sprig of thorns sable and overall a wolf's head erased argent.

There are a number of problems with the submission, none of which by itself may have been sufficient cause for return, but the combination of all of them is. There was some feeling among the commenters that this probably violates our strictures regarding overall charges in fieldless badges, in that the overlap of the charges is not small. There was additional commentary that this could be considered to be three different types of charge in a single charge group (sword, sprig, and head). Several commenters found identifiability to be a problem, with the argent wolf's head overlying the argent sword blade (see, e.g., RfS VIII.2., "Armorial Contrast - All armory must have sufficient contrast to allow each element of the design to be clearly identifiable at a distance."). There was some feeling expressed that a complexity "rule of thumb count" of eight (argent, Or, sable, gules; sword, blood, sprig and head) is too complex in a fieldless design. In any instance, it is right at the limits of the rule of thumb for complexity, which rule would normally also take a field into account. Further, the "feel" of the badge is of modern and not period design. (See, e.g., RfS VIII.4.d. "Modern Style - Generally modern style in the depiction of individual elements or the total design may not be registered. Artistic techniques and styles developed after 1600 should not be used in Society armory. Charges may not be ... patterned after ... fantasy art, ... etc." (3/95)

Arnthora Eyulfsdottir. Device. Bendy sinister sable and gules, a double-headed eagle displayed Or clutching in its talons a Thor's hammer argent.

The fact that the field violates the ban on fields multiply divided of two colors (RfS VIII.2.b.iv.) allows Laurel to duck completely bypass the (probably necessary) reblazoning of the "Thor's hammer" as "an anchor" or some such. Whatever it may be, it is not a standard Thor's hammer, which lacks the crossbar of the charge here. (4/94)

Arnthora Eyulfsdottir. Device. Per saltire sable and gules, on a double-headed eagle displayed Or, a Thor's hammer gules.

Conflict with Fevronia Murometsa (SCA), Azure, on the breast of an owl displayed Or a Russian Orthodox cross gules, with a CD for the field, but nothing for type of raptor in identical postures nor for type only of tertiary. Conflict also with Pesche (Papworth, p. 319), Azure, on an eagle displayed Or crowned gules, a maunch of the third and with Archbishop of Caesarea (Combo II, p. 58, citing Fabulous), Azure, on an eagle displayed Or a chrismon gules. In each case there is a CD for the field, but nothing for the change to type only of the tertiary. (3/95)

Aros, Canton of. Badge. Or, an owl volant guardant wings addorsed sable and in base a triple mound gules.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Arrow Wan, Shire of. Device. Or, four arrows fretted in cross sable, within a laurel wreath vert.

A similar design was returned in July 1993 "because the arrows are pointing in four different directions, the blazon required to describe it would be so complex as to clearly show the non-period style of the submission." We have the same problem here. (11/94)

Arrow Wan, Shire of. Name.

No one could find any support for this form of a placename, and RfS II.b.i. requires that "Names of branches must follow the patterns of period place-names." "Want of arrow" or even the alternate meaning of "dark arrow" does not do this. (11/94)

Arslan Sanjarzade Yildirim-Kilij. Device. Sable, on an annulet within an ivy vine in orle Or, three foxes courant contourny in orle azure.

The overall effect of the design of this device is not period heraldic style but rather a more modern style of art. While any individual element -- the ivy vine in orle, the annulet (which in the design here reminded many of the commenters of nothing so much as a life preserver), the rotational symmetry of the charges on the annulet, the modern balance -- may not have been sufficient cause for return in and of itself, the combination works to create a design which is neither period nor heraldic. (8/95)

Arslan Sanjarzade Yildirim-Kilij. Name.

We are returning this name for further documentation. On the basis of the available information, Arslan Sanjarzade appears to be modern, Western-style Turkish name constructed from period elements; Schimmel, Islamic Names, p. 80, says, however, that the family name preceded the given name in those few families that had family names before this century. The submitter's documentation shows some period examples of names compounded from what are either simpler names or a combination of a nickname and a name, but there is no documentation for compound nicknames, nor is there evidence to show where in a period Turkish name a nickname should be placed. (8/95)

Artemesia Leonora Simonetta d'Este. Device. Azure, in sinister chief a cross parted and fretted, in dexter base a mermaid argent, tailed and crined, maintaining an estoile Or.

Conflict with Doubler (Papworth, p. 608), Azure, a cross double-parted argent. There is one CD for the addition of the mermaid but nothing for the enhancement of the cross to sinister chief or for the fretting at its cross point. The submitter invoked RfS VII.8. (the Grandfather Clause) for the registration of the off-center cross. (Her husband's device is Azure, in sinister chief a cross throughout gules, in sinister base a greyhound sejant reguardant, dexter forepaw raised, vert.) It was noted by several commenters that the Grandfather Clause allows only reuse of exact charges and treatments, not thematically related but different ones. As an example, RfS VII.8 notes that "Only the actual armorial element from the originally registered submission may be covered by this permission. For example, if an individual had registered armory containing a fimbriated lion many years ago, only that fimbriated lion would be covered under this rule, not fimbriated wolves, eagles, or lions in other postures." (3/94)

Arthur fitz Robert. Device. Azure, on a bend argent between two mullets of six points Or two roses gules, barbed and seeded vert.

Conflict with Maignart de Bernineres, de Louvigny, B. (Combo II, citing Dictionaire Heraldique), Azure, on a bend argent, three cinquefoils pierced gules, and with Learmonth of Balcomie (Combo I, citing Lyon I), Azure, on a bend argent three roses gules. In each case there is a CD for the addition of the secondaries, but nothing for the change to number only of the tertiaries. (2/95)

Artos ap Gwydion ap Math. Name.

Artos is not a name; it is a word. While there are Welsh names that use arth- as an element, none of the commenters has found it used uncompounded. (Gruffudd's reference is to a possible derivation of the name Arthur, not to an independent name.) We need evidence for its use as a name in period before we can register it. (9/94)

Arwyn of Leicester. Device. Purpure, a Bourchier knot within a bordure argent.

Conflict with Terrence of Edgecumbe, Purpure, a wake knot of two strands within an orle argent. There is one CD for changing the type of the peripheral charge, but a visual comparison of the two blazons showed that the two knots are too similar to grant the necessary second. (12/95)

Ashikaga Hiromoto. Badge. [Fieldless] On a fan within and conjoined to an annulet Or, a roundel per pale embowed-counterembowed vert and sable.

Conflict with Satake (Hawley's Mon, p. 59), On a fan conjoined to an annulet, a roundel. There is only the fieldless CD. (11/94)

Ashikaga Hiromoto. Device. Per pale vert and sable, on a fan within and conjoined to an annulet Or, a roundel per pale embowed-counterembowed vert and sable.

Conflict with Satake (Hawley's Mon, p. 59), On a fan conjoined to an annulet, a roundel. There is only the fieldless CD. (11/94)

Ashikaga no Toshirhiro. Device. Argent, a centipede coiled, head to center, sable.

Conflict with mon illustrated in Matsuya, 109. Though that one is counterchanged and reversed from the one submitted here, there is no difference for reversing the tinctures in "tinctureless" mon nor for reversing the direction of the spiral. As such there is only a CD for the fieldless difference of mon here. (11/93)

Atenveldt, Kingdom of. Name for Guild of the Golden Arrow.

While, as the LoI noted, a guild charter was enclosed in the Laurel packet, no name submission form was. (11/93)

Atesh al-Nasmeh bint Omer. Name.

There are a couple of problems with the name. The first is the lack of any documentation for the byname "the little breeze" either as a name element or for the translation. No sources were cited nor were any photocopies enclosed. (Atesh appears to be a reasonable transliteration of the Turkish Ates; Omer, however, should be Ömer; the umlaut does modify the pronunciation.) The name also does not appear to be properly formed for Turkish, which the language of the remainder of the name would require. Turkish does not appear to have used the Arabic bint in patronymic formations. I'm afraid we need more documentation before we can register this. (1/95)

Athanor Tor, Canton of. Device. Per chevron Or and vert, a flame within a laurel wreath Or.

There were no problems with the device, but we are forced to return it as we cannot form holding names for groups. (11/95)

Athanor Tor, Canton of. Name.

While it is not especially unusual for place-names to refer to such common, visible pieces of equipment as mills, there is no evidence that topographic features were named after obscure pieces of alchemical equipment. (11/95)

Atlantia, Kingdom of. Device change for the Consort. Per pale argent and azure, on a fess wavy cotised counterchanged, an escallop erminois, overall a wreath of roses proper.

Though the LoI stated that a letter signed by the kingdom seneschal and all royalty was being forwarded to Laurel, no such letter was received.

Additionally, as was pointed out by one of the commenters, were this device change registered and a woman win the crown in her own right, she would not as sovereign have arms, since she could not legitimately bear the arms of the King of Atlantia, and neither could she bear the arms of the Consort, as she would be neither King nor Consort, but Queen. The kingdom may wish to consider this possibility further before resubmitting this change. (12/95)

Atlantia, Kingdom of. Name for Order of the Crest of the Wave.

Withdrawn from consideration by the Principal Herald. (3/94)

Auliffe of the Blood Sun. Name.

Auliffe is a reasonable Anglicization of Irish Amlaíb. However, commenters were unanimously of the opinion that the byname was not justified by the documentation. In particular, there was general agreement that English bynames taken from ordinary day and feast names do not justify an Irish byname taken from an extraordinary, mythical event. Moreover, no one could confirm the reference to Irish mythology. (4/96)

Aurnia Quillenane. Name.

Since there was no form in the packet, we must return the name. Note that it is unusual in period to find Irish patronymics without the appropriate particle; Aurnia O Quillenane or Aurnia ny Quillenane would accord better with the limited evidence available. The accompanying device was registered under the holding name Wendy of the Outlands. (3/96)

Aurora Ashland of Woolhaven. Device. Vert, semy of rams statant argent armed, on a chief Or three trees eradicated proper.

Withdrawn at the request of the submitter. (6/95)

AVIGNON, City of. Device. Gules, in pale three keys fesswise wards to dexter Or.

Though the site of the "Babylonian captivity" of the Papacy, that seems to be pretty much Avignon's sole claim to fame, and the arms themselves do not appear to be particularly well known. (6/95)

Avisa of Dun Carraig. Device. Azure grillagy Or, on a bend sinister argent a branch leaved vert flowered of a daisy azure seeded Or.

Conflict with Corwynn of Thornwood (SCA), Azure, on a bend sinister argent a thorned slip embowed throughout sable. There is a CD for the addition of the grillage, but the only real difference between the tertiaries is the tincture, which is insufficient for the necessary second.

There was a fair bit of discussion as to whether the grillage should be considered as a primiary charge, as is the case with fretty. However, fretty is only considered that way because of evidence that it was an artistic variation of the fret; no such consideration can be given to grillagy, lacking a separate charge, the "grill". As a consequence, it seems the most consistent way to treat grillagy is as we treat other strewn charges and field treatments such as masoned. (12/94)

Balian de Brionne. Badge. [Fieldless] A salamander gules enflamed Or.

Conflict with the badge of François I, [Fieldless] A salamander. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but as François' badge appears to have been used tinctureless, the other CD must come from something other than tincture. (3/94)

Balian de Brionne. Badge. [Fieldless] A salamander gules enflamed Or.

Conflict with Vespacia Capricornia Kareliae (SCA), Pily bendy Or and vert, a natural chameleon gules. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but a comparison of the two emblazons demonstrated that the two lizards are in identical postures and that the differences between them were all in the same categories as those considered to be too minor to grant a CD. (5/95)

Balin Fear-Dàna. Name.

Malory's Balin is probably from Belin(us), which is apparently a Latinized form of the Welsh name Beli. It isn't clear that it was ever used as a name outside of literature; we may give it the benefit of the doubt on that score, but when written in Irish (as with this byname) it would have been given an Irish form. We are unable to guess what that might have been. O'Brien (Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniæ, p. 518) notes one instance of a name Belán; Belán Ferdána seems to be an acceptable early Irish name. (A late form would probably be Bealán Feardána.) The alternative would be to use an English or Anglo-French form of the byname, e.g., Gleman, Harper, Mynstrall, le Singere, etc. These changes are hardly minor, so we are returning the name to let him choose. (12/95)

Balthazar fitz Gryphon. Device. Azure chapé ployé argent, a griffin segreant argent.

Conflict with Griffin Val Drummond, Per pale purpure and azure, a griffin segreant argent bearing in its dexter talon a morgenstern and in its sinister talon a targe charged with a tower azure. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for the maintained charges. (12/95)

Barbara atte Dragon. Device. Argent, a dragon's head cabossed vert, in base a pansy purpure a chief embattled sable.

The identifiability of the dragon's head is problematical. This, combined with the use of three different types of charges in three different tinctures, puts the device beyond the limits of generally acceptable style. (4/94)

Barbara Giomaria di Roberto. Device. Argent, a chevron inverted azure in chief a brown hen rousant proper.

As with the return of a brown feather proper, a brown hen proper "is not an appropriate use of a hon-heraldic tincture for a charge". (Quoting the LoAR of April 1994, p. 20). Prior Laurel precedent concurs. "The wing was blazoned on the letter of intent and the forms as proper and is in fact brown so it cannot be reblazoned in any heraldic tincture." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 31 December 1989, p. 25). (5/95)

Barbara of Canterbury. Name.

There seems to be no problem with the name, but unfortunately there was no name form in the packet. (12/95)

Barbara of the Crossroads. Badge. [Fieldless] On a rose proper a fleece Or.

Conflict with Marta Sansgrail, Argent, a garden rose gules slipped and leaved vert, in the center of the rose a worm Or. There is the fieldless CD, but nothing for the change of type only of a tertiary on a non-voidable charge, per RfS X.4.j.ii. (5/96)

Barbara of the Rose. Device. Or, a sheaf of three roses purpure, slipped and leaved vert.

Conflict with Sharon de Mattos da Silveria (SCA), Argent, chapé ployé azure, a sprig of Rose of Sharon flowers purpure, slipped and leaved vert. There is one CD for the changes to the field, but a visual comparison clearly demonstrated that there were no others for type or for arrangement of the flowers. (4/95)

Barbara of the Rose. Name.

"The byname [of the Rose] implies membership in the Order of the Rose as much as `of the Laurel', `of the Chivalry', or `of the Pelican' imply membership in those orders." (LoAR January 1991, p. 10). The name would be more period, and would be registrable, as Barbara Witherose or Barbara atte Rose. (1/95)

Barbotte of Castledragon. Name.

Unfortunately, while Dauzat documents the name well, he also documents it as a byname. The submitted name lacks a given. (3/94)

Baronial Colleges of Nordleigh, Canton of the. Device. Sable, between three squirrels rampant a laurel wreath Or.

As we cannot form holding names for groups, we are having to return the device. (5/96)

Baronial Colleges of Nordleigh, Canton of the. Name.

This submission raises two separate issues, one stylistic, the other administrative. Stylistically the name is said to be modelled on that of Kings College (Cambridge), though the obvious analogical construction would be Barons College. This is probably too generic to be registered, but we see no serious stylistic bar to registering Barons College at Nordleigh, say. Barons Colleges at Nordleigh is another matter: it seems very unlikely that two colleges within a single university would have been given the same name. We are also reluctant to allow Baronial in lieu of Barons without some support from period usage. In addition to Kings College, there are the Queens Colleges at Cambridge and Oxford, Bishops Castle in Shropshire, Countesthorpe the countess's village in Leicestershire, and other similar constructs to support Barons College; as a model for Baronial only Royal comes to mind. Moreover, the OED does not attest baronial until the middle of the 18th century (though it probably existed at least a bit earlier). The change from the submitted name to Barons College at Nordleigh is formally not very large. However, it appears that the group specifically chose Baronial rather than Barons in order that the modifier might refer to both the Baron and the Baroness, and it chose Colleges because in the modern world it is based simultaneously at Carleton College and at St. Olaf College. Under the circumstances we are not willing to make these changes without permission and must therefore return the name.

The administrative problem concerns the use of college, an officially approved designator for an institutional branch based at a school, research facility, or the like. The submitted name implies that the group is administratively a canton, and it is so listed in the most recent Middle Kingdom newsletter. The distinction is significant, since cantons and colleges are subject to different administrative requirements. If in fact the group is administratively a college, there is no problem: they need only drop the words Canton of (and indeed must do so). Assuming that it is a canton, however, the question arises: May a canton use the word college, which as a designator has a specific (and in this case inappropriate) meaning, as a non-designating part of its name? The relevant part of RfS III.2.b says that a branch name "must consist of a designator that identifies the type of entity and at least one descriptive element and that `[t]he designator must be appropriate to the status of the submitter". In Canton of the Baronial Colleges of Nordleigh it is clear from the syntax that Canton is the required designator; the rule says nothing about the use of designators in the descriptive part of the name, so the first requirement is technically met, and if the group is a canton, the second requirement is met as well. In the absence of stylistic problems we would therefore not have returned the name. Nevertheless, we agree with Hawk that the use of an administratively inappropriate standard designator in the descriptive part of a branch name is potentially confusing and urge the group to consider this issue before resubmitting their name. (5/96)

Barre FitzRobert of York. Badge. [Fieldless] On a sun Or, an owl perched upon a spear fesswise azure.

The owl and spear are not really on the sun, as they overlap its edge at several points, yet neither are they overall. This should be redrawn so that the owl and spear are truly "on" the sun rather than "sort of overall".

Additionally, this has a technical conflict with Laurelen Darksbane (SCA), Azure vetú ployé sable fimbriated, on a compass-star Or an annulet azure. There is a CD for fieldless versus fielded, but we do not grant difference between multi-pointed mullets and suns, nor for change to type only of tertiaries on a complex charge. (2/95)

BASEL, City of. Device. Argent, a crook of Basel sable.

The arms seem important only in the uniqueness of the primary charge. (6/95)

Beautrice de Hameldone. Device. Vert, alternately in annulo five ermine spots argent and five oak leaves stems to center Or.

Blazoned on the LoI as Vert, ermined argent, five oak leaves in annulo stems to center Or, the above blazon more accurately describes the emblazon, which did not have the ermine spots strewn over the entire field, but had only five spots in the spaces between the leaves. This arrangement, however, does not appear to follow any period style of which we are aware. (12/95)

Bedwyr ap Gwrgant Amaethon ap Rhain. Device. Per pale Or and sable, a tree eradicated counterchanged proper and flaming Or.

The sinister half of the tree is not really "flaming", but is rather "of flames". We have not allowed charges of flame for quite some time. Additionally most of the commenters noted that counterchanging a charge, half of which is proper, does not appear to have any period or modern exemplars. Some of the commenters also felt (not necessarily incorrectly) that this appeared to be dimidiated arms, thus falling afoul of RfS XI.3. (7/94)

Beibhinn Nic Gille fhaolain na Kirkcudbright. Device. Argent, a catamount passant to sinister sable between two bars wavy vert, in chief a triquetra and in base a triquetra inverted sable.

As no forms for this submissions were received, we are unable to process it. (5/95)

Beibhinn Nic Gille fhaolain na Kirkcudbright. Name.

As no forms for this submissions were received, we are unable to process it. (5/95)

Beitidh Toirrdhealbhach. Name.

Plain given names do not seem to have been used as bynames in Gaelic. Since she allows minor changes, we could have converted Toirrdhealbhach to a patronymic, either nighean Thoirrdhealbhaich "daughter of Toirrdhealbhach" or nic Thoirrdhealbhaich "daughter of Mac T(h)oirrdhealbhaich". However, her form suggests that she may be thinking of the name as a byname meaning "well shaped", in which case a patronymic would probably not be welcome. This idea comes from Black's comments on the name, s.n. Tearlach, but it seems to be incorrect: Corráin & Maguire make the older Tairdelbach "abettor, instigator", a derivation which gets support from the entry for tairdelb "promoting, furthering" in the Dictionary of the Irish Language. Irrespective of the correct etymology, there is no evidence that the name itself was in use as an adjective, so it cannot function as a byname, and conversion to a patronymic (or replacement by a genuine adjectival byname) is required.

The given name is somewhat problematic. It is apparently a Gaelic transliteration of English Betty, a pet form of Elizabeth, and the limited information available suggests that it is a modern transliteration. At any rate it surely does not predate the English name. The latter is not so far attested in period, though Bess(i)e may be found in the 16th century. (The name Betta, Bete is found in the Middle Ages, but it seems to have been a different name, a pet form of Beatrice. The available spellings also suggest that it would have had somewhat different Gaelic transliterations.) The OED notes a common noun betty (for a burglar's tool), with a citation from 1700; if, as the editors believe, the term derives from the name Betty, the latter must date at least to the 17th century. We might perhaps on this account have given Betty itself the benefit of the doubt, but we are unwilling to extend that allowance to a Gaelic transliteration. Both problems would be solved by substituting the Anglicized name Bete Terlach: Bete (from Betryse = Beatrice) is dated to c.1440 by Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Beeton, Black, s.n. Mactarlich, cites Duncan McTerlach 1436, and the various patronymic particles were often lost in the process of Anglicization. (4/96)

Benjamin McDougal. Device. Per fess wavy argent and purpure semy of helms argent, a demi-griffin segreant issuant from the line of division purpure.

The line of division of the field needs to be drawn much more boldly. Indeed, even in the large emblazon it was nearly impossible to identify at any distance. (1/96)

Beornheard O'Dea. Device. Sable, a bear sejant erect maintaining a spiked mace, and on a chief embattled argent three broadarrows sable.

Even more unfortunately, he did not allow the formation of a holding name, either, so we are having to return the device as well. (10/94)

Beornheard O'Dea. Name.

The modern English form of the Irish patronym is entirely inconsistent with an Old English given name. We would have modified the name to either Bernard O'Dea or Beornheard O'Deaghaidh, but the submitter did not allow corrections. (10/94)

Beowulf tha Foesten-Stapa. Device. Azure, a bogbeast rampant, within a bordure embattled argent, semy of clusters of berries sable.

As was noted in the January 1993 LoI, the bogbeast is grandfathered to Nikolai Andreeov. At that time Laurel noted that he was not inclined to register it to anyone else. I concur. (4/94)

Beowulf tha Foesten-Stapa. Name.

The byname appears to be an attempt to assemble a byname from bits and pieces from the poem Beowulf. However, the form seems to be incorrect, and as no documentation was included in the Laurel packet, we are unable to fully determine exactly what the submitter was trying for here. (4/94)

Berhtolf Warinhar. Device. Azure, on a bend sinister argent three double-headed eagles palewise azure.

Conflict with Corwynn of Thornwood, Azure, on a bend sinister argent a thorned slip embowed throughout sable. There is only one CD for the changes to the tertiaries. (9/95)

Bernhard vom Sayn. Device. Per fess gules and argent, in chief a sword bendwise sinister between two roses argent and in base a griffin's head erased gules, armed Or.

Were the field division on this device per pale, it would stand as a classic example of impaled arms. As it stands, however (as an example of "infessed" arms? J), it is extremely unbalanced. (See RfS VIII.1.b., "Armory must arrange all elements coherently in a balanced design.") The arrangement of charges in the top half of the shield may easily be seen to be a balanced, coherent design. The same applies to the bottom half of the shield. The combination, however, on a single field is neither coherent or balanced. The roses are not arranged in a relationship to the other charges that would cause them to be viewed unequivocably as secondary charges; as part of the primary charge group, however, they cause the device to exceed the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a. ("Three or more types of charges should not be used in the same group"). (10/94)

Birger Persson. Gules, two wings inverted argent.

Persson is primarily known for being the father of St. Bridget. The general feeling among the commenters is that this alone is not sufficient to warrant protection (see, e.g., Harpy's letter of intent to "un"protect the arms of Owen Tudor). (5/95)

Birgitte Sidony. Name.

Withycombe, p. 269, contradicts Hanks and Hodges, p. 302, saying that "no early example of the name has been found"; her earliest example is dated to 1793. We need better documentation for the byname before we can register this. (4/94)

Bjarki Gullbjornsson. Device. Per bend sinister checky sable and Or and gules, three compass-stars in bend sinister Or.

Conflict with Awilda Haeulfdan, Per pale gules and sable, three compass-stars in bend sinister Or. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. (6/95)

Bjorn Johansen. Device. Per chevron inverted Or and gules, a bunch of grapes purpure slipped and leaved vert and two lions combattant Or within a bordure embattled argent.

The line of division here is drawn far to high on the shield to be truly considered per chevron inverted. As it is, it issues nearly from the corners of the chief (which means that it is not a chief triangular, either). This needs to be redrawn with a more clearly per chevron inverted line of division, with the line of division issuing from farther down the flanks of the shield, or as a chief triangular, with the line of division issuing from the corners of the chief. (10/95)

Blackmoor Keep, Shire of. Device. Sable, on a pale argent a tower sable within a laurel wreath overall counterchanged, in chief two fleurs-de-lys argent.

While it is true, as the LoI notes, that there often a grace period to allow submissions in process to clear before a policy change is stringently enforced, the policy on counterchanging complex charges dates back to the tenure of Mistress Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, and was continued during Master Da'ud's first tenure. As a consequence, there was no new policy applied to the submission and no "grace period" for this appeal is applicable. (11/93)

Bohémond de Nicée. Badge. [Fieldless] On a flames gules, a fleur-de-lys argent, its crossbar a snake nowed Or.

Blazoned in the LoI as A fleur-de-lys argent, its crossbar a snake nowed Or, all enflamed gules, the fleur is not enflamed, it is on a flame.

Conflict with Grimn the Hele-Bourne, Sable, upon a flame gules fimbriated Or a skull argent, and with Reginleif the Unruly, Sable, on a flame gules fimbriated Or a rough-legged draught horse forcene argent. In each case there is a CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for the fimbriation of the flame and nothing for the change to type only of the tertiary charge on a complex charge.

The style of having an animate charge as the "crossbar" of the fleur is extremely unusual, and has, to the best of our knowledge, no period precedent. (5/95)

Bohémond de Nicée. Device. Vert, a German panther rampant Or breathing flames gules, maintaining a fleur-de-lis argent.

Conflict with Earrnwynn van Zwaluwenburg (SCA), Per chevron rayonny erminois and sable, in base a panther rampant Or, incensed proper. There is a CD for the change to the field, but since the move in Earnwynn's is forced, nothing for position on the field, nor can we see granting a CD between continental and insular panthers. (3/94)

Bo Jonsson. Argent, a griffin's head erased sable.

There was a fair consensus among the commenters that this person did not come up to the general standards of importance to warrant protection. (5/95)

Bonwicke, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Western Cross of Bonwicke. [Fieldless] A Norse sun cross per pale indented Or and gules.

Conflict with Shimazu (Hawley's Mon, p. 65), A Norse sun cross. There is only the fieldless CD. Additionally, as noted by Couronne Rouge, precedent still disallows armory consisting of a single letter or abstract symbol. (4/94)

Brand Armand of Lancaster. Device. Gules, on a flame the blade of a sword Or, winged argent, a bordure Or semy of roses sable.

The sword loses its identifiability against the "flames" of the same tincture. (One commenter noted its resemblance to a chain saw.) Were the flames drawn larger (and less regularly) and made "proper" to increase the contrast, this would probably acceptable. (2/94)

Brand the Black. Device. Checky sable and Or, a seawolf argent.

Conflict with HMSubmarine Seawolf, Azure, a seawolf argent. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. (11/94)

Bran MacAonghais. Name.

Unfortunately this name conflicts with Bran mac Oengus, registered 8/77; MacAonghais is simply a later (and also more grammatical) spelling of mac Oengus. (11/95)

Bran of Lough Derg. Device. Paly Or and sable, a raven displayed and in base a crescent inverted gules.

There was no submission form included in the packet, so we must return it. (9/95)

Branwyn of Cotswold. Device. Per fess invected vert and argent, two dolphins urinant addorsed argent and a columbine blossom purpure.

There is a noted problem with the identifiability of the flower as drawn. (One commenter thought it was a cloud-wreathed volcano.) Were the submitter to copy the one in the Pictorial Dictionary, with slip and leaf, and without some of the petals at a 907 angle to the others as in the current submission, these changes would probably be sufficient to make the flower adequately identifiable for registration. (5/94)

Bréannainn O'Coinghiolláin. Badge. [Fieldless] On a scroll fesswise argent, the Greek words "Pneuma To Teuto" sable, overall a maiden statant affronty hands upraised proper, vested azure, conjoined to the roots and branches of a tree proper.

This exceeds the complexity limits of RfS XIII.1.a, with a complexity count of eleven (argent, sable, flesh proper, blue [dress], Or [hair], vert, brown; a scroll, letters, a maiden, and a tree). This alone is sufficient grounds for return. Other problems noted by the commenters, however, include the fact that the blazon doesn't really reproduce the emblazon; the best suggestion for fixing this was to reblazon the tree/maiden combination as Daphne, but this may not adequately reproduce the emblazon either. There were questions about the "motto", both as to its accuracy of translation (Palimpsest believes that to tauto may be an error for teuto, itself a contraction of to auto. Pneuma tauto seems to say something like "breath (or spirit) is the same"; no one else was able to make sense of the phrase) and as to its acceptability for registration ("we don't register mottoes"). There was some discussion of the acceptability of the overall style of the badge, though Palimpsest notes that a number of late-period Italian imprese are even more complex than this proposal. The problem with the complexity limits of VIII.1.a., however, makes resolution of the other questions moot. (4/94)

Brénainn Mac Dara. Device. Vert, a tree blasted within in chief an arch of five mullets argent.

The tree is drawn in a modern, fantasy art style (see, e.g., RfS VIII.4.d., Modern Style). (A number of the commenters recognized it immediately as being from one of J.R.R. Tolkien's drawings.) He should redraw it with a more standardized tree.

A different problem is that arches of mullets have been cause for return for some time now. "The design, although pretty, is not heraldic. A circle of stars may surround an entire charge or group of charges, but stars surrounding only part of a charge is fantasy art." (Baldwin of Erebor, LoAR 28 Sept 84, p.14) (6/95)

BREMEN, City of. Device. Gules, a key bendwise ward to chief argent.

Though a large port city (one from which a large percentage of emigrants leaving for America sailed in the last 150 years), nothing else about the city or its arms seems to place it in the same category as those considered important enough to protect. (6/95)

Brendan Brisbone. Badge. [Fieldless] Three candles conjoined at the bases in pall flammant argent.

Conflict with Francis Owen Roderick Keith, A shakefork argent. While there is clearly a CD for fieldlessness, a comparison of the emblazons demonstrated their remarkable (and overwhelming) visual similarity. (12/95)

Brendan the Gentle. Device. Gules, three annulets interlaced argent.

As no forms were included in the submissions packet, this submission must be returned. (9/95)

Brendan the Gentle. Device. Gules, three annulets interlaced argent.

As no submissions forms were included in the packet, we are having to return this. (11/95)

Brenna Catriona Dunn. Name.

Brenna is only marginally justifiable for the Classical Mediterranean area. It's use in an Anglo-Irish name as one of two given names becomes two steps beyond period practice, as Anglo-Irish names did not use double given names in period. (10/94)

Brennan Halfhand. Device. Argent, an eagle striking and a bordure vert charged alternately with acorns inverted and oak leaves argent.

The College has a long standing practice of disallowing mixed charge semys. Though the commentary noted two late period examples of mundane armory with mixed-charge semys, two examples are insufficient to establish a pattern or practice sufficient to overturn the current restriction. (7/94)

Brenna nic Adam. Badge. Azure, a demi-horse argent sustaining a harp proper.

A harp proper is brown, which is color on color. Indeed, this contrast problem was known to whoever colored in the large emblazons, as one was started in brown, then changed to a golden tan. If the harp were reblazoned as Or (the equivalent of tan), it comes into conflict with Ireland (Papworth, p. 908), Azure a harp Or stringed argent, Charles II (Combo I, citing Lyon I), Azure a harp Or stringed argent, and von Steinach (Combo I, citing Manesse), Azure, a harp Or. In each case there is one CD, for the addition of the horse. (12/94)

Brennisteinvatn, Shire of. Device. Sable, on a flame within a laurel wreath argent, a lizard tergiant fesswise vert.

The laurel wreath is emblazoned as "lying as on a bordure", which has been disallowed for some time now. Please let them know that laurel wreaths are nearly circular in shape, and cannot follow the line of a bordure or orle. (12/95)

Briana verch Evan Mawr. Device. Ermine, a dragon passant gules within a bordure engrailed compony sable and argent.

Though the precedent stating that compony bordures sharing a tincture with the field has been extended to include compony bordures which share a tincture between a plain field and an ermined bordure (and vice versa), this particular proposal was submitted under the Grandfather Clause of the Rules. (The submitter's father has an ermine field and a bordure compony sable and argent.) However, RfS VII.8. states that "Only the actual armorial element from the originally registered submission may be covered by this permission. For example, if an individual had registered armory containing a fimbriated lion many years ago, only that fimbriated lion would be covered under this rule, not fimbriated wolves, eagles, or lions in other postures." (emphasis added). As a consequence, we do not believe that the Grandfather Clause allows her to register an engrailed bordure; only a plain one. (12/94)

Brian MacBrand. Transfer of badge to Aeruin ni hEarain o Chonemara.

Withdrawn from consideration at the request of the submitter and the submissions herald. (8/95)

Brianna Ashinagh. Badge. [Fieldless] On a caltrap inverted sable a fox's mask argent.

We are able to completely avoid the issue of the identifiability of a "caltrap inverted" (which is a problem) because the one here is drawn as a mullet of three points, which has been disallowed for some time now. (11/94)

Brianna Ashinagh. Device. Argent chaussé sable, on a caltrap inverted sable, a fox's mask argent, in chief a paw print sable.

We are able to completely avoid the issue of the identifiability of a "caltrap inverted" (which is a problem) because the one here is drawn as a mullet of three points, which has been disallowed for some time now. (11/94)

Brianna O'Kirrane. Device. Vert, three roses and a bordure argent.

Conflict with Rowan Perigrynne, Vert, a cinquefoil within a bordure argent. There is a CD for number but nothing for rose vs. cinquefoil. "[T]here's no CDs between cinquefoil and (heraldic) rose." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR August 1992, p. 32) (2/96)

Brianne nic Auslan de Buchanan. Device. Sable, a sword inverted Or, overall, in saltire, two Trumpet lilies argent slipped and leaved vert.

The flowers are more than half vert, making them effectively color on color. (8/94)

Brianne nic Auslan de Buchanan. Name.

Brianne is a modern name and apparently could only arise as a French version of Brianna; a hypothetical French form of a probably non-existent Latinized feminine form of a masculine Irish name [to borrow Palimpsest's wording] is farther from documented practice then we are willing to go. (8/94)

Brian the Blackhawk. Device. Argent, an eagle displayed within an orle within an orle of lozenges orlewise sable.

As this could equally well be blazoned (as Papworth has done with similar designs), Sable an inescutcheon argent charged with an eagle sable all within a bordure argent semy of lozenges sable, it conflicts with Fylkyn (Papworth, p. 687), Sable an escutcheon argent within a bordure of the last charged with billets of the first. There is one CD for the addition of the tertiary eagle, but because this is not simple armory as defined in RfS X.4.j.2., there is nothing for changing the type only of the tertiary charges on the bordure. (1/94)

Brice Jacob. Device. Gyronny gules and Or, three Maltese crosses counterchanged.

It was the consensus of those at the Laurel meeting looking at the emblazon that the counterchanging of the three crosses on the gyronny field significantly reduces their ready identifiability and thus should be considered "excessive", per RfS VIII.3. ("Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability"). (11/95)

Brictiva de Chantal. Name.

Unfortunately we must return this delightful Anglo-French name because there was no name submission form in the packet. (9/95)

Bridget Killeen. Name.

Killeen is probably a post-period Anglicization of Irish ó Cillín, O Killine being rather more likely even in the 16th century. Nevertheless, the name is registerable in the submitted form. (Pelican has a number of instances of English use of Bridget as a baptismal name in the 16th century.) The only real question is whether it conflicts with Brighid Ní Chillín, registered 3/94, of which it is an Anglicization, and that question proved to be the headache of the month. As RfS V.1.b (Conflict of Personal Names) is written, these names conflict unless either Bridget differs significantly from Brighid, or Killeen differs significantly from Ní Chillín. In each case the names will be considered significantly different only if they differ significantly in sound and appearance. In the case of the patronymic, the particle is ignored in the comparison. Even without it, Killeen and Chillín look significantly different. The difference in pronunciation, however, which is mostly the difference between the sounds of k and kh, is too small to be considered significant. The bynames, therefore, are not sufficiently different to avoid conflict. The situation in respect of the given names is quite different: they do differ significantly in sound. Irish Brighid is pronounced roughly "breed"; a slightly earlier pronunciation would more resemble "bree-yid". Both pronunciations are clearly quite different from the usual English pronunciation of Bridget. It is less clear how much the names differ in appearance, and unfortunately commentary dealt only with the issue of sound. People tend to look first at the beginnings of words, so that privet and pricks are likely to be perceived as more similar than pricks and trucks. Moreover, the fact that the kinship between these names is widely recognized also tends to increase the perceived visual similarity. After much consideration we have therefore reluctantly decided that Brighid and Bridget are not significantly different in appearance and in consequence are forced to conclude that the submitted name does conflict with the Irish version already registered. In some ways this is a regrettable decision even apart from the question of whether the concept of name conflict is a reasonable one. If the names were considered as wholes, rather than by elements, there would be no conflict, since the names themselves do differ significantly in sound and appearance. On the other hand, one of the considerations that went into the present version of RfS V (Name Conflict) was that names that were interchangeable in period probably ought to conflict. (For an example see RfS 1.a.ii(b) (Locative Bynames).) Since Bridget Killeen and Brighid Ní Chillín could indeed have signified the same person very late in our period, it is at least consistent with other parts of the rules to say that they conflict. (3/96)

Brighde Mary MacGregor. Name.

Brighde is the genitive case of Irish Brighid; the nominative case is required for a given name. Since the rest of the name is Anglicized, period practice requires that the first name be Anglicized as well. Any of Bridget(t), Bridgitt, Brigit, Briget(t), Brygett, Brygyt, Bryget, etc. would be fine; unfortunately, she forbids spelling and grammar corrections, so we must return the name. Please inform her that double given names were very rare even at the end of our period; her name would be more authentic without one of the forenames. (9/95)

Brighid of Ferncliff. Device. Azure goutty d'eau, a cross formy fitched and a gore sinister argent.

The "gore" is drawn here as half-gusset, half-gore. It needs to be redrawn as clearly one or the other. (8/94)

Bright Hills, Barony of. Badge for Award of the Silberberg. [Fieldless] On a mountain of three peaks couped argent a bow fesswise nocked with a rapier sable.

The rapier is almost entirely unidentifiable, especially as when crossed with a bow in this way, the eye wants to see an arrow. RfS VII.1.a. requires that heraldic elements "must be recognizable solely from their appearance." Such is not the case here until one takes the time to look closely and carefully at the tertiary charges. Armory needs to be more quickly and easily identifiable than that. (11/95)

Brigit Kathleen Sollis. Device. Sable, a snake nowed in an inverted heneage knot, on a chief argent three strawberries proper.

Conflict with Lothar the Wanderer (SCA), Sable, a serpent nowed with a head at either end, on a chief argent three caltrops sable. There is a CD for the changes to the tertiary charges, but nothing for removing the tail-end head or for the exact form of the nowing. (3/95)

Broinninn MacLaurin. Device. Argent, a tower sable, on a chief embattled vert three crescents argent.

The device conflicts with Meghan Catriona McInees of Kinlachline, Argent, a castle sable masoned argent issuant from base, on a chief embattled vert a plate. There is only one CD, for the change in type and number of the tertiaries. We have consistently not granted difference between a tower and a castle, and the issuance/non-issuance from base is insufficient for the necessary second CD. (8/95)

Broinninn MacLaurin. Name.

The name combines Gaelic Broinninn with Englished Mac Laurin (as the surname appears on her form). It would be fine as Gaelic Broinninn nic Labhruinn, pronounced roughly `brinnin nick laurin', but she permits no changes to the last name. We might have constructed Brinnin as a hypothetical Englishing of the given name, but since she indicates that the language of the name is most important to her, we prefer to return the name and let her decide how to correct it. (8/95)

Bronwen MacFaolchiar. Name.

There are several problems with this name. The surname is a hypothetical compound of Gaelic faol `wolf' and ciar `dusky, black'; both elements are used in compound Gaelic personal names of this type, so the basic idea is sound. It appears, however, that the name would be Faolciar in the nominative case and Faoilchéire in the genitive case after Mac. (The compound could also be formed in the opposite order, making Ciarfhaol and Mac Ciarfhaoil; indeed, this construction seems to be slightly more common.) In any case, it is clearly intended to be Gaelic, so it must be put into its feminine form after the feminine given name: Nic Fhaoilchéire (or Nic Chiarfhaoil). The given name, however, is spelled in a manner incompatible with the Irish orthography of the surname, since Irish lacks the w, and it's not clear how it would have been rendered by an Irish scribe. Perhaps the likeliest possibility is the feminine given name Broinninn, which seems to be its Irish cognate, but we're not willing to make that big a change in the given name. The other possibility is to Anglicize the surname to match the given name; M'Fyllaghery is a reasonable late-period version extrapolated from attested Anglicizations. But Anglicizing the name obscures its meaning as a compound; since she allows only changes preserving the meaning, we are unwilling to make this change either and must therefore return the name. (10/95)

Bronwen of Brightoaks. Badge. Sable vêtu Or, a straight trumpet Or.

Conflict with the Kingdom of Meridies' badge for the Order of the Burning Trumpet, A trumpet Or issuing flames gules. There is one CD for the addition of the field, but nothing for removing the flames, which are the equivalent of a maintained charge, insufficiently large to count for difference. (6/96)

Bronwen o Gydweli. Household Name for Tylwyth o Gydweli.

The name conflicts with the castle and town of Kidwelly, Wales. [The submitter might be well served by recommending to her a copy of "Period Welsh Models for SCA Households and the Nomenclature Thereof" by Heather Ross Jones (Harpy Herald - West Kingdom, Mistress Tangwystl verch Morgant Glasvryn).] (2/95)

Bruinneach Dunn. Name change from holding name of Marcia of Wyvernwood.

The name combines a given name spelled according to Gaelic spelling conventions with a surname spelled according to English spelling conventions. No evidence has yet been found for switching spelling "codes" so drastically in mid-name. Bruinneach Ní Dhuinn would be correct in terms of modern Irish grammar and spelling; Bruinnech ingen D(h)uinn would be a better early Irish name.

The only way to use Bruinneach in any form with Dunn would be to English it. Unfortunately, since the name was at best exceedingly rare, it has no accepted Englishing, modern or period. As a consequence, any fully anglicized forms we might suggest would be highly speculative. Would she be interested in either of the fully Irish forms? (6/95)

BRUSSELS, City of. Device. Gules, the Archangel Michael statant affronty Or vanquishing underfoot a demon sable.

Though the capital of Belgium, nothing else about either the city or its arms seems to warrant protection by the SCA. Moscow is probably better known for this motif than Brussels is. (6/95)

Bryce MacLones. Name.

It is not possible to simply drop the Scottish patronymic particle mac in front of a variant an English surname (in this case, a variant of Lane) to create a patronymic byname. (2/94)

Brynach Elysteg of Caerleon. Name.

Elysteg is a modern invention very loosely based on the Welsh masculine name Eliseg. Brynach is a Welsh man's name substituted at kingdom for the submitter's undocumented Bryna. Normally we would simply drop Elysteg to register the rest of the name, but since Brynach is neither what the submitter originally wanted nor, apparently, of the right gender, we prefer to return the name for further work.

If the submitter is most interested in the element Bryna, Searle lists the Old English men's names Bryne, Bryni, and Brynia; any of these would be registerable and indeed quite compatible with the locative in the Domesday Book form Carlion. (Bryna itself may not be justified by these names. If Redin is correct in thinking them to be forms of Brun in which the suffix -i(a) has caused i-mutation of the vowel, then the corresponding -a form is Bruna, not Bryna; like most Old English simplex names in -a, it is masculine.) If the submitter is more interested in having a Welsh name, it will be necessary to begin afresh, preferably with some instruction in how to identify the period names in Gruffudd. (1/96)

Cáelainn Isles. Name.

The name was submitted as Cáelainn Isles on the LoI, but her form has Isle. The combination of Gaelic and English orthography runs counter to documented period practice. Cáelainn na Inse would be early Irish `Keelin of the Isle', of which Coelfinnia de Insula would be a period Latinization, and Keelin Isle would be a late-period Anglicized form; any of these would be acceptable, but each requires more than a minor change, so we are returning the name to let her choose. (9/95)

Cáemfind Adorian NhicKeown of Dalriada Name.

The name is a mix of an Old Irish given, an Anglicized spelling of an Irish "o" patronym, an incorrect Gaelic feminine patronymic prefix combined with an Anglicized name, and an English locative referencing an early Irish kingdom. Such a combination is simply impossible. We recommend the commentary of especially Harpy and Palimpsest for a more detailed discussion of the specific problems with the various elements and their combination here.

There are a number of different ways to modify the name to bring the elements into some kind of linguistic consistency, but any of them would far exceed the "minor" changes permissible. Among the suggestions were a fully Irish Caoimhinn Ó Deoradháin Nic Eoghain, Caoimhinn Ní Eoghain (or Eoin) Uí Dheoradháin, or Cáemfind ingen Eógain (or Eoin) Uí Deradáin; or an Englished Keevin ny Owen Adorian or Keevin McKeown Adorian. We are returning this so that the submitter can be consulted and decide how she wants to proceed. (11/94)

Cadwal of Caermor. Name.

There are two problems with the byname. The first is that the English "of" is entirely out of place in an otherwise all-Welsh name. The second is that the evidence appears to indicate that mor would lenite to for in this compound. As the submitter allowed no changes to the name whatsoever, we are forced to return it. (12/94)

Caelica of Argyll. Name.

Caelica appears as the title to a collection of sonnets by Sir Fulke Greville, Lord Brook, which appeared only after his death, having first been published in 1633. As such, it could not have been a part of the name pool before 1600, and must be considered to be in the same category as other similar names, such as Miranda, as out of period. (5/95)

Caelina Lærd Reisende. Device. Vert, a mascle knot Or.

"The mascle knot is an SCA invention, with only two registrations, and is unattested anywhere else. As such, it is not sufficiently well-known or defined (outside of the Pictorial Dictionary) to retain as a registrable charge, nor does there appear to be sufficient interest to continue to register it in the future." LoAR March 1996, p. 12. (5/96)

Caerthe, Barony of. Badge for the Order of the Dreamer's Cup. [Fieldless] on a mug Or, an aspen leaf vert.

The badge conflicts with William of Woodland (SCA), Vert, on a tankard Or, a cross crosslet fitchy vert. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for the change to type only of the tertiary on a complex charge. (2/95)

Caerthe, Barony of. Name for the Order of the Dreamer's Cup.

The order name does not appear to follow any period exemplars that any of the commenters could find. [It was suggested that the "Order of the Cup" would be far more appropriate.] (2/95)

Caesaria Almy. Household badge for Greenbriar Keep. Per pale potenty argent and vert, a rose branch vert budded and a tower argent.

We no longer register rosebuds. "Commentary was nearly as strong in favor of banning garden rosebuds from armory. Consequently, we will accept whatever garden rosebuds may be in LoIs issued before December 1994, but no further registrations of this charge will be made." (Da'ud ibn Auda, Cover Letter of November 29, 1994, p. 3.) (11/95)

Caid, Kingdom of. Badge for 5th Brigade of the Caidan army. Gules, a phoenix Or rising from flames proper, a bordure Or.

Conflict with the US 39th Artillery (Military Ordinary), Gules a phoenix Or issuant from flames argent. There is a clear CD for the addition of the bordure but the change to the tincture of the flames, which here constitute no more than one third of the charge, is insufficient for the second necessary CD. (11/93)

Caid, Kingdom of. Title for Vox Draconis Pursuivant.

The previous version, Dragon's Voice Pursuivant, was returned 3/95 for failure to emulate period models as required by RfS III.2.b.iii; translation into Latin doesn't bring it any closer. It was suggested that it might derive from a motto Vox draconis sum `I am the voice of the dragon', but the period examples noted all comprise the entire motto, and no evidence was presented that Vox draconis sum is a reasonable imitation of a period motto. (10/95)

Caid, Kingdom of. Title of Dragon's Voice Pursuivant.

This title does not follow any documented period model, as required by RfS III.2.b.iii. It was suggested that it emulated the model of titles based on mottoes, but no examples of similar titles were noted by anyone. (3/95)

Caitilín Duibheasa Duibhir. Name.

There are several significant problems with this name. First, it does not appear that double given names or unmarked metronymics were part of period Irish naming practice; secondly, the patronymic must be in the feminine form after the feminine given name; and thirdly, the information given by MacLysaght and Woulfe strongly suggests that Duibhir is a strictly modern spelling, Dubhuidhir being the etymologically transparent early modern spelling. We consider feminizing the patronymic to be a minor change (which she permits), and her earlier submission of Caitlin Carol uí Dubhuidir suggests that she has no objection to the period spelling of the patronymic; the last two problems could therefore be solved by changing Duibhir to Ní Dhubhuidhir. The first problem could be solved by dropping Duibheasa altogether or by making the submitter the daughter of a Duvessa O Dwyer; the resulting names are Caitilín Ní Dhubhuidhir and Caitilín inghean (or ) Dhuibheasa Uí Dhubhuidhir. Since the submitter has used a double given name in every attempt so far, we consider either of these changes to be more than minor and are therefore returning the name for further input from her. (2/96)

Caitlin Angharad FitzHenry. Badge. [Fieldless] The fletchings of three arrows palewise sable issuant from within a mascle gules.

The emblazon is not reconstructible from the blazon. (See RfS VII.7.b., "Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon.") The charges are more than just arrow fletchings, they are more like demi-arrows (the rear halves). None of the examples cited in the LoI lend sufficient support to this arrangement of charges, as none of them are parallel to this submission. None of the examples cited has a charge both issuing from and surmounting another, nor one passing from the inside to the outside of the surrounding charge. (10/94)

Caitlin Angharad FitzHenry. Badge. [Fieldless] Three demi-arrows issuant from a mascle gules.

The blazon is sufficiently ambiguous that reconstructibility may be a significant problem. (See RfS VII.7.b.) It is not intuitively obvious that a "demi-arrow" would be the fletched half (as opposed to the end with the arrowhead) nor that the arrows would be issuant to chief. (Though the latter is fixed by simply blazoning them as issuant to chief from the outer edge of the mascle.) Nor has a "demi-arrow" been used before in SCA heraldry (except, arguably, in the context of a quiver containing arrows).

There was considerable feeling among those attending the Laurel meeting regarding the overall style of the badge, which was felt to be more like a modern graphic art design than period- style heraldry. (See RfS VIII.4.d. "Generally modern style in the depiction of individual elements or the total design may not be registered. Artistic techniques and styles developed after 1600 should not be used in Society armory. Charges may not be used to create abstract ... designs, or be patterned after comic book art, fantasy art, pointillism, etc.") (4/96)

Caitlin Guttormsdottir. Device. Per pale argent and purpure, in pale a Viking tent arch and a unicorn statant counterchanged.

The College has not previously registered a "Viking tent arch" as a charge. As a consequence, this registration (and/or one of the others in this LoI) would be the "defining instance", and we need some documentation for it: either that it appeared in period armory in this form or that it is a period artifact and that this is its standard or typical form. (5/94)

Caitlin ni Ceallaigh. Name.

The use of ni requires aspiration of the patronym, in this case to Cheallaigh. As the submitter did not allow any changes whatsoever, we are having to return the name. (9/94)

Caitlyn Emrys. Device. Argent, a peacock pavonated to base and a dexter tierce vert.

Conflict with Tannis of Tir-y-Don (SCA), Argent, a peacock passant reguardant pavonated to base proper, with only one CD for the addition of the tierce. (As noted before, a peacock proper has a vert body.((10/94)

Caitlyn of Argyle. Badge. [Fieldless] A lioness's head couped and sinister facing Or.

Conflict with Conan Goldenhair, Gules a lion's head erased reversed Or. There is only one CD for fieldlessness. (11/93)

Caitlyn of Dolwyddelan. Name change from holding name of Dena of Trollfen.

Unfortunately, this must be returned again, as again the submitter does not allow any changes to be made. The given is documented only as Caitlin (even in the submitter's own documentation -- photocopies from Today's Best Baby Names by Alfred J. Kolatch!), and Irish does not use the English "i/y" switch. We could have registered the name as either Irish Caitlin or Englished Catlyn, but.... No mention was made of this last time around because although the submitter's forms have the given spelled Caitlyn, the LoI gave it as Caitlin. (8/94)

Caitriona a Gaoth. Name change from Catriona of Bronzehelm.

The byname, meaning "the Wind", makes little more sense than her original submission (returned in the June 1992 LoAR). Additionally, a'Ghaoth is a Scots-Gaelic idiom for "flatulence"; you might wish to inform the submitter. (11/93)

Caldrithig, Canton of. Name.

The name is acceptable, but unfortunately there was no petition of support in the packet. They might like to know that in Old English the name would have been pronounced as if spelled Caldrithy, with th as in then, not thin. (11/95)

Calum Mac Dhaibhidh. Device. Azure, a mermaid proper tailed Or holding in her dexter hand a hanging balance, in chief two mullets of seven points Or.

Conflict with Astridr Selr Leifsdottir, Azure, a melusine with hands clasped at her breast argent, crined and tailed, and in chief three estoiles of eight rays Or. There is a CD for changing the number of secondary charges, but the differences between eight pointed mullets and seven rayed estoiles was insufficient for the necessary second. (9/95)

Camilla Saebu of North Audal. Device. Per pall inverted vert, sable, and Or, a unicorn rampant contourny argent.

Conflict with Edward Bolden (SCA 3/94), Pily bendy sinister gules and Or, a unicorn rampant contourny argent. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. (8/94)

Caoiltiarn de Rús. Device. Per chevron vert and Or, two passion nails and a flat candleholder with a lit candle counterchanged.

The "passion nails" were unidentifiable as such, looking more like oddly-shaped lozenges or modern kites. This is being returned for redrawing. (3/94)

Caoimhín Chonmaoil Sciach. Device. Sable, a unicorn passant contourny, horn lowered, between three tricunes argent.

The secondary charges are not tricunes, but "mullets of three points" which have been disallowed for some time. (11/93)

Caomhlú Cionnaola ni Fhaoláin na Abhainn Seileachne.

Name. The submitter desires her name to agree with her sister's name, which is registered elsewhere on this LoAR as Finnguala ingen Fhaelain Abann na Sailech. Since her sister wanted an early name, the patronymic and locative use early forms, and the rest of the name must be changed to match. In particular, the late spelling Caomhlú must be replaced by the early Caemlug, and the 20th century Cionnaola must be replaced by the early Cenn F(h)aelad (or Cennf(h)aelad). Gaelic usage does not appear to allow double given names, but in this case the problem is more illusory than real: the second one can be interpreted as a nickname, "wolf's head", and the Dictionary of the Irish Language attests a number of period formations of just this type (Cenn ). Unfortunately, this leaves one insurmountable problem: Cáemlug is a man's name and as such is incompatible with the feminine patronymic. Caemlug Cennfhaelad mac Fhaelain Abann na Sailech is a registerable masculine name; but a gender change on top of the spelling changes necessary to make the name match her sister's is much more of a change than we are willing to make without consulting her, so we are forced to return the name. (4/96)

Caressa Barak's Bane. Name change from Caressa the Chased.

The documentation submitted does not support the form of the byname in Old Norse, much less a translation into English. Even were that the case, the form in English is post-period; the use of the possessive with an apostrophe is not found in period. (The issue of combining an Italian given with an English form of an Old Norse byname was not addressed in the submission, either.) In any case, as the submitter allowed no changes, we were unable to modify the name to even incorporate the relatively minor changes which Palimpsest suggested which might have brought the name within registrability. (If she would like an entirely Old Norse form, Palimpsest recommends Kára Báreksbani.) (10/94)

Carina Lunétta de Lacy. Name.

There should be no accent on Lunetta; in the documentation it is merely a pronunciation guide, not part of the name. She permits minor changes, but unfortunately there was no name submission form in the packet, so we must return the name. Note that the French Lunette would better match the surname. (9/95)

Carlo dalla Casa. Badge. [Fieldless] On a sun Or eclipsed quarterly vert and azure a fleur-de-lys Or.

The fleur-de-lys is a quaternary charge, disallowed by RfS VIII.1.c.ii. ("All charges should be placed either directly on the field or entirely on other charges that lie on the field"). The College has long treated eclipsing as the addition of a tertiary roundel, and not a form of voiding. Such treatment thus defines the fleur-de-lys as a charge which lies entirely upon a charge which lies entirely upon another charge, which is considered four layers. (9/95)

Caroline de Mercier. Device. Azure, on a compass star chief point flory Or a lozenge azure, a bordure Or.

The primary charge is halfway between a compass star and a compass rose. As a consequence, its identifiability is problematical. The device also has a conflict with the Shire of Western Keep (SCA, registered 1/94), Azure, on a sun within a laurel wreath Or a tower azure. There is one CD for the difference in type of the peripheral charge, but nothing for the change to type only of the tertiary per X.4.j.ii. (2/94)

Caroline de Mercier. Name.

Caroline is a post period name. We need evidence of its use in period before we may register it. Additionally, de Mercier appears to be an error in Bardsley; documented forms are Mercier, le Mercier, and du Mercier. (2/94)

Cassandra Antonelli. Device change. Or, a double rose azure and argent pierced by a sword bendwise sable all within a bordure azure.

Though blazoned as a double rose, the primary is emblazoned as a "rose argent, fimbriated azure"; roses are too complex a charge to fimbriate. (6/94)

Cassandra of Elkeheorte. Device. Azure, in pale a heart distilling gouttes d'Or and a stag's skull caboshed argent within a bordure embattled Or.

The device conflicts with the Kingdom of the Outlands badge for the Order of the Stags Heart, Vert, a heart Or between the attires of a stag's head cabossed argent, attired, within a bordure embattled Or. There is only one CD for the tincture of the field. The gouttes, the tincture of the horns, and the difference between a stag's skull cabossed and a stag's head cabossed are insufficient for the necessary CD. (11/93)

Cassandra of Elkeheorte. Name.

No one could document or justify the construction of Elkeheorte as a placename or even as a sign name, which it would need to be with "of". Additionally, this particular combination is a mixture of early modern English and old English, which is not permissible. (11/93)

Cassandra Palfrey Device. Per pale argent and gules, three iris blossoms sable, slipped and leaved vert, conjoined at the bases.

Conflict with Carolyn of the Iris (4/93). [Fieldless] Three irises in fess argent slipped, conjoined and leaved vert. There is a CD for fielded versus fieldless but nothing for the change to the tincture of the blossoms only. (11/93)

Castillos del Oro, Stronghold of Los. Device. Azure, on a bend vert fimbriated argent two castles, overall a laurel wreath Or.

A laurel wreath is nearly circular in shape; the "wreath" here is simply two sprigs of laurel, which does not meet the requirement that branch arms have a laurel wreath as a significant part of them. (See, e.g., prior returns of the same motif: "Though blazoned as a laurel wreath the charge in base is really two sprays of laurel, stems crossed in saltire. This needs to be redrawn with a laurel wreath." [Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR February 1994, p.22] "Additionally, as drawn, the laurel `wreath' isn't, but is two sprigs of laurel conjoined in chevron inverted. Please discuss the circular nature of a laurel wreath with the submitters." [Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR November 1993, p.12]) (6/95)

Catarina Ginevra Falconieri. Household name for Household di Illuminare.

Illuminare is an Italian verb meaning `to illuminate; to shed light on'; one who illuminates manuscripts seems to be a miniatore, literally `a painter of miniatures'. Casa or Famiglia degl'Illuminatori `House of those who illuminate' seems to be a legitimate construct, but no evidence was presented to show that it would have the desired meaning; Casa or Famiglia dei Miniatore would have the desired meaning but a completely different sound. Since she indicates that both the sound and the meaning are important to her, we are returning the name to let her choose (or find evidence that illuminatore was used in the desired sense). (9/95)

Catelin MacBain. Device. Argent, a bend sinister gules surmounted by a horse passant sable.

Conflict with Christjenn Rasmussen of Samsø, Argent, a bend sinister gules overall a leopard passant guardant sable marked argent. While there is clearly a CD for the difference in type of the overall charge, a comparison of the emblazons confirmed the high visual similarity of the two pieces of armory. (11/95)

Cathalán Ó Néilli. Device. Vert, a sun Or eclipsed gules, a bordure dovetailed Or.

Blazoned as "an estoile of four greater and four lesser rays", the charge is was identified as a sun by most of the commenters and by those attending the Laurel meeting. It was also felt that a "compass estoile" was an extension further from period practice than we are willing to go (the compass star is an SCA invention, and should not be used as a model to create other charges, which charges would then be another step further from period practice).

Conflict with Reynard de Lyre, Vert, on a mullet of eight points Or a fox's mask proper all within a bordure wavy Or. There is one CD for modifying the complex line of division of the bordure, but we grant no difference between suns and eight-pointed mullets, and change of type only (the fox's mask is mostly gules) of a tertiary on a complex charge. (7/95)

Cathal Gavin Douglas O'Connor. Name.

In returning Catherine Elizabeth Holly Winthrop of Lincolnshire (7/92 LoAR, Caid) Laurel said: `English names with four elements are so rare in period that I would consider the usage a "weirdness", costing a submitter the benefit of the doubt'. (In fact no examples seem to have been found.) Both the use of multiple given names and the use of Douglas as a given name mark this name as late 16th century. By then the th in Cathal was pronounced h, as in the contemporary Anglicization of Ó Cathail as O Cahill, so Cathal cannot be a phonetic Anglicization; moreover, Ó Corráin & Maguire note that the name was invariably Anglicized Charles. We certainly cannot change Cathal to Charles. We might perhaps venture to guess at a phonetic Anglicization (Cahall?) despite the statement by Ó Corráin & Maguire, but it would be a second `weirdness', and the name would have to be returned for multiple anomalies. (Since the result would very likely not represent the submitter's pronunciation, we would in any case hesitate to make such a change, especially to a given name.) (12/95)

Catherine du Castelcoeur. Name.

While the French have many versions of Castel<name> and Château<name>, the <name> is a given name in all but one case ("the Moor's castle"). We lack documentation for the submitted form. (Several commenters noted that the article should properly be de, not du.) (3/94)

Catherine Margaret Oakley of Rivendale. Device. Per pale vert and sable, a Catherine wheel and an oak leaf, a chief triangular argent.

There is no name registered under which we can register the device. (9/95)

Catherine of Gordonhall. Badge. Purpure, a rose Or, barbed and seeded vert, within a spokeless Catherine wheel Or.

The "spokeless Catherine wheel" is not really recognizable as such. Several commenters noted that it appeared to be "an annulet wavy-crested on the outer edge", which would fall afoul of the ban on the use of the wavy-crested line of division. Given that the prior registration of this charge was over 11 years ago, we need more documentation for it as a period or otherwise compatible charge before we register another. (9/94)

Catheryn Cameron Stewart Morgan. Badge. [Fieldless] On an octofoil azure a mullet of eight points Or.

The underlying charge is not drawn as an octofoil, which would tend to have the pointed petals of the other foils. The emblazon here is some sort of stylized eight-petaled flower. As such, it falls into conflict with Balian de Brionne (SCA), On a rose azure a bee Or, with one CD for fieldlessness, but nothing the number of petals on the rose, and nothing for the change to type only of the tertiary. (10/94)

Catriona MacRath. Device. Per pale gules and sable, four swords fretted as a delf argent.

The swords oriented in four different directions does not appear to be period style, and is extremely difficult to blazon accurately. "A similar design was returned in July 1993 `because the arrows are pointing in four different directions, the blazon required to describe it would be so complex as to clearly show the non-period style of the submission.' We have the same problem here." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR November 1993, p. 15) Were the swords in their default orientations (the palewise ones points to chief and the fesswise ones points to dexter), this would probably be registrable. (9/95)

Catriona MacRath. Name.

The name conflicts with Catríona Macraith, registered 4/94. (9/95)

Catriona nic Daedin MacAiodh a 'Mhonadh. Name.

Daedin is not a valid given name and is grandfathered only to Daedin Kay na Aonaich (whose name change was returned in the September 1993 LoAR); as a consequence Catriona is not qualified to use it under the grandfather clause. Additionally, use of an Old English name with the Irish nic mixes two different languages in a single phrase, which is not permitted by RfS III.2.a., Name Grammar. (11/93)

Catriona Stewart of the Glens. Device. Azure, a cross patonce between four roses, a bordure argent.

Conflict with John Mackay Bernard (Combo I, p. 283, from Lyon I), Azure, a cross flory between four bear's heads couped argent muzzled gules within a bordure argent. There is only one CD for the change to the type of secondary charges. (5/94)

Cecelia Erwyn of Etterick. Badge. [Fieldless] A griffin passant close gules maintaining a goblet Or.

Conflict with Lutwyche (Papworth, p. 97), Or, an heraldic tyger passant gules. There is a CD for fieldlessness, but the griffin with its wings down is nearly indistinguishable from the tyger (a representation of which appears on the submission form as part of the demonstration for how large the reduced emblazon should be). Versus Fiammetta Attavanti (SCA), Gyronny azure and Or, an opinicus statant gules, there are CDs for fieldlessness and for the effective removal of the wings. (8/94)

Cecille Marie Gabryell Geneviève du Mont. Device. Or, a chevron disjoint purpure between three Latin crosses clechy and a pine tree couped vert.

Given only two prior SCA registrations, and the fact that the earliest documentary evidence outside the SCA for the charge dates from the last half of the Seventeenth Century, we feel that we need more support for the chevron disjoint as a period or at least SCA-compatible charge before we register it again. (10/95)

Cecille Marie Gabryell Geneviève du Mont. Name.

(The accent was omitted in the LoI but was present on her form.) On the 2/94 LoAR Laurel returned the name Jerónimo Alexandre José Vicente de Cabral (Caid) because there was no documentation for the use of four given names in Portuguese, and this seemed a bit much even for the Iberian Peninsula. The same is true of French: four given names goes well beyond documented French usage even at the very end of our period. For that matter, we have no evidence of French use of five-element names of any kind; until such evidence is presented, we are extending the existing ban on five-element names in English (Catherine Elizabeth Holly Winthrop of Lincolnshire, Caid, 7/92 LoAR), Italian (Marco Giovanni Drago Bianco Vento, Ansteorra, 9/92 LoAR), and German (Susanna Elizabeth Marie Wiegner von Kassel, Trimaris, 10/92 LoAR) to include French as well. You might also suggest that a French spelling of Gabryell would be more in keeping with the other name elements. (10/95)

Cedric of Armorica. Badge. [Fieldless] On a tankard azure a billet Or.

Conflict with Brangwain nic Stiubhard (SCA), [Fieldless] On a beaker azure a dolphin hauriant Or. There is one CD for the fieldless difference, but the modest changes in type of primary are insufficient for the second, and X.4.j.ii. does not apply to the difference in type of tertiary charges here. (1/94)

Ceinwen ferch Belyn. Device. Per chevron sable and argent, in chief three compass stars and in base a cat sejant counterchanged.

Technical conflict with Nikolaj Valosatov, Per chevron sable and argent, three mullets in chevron argent and a double-bitted axe sable. There is a CD for the arrangement of the primary group (three and one vs. one, two and one), but nothing else for change the type only of the bottommost of a group of four charges. (2/96)

Celeste de la Montagne. Device. Argent, on a lozenge throughout azure four mullets in cross points outward argent.

The applicable rule here is RfS XI.4., which states in its entirety "Arms of Pretense - Armory that uses charges which themselves are charged in such a way as to appear to be arms of pretense is considered presumptuous. Period and modern heraldic practice asserts a claim to land or property by surmounting an individual's usual armory with a display of armory associated with that claim. Such arms of pretense are most commonly placed on an inescutcheon or lozenge, but may also appear on other geometric charges such as roundels, cartouches, etc. For this reason, such charges may not be charged in such a way as to suggest independent arms. Such charges may not contain an ordinary that terminates at the edge, or more than one charge." (emphasis added) This is quite clearly the case here.

Moreover, if Celeste's device is reblazoned, as it reasonably could be, as Azure vetu argent, four mullets in cross points outwards argent, it conflicts with the flag of Micronesia, Azure, four mullets in cross points outwards argent, with only one CD for the modification of the field. (9/94)

Celestinus MacCriomhthainn. Device. Vert, a pitcher, flames issuant from the mouth, argent.

Conflict with New Inn (Papworth, p. 676), Vert, a flower pot argent with gillyflowers issuant gules, leaved vert. There is a CD for the change to the type of primary, but insufficient difference for X.2 to apply. (6/94)

Ceridwen Alianora McInnes. Device. Per chevron inverted gules and argent, a demi-sun issuant from chief Or eclipsed sable and two demi-cameleopards addorsed conjoined proper.

A cameleopard, or giraffe, proper is Or marked brown/tan; as such, it lacks sufficient contrast against the argent field. (Trust me on this one; I have a relatively recent photograph taken while on one of those "drive-through" safari-type animal reserves, in which a very curious giraffe's fills up most of the windscreen. Quite dramatic, it was! [Pushy beggar, too. Wouldn't move out of the roadway until we bribed it with some of the feed pellets they sell you at the entrance.]) (6/95)

Ceridwen Culloch Dunocatus. Name.

The construction of the name is very confusing and the documentation submitted unhelpful. Ceridwen is a name which has been declare SCA-compatible. Culloch could possibly be interpreted as an Englishing of a Scottish Gaelic epithet cullach ('boar'), but there doesn't appear to have been a given name Culloch. Dunocatus is a name (not epithet) which is apparently an early (6th Century) Celtic form of Irish Donnchad. The name does not follow the name construction practices for any of the languages from which it derives, but appears to follow a "Chinese menu" (one from column A, one from column B) approach. Without a better idea of what is important to the submitter, or what it is she desires, we are unable to recommend improvements. (3/94)

Ceridwen ferch Thomas Vaughan. Name.

Ceridwen is a goddess name that does not seem to have been used by human beings in our period; however, it has been declared "SCA-compatible", and the name is registerable. Unfortunately, we must return it, since there was no form in the packet. (5/96)

Cesaire O'Cahill. Badge. [Fieldless] On a quatrefoil knot argent a rose slipped and leaved proper.

This violates our strictures regarding overall charges in fieldless badges, in that neither of the charges is "long and thin", and the overlap of the charges is not small. The rose here effectively covers nearly all of the center of the knot, compromising its identifiability. (6/95)

Cett Donegal. Device. Sable, on a chevron between three horses rampant argent, three oak leaves vert.

Conflict with Davies (Papworth, p. 485), Sable, on a chevron argent, three trefoils slipped vert. There is a CD for the addition of the secondaries, but the consensus among the commenters was that there was not the substantial difference required by X.4.j.ii. to grant the necessary second for the change to type of the tertiaries. (5/94)

Chandra Avenell of Whitehaven. Name.

No one was able to find dated (or even better) documentation for the given than the submitter's citation from Hanks and Hodges, where Chandra is stated to be a variant of the Sanskrit candrah, a masculine noun meaning "moon". Additionally, the combination of Hindi in an otherwise all English name (Avenell is found in Reaney &Wilson) is particularly jarring, and would not have occurred in period. (8/94)

Charles William de Lacy. Name.

While the name itself seems to be quite acceptable, no submission form was included in the Laurel packet. As a consequence, we are having to return this for the proper paperwork. (9/94)

Charlotte du Croissant d'Argent. Name.

The parallel made with the many croix placenames is not apt; Dauzat, in discussing the placename Croix states, "These localities take their name from a cross erected either for a pious purpose, or to mark a crossroads or simply a boundary." Crescents were not used as landmarks; the only documented Croissant is in Finisterre in Brittany and comes from the Breton word kroazhent meaning "crossroads." The justification as a sign name is a little more plausible, but no documentation has been presented for inn names in French, and this formation is much less likely than, say, La Lune Croissante (The Waxing Moon) as an inn name. (7/94)

Châteaux sur Souris, Stronghold of. Device. Gules, on a fess wavy between two mice rampant addorsed, tails entwined argent and a laurel wreath Or, a bar wavy azure.

As a side note, while the mini-emblazon this time around was an improvement over the earlier submission, the large emblazon was the reverse. You might recommend to them to copy the prior emblazon in any resubmission. (2/94)

Châteaux sur Souris, Stronghold of. Name.

The problem here is that while the general style of the name can be supported, the specifics are more problematical. No one was able to document "mouse", in English or in French, as a period or even possibly period river or place name. And of all the rivers apparently named after animals in England (which would probably not really lend much support to names in another language, French), only one, the Otter, definitely was, with two other "possibles". (2/94)

Chlotichilda Beorhtesdohtor Wulfing. Name and device. Gules, a snake embowed between two Maltese crosses in fess and on a chief argent a halberd bendwise gules.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Chlotichilda Beorhtesdohtor Wulfing. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Chrétienne Aingeal nic Chaoindealbháin. Name.

There is no more evidence for mixing French and Gaelic spelling conventions than there is for mixing those of English and Gaelic, so one convention or the other must be used throughout. A wholly Irish version of the name would be Cristín or Cristíona Aingeal Ní Chaoindealbháin. (Note that nic Chaoindealbháin was the kingdom's feminization of the submitter's Ó Caoindealbháin; the usual feminine equivalent is Chaoindealbháin.) This has its own problem in that Irish does not appear to have used double given names in period, but aingeal `angel' may be justifiable as a nickname. A wholly English version would be Christian(a) Angela O Quinelane, which is almost as implausible: Angela isn't actually attested in period English names, though a case can probably be made for it, and double given names are rare in English even at the end of our period, especially for women. To produce a French version of the name one would have to discover how Irish names were recorded in French records.

We consider that the change in sound from Chrétienne to Cristín goes beyond the minor changes allowed by the submitter, and any other change that would make the name even marginally acceptable is even greater, so we are returning the name for further work. (10/95)

Chriemhilt von Regensburg. Device. Sable, a mushroom gules stemmed Or, within a bordure compony vert and Or.

The mushroom, whose most identifying feature is the cap, and the cap being well over one-half the charge, is color on color. The mushroom was additionally drawn in trian aspect. (12/94)

Christiana Rowena Yonge. Badge. Barry wavy argent and azure, a sun in its glory gules.

Conflict with Ansteorra (badge for the Chronicler), [Tinctureless] A mullet of five greater and five lesser points distilling goutes. There is one CD for tincturelessness/fieldlessness, but we give no difference between a sun and a mullet of many points. (1/96)

Christina of Riesling. Device. Quarterly Sable and azure, a quill pen argent.

Conflict with the badge of the Prince of Wales, An ostrich feather argent. There is a CD for fielded versus fieldless, but all of the evidence appears to indicate that feathers were not distinguished by type in period for difference. Additionally, it conflicts with Monna (Hawley's Mon, p. 51) A feather, and with Saive nic Andreis (SCA), Per chevron sable and gules, a quill pen argent. In each case there is only one CD, for fieldless versus fielded and for the changes to the field, respectively. (8/94)

Christine Joye Stewart. Device. Azure, on an open book argent a thistle and a pan pipe azure.

Conflict with Trimaris (badge for the Kingdom Historian), Upon a book argent in fess a triskele and an hourglass azure. There is CD for fieldlessness, but X.4.j.ii. does not apply to the change in type only of the tertiaries.

Conflict also with Yale University, Azure, an open book argent charged with Hebrew letters sable. There is one CD for the multiple differences (type, tincture, number) to the teriaries, but two CDs are required. (1/96)

Christophe le Vite. Device. Argent, a domino mask of leaves vert within a bordure vert semy of mullets argent.

The primary charge is not really recognizable nor have we seen period exemplars of items such as this constructed of leaves. (4/94)

Christopher Everard. Device. Or, a gurges azure charged with a dragon rampant argent.

A properly drawn gurges has no room for a tertiary dragon, in any posture. Despite the assertion in the LoI, a gurges is not, and is not comparable to, an ordinary, which is a large, broad, centrally located charge which has sufficient breadth to have other charges placed upon it without significant loss of identifiability of either ordinary or tertiary. That is not the case with a gurges, a narrow spiral or set of concentric circles which has insufficient space on it for tertiary charges. (3/95)

Chrodegang der Zaunschlager. Device. Argent, a raven close contourny sable clutching an arrow gules, a bordure sable.

Though the bordure on the device was very well drawn in the LoI, on the emblazon forms it was nothing more than a heavy outline. As what we register is on the emblazon forms, this is being returned for redrawing of a proper bordure. (8/94)

Chrodegang der Zaunschlager. Name.

There are several problems with the name. The byname as constructed does not appear to be idiomatic; "fence-feller" doesn't appear to make any sense in German or in English. Additionally, the given is an Old High German name and the byname is modern German. As such there is well over an entire millennium of language development between the two. This is too large a gap even for the SCA. (8/94)

Chuzan, Canton of. Device. Per chevron azure and vert, on a sun within a laurel wreath Or a phoenix rising to sinister gules.

The device must also be returned because we cannot form holding names for groups. (11/93)

Chuzan, Canton of. Name.

he name still conflicts with that of Chusan, as noted in the return of September 27, 1992. However spelled and using whatever system of transliteration, as Lady Harpy notes, Chuzan and Chusan are more similar than Morgan de Grey and Morton the Grey. And as noted in the prior return, Chusan is important enough to protect. (11/93)

Cian mac Imair. Device. Azure, in pale three wolves couchant contourny reguardant argent.

Conflict with Crowan (Papworth, p. 172), Azure, three wolves statant in pale argent collared Or and with Barneis (Papworth, p. 157), Azure, three greyhounds courant in pale argent collared Or. In each case there is only one CD, for the change in posture to the canines. (8/94)

Ciarán Dubh Ó Tuathail. Device. Gyronny of twelve vert and argent, a yale rampant sable attired gules.

Conflict with Alejandra Merecedes de Rosanegra, A yale rampant sable platy. Given that the presence of plates on yales appear to be left to the artist's discretion and not necessarily blazoned, it seems that their presence, or disappearance, is not countable in terms of difference. Thus, there is only one CD here, for the presence of the field. (11/95)

Ciarán o Rua Coinnim. Name.

The submitter apparently wants the byname to mean "of Red Keep". However, coinnim does not appear to be a word for a keep, i.e., a donjon or castle; rather, it is related to words meaning "to keep". There are several Irish words that might serve his purpose. Daingean (earlier daingen) "a stronghold, fastness, fortress, defence" is attested in several place-names, e.g., Daingen and Daingen Bona Cuilinn. In the Norman period dún was used of any fortified place, whether a single residence or a whole town; it is common in place-names. Another possibility is caisleán (earlier caislán) "castle", found in a number of place-names. We have no convincing evidence for prepositions in non-adjectival Irish locatives; the only clearly identifiable class consists of place- names in the genitive case directly following the given name. In this case that would produce Daingin Rúaidh, Dúin Rúaidh, and Caisleaín Rúaidh. There seems to be no reason for us to choose one in preference to the others, and they are all quite different from the submitted name, so we are returning this to let the submitter make the choice. (6/96)

Ciaran Cian Cullenwaine. Device. Vert, a peregrine falcon proper displayed perched on a harp reversed, a bordure Or.

"The College of Arms will no longer register flora and fauna in their natural 'proper' tinctures if to do so they require the Linnaean genus and species. Proper is allowed for natural flora and fauna where there is a widely understood default coloration for the charge so specified." (Cover Letter, May 1991, p. 2). Given the number of times the various commenters asked the question in the commentary received on this item, it is obvious that a peregrine falcon does not have a "widely-understood" proper tincture. As a consequence, we are having to return this. (1/94)

Ciaran Islwyn. Badge. [Fieldless] A tree issuant from a mount couped per pale vert and Or, the sinister half blasted.

The blazon on the LoI accidentally left out the tincture of the dexter half. However, the style of the badge, combining as it does what are essentially two variants of a single charge, is not good style and is sufficient grounds for return (rather than pending it for research under the corrected blazon). "The difference between the types of bladed weapon [sword and poignard] [is] a distinction rather than a difference and a distinction that would not have been made normally in period heraldry." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 23 April 1988, p. 13) (5/94)

Ciar O'Byrne. Badge. [Fieldless] A quill pen bendwise sinister sable enwrapped with a snake argent.

The snake wrapped around a feather is not really period style. (See RfS I.1.b., "All elements of a submission shall be used in a manner that is stylistically compatible with period usage"). All of the period examples of this motif which could be found use a rod (as in the rod of Aesculapius) or column around which the snake is entwined. The use of a feather here does not seem to be a reasonable extension of period practice. (9/94)

Citadel of the Four Winds, Canton of. Name.

The name as formed does not appear to follow any period exemplars that the commenters could find. Would the submitters consider something like "Windburgh"? (11/93)

Citadel of the Southern Pass, Barony of the. Badge for Order of the Ensis Honoris. Azure, a rapier argent between two piles inverted Or.

Conflict with Ferri (Woodward, cited in Combo II), Azure, a sword argent and with Tatnell (Papworth, p. 1102), Azure, a falchion in pale argent, hilted gules. In each case there is a single CD, for the addition of the inverted piles. This is one of those cases where drawing style changes the perception of what is the primary charge group. The "piles" here, though similar to the Barony's other badges, are not drawn even as high on the field as in prior registrations. Their reduction in size places them more in the state of peripheral or secondary charges, leaving the rapier as the primary, visually dominating the center of the field. (9/94)

Clare de Kirkpatric. Device. Per bend argent and gules, a rose and a knot of four loops and four tassels counterchanged.

Conflict with William Arkham (SCA), Per bend argent and gules, a rose gules slipped and leaved vert, and a quill argent. There is only one CD, for changing one-half the type of the charge group. (2/95)

Claudia Lisabetta Senatori da Firenze. Device. Azure, on a pile between a fleam reversed and a fleam argent a water bouget sable.

Though no blazon was included in the LoI, which would normally have required this to be pended, the primary charge is not really a pile; but neither is it a chapé field nor a chief triangular. "The field is not really chaussé it is not per chevron inverted, it is not a pile, it is not a chief triangular; being somewhere between all of these, we really don't know what it is. Chaussé issues from the corners of the chief and would touch the base point of the shield; per chevron inverted would issue from the sides of the field (rather than the chief corners); a pile would issue from farther in on the chief (rather [than] from the corners) and would almost touch the base point of the shield and would not have room for a charge beneath it; and a chief triangular would not descend the field nearly so far as the one here does. Please have them choose one and reemblazon it properly." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR October 1990, p. 21) This also must be returned for redrawing as one or another of the options. (5/96)

Cloudy River, Shire of. Name.

The name was chosen on account of a `large, murky river' running through the shire; however, cloudy does not seem to have been used in this sense in period place-names. The Old English place-name elements fûl `foul, dirty, filthy', fennig `dirty, muddy, marshy', bloec `black, dark-colored, dark', êa `river, stream', and w?ter `water, an expanse of water; lake, pool; stream, river' can be used to construct a variety of period-style place-names with basically the desired meaning. In likely Middle English forms some of these would be: Fuleye, Fulewatere, Fennywatere, Blakeye, and Blakewatere (actually attested from 1279). There was also no petition of support with the submission form. (1/96)

Coinneach Ó Domhnaill. Device. Sable, on a cross nowy throughout argent a dragon engorging itself of a spear azure.

Conflict with Petroushka of Bohemia (SCA), Sable, on a cross nowy argent a sprig of parsley vert between three mullets sable and a heart gules. There is only one CD for the multiple changes to the tertiaries. (9/94)

Colbert Everard Scolaighe en Tæppestre. Name.

The Irish scolaighe ('scholar, student') is completely out of place in an otherwise entirely English name, and no documentation has yet been presented that the English ever used Irish bynames. (The Irish byname is even less compatible with the second byname, which is Old English.) Tæppestre is an Old English term for a woman who sells ale, a hostess. Unlike many originally feminine OE occupational terms in -estre, this one retained its strictly feminine sense quite late; a man would have used the masculine tæppere. It is assumed that en is intended to be some sort of article, but it appears to be incorrect here. The OE forms are se tæppere and seo tæppestre; the usual documentary ME forms with article would be le tapper(e) and la tappestre, with the written French articles most usually representing the English the. We could have registered Colbert Everard the (or le) Tapper(e) (or, at a small stretch, Colbert Everard se Tæppere) or a later form as Colbert Everard Tapster, but as any of these appeared to be more of a change than those granted by the submitter, we are returning this so that he can decide which he wants. (3/95)

COLOGNE, City of. Device. Ermine, on a chief gules three crowns Or.

Nothing about either the city or the arms seems sufficient to warrant protection by the SCA. (6/95)

Comar Longius Blackburn. Household badge for Crossing Arrows Saxon Household. [Fieldless] Two arrows inverted in saltire Or.

The badge conflicts with Richardson Patrick of Drumsheugh, Two arrows in saltire points up. There is only one CD for fieldlessness. (8/94)

Comar Longius Blackburn. Household name for Crossing Arrows Saxon Household.

The household name follows no period exemplars of which we are aware, nor could any of the commenters find any support for it. (8/94)

Comar Longius Blackburn. Name.

The only documentation that anyone could find for Comar was as a surname. The name therefore lacks a given. (The correct form for "long" in Latin is longus not longius. Had that been the only problem, we would have dropped the "i" to register the name.) (8/94)

Conal MacDhomhnuil. Device. Per bend sinister azure and Or, a cock contourny charged with an annulet all counterchanged.

No record could be found that this name was ever registered. The Conal Mac Dhòmhnuill registered in January 1994 is a different person, as a comparison of the legal names on the forms demonstrated. (12/95)

Conchobhar Ó Faoláin. Name.

Unfortunately, this name conflicts with Conchobar mac Féeláin, registered 1/93. Fáeláin is simply an older spelling of Faoláin, and the change from mac to Ó does not significantly change the sound of the byname or the nature of the relationship in the sense of RfS V.1.a.ii (Bynames) and RfS V.1.a.ii(a) (Bynames of Relationship). (7/95)

Conchobhar Ò Loingseacháin. Device. Azure, an Irish Wolfhound statant reguardant on a dolmen argent.

Conflict with Hubbert (Papworth, p. 60), Azure, a talbot argent, and Burgoigne (Papworth, p. 60), Azure, a hound passant argent. In each case there is only one CD for the addition of the dolmen. (11/93)

Connar Mac Lean. Device. Quarterly azure and purpure, a boar's head between two tower's in bend sinister Or.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Connar Mac Lean. Name.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Conner Thornhill. Device. Quarterly checky sable and argent and argent, a cross of two thornvines wavy vert.

There are a couple of problems with the primary charge. One is the difficulty of blazon. Laurel counted no less than six different suggestions at a reblazon. This variety alone tends to point out the possible non-period style of the charge. And as several commenters noted, because of both its thinness and waviness, the primary charge tends to disappear along the lines of partition of the field, making immediate identification a little problematical. Finally, it conflicts with Anketel (Papworth, p. 616), Or, a cross raguly vert and with Raded (Papworth, p. 608), Argent, a cross slipped vert. In each case there is one CD for the change to the field, but nothing for the very minor visual differences to the type of cross. (2/94)

Conrad Breakring of Ascalon. Device. Argent, an annulet fracted to dexter sable.

RfS VII.7.a. and b. require that armorial elements be identifiable from their appearance alone and must be reconstructible from a competent blazon. Neither is the case here. The primary charge was not identifiable without the blazon; many of the commenters (as well as those at the Laurel meeting were at a loss to determine what the charge was before being given the blazon. Nor was anyone able to create a "competent blazon" which would create the particular form of "fracting" of the annulet here (which appeared to be more of a "deformation and failure" rather than fracting.

Comparing the emblazons, there is no visual conflict with Hildr Ulfsdottir (SCA), Argent, issuant from an annulet three Norse wolf's heads ululant, one and two, facing clockwise, sable, delineated gules, the heads in Hildr's device are the visually dominant part of the charge, the smaller annulet in the center being how they are conjoined. (5/95)

Conrad vom Dunkelschloss. Name.

Based on the names the commenters could find, the locative is not very probable. Though dunkel is found as an Upper German field-name for a field on the north, or shaded, slope of a hill, its combination this in this form with schloss is extremely unlikely. The usual generics for castle, etc. were -burg, -berg, and -stein, and somewhat less often -fels, -eck, and -feste. The few examples of schloss, none of which are clearly period, use the word as a prefix: Schloss X. Given the extreme rarity of dunkel as a placename element at all, the combination seems to make Dunkelschloss far too improbable to register. Dunkelstein, Dunkelburg, Dunkelberg, and Dunkelfels would probably all be registerable: the first element is still somewhat unlikely, but the overall construction is fine, and so the use of dunkel would be only "one weirdness". (Any of these would make as good a name for a town as for a castle, so the article dem could be dispensed with, e.g., Conrad von Dunkelfels.) If he really wants to get Schloss in there somewhere, Palimpsest recommended Conrad von Schloss Dunkelfels (or one of the other variants); this matches the actual use of Schloss in the few examples that he could find. (Again the article dem is unnecessary.) Since these changes are too big to be considered "minor changes", we are returning it to allow the submitter choose one of the many acceptable forms. (8/94)

Constance Caterina of Padua. Device. Argent, two catamounts sejant respectant sable and in chief two points gules.

"Although all three `points' are mentioned in heraldic tracts, in practice only the base one appears to have been used; and even in the tracts, the dexter and sinister points are described as abatements of honor, to be used separately, and not in conjunction." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR 4/92, p. 19) No documentation was presented to contradict this precedent. As a consequence, the precedent disallowing the use of dexter and/or sinister points remains in place. (12/93)

Constance O' Keeley. Device. Purpure, a sword inverted surmounted by a heart argent.

Conflict with Neal Gyrfalcon, Purpure, perched atop the pommel of a sword inverted proper a gyrfalcon reversed argent (as reblazoned in the Errata Letter accompanying this LoAR). There is a CD for the addition of the overall charge, but a review of the emblazon demonstrated that the gyrfalcon is the equivalent of a maintained charge, no additional CD is available for its removal. (2/96)

Cordelia MacDougall. Device. Per chevron azure and vert, two broad-arrows and a semiminim note argent.

The "semiminim note" here is not a period form, but a modern (post-period) one. This one neither matches the semiminim in the Pictorial Dictionary (a lozenge shape with a vertical line from the sinister corner; this version has been superseded by newer research) nor the form the newer research has shown (a lozenge shape with a vertical line from the top corner). As with the various forms of pens, in SCA heraldry the period form is the one that should be used. (See RfS VII.3., "Artifacts that were known in the period and domain of the Society may be registered in armory, provided they are depicted in their period forms. A pen, for instance, must be depicted as a quill pen or other period form, not a fountain pen. A wheel must be depicted as a wagon wheel, not a rubber tire from an automobile.") (4/96)

Corin y Cynydd. Device. Sable, on a bend sinister between a bow bendwise sinister Or and a sword bendwise sinister inverted proper, a quiver with three arrows ermine.

Though blazoned as "counter-ermine" in the LoI, the quiver is actually drawn and colored in as ermine, making it metal on metal. (2/94)

Cormac Lawless O'Toole. Device. Per saltire gules and argent, a unicorn within a bordure sable.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Cormac MacLean. Device. Gules, two Grecian sphinxes combattant Or winged and in base a book argent.

There does not seem to be a problem with the name or the device, but there were no submission forms in the packet. (11/95)

Cormac MacLean. Name.

There does not seem to be a problem with the name or the device, but there were no submission forms in the packet. (11/95)

Cormac Seán MacCárthaigh. Name.

No evidence has yet been presented for the use of double given names in Irish. We have been able to register some where the second name was also meaningful as a byname, but that is not the case with Seán, the Irish borrowing of the French Jehan. Unfortunately, dropping the second given brings the name into conflict with Cormac Mac Carthaig (d. 1138), king of Desmond (South Munster). (12/94)

Cornelius the Crusader. Device. Per bend sinister argent and sable, a cross counterchanged, overall a dragon's head couped gules.

The effect of counterchanging the cross over the bend sinister line and then placing a charge overall makes the device look like a field multiply divided in an undeterminable way. The ordinary has thus been reduced to unidentifiability. (9/94)

Cornelius the Crusader. Name.

Crusader appears not to be a period word. The earliest citation in the OED for crusader is from 1743. Given the history of the word crusade in the same source, a date much earlier than c.1700 seems out of the question. (9/94)

Cornelius the Sage. Device. Per pale Or and vert, a winged stag rampant within a bordure counterchanged.

Though no conflicts were found by the commenters, no submissions forms were included in the Laurel packet. As a consequence, we are unable to register this. (10/94)

Courtney Caesaria Almy. Badge for Green Briar Keep. Or, a tower sable within an arbor of garden roses argent leaved vert.

No forms were included for the household name, so the badge, even if registerable could not be registered for the household name. The badge conflicts with Mountjoy (Papworth, p. 365), Or a castle sable, and with Ragecourt (Combo II, page 208), Or, a tower sable. In each case there is one CD for the addition of the "arbor". Additionally, we have the problem that an "arbor" is not a defined heraldic charge. If reblazoned as a wreath inverted, it comes fatally close to the restricted wreath of roses, whose use in the SCA is limited to queens and members of the Order of the Rose. (11/93)

Courtney Caesaria Almy. Name for Green Briar Keep.

No forms were included for the household name. (11/93)

Creador Twinedragon. Name.

Creador was justified in the LoI as a variant spelling of Creature, but the OED offers no support for the d; and while his form more precisely identifies it as Welsh, Y Geiriadur Mawr gives the Welsh word as creadur. In England premature babies who were not expected to live were in fact sometimes named Creature, and Bardsley even has an example of one who survived long enough to take out a marriage license in 1579; but no evidence has been presented that in Wales a Welsh translation of the word was used, or even that the practice extended to Wales. As several commenters noted, the first element of the byname is from Old English twîn `thread, string', and `string-dragon' does not seem to be a reasonable byname in any language. All in all, the name seems to be too anomalous to register. (12/95)

Creiddylad Wyllt ferch Bronwen. Name.

As noted in the return of Creirdyddlydd of Rhuddlan (LoAR May 1993), There is "no evidence that Creiddylad ever passed into common usage, nor is it constructible from common Welsh themes." Before modern times, it appears only as a unique literary name. Without better support for it's use in period, we are unable to register the name. (3/95)

Criofan Mac Dara. Badge. [Fieldless] A fox's mask gules.

Conflict with Haakon Thorgilsson (SCA, 6/93), Per fess indented argent and vert, in chief a fox's mask gules, and with the British 10th Armoured Division (Military Ordinary #782), Sable a fox's mask gules marked sable. In each case there is only the fieldless difference. (1/94)

Crispin d'Arden. Name.

All the evidence found by any of the commenters was that in the British Isles the "e" in "de" was not elided in the same way it was in France. The evidence shows that the byname would either have been de Arden or possibly (on the model of "de Arraz" and "Darraz") Darden. As the submitter did not allow any changes whatsoever to the name, we are having to return it so he can decide which he prefers. (12/94)

Cristall Madeleine Moore. Name.

While cross-gender names have long been allowed in the SCA, mixed-gender names have not. This has a masculine given with a feminine given with a surname.

Neither does it match any of the three kinds of double given name used in England before the end of our period noted by Bardsley: those that had already been used by English royalty, like Charles James; those that commemorated the prior death of the child's father with second element Posthumus/Posthuma (according to the sex of the bearer); and those with second name Maria (for either sex) in the Continental fashion. (5/95)

Cúm an Iolair, Canton of. Device. Gules, on a pile Or an eagle displayed sable, overall a laurel wreath counterchanged.

By current precedent, a laurel wreath is considered too complex a charge to be counterchanged over an ordinary. "[T]he policy on counterchanging complex charges dates back to the tenure of Mistress Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, and was continued during Master Da'ud's first tenure." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR of November 1993; see also LoAR of October 1992, p. 28) (6/94)

Curstaidh Magorlick. Name.

The appeal does not appear to provide any new evidence and fails to address the original reason for return, as required by the Administrative Handbook. (See Right of Appeal: "All appeals must be supported by new documentation or other proof that the original submission was returned in error or by compelling evidence that the submission was not properly considered at the time of return.") Additionally, it is very unclear on what basis this is being appealed. "Curstaidh could be a possible variant" is not the sort of evidence an appeal needs. The essence of the original return was that the best evidence for Curstaidh is as a modern "Gaelicization" of Kirstie (or some variant thereof). The only date in the documentation provided was that Christine (not Kirstie or some similar variant) was "not much used in Britain until the end of the 19th century". Even on appeal, Curstaidh still appears to be a modern backformation, not a period name. In the context of an Anglicized surname (Magorlick) there appears to be no justification for using a Gaelic-spelling given name (on which subject see more in the Cover Letter accompanying this LoAR), much less a spelling for which there is no period evidence whatsoever. (5/95)

Curstaidh Magorlick. Name.

While the submitter allowed minor changes to the name, and while Lord Palimpsest could document the form Kirsty for the given name, we felt that such a change exceeded the permissible "minor changes to grammar/spelling only". (11/93)

Cynnabar, Shire of. Badge. [Fieldless] A winged lion-dragon erect per fess Or and vert.

Visual conflict with Dakyn le Puk of Meriden, Per bend sinister vert and Or, a sea-lion counterchanged. There is the fieldless CD, but a visual comparison of the two emblazons demonstrated the overwhelming visual resemblance of the charges, especially as the wings on the submitted monster were very small and in exactly the same place as the end of the fish's tail of Dakyn's monster. (1/96)

Cynnwr of Glyndwr. Device. Vert, a stag's head cabossed within a bordure indented argent.

Conflict with Aengus mac Coll, Vert, a stag's head cabossed argent, orbed and attired of flames proper, resting on its head a chalice Or. There is only one CD, for the addition of the bordure. The change of tincture of the attires is insufficient for the necessary second, and the chalice is no more prominent than any other maintained charge. (9/95)

Cynon Mac an Choill. Device. Argent, a mullet of four points sable interlaced with an annulet gules.

Conflict with Banester (Papworth, p. 607), Argent, a cross humetty pointed sable. There is only one CD for the addition of the annulet. Additionally, there was some question whether interlacing the mullet and annulet in this fashion was period style. (3/94)

Cynred Broccan. Badge. [Fieldless] An annulet surmounted by a mullet of four points.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. Additionally, the LoI gave no tincture for the charges. (5/96)

Cynred Broccan. Badge for House Dyrhamfyrd. [Fieldless] Within an annulet argent four heads azure hearing spangenhelms conjoined argent.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. Additionally, there were some stylistic questions about the badge. (5/96)

Cynred Broccan. Household name for House Dyrhamfyrd.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. (5/96)

Cynric Goodwine. Badge. [Fieldless] A bunch of grapes argent.

Conflict with Thomas Lyon of Braemar, Per bend sinister vert and sable, a bunch of grapes argent. There is only the fieldless CD. (11/95)

Cynthia de Mantegna. Name.

The preposition "de" is out of place here; were Mantegna either a placename or a given name, it would work, but Mategna was only documented as a surname. As the submitter would not accept any changes or corrections, were were unable to drop the preposition to register the name. (6/94)

Cyril Bowman. Device. Sable, a bow reversed sustained by a sinister cubit arm erased fesswise reversed on a chief Or three broadarrows inverted sable.

As noted by most of the commenters, the cubit/bow combination is insufficiently distinguishable from a crossbow. See RfS VII.7.a., "Identification Requirement - Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." (11/94)

Cyrus of Alexandretta. Badge. [Fieldless] An annulet gules.

Conflict with King James II of Scotland, [Fieldless] An annulet; with Neville, [Fieldless] An annulet; with Prothero, (Papworth, p. 4), Checky azure and Or, an annulet gules; with Lamon (Papworth, p. 4), Per chevron gules and argent, in base an annulet gules; and with U.S. 1st Corps [Fieldless] An annulet variously tinctured. In each case there is only one CD for fieldlessness. (11/93)

Dafydd ap Morgan ap Gwydion. Device. Sable, on a pale between two swords each surmounted by a tankard argent three crosses of four hops clusters vert.

The tankards, being of the same tincture as the swords, tend to become confused with them visually, making identifiability problematical. (See RfS VII.7.a.) That being the case, they cannot truly count as the addition of another group of charges, but are as a modification to the swords. As such, this does conflict with the two Orders of the White Scarf (Ansteorra and Outlands), Sable, on a pale between two rapiers proper [tertiaries], with only one CD for the multiple changes to the tertiaries. It was suggested that if the tankards were changed to Or, this would clear up both problems. (2/96)

Daguet Osgood. Name.

According to the documentation, Daguet isn't a given name; it's a diminutive of dague `dagger, dirk' and thus a byname for one who carries a small dagger. He might consider reversing the elements: Anglo-French Osgood Daguet, earlier Osgod Daguet, and Norman Ansgot and Angot Daguet would all be period names. (11/95)

Daibhidh Ruadh MacLachlan. Badge. [Fieldless] A lymphad gules sail set argent.

Conflict with Noble (Papworth, p. 1089), Or a galley, sails furled and oars in action, gules, flags azure; Neville (Combo II, from Fox-Davies p. 127), A ship; Both (Woodward, p. 370), Argent, a boat gules, and Wolfo (Papworth, p. 1089), Or, a boat gules. In each case, there is one CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for changing the tincture of the sail. (5/94)

Dallan O'Shaughnessy. Device. Vert, on a pale argent between two bombs argent flammant Or five four-leaved shamrocks vert.

Conflict with Marcus the Forester, Vert, a pale argent semy of oak leaves vert between a unicorn and a wyvern combattant argent. There is a CD for the difference in type of the secondary charges, but, particularly as Marcus' "semy" is drawn as six leaves, there is only the change of type of the tertiary charges, which between leaves is insufficient to acquire the necessary second. X.4.j.ii. does not apply between types of leaves, and the difference between five and six is insufficient to be the second difference to grant a CD between the tertiaries. (11/95)

Damales Redbeard. Household badge for Maison du Cheval Volant. Azure, on a cloud argent, a horseshoe inverted sable.

Conflict with Cassandra de la Mistral (SCA), Azure, a Boreas affronty argent. There is only one CD for the addition of the tertiary, and even that is minimal because it lies where the "face" of Cassandra's Boreas is. Additionally, the cloud here is not drawn in a period manner, but is the modern "cotton candy" form of cloud. (2/94)

Damasus Aurelius Ptolemaeus Octavianus. Name.

If Damasus were one of the 36 known Roman praenomina (e.g., Aulus, Gaius, Lucius, Sextus, Tiberius), this would be a classical Roman name. By the 3rd century the praenomen was often dropped, but it does not seem to have been replaced; rather, this simply left the gentilicium (or nomen) at the head of the name. (In the chaos of late-empire naming it is certainly possible to find exceptions, i.e., names not headed by gentilicia, but the available examples are all names of just one or two elements.) Unfortunately, Damasus, of Greek origin, is apparently not a gentilicium. If any single element of this name were dropped, or if Damasus were moved to follow Aurelius, it would go at most one step beyond documented forms and (barring new evidence to the contrary) would be registerable. As it stands, it goes a bit too far beyond what has been documented for us to feel comfortable registering it. (1/96)

Damián Daskal De Valerio. Name.

No evidence was presented that Daskal is a period form; a book on American family names is not good documentation for our purposes, as many foreign names have undergone odd transformations in this country. Daskal appears to be a simplification, American and/or modern, of didáskalos 'a teacher, master'. The documentation for the surname is for the surname Valera (with "a" instead of "io"; Valerio is an Italian given name, not a locative, and its use with "de" here is inappropriate. We need better documentation for both these parts of the name. (5/94)

Damianus Petrolino. Badge. [Fieldless] An eagle's jamb erased inverted clutching a torteau.

Conflict with the Middle Kingdom's Award of the Dragon's Treasure (SCA), A dragon's gambe couped erect maintaining a roundel argent charged with a pale gules. There is a CD for fieldlessness, but all other difference must derive from how much red is showing from between the claws of the jambe. After a comparison of the two emblazons, there simply is not enough to allow a CD. (11/94)

Dana Mac An Ghabhann. Household name for House Mac an Ghabhann Ruadh.

Ruadh must agree in case and gender with ghabhann, which in this case would make it ruaidh. Since the submitters allowed no changes or corrections at all to the name, it must be returned. (11/93)

Dana Moirreach. Device. Vert, issuant from a castle argent, a demi-griffin rampant and in chief three mullets Or.

The device appears to conflict with Lesval (Woodward) Vert, a tower argent, and with Gilles de Blanchmaison (Fabulous Heraldry), Vert, a tower argent. There is a CD for the addition of the mullets in chief, but nothing for the difference between a castle and a tower, and the demi-griffin here is drawn so small as to be the visual equivalent as a maintained charge. (11/93)

Dana Moirreach. Name.

No documentation was presented for the use of Dana (the modern form of Danu) by humans in period. There is some very weak evidence that it may be a modern spelling of a very rare Irish masculine name, but this was too tenuous to accept without further support from other sources. (11/93)

Daniel Acton MacIomhair of Tri Oaks. Name.

An English given name plus a locative surname plus a Scots Gaelic patronym from a Norse given does not follow the naming practices or models of either English or Gaelic. (See RfS III.1., "Name Grammar and Syntax - All names must be grammatically correct for period names and follow documented patterns.") Tri appears only as a prefix, not a separate word. Threeoaks would appear to be the most likely usage, following the pattern of the placename "Sevenoaks". (12/94)

Dani of the Seven Wells. Name.

The locative bears little resemblance to period practice, as may be seen from the history of modern Seawell: it is in record in Old English as Seofenwyllas `Sevenwells' and in 1220 as Seuowell (the u representing modern v). Modern Sewell and Showell have the same origin and appear respectively as Seuewell 1192 and as Sivewell in Domesday Book. Finally, another location called on syfen wyllan appears in an Old English charter of 938. (All citations can be found in Ekwall's The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names; the last is found at Sevenhampton.) Apart from the fact that Dani is his modern name, Dani of Seofenwyllum would be a standard Old English form of the name, and Dani on syfen wyllan is clearly just as acceptable. Dani of Sevewell would be a comparable Middle English form. Though the final n of seven is lost in all of these place-names, it is preserved in some with other second elements; this may be enough to justify Dani of Sevenwell. In these forms Seve(n)well is the name of a place; if the seven wells are merely a topographical feature, atte Seven Welles is the normal Middle English construction, with other relational prepositions occasionally replacing at. Unfortunately, he allows no changes, so we must return the name. (12/95)

Daphne of Colchester. Device. Quarterly Or and pean, a reremouse displayed gules.

Conflict with Rinaldo of Blackhaven, Gyronny azure and argent, a bat displayed maintaining a fasces gules, wearing a barrel helm sable. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for the small maintained fasces or for the unusual headgear. (10/95)

Dargon Aarwald. Device. Per chevron throughout azure and argent, three pine trees one and two vert and in chief three shamrocks counterchanged.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Dargon Aarwald. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Darius of Jaxartes. Device. Per pale sable and argent, in pale five billets fesswise counterchanged and in sinister chief a bull's head cabossed gules.

As has been noted many times in the past one cannot "reblazon one's way" into a registration of a return. If such were the case here, this would have been reblazoned and registered in August 1993, the time of the previous return. As noted in that return, "the visual appearance is not of a pale, but of a group of billets straddling the field division. The lack of identifiability is sufficient reason for return" (emphasis added). (7/94)

Darkwater, Barony of. Name for Order of the Acorns Glade.

Many of the commenters found the name in this form unlikely at best. (Acorn Glade, "glade characterized by acorns", is more likely.) Given that the submission forms have the name as Order of the Acorn's Glade (in the possessive), the name becomes even less likely a formation. (3/94)

Darragh an Liath. Name.

The given name is problematical in that Darragh does not appear to be a reasonable alternate spelling of Dara. Dara is, as nearly as can be determined, a variant of Dáire. Woulfe, p. 349, seems to indicate that Mac Dara is equivalent to Mac Darach, making the correct variant the latter and not Darragh. Additionally the byname should not use the definite article "an"; Gaelic grammar did not use the definite article in bynames in this manner. (11/93)

Da'ud ibn Auda. Household name for Bayt al-Da'ud.

Conflicts with the Biblical King David, per RfS V.5., "Names that unmistakably imply identity with or close relationship to a specific person or literary character will not be registered." As Master Bruce noted, any claim of relationship -- be it "house of David", "descendants of David", or "drinking buddies of David" -- will run afoul of this Rule. And King David was known to the Arabs as simply Da'ud. (11/93)

David fitzRobert de Lincoln. Device. Per pale vert and azure, on a pale Or three torteaux.

Conflict with the flag of St. Christopher-Neviss (Combo II, p. 230, cited from Flags, p. 161), Per pale vert and azure, on a pale Or a palm tree eradicated sable. There is only one CD, for the changes to the tertiaries.

Regarding the potential conflict cited in the LoI against Roos, Sable, on a pale Or three roses proper, the consensus of the commenters was that while a CD exists between roses and roundels, as tertiaries they are probably not sufficiently different to allow a CD per RfS X.4.j.ii. for type change alone. Thus Roos is also a conflict, with one CD for the change to the field, but nothing for the change to type only of the tertiaries. (11/94)

David le Ymagour. Device. Per pale gules and vert, a dragon sejant argent.

Conflict with Karina of the Far West, Azure, a wivern statant argent. There is only one CD for the changes to the field. We do not grant a CD between dragons and wyverns, and a comparison of the two emblazons demonstrated their visually identical postures. (9/95)

David mac Dougal mac Rori. Badge. [Fieldless] A melusine with tails to base vert.

Conflicts with Colin of Duntamknackam (SCA), [Fieldless] A merman bow in dexter and arrow in sinister tail raised to sinister. There is only one CD for fieldlessness. (5/94)

David Mícheál Mac Laisre. Device. Sable, on a flame proper between three triskeles a hammer argent.

As drawn, this conflicts with Reginleif the Unruly (SCA), Sable on a flame gules fimbriated Or, a rough-legged draft horse forcene argent. There is one CD for the addition of the triskeles, but nothing for the change to type only of the tertiary. (5/94)

David Mícheál Mac Laisre. Name.

The name it consists of three given names: Mac Laisre is a given name, not a patronymic (and since it means 'son of flame', it can't well be re-interpreted as a patronymic). No evidence has been found for the use of two given names in Irish, let alone three with no surname. That, combined with the fact that Mícheál is a modern spelling of older Míchél, while Dauíd (rather than David) is an older spelling of modern Daibhead, is sufficient cause for return. While the submitted allowed minor changes, changes sufficient to correct the problems here were not felt to be minor. You might recommend to him the changes suggested by Palimpsest. (5/94)

David of Moffat. Device change. Vert, a cross crosslet argent quarter-pierced gules on a chief engrailed argent three hunting horns vert stringed gules.

This was one of the very toughest decisions I've had to make in a long, long time. The issues involved were complex, there were approximately seventeen pages of commentary (most of it in ten point type), and none of the possible resolutions (including return of the submission) were without drawbacks. For those who wish only the "bottom line", the return of this submission is based on Protected Items I. of the Administrative Handbook.

The underlying issue in this submission is the fact that the submitted armory differs from the submitter's real-world armory only in the fact that in his real-world armory, matriculated through the Lyon Court of Scotland, the cross is square-pierced and the hunting horns are bells to sinister (the Scottish default is the opposite of the SCA default). Protected Items in the Administrative Handbook reads: "Protection afforded by the College of Arms is limited solely to the refusal to register any item known to conflict with a protected item under the Rules for Submission in effect at the time the new item is submitted to the College. Portions of the current Rules for Submissions pertaining to conflict apply to the following materials: ... I. Any Name or Armory Used by the Submitter Outside the Society - To preserve the historic distinction between an individual's Society identity and his or her identity outside the Society, no item will be registered to a submitter if it is identical to an item used by the submitter legally or in common use outside the Society. This includes (but is not limited to) a legal name, a common use name, and armory registered with any jurisdiction other than the College of Arms of the Society."

(1) It was the overall consensus of the commentary, including the opinion of the submitter, that this submission is, in effect, identical to his Scottish arms. ("I personally do not believe that there are sufficient differences to make my mundane arms and SCA independently registerable, without removing Protected Items I.") The (two) differences between the armories, while blazonable, are distinctions rather than differences. To all intents and purposes, the two are, indeed, identical under the meaning of Protected Items I.

(2) While many commenters felt that Protected Items I should be modified or even eliminated entirely, there was no real consensus to either (a) eliminate the clause, or (b) how to modify it if it were to be retained in some manner. Certainly some of the commentary, including that of the submitter, indicates that Protected Items I. has been of practical use in consultations. ("I will admit that I have use this rule in this manner [to discourage people from registering their `family coat of arms'] on many occasions when acting as a consulting herald and a submissions herald, and have found that provision very useful.") As a consequence, it is by no means clear that such a "useful" provision should be either eliminated or seriously modified without thoughtful consideration and specific discussion of the practical and potential effects of such elimination or modification.

(3) While the idea of declaring that "All SCA people are, by definition, 'important' enough to protect under the Modest Proposal", proposed by Brachet, has a certain amount of appeal, and would allow us to "protect" the non-SCA armory of SCA participants while retaining Protected Items I. in its current form, it would also put the College in the position of determining the legitimacy of grants of arms by non-SCA heraldic authorities. Laurel is of the opinion that such would be a can of worms that we do not want to open. While most of us could reasonably agree that a grant by Lord Lyon or one of the English Kings of Arms is certainly "legitimate" for this purpose, and presumably grants by the Chief Heralds of Ireland and Canada; and that a letter regarding a "family coat of arms" from one of the many bucket shop heraldists was probably not "legitimate" for this purpose; these are only the two extremes of a wide and heavily populated spectrum. What of grants by registration agencies in Russia or by the Heraldry Society of Finland (where a "registration" of arms can be made for about US$5.00)? How about a grant by the American College of Heraldry? Or one by, say, Prince Kevin of the Principality of the Hutt River Province? How about one by the Heraldic Court of South Osage? [No, I am not making these up.] I do not believe that the College of Arms of the SCA should be in the position of deciding the legitimacy of grants of arms by other organizations.

(4) Protected Items I. is clear as written: "no item will be registered to a submitter if it is identical to an item used by the submitter legally or in common use outside the Society. This includes ... armory registered with any jurisdiction other than the College of Arms of the Society." There was a widespread feeling among the commenters that the submitted arms and the matriculated Scottish arms are heraldically identical. As a consequence, this submission must be returned under the Administrative Handbook, Protected Items I. (7/95)

Désirée Gabriel de Laval. Device. Sable, a cross of flames proper between in bend sinister two goblets Or.

The cross of flames is a modern innovation which has only been registered in the SCA once, and that in 1979. Without evidence that ordinaries of flame were used in period armory, or that such are compatible with period armory, we will not register ordinaries of flames. (2/94)

Deborah Lanoire. Device. Argent, a panther sejant, the dexter forepaw raised, sable spotted of various tinctures incensed proper, in chief five decrescents sable.

Visual conflict with Bronwyn Banadridh (SCA), Argent, a panther sejant erect pean armed and issuing flames form the mouth and ears gules, orbed azure. While there is enough technical difference between the two, with a CD for the addition of the secondary group and another for the change to tincture of the primary, the visual reality is that of a CD for the addition of the decrescents and "somebody's done something strange to the spots on the cat". (2/94)

Deborah the Gentle. Device. Argent, a wreath of carnation flowers azure slipped and leaved vert, on a chief triangular azure a Latin cross argent.

The flowers are not a wreath, which is nearly circular in shape, but neither are they in a position for which anyone was able to invent a blazon. As a consequence, we are forced to return this under RfS VII.7.b. (Reconstruction Requirement). (11/95)

Deborah von Schwarzwald. Device. Argent, three trees couped sable and a bordure counter-compony argent and sable.

Conflict with Geale (Papworth, p. 1118), Argent, three stalks of trees couped and eradicated sable, sprouting anew. There is only one CD for the addition of the bordure. (4/94)

De Geer, Louis. Argent, on five fusils in fess gules three fleur-de-lys in pale Or.

There was a fair amount of consensus among the commenters that money alone (de Geer was a merchant, industrialist, and entrepreneur) was not a sufficient basis for protecting these arms, and that he did not seem to be more significant than others we have chosen not to protect. (5/95)

Deirdre de la Fleur. Badge. [Fieldless] A gillyflower quarterly gules and azure.

The gillyflower on the large emblazon, as in the LoI, is drawn in trian aspect. Heraldic charges should properly be drawn "flat", without much three dimensionality. Also, there is a possible conflict with Yamaguchi (Hawley's Mon, page 16), Dark, a carnation light, with only one CD for fieldlessness. (12/93)

Deirdre N'Cash. Device. Per pale argent and gules, a chevron embattled, counter-embattled, between three pegasi passant, wings elevated, counterchanged.

The chevron is embattled counter-embattled only on the sinister side of the shield. On the dexter side of the shield, it is bretessed. It needs to be redrawn as one or the other. (11/93)

Deirdre the Distracted. Name.

While the LoI documented the word "distract" to very late period, no evidence was presented, nor could any of the commenters find any, to demonstrate that epithetical nicknames were constructed in this way from a fairly abstract past participle. Without such evidence, we are unable to register this. (4/94)

Delftwood, Barony of. Badge. Argent, a windmill, sails in cross, within a bordure embattled azure.

The sails of the windmill are effectively invisible here, even on the large emblazon. As a consequence, not only is the primary charge unidentifiable (itself grounds for return), but there are several conflicts, including Durner (Manesse 101, cited in Combo I, p. 658), Argent, a bell tower azure, roofed gules containing a bell argent; de la Tour (Papworth, p. 364), Argent, a tower with a steeple azure port gules; and Felice of Mayhem House (SCA), Argent, a broken tower azure, the upper half bendwise illuminated Or. In each case there is only the fieldless CD. (5/94)

Delftwood, Barony of. Name for the Order of the Embattled Windmill.

No documentation was presented to demonstrate that this name followed any period exemplars for order names (indeed, no documentation was submitted at all), and none of the commenters could find any support for it, either. (12/93)

Delphine du Dauphiné. Device. Azure mullety Or, a vol argent.

Conflict with Bairinn de Taahe (SCA), Azure, two wings conjoined argent enflamed between in annulo six mullets of six points Or. In this case there are no CD's for the number or type or arrangement of the mullets and nothing for the enflaming of the wings. (1/94)

Demetrius Gordianus Analindal. Device. Per chevron gules and sable, a chevron between two crescents argent and a Dalmatian dog's head erased proper.

Conflict with Michell (Papworth, p. 402), Per chevron gules and sable, a chevron between three swans argent. There is only one CD for the change to the type of the secondaries. (2/94)

Den Hornblower of Goodwin Sands. Household name for House Vulcan.

Conflict with the fictional planet Vulcan, which plays a major role in various episodes of the two Star Trek television series, several of the Star Trek movies, and many of the Star Trek books. It is certainly famous enough to warrant protection under the Rules. (3/94)

Den Hornblower of Goodwin Sands. Name.

Den is the genitive form, and is therefore inappropriate as a given name. (The equivalent here is Dan's.) Additionally, Goodwin Sands are an extremely unlikely spot for anyone to be from, since they only uncover at low tide. (3/94)

Derek vom Schwartzwald. Device. Or, a bend sinister embattled counter-embattled gules between a tree eradicated and an axe and a hammer in saltire sable.

Also, even on the large emblazon form, the bend sinister was neither embattled-counterembattled nor bretessed, but somewhere halfway between the two. This needs to be redrawn as clearly one or the other. Please ask the submitter to draw the bend sinister wider in any resubmission. (1/94)

Derrick of Tintagel. Device. Azure, a dragon segreant breathing flames within a bordure embattled argent.

Conflict with Dragho (Woodward) Azure, a dragon argent. There is one CD for the addition of the bordure, but the default posture of a dragon is segreant, and the flames (which should be drawn a little smaller here) are not sufficient for the necessary second CD. (11/93)

Deryke el Extraviado. Name.

No documentation was presented that Spanish bynames were or could be formed from the past participle of verbs. (Extraviado, according to the submitter's documentation, means "out-of-the-way, unfrequented, lost, missing, wild, unruly".) El Perdido seems much more likely for "the lost".

Additionally, the combination of Anglo-Dutch forename with fully Spanish byname seems highly unlikely, at the least. (6/95)

Diana Ausonia di Nápoli. Device. Argent, on a heart azure a coyote sejant ululant to sinister argent, within a bordure sable.

Until reading the blazon, Laurel didn't realize from looking at the large emblazon that the heavy black line outlining the field was supposed to be a bordure. I'm afraid that this is far to skinny to simply register with the exhortation to draw the bordure wider in the future. We must return this for redrawing. (Since this is being returned anyway, perhaps you could get her to add the detailing that would make the tertiary charge more identifiable as a wolf, too.) (6/95)

Dianne Pensworth. Name.

Diane is the French form of Diana, a name occasionally found in England late in our period (and once in the 13th century). The double nn is apparently a modern innovation suggested by the name Anne; it is not evidenced in any of the available period citations, French or English, and is not supported by the Latin original. We would happily drop the extra n to register the name, but unfortunately the submitter does not allow any changes. (The name was submitted on the new Middle Kingdom form, which makes this the default option, and the submitter did not check any box. Pelican notes that in these circumstances it is impossible to determine whether the submitter actual forbade changes or merely overlooked the section on Permitted Changes.) (1/96)

Didrik van Eckell. Device. Per pale azure and sable, a wolf rampant within a bordure argent.

The LoI accidentally changed the argent of the wolf and bordure to sable. This would normally be cause for pending the submission for research under the corrected blazon, but Brachet found a conflict with Stephen de la Lande Sauvage (SCA), Quarterly gules and sable, a wolf rampant reguardant within a bordure argent. There is only one CD for the changes to the field. (3/95)

Dierk zem Grauen Wolf. Badge. [Fieldless] On a tower per pale argent and sable in pale a dragon passant between two more passant contourny counterchanged.

The tertiaries were drawn so small, not even coming close to filling the area available to them on the tower, that their identity is problematical at best. RfS VII.7.a. requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance.", and RfS VIII.3. notes that "Identifiable elements may be rendered unidentifiable by significant reduction in size...." Such is the case here; having them going in different directions serves only to further confuse the issue. (5/96)

Die Schwartzlände, Canton of. Name.

The grammar is not entirely correct. The correct form for "The Blacklands" would appear to be "Schwartzländer". However, as the submitters allowed no changes whatsoever to be made, we are forced to return this. (4/94)

Dmitri Alexandrovich Liadov. Device. Per saltire purpure and vert, a simurgh close between three orchids Or.

As orchids do not have a standard or defined shape, but come in many different shapes, the emblazon cannot be adequately blazoned, nor would any blazon we could think of adequately reproduce the emblazon. As a consequence, this falls afoul of RfS VII.7.a. and b. (Identification Requirement and Reconstruction Requirement). (11/95)

Domhnall de Lindsay. Device. Vert, on a plate a firebasket vert within a bordure rayonny Or.

No documentation was presented for the "firebasket", nor could any of the commenters find it either in or out of the SCA. As registration of this would be the defining instance, we must have sufficient documentation to define it as a period charge or period artifact with a reasonably consistent form or depiction that it would be reproducible from a blazon (as required by RfS VII.7.b., Reconstruction Requirement. "Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon."). (4/96)

Domingo de Valencia. Device. Vert, on a lozenge argent a rabbit sejant erect contourny maintaining an axe bendwise sable, a bordure argent.

RfS XI.4 states that "such charges [inescutcheon or lozenge, or other geometric charges such as roundels, cartouches, etc.] may not be charged in such a way as to suggest independent arms. Such charges may not contain an ordinary that terminates at the edge, or more than one charge." The lozenge here has upon it two charges; the rabbit and the axe. The fact that one charge is maintained by another does not disqualify it from being considered a second charge. The fact that it is a maintained charge does mean that we tend to view the combination as a singe charge group, just as we view two axes in saltire as a single charge group. However, in both cases, there are two charges, and the letter of the Rule seems clear: no "more than one charge". (9/95)

Domingo Diego Diaz de la Vega y Martin. Name.

This name, with two given names and three surnames, is significantly more complex than any available documented Spanish name; since he permits no changes, we are returning it so that he can drop (at least) one surname or provide evidence for such a construction. (10/95)

Dominic Sanmicheli. Device. Per fess gules and azure, in chief a patriarchal cross and in base three Latin crosses Or.

The consensus among the commenters was fairly strong that this violates the ban on using two variants of a single charge type in a single group of charges (the "sword/dagger" rule). (7/94)

Donal mac Seiorse. Device. Per chevron sable and azure, a panther rampant argent spotted sable, enflamed argent and azure, between three mullets of four points argent.

Though blazoned as "enflamed argent and azure", the flames were drawn on the large emblazon as "azure, fimbriated argent". We have disallowed fimbriated flames for quite some time. (11/93)

Donecan Grayson. Device. Per bend sinister azure and sable, in bend three crosses bottony argent.

Conflict with Morgan (Papworth, p. 671), Sable, three crosses bottony in bend argent. There is only one CD, for the change to the field. (1/95)

Donnchadh Dubhghlas. Device. Or, three wolves passant regardant conjoined by the tail in pall within an annulet gules.

There were no period exemplars of either beasts conjoined at the tails or for this type of rotational symmetry to which any of the commenters could point. All of the tricorporate beasts we could find had a single head; conjoining at the tails does not appear to be period style. (5/94)

Donnilee Witherspoon. Name.

No one could find any documentation for the "coined" given name. Would the submitter consider "Doinnlé", cited as "early" on p. 76 of Ó Corráin and Maguire? The device was registered under the holding name of Donnie of Atenveldt. (11/93)

Donn the Bald. Device. Per bend sinister embattled gules and argent, a cross formy and a cross potent counterchanged.

"It is poor style to use two similar but non-identical charges in a single group." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR July 1991, p. 21). Such has been cause for return at least as far back as the LoAR of December 1986, leading up to what has been termed the "sword/rapier rule" and the "shark/dolphin rule". The use of two different types of cross in a single (here, the primary) charge group is grounds for return here. (6/95)

Dougal MacRae. Device. Argent, three chevronels braced gules, on a chief sable a lion couchant Or.

Conflict with the device of Jordre Pargon of Windhover's Reach, Argent, three chevronels braced azure, and on a chief sable, a snow leopard couchant argent spotted sable. There is one CD for the change of tincture of the chevronels, but nothing for the change of tincture only of the tertiary cat. (1/96)

Douglas Cameron Fitzrery. Device. Per chevron vert and azure, two fleurs-de-lys and a standing balance, on a bordure Or, three thorn vines entwined in orle vert.

As noted by one commenter, "The stuff on the bordure is unacceptably thin-lined and looks like knotwork." We have had a long-standing ban on the registration of knotwork. "The orle is in essence a form of Celtic knotwork, which has been ruled illicit for Society use ('Knotwork is not, by and large, heraldic.' Karina of the Far West, July, 1979)." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 28 December 1986, p. 15) (5/94)

Dören von Falkenstein. Name.

Dören is found in the documentation only as a placename. As such, the submitted name lacks a given. (6/94)

Drachenwald, Kingdom of. Title for Koira Pursuivant.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Drachenwald, Kingdom of. Title for Susi Herald.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Drachenwald, Kingdom of. Title for Trois Chênes Pursuivant.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Dragon's Citadel, Canton of. Device. Or, two wyverns erect respectant and within a laurel wreath vert a tower gules.

No problems were found with the device, but as we are unable to create a holding for a group, the armory must be returned with the name. (1/96)

Dragon's Citadel, Canton of. Name.

The Old English word for dragon does occur in some real English place-names, but it was draca (genitive singular dracan), so it now appears as drake (or draken). Moreover, it is associated with words for natural features, especially mounds, hollows, etc., probably on account of the common Germanic folktale motif of a treasure guarded by a dragon. The word dragon is from the French and signified not only the monster but also a battle or pageant standard, carried by the dragoner (Old French dragonier). Here, however, neither meaning makes good sense: presumably the citadel is neither owned nor operated by a dragon or a standard! The word citadel itself is unlikely in a period name, since the first citation in the OED is from 1586, and its French source is only about a century older. Finally, use of the apostrophe to indicate the possessive seems to have begun in the 17th century. Some of these problems are relatively minor or easily fixed, but the net effect is of a name that owes more to 20th century fantasy than to period naming practice, and in any case they allow no changes. We are therefore returning the name for further work, with the suggestion that they consult with someone who has some knowledge of period place-names. Ensign's A Survey of the History of English Place-names in the Proceedings of the Knowne World Heraldic and Scribal Symposium held in Trimaris in 1994 is a useful, accessible, and brief introduction. (1/96)

Dragonsspine, Barony of. Badge for the Order of the Dragon Vanguard. Or, three arrows in gyronny points to chief vert and a wingless dragon dormant purpure.

The dragon in the badge here is not truly dormant (as it is in their device). Further, the position of the arrows is not really blazonable (as was demonstrated by the number of variant blazons suggested in the commentary). As a consequence, there are problems with both identifiability (see RfS VII.7.a. "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance.") and reconstructibility (see RfS VII.7.b. "Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon."). (4/96)

Dragonsspine, Barony of. Badge. Or, three arrows inverted in pile and a wingless dragon dormant purpure.

No forms were included in the Laurel packet for this submission. As a consequence, we are unable to process it. (3/95)

Dragonsspine, Barony of. Name for Order of the Dragon Vanguard.

No one was able to suggest a period model for this proposed order name. (4/96)

Drei Eichen, Barony of. Badge. Vert, a flame proper and in chief two acorns Or.

The flame is not drawn as a flame proper, with some gules gouts in the Or portion and vice versa, but rather is a flame gules fimbriated Or. This is being returned for redrawing as a "proper" flame proper. (3/95)

Drei Eichen, Barony of. Badge. Vert, two acorns and a great helm Or.

Conflict with Harding (Papworth, p. 888), Vert, three acorns Or, with only one CD for the change in type of the bottommost charge. (3/95)

Drei Eichen, Barony of. Badge. Vert, two acorns and a lyre Or.

Conflict with Harding (Papworth, p. 888), Vert, three acorns Or, with only one CD for the change in type of the bottommost charge (If drawn as Vert, a lyre and in chief two acorns Or, as it was blazoned in the LoI, this would conflict with Ireland, Vert, a harp Or. (3/95)

Drei Eichen, Barony of. Order badge for Ordo Auxiliatorum. Azure, an open book and in chief an acorn Or.

The badge conflicts with Conroy (Papworth, p. 340), Azure, an ancient book open indexed edged Or a chief embattled of the last. There is only one CD, for changing the chief to an acorn. (3/95)

Drei Eichen, Barony of. Order badge for Ordo Custodis Quercus.

There does not seem to be a defined heraldic "proper" for boar's heads, and the beasts in nature run from a light mottled brown through reddish/auburn to almost black. (3/95)

Drei Eichen, Barony of. Order badge for Ordo Honestus. Azure, a penannular brooch and in chief an acorn Or.

(3/95)

Drei Eichen, Barony of. Order name for Ordo Artium et Literatum.

The name does not appear to be constructed properly. Literatus is 'man of letters', from the adjective literatus 'literate' (Riddle & Arnold, 438 at Letters); literatum would be a nominative singular neuter form of the same adjective. The closest that anyone could suggest to the submitted form is Ordo Artium et Literarum 'Order of Arts and Letters'. There was also a strong feeling among many of the commenters that such an order name is too generic to register. (3/95)

Drei Eichen, Barony of. Order name for Ordo Auxiliatorum.

The commentary was nearly unanimous in feeling that this order name (order of helping ones) is too generic to register. (3/95)

Drei Eichen, Barony of. Order name for Ordo Custodis Quercus.

The name does not appear to be correctly constructed. Since custos means "guard" in the sense of an individual person, not in the sense of a group of people, the college is correct that custodum, the genitive plural, would be more appropriate. Does the group want "Order of the Guardians of the Oak (singular)", "Order of the Guardians of the Oaks (given that the barony is named after three of them)", or "Order of the Oaken Guardians"? These would be respectively: Ordo Custodum Quercus (long "u" in quercus), Ordo Custodum Quercuum, and Ordo Custodum Querceorum. (3/95)

Drei Eichen, Barony of. Order name for Ordo Honestus.

The commentary was nearly unanimous that this order name (honorable order) is too generic to register. Nor does such a name follow the guidelines of RfS III.2.b.ii. ("Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards."). (3/95)

Drew Blackstone. Device. Per pale argent and sable, two rooks rising respectant counterchanged.

Conflict with Ascelyn Fraser Summerhawk (SCA), Per pale argent and sable, two hawks striking respectant counterchanged, all within a bordure gules. There is only one CD for the bordure. The postures of the birds were very nearly identical, with minor changes to the head position being the only noticeable difference. (5/94)

Dún Bólacht, Canton of. Device. Or, in pale a cow statant sable and a laurel wreath vert, within a bordure embattled sable.

Though blazoned as a "laurel wreath" the charge in base is really two sprays of laurel, stems crossed in saltire. This needs to be redrawn with a laurel wreath. (2/94)

Dún Bólacht, Canton of. Name.

Bólacht is defined in Dinneen, p. 108, as "an abundance of cows and milk; a stock of kine and the produce and profit thereof; dairying; dowry"; not "cattle", as the submitters believe. Palimpsest believes that "Fort of the Cows" would be Dún na mBó (ignoring whether "fort of the cows" is a likely construction for a placename, which some of the commenters questioned. This issue should be addressed in any resubmission). (2/94)

DUBLIN, City of. Device. Azure, three castles argent, the battlements enflamed proper.

Though the capital of Eire, nothing else about the city or its arms seems of sufficient importance to warrant protection. (6/95)

Dugal MacTaveis. Badge. [Fieldless] On a heart argent a seadragon rampant gules.

Conflict with Venables (Papworth, p. 983), Argent, a wyvern passant gules. There is only one CD for the posture of the monster. Several commenters submitted evidence that heart shapes were used as a medium, albeit only occasionally, for heraldic display in period. See, e.g., Ottfried Neubecker, Heraldry, Sources, Symbols and Meaning, page 76. (12/93)

Dugaul of Wolf's End. Name.

None of the variants of Dubgall has a "u" in the second syllable. Only Green Anchor, among all the commenters, was able to find any support for the locative, and even that is a bit of a stretch, since none of the examples of "End" he found had an animal with them. (1/94)

Dun Bròdail, Canton. Device. Per bend invected azure and argent, a tower argent and a laurel wreath vert.

As we cannot form holding names for groups, the armory must be returned as well. (11/93)

Dun Bròdail, Canton. Name.

No documentation was presented in the LoI nor could any of the commenters find any support for "Proud Hill" as a reasonable name formation. (11/93)

Duncan Alaric MacDonald. Badge. [Fieldless] On a sheaf of five lightning bolts Or a pine tree couped proper.

This does not meet the requirements for fieldless badges consisting of one charge surmounting another. The area of intersection is not small and the tree effectively obscures the identification of the lightning bolts. (3/94)

Duncan Forbes. Badge. (Fieldless) On an escallop argent, a cross crescenty vert.

Conflict with Etain Winterbourne, On an escallop argent, a violet plant vert flowered purpure, since the plant is primarily vert (thus not allowing us a CD for change to type and tincture) and the escallop is not a charge which will allow application of X.4.j.ii. to grant a CD for the change to type only of the tertiary charge. (1/96)

Duncan MacGriogair of Hawkwood. Device. Paly wavy of four traits argent and azure, on a chief azure a griffin couchant wings elevated and addorsed Or.

Submitted in the LoI as "Per fess azure and paly of four traits argent and azure, in chief a griffin couchant wings elevated and addorsed Or", the "fess" line of division is ambiguously placed. Indeed, it was the consensus of those at the Laurel meeting that the visual reality of the device is as it is reblazoned above. As a consequence, however, the emblazon conflicts with White (Papworth, p. 581), Paly of six Or and azure, on a chief of the second, a griffin passant of the first, with only one CD for the changes to the field. We recommend redrawing this with "fess" line placed lower on field, which will then clear this conflict. (1/95)

Duncan MacGriogair of Hawkwood. Name.

The name is mixed English and Gaelic; the given and locative make it primarily English, and the Gaelic patronymic is quite out of place. While the Rules for Submission on "Name Grammar and Syntax" do note in the subtext that "As a rule of thumb, languages should be used together only if there was substantial contact between the cultures that spoke those languages, and a name should not combine more than three languages.", the requirement in the statement of the rule itself is that such combinations must "follow documented patterns". No one yet has presented any documentation for mixed Gaelic/English names, either in period or since. Such a combination therefore follows no documented pattern whatsoever. With a minor change to something like MacGregor we could have registered the name, but as submitter allowed no changes whatsoever we are forced to return this. (1/95)

Duncan von Greifenklau. Device. Per bend azure and gules, an eagle's foot argent.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Duncan von Greifenklau. Household name for Bruderschaft Drachenschwinge.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Duncan von Greifenklau. Name.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Dun Currach, Canton of. Name.

The second element of the name needs to be in the genitive case: Dún Curraigh. Unfortunately, this makes the conflict with the Barony of Dun Carraig even more obvious. (10/94)

Dunja Fuxfell. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Dun Or, Barony of. Badge. Sable, an open book Or.

Conflict with Dean and Chapter of Raphoe, A book, as the entry in Papworth makes it clear that this is a seal, which is tinctureless. Thus, there is only one CD for fieldlessness. (5/94)

Dun Or, Barony of. Badge. Sable, a tower per pale Or and azure, a bordure argent.

Unfortunately, even on the large emblazon, the tower was not recognizable as such because of the lack of contrast between its azure half and the field. Even though the charge is technically neutral, and could therefore be displayed on any tincture field, identifiability must be maintained. Here, it is not. See RfS VII.7.a. ("Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance.") and VIII.3. ("Armorial Identifiability - Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability.") (5/94)

Dunstan Dangar of Shaddowe Woode. Device. Gyronny argent and gules, a maltese cross between three roundels counterchanged.

The consensus among the commenters and those at the Laurel meeting was that this was excessively counterchanged, falling afoul of RfS VIII.3 ("Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability.") The design is confusing visually, and it takes the eye some time to sort the various elements out correctly. (11/94)

Dur al Jabal abu Neefa min al-Machfi Jabal Bey al-Ferrangi. Badge. Argent, a cross within and conjoined to a mascle sable.

The badge conflicts with the badge of Kameyama Kengoro, Argent, the kanji shu within a Japanese well-frame sable, and the badge of Myfanwy ferch Rhiannon, Argent, two irises in fess within a mascle fesswise sable. Even though in each case the charges within the mascles are blazoned first, the mascle is visually the primary charge, and a visual comparison of the emblazons demonstrated clearly that X.2. could not apply here, nor could the otherwise necessary two CDs be found to clear the conflicts. In each case there is only one CD, for the change to the framed charge. (12/95)

Dur al Jabal abu Neefa min al-Machfi Jabal Bey al-Ferrangi. Name change from Dur of the Hidden Mountain.

His form gives the name as Durr al-Jabal abu Neefa min al-Machfi Jabal Bey al-Ferengi, said to mean `Pearl of the Mountain (father of Neefa) from Hidden Mountain Baron of the Franks'. There are several problems with the name. (1) The order of name elements is wrong: the kunya (honorific) abu Neefa should come before the ism (personal name). (2) No one could document Neefa as a personal name, even in modern Muslim name books, or find a masculine name Neef of which it might be a feminization. (3) Durr is `pearls', not `pearl'; the singular is durra. More important, it isn't an ism, though it may occur as part of a laqab (cognomen or epithet). (4) The preposition min `from, out of' is not used in Arabic names. (5) No one was able to support machfi, apparently intended to mean `hidden', though Laurel found mikhbaye and mah'ba glossed as `hiding place'. Moreover, we have no documentation for the construction of the phrase al-Machfi Jabal, which does not appear to match that of attested locative bynames. (6) Bey al-Ferengi is a claim to honors that the submitter does not have, in violation of RfS I.3.b (Presumptuous Claims): he may be a Baron in the SCA, but he is not a `Baron of the Franks'; and even if he were, we would not allow him to register the title, for titles in the SCA apply only to honors granted within the SCA. (7) Bey is on the Alternate Titles List as a Turkish equivalent for baron; its use as part of a name violates RfS VI.1 (Names Claiming Rank). (12/95)

In short, the name is incorrectly constructed, inadequately documented, and presumptuous (as presumption is defined in the Rules for Submissions); since he permits no changes, each of these problems would by itself be sufficient grounds for return. Any future submission along these lines should be accompanied by adequate documentation for all of the elements and for the grammatical constructions used and should not incorporate titles of rank. (12/95)

Dur of Hidden Mountain. Badge change. [Fieldless] A cross within and conjoined to a mascle sable.

Conflict with Hotta (Hawley's Mon, p. 65), A cross within and conjoined to a mascle. There is only the CD for fieldlessness. This also conflicts with Hanley (Papworth, p. 349), Argent, a buckle lozengewise sable, again with only the fieldless vs. fielded CD. (2/94)

Eadric Gwyddon the Seeker. Device. Sable, on a bend sinister Or, four swords palewise sable, a bordure Or.

Conflict with Balin Drayloch (SCA), Sable, on a bend sinister Or, six torteaux, all within a bordure Or. There is only one CD for the changes to the tertiary charges. (12/93)

Eadwine of Axbridge. Device. Per chevron sable and argent, two estoiles and an eagle displayed counterchanged.

Conflict with Connor of Clan Moncreiffe (SCA) Per chevron sable and argent, two horses heads couped respectant and a raven displayed facing sinister counterchanged. There is a CD for the change to the type of charges in chief but the differences between the birds is insufficient for the second. (11/93)

Eadwine Rune-Deniga. Alternate persona name Eadwynne Iren-Dracan.

No evidence has been presented that kennings and other poetic expressions were used as bynames. Previous returns for this reason involved Old Norse names, but the limited evidence available for Old English bynames suggests that they were equally down-to-earth. We are therefore returning this name and broadening the precedent to include Old English as well as Old Norse bynames. (The most recent discussion of the matter can be found in the 1/96 return of Ragnar Bölvisbörrskjaldar (Caid).)

Even if it were stylistically acceptable, Iren-Dracan would require a little grammatical repair. Dracan is the form taken by the noun draca in the singular oblique cases, so the byname would actually be Irendraca. Finally, the given name is somewhat problematic. Old English -wine is a masculine deuterotheme, while -wynn is feminine. This in itself is not a problem, but even if the submitter doesn't mind having a woman's name, it must be in the nominative case, and Eadwynne is the accusative case of the name Eadwyn(n). If the byname could be justified stylistically, the name would be Eadwynn Irendraca. (2/96)

Eadwine Rune-Deniga. Name change from Eadwynne of Runedun.

No evidence has been presented that kennings and other poetic expressions were used as bynames. Previous returns for this reason involved Old Norse names, but the limited evidence available for Old English bynames suggests that they were equally down-to-earth. We are therefore returning this name and broadening the precedent to include Old English as well as Old Norse bynames. (The most recent discussion of the matter can be found in the 1/96 return of Ragnar Bölvisbörrskjaldar (Caid).)

There are also some grammatical problems with the byname. Rune is an oblique case of run secret; rune (accusative in the passage cited in the submitter's documentation); here it needs to be in the nominative case. Deniga is an alternative form of Dena, the genitive plural of Dene a Dane. The desired compound would therefore be Rundene rune-Dane. (2/96)

Ealdormere, Principality of. Badge for Award of the Wolf's Tooth. Azure, a wolf's fang within a bordure argent.

Conflict with John Shark the Wanderer (SCA), Azure a shark's tooth point downwards proper. There is only one CD for the addition of the bordure. They might consider resubmitting with the German wolves' teeth. (1/94)

Ealdormere, Principality of. Badge for the Award of the Wolf's Tooth. Azure, three wolves' teeth issuant from chief argent.

Conflict with Elisane Gilraedd, Azure, three piles argent and in base a tower sable. There is a CD for removing the tower, but we have generally given nothing for enarching a charge. (12/95)

Ealdormere, Principality of. Badge for the Prince of Ealdormere. [Fieldless] A wolf's head argent crowned Or.

Blazoned as "Fieldless", the emblazon forms had the charges on a gules field. Since what we register is the emblazon and not the blazon, this must be returned for not matching what they apparently want, which is a fieldless badge.

Additionally, this conflicts with William of Houghton (SCA), Sable, a grey wolf's head erased argent, with only one CD for fieldless vs. fielded. The crown on this submission, though of a reasonable size, is more akin in size and visual impact to a maintained charge than to addition of a tertiary charge or gorging (as in the precedent set by Baron Bruce as Laurel in the LoAR of 9/93). There is also a conflict with Talanque (SCA), Sable, a horned wolf's head erased argent, with the same "point count". (8/95)

Ealdormere, Principality of. Badge for the Princess of Ealdormere. [Fieldless] A trillium argent barbed and seeded vert crowned Or.

Blazoned as "Fieldless", the emblazon forms had the charges on a gules field. Since what we register is the emblazon and not the blazon, this must be returned for not matching what they apparently want, which is a fieldless badge. (8/95)

Ealdormere, Principality of. Name for Friendship of the Trillium.

No documentation was submitted showing that this form of order name follows any period exemplars. Neither has "friendship" been accepted as an alternate designator for "order" or "award". (1/94)

Ealdormere, Principality of. Order name for Fellowship of the Trillium.

The name conflicts with Trillium Herald, registered 12/75 to the Middle Kingdom, and with House Trylliam, registered 12/80 to Michael of Bedford. Moreover, no forms for this submission were included in the packet. (10/95)

East, Kingdom of the. Transfer of heraldic titles to the Kingdom of Drachenwald

Albion Herald
Aurochs Pursuivant
Broken Wain Herald
Edelweiss Herald
Post Horn Pursuivant
Schwarzdrachen Herald

As no letter accepting the transfer of these titles has been received from Drachenwald, we are unable to make such transfer. (12/94)

Eckhart zu Westfilde. Household badge for Bemeinschaft zu Düörpen. Per fess gules and argent, an eagle displayed facing to sinister argent and a compass star azure, a chief embattled argent.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Eckhart zu Westfilde. Household name for Bemeinschaft zu Düörpen.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

EDINBURGH, City of. Device. Argent, a castle triple-towered sable atop a rocky mount proper.

Though arguably more familiar to non-heralds in America than some of the other civic armory on the Letter of Intent to Protect, the arms do not otherwise seem sufficiently important to warrant protection. (6/95)

Edith of Warwick. Alternate persona name Eilidh NicDh¢mhnuill.

The patronymic, which was actually submitted as Nic Dhómhnuill, is based on a masculine form that appears as Mac Dhòmhnuill in some modern Scots Gaelic sources, including the submitter's documentation, and as Mac Dhomhnuill in others, especially older ones. In modern Irish sources it is Mac D(h)omhnaill. We have found no example with the submitter's acute accent. Since Scots Gaelic use of the accent grave is modern, we would simply have dropped the accent to register the name as Eilidh Nic Dhomhnuill, but she permits no changes whatsoever, and we are therefore obliged to return the name. (1/96)

Edmund the Lame. Device change. Sable, an armored leg argent.

This was an appeal of a kingdom return for conflict with Douglas Longshanks, Sable, a pentaskelion of armored legs argent. The submitter appeals on three grounds: that Douglas' primary charge is a pentaskelion and therefore, the devices should qualify for complete difference of primary charge; alternatively, there should be CDs for number and arrangement of the legs since only one leg is in the same position; and finally, that the two charges are visually completely different.

The first argument is a case of allowing the language of blazon to confuse the issue. Douglas Longshanks' device could as accurately be blazoned Sable, five armoured legs conjoined at the hips argent. The charges we have to compare are armored legs, not an armored leg compared to a pentaskelion. The visual reality of the submitted device compared to Douglas' is that four legs have been removed.

The second argument runs directly counter to explicit precedent. Baron Bruce as Laurel probably said it best:

[Considering Azure, in annulo three cats couchant, each biting the tail of the next argent] "This conflicts with [Azure, a lion dormant argent]. There's a single CD, for adding the other two cats; we grant no difference between lions and cats, or between couchant and dormant.

"This submission was an appeal of a return by the Midrealm College of Heralds, for the above conflict. The submitter argues that there should be a CD for posture as well as number, since the two added cats are not in their "default" posture --- by which is meant, we assume, not in the same posture as the original cat. I agree with Lord Dragon's analysis: the client evidently feels that the change from the [conflicting] device to her submission is a two-step process (first we add two cats, then we change their posture). This is not the case. It's a single-step process: we've added two charges. They could have been two cats couchant [the whole in annulo] argent, or two cats rampant addorsed argent, or two bezants, or a widget ermine and a wadget checky Or and gules. The amount of difference gained remains the same: a single CD, for the added charges.

"This policy has been in place since at least Master Wilhelm's tenure; it was enunciated by Master Baldwin, in his LoARs of 25 Aug 85, p.14, and 15 Sept 85, p.3; Mistress Alisoun and Master Da'ud both followed it. It is logically consistent with Laurel interpretations of the Rules to date." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR July 1993, pp. 15-16)

The third argument runs counter to the Rules. RfS X.5. states that "If the tinctures, shapes, or arrangement of the charges in a submission create an overwhelming visual resemblance to a piece of protected armory, the submission may be held to conflict even if sufficient theoretical difference can be counted between them." This "visual conflict" clause of the Rules runs only one way; we may find that two devices look to similar, but not that they look too dissimilar in spite of technical conflict. To do otherwise is to introduce a very high level of subjectivity to the decision process, something the College has worked very hard to get away from.

Consequently, this must be returned for conflict with Douglas Longshanks, Sable, a pentaskelion of armored legs argent. There is only one CD, the change in the number of legs. To return to the second argument for a moment, if only to try to reiterate what Baron Bruce has stated, a number of commenters wrote in favor of granting two CDs between the two devices, one for number and another for arrangement. Let's look at some other hypothetical examples, though. Gules, a lion Or versus Gules, two lions combattant Or. Do we grant two CDs, one for adding a lion and another for reversing its orientation? How about Argent, a chevron azure vs. Argent, a chevron and a chevron inverted azure? One CD for adding the second chevron and another for then inverting it? Are there two CDs between Or, a pale gules and Or, a pale and overall a bend gules? One for adding a second "pale", and another for changing its orientation to bendwise? Between Sable, a sword proper and Sable, two swords in cross proper? One for adding a second sword, and another for changing its orientation? In each of these hypothetical cases, it could be argued that there is a CD for number of charges and another for changing the orientation of half of the group. Yet for these examples, the real difference is only of the addition of a charge. Similarly, Sable, a pale Or versus Sable, a pale Or and another argent? Have we added a charge (one CD), or have we added a charge and changed the tincture of half of the group (two CDs)? Or Azure, a plate versus Azure, a plate within a bordure embattled Or? Have we added a bordure (one CD) or added a bordure and changed its line of division to complex (two CDs)? The same arguments for and against the submission here versus Douglas Longshanks apply to all of these examples equally. They all rest on the same philosophical foundations and the same underlying principles of heraldry. And if we are going to be consistent, we must treat them all the same. If we are not going to grant two Clear Differences for the addition of a bordure with a complex line of division, or for the addition of an identical charge in a different tincture, we should not grant two Clear Differences for addition of one or more charges in a different posture or orientation. (6/96)

Edric Aaron Hartwood. Household badge for Domus Draconis Argentei. [Fieldless] A dragon statant erect regardant maintaining a crescent argent.

Conflict with Dragho (Combo II citing Woodward), Azure, a dragon argent; Karolyi Attila Laszlo (SCA), Per pale embattled barry sable and Or and vert, in sinister a dragon sejant erect argent; and Isolde of Ander Hall (SCA), Per saltire gules and lozengy gules and Or, in chief a dragon segreant argent. In each case there is a CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for either the maintained charge or posture. (10/94)

Edward the Artful. Name.

The epithet, though the word was dated to 1613 (inside our "gray area" for documentation, is far too late to have been used in this kind of epithetical formation. Would the submitter consider Fayt (meaning "affected, skilful, prudent") or Crafty (with the obvious meaning), both of which date to much earlier? (10/94)

Egill Gunnbjarnarson. Device. Sable, on a pale between two mullets argent a pine tree eradicated proper, on a chief argent three reremice sable.

With five types of charge in four tinctures, this exceeds the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a. While it is true that armory exceeding this "rule of thumb" has been registered on rare occasions, these exceptions have only been made for particularly elegant proposals. (1/94)

Egill the Dane. Device. Azure, a mullet of eight points gyronny Or and gules, a bordure invected argent.

The mullet here is not gyronny, which is the equivalent of quarterly and per saltire; the divisions here have been rotated roughly 22 degrees from the vertical, leaving the effect of a quilt pattern. While two commenters discussed the possibility of blazoning the motif as gyronny in cross, only two examples were cited, both of fields divided this way rather than charges. We would prefer to have more examples of such fields and/or period examples of charges being divided this way. There was additionally some concern about the reproducibility of the blazon gyronny in cross given its rarity and hence obscurity in armory. For all these reasons we are compelled to return this. (12/95)

Egill the Dane. Device. Sable, a mullet of eight points gyronny azure and Or within a bordure invected argent.

While technically a neutral charge on the sable field, the mullet was unidentifiable as such at any distance. "All armory must have sufficient contrast to allow each element of the design to be clearly identifiable at a distance." (RfS VIII.2.) The overwhelming visual image was that of a Maltese cross at an unusual angle on the sable field, with its identifiability as a mullet of eight points completely lost. (12/93)

Eibhlin Niccluir. Name.

The "patronymic" is unattested in the documentation. The only variant discussed in the documentation (dated to 1637) is Makcluir. Further, as an anglicized variant it is unlikely to have been combined with a Gaelic borrowing of the Norman Avelina and Emeline. The combination of two unlikely components is sufficient to cause return for rework and/or better documentation. (5/94)

Eideard McCash. Device. Gules, a chevron embattled, counter-embattled, between two comets and a minotaur argent.

Conflict with Archibald Wilson (Lyon I, #228), Gules, a chevron embattled counter-embattled between three mullets argent. There is only one CD for the changes to type of secondaries. Secondly, the depiction of the comets is very modern in style, in violation of RfS VIII.4.d. Period style tended to be very static, and these comets, as the commentary noted, appear "swooshy". (11/93)

Eilidh Swann Strathlachlan. Device. Checky Or and sable, a swan rousant gules holding in its beak a thistle argent.

Though clear of Stainforth, as cited in the LoI, this conflicts with von Steinfurth (Woodward, p. 262), Or, a swan gules beaked and membered sable. There is only one CD for the field, as the posture is equivalent if not identical. (7/94)

Einar Asbjarnarson. Device. Gules, an axe and in chief three drinking horns Or.

Conflict with Oksza-Grabowski, Gules, a broad axe argent, the handle sable, the blade turned to dexter. There is one CD for the addition of the charges in chief but nothing for the change of tincture to the haft only. (3/94)

Einar Leatherwood. Badge. Per pale wavy gules and purpure, a sword inverted proper and a needle argent in saltire, overall a rose Or.

There are several problems with the device. The wavy line of division is not drawn boldly enough to be reasonably identifiable, even without being between two low-contrast tinctures and partially obscured by the overlying charge group. The sword is not a standard broadsword but has fantasy-style double blade. The needle even in large emblazon looked to everyone at the Laurel meeting like a scabbard wrapped and decorated, and is thus unidentifiable without the blazon, in contravention of RfS VII.7.b. Reconstruction requirement ("Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon). (And the needleworkers among us cringed at what a bone needle that elaborately carved would do to any fabric which it was used to sew.) Finally, given the relative size of the rose to the sword and "needle", there was some question as to whether it was two charges in saltire with an overall charge or whether it was three different types of charge in a single group. In any resubmission with this motif, the overall charge must be clearly drawn as such in order to keep from falling afoul of the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a. ("Three or more types of charges should not be used in the same group"). (9/94)

Einar Leatherwood. Name change from Einar of Wealhlnutu.

Any literal interpretation of the surname seems extremely unlikely. While there is a modern surname Leatherwood, no one could discover its origin. According to the OED, leatherwood is either a North American shrub of the genus Dirca with very tough bark or a Tasmanian wood of a pale reddish mahogany color. Neither is likely as a source for a period surname. We could have formed a similarly-pronounced byname from the wudu (woods) of a man called LRodhere (as in Letheringset and Letheringham (LRodhere + -inga- + -{ge}sett or -h@m); Letherwudu or even Letherwood. As he allowed no changes whatsoever, we are having to return the name. (9/94)

Einarr Atgorvi-Madr. Name.

Although it appeared as Einarr Atgorvi-Madr on the LoI, the name was submitted as Einarr Atgorvi-ma r on his form. Atgorvi-ma r is apparently a misreading of atg rvi-maðr, a glossary entry in Gordon's Introduction to Old Norse; it means "man of great physical accomplishments" and is a reasonable enough epithet in the form atg rvimaðr. (The hyphen is an editorial device used to clarify the construction of the word; it is not normally written.) We would be happy to register Einarr atg rvimaðr, but unfortunately he permits no changes at all. We aren't particularly concerned about the capitalization of the byname, but the hyphen must go, ð (or some reasonable equivalent) must be substituted for, and (or ö) must replace o. (The change made by the Atenveldt CoH fixed one of the problems, but it seems not to have been permitted by the submitter.)

It might be a kindness to disabuse the submitter of the notion that Einarr is etymologically "only scar". It may very early have been a byname meaning "one who fights alone", though this interpretation isn't universally accepted; at any rate the prototheme is "one, alone", and the deuterotheme is related to various Germanic words for "army". (5/96)

Eir Dùn, Shire of. Device. Vert, two picks in saltire within a laurel wreath Or.

As we cannot form holding names for groups, we are having to return the device as well. (9/94)

Eir Dùn, Shire of. Name.

The name combines in a single phrase two different languages (Norse and Gaelic), and thus falls afoul of RfS III.1. Name Grammar and Syntax ("Names should generally combine elements that are all from a single linguistic culture") and III.1.a., Linguistic Consistency ("Each phrase must be grammatically correct according to the usage of a single language"). (9/94)

Eirik Gunnolfsson Mac an Ghabhann. Name.

A mixture of ON and Gaelic isn't in itself out of the question, and both in ON and in Gaelic a two-generation patronymic is possible, but none of the commenters could find support for a mixed-language, two-generation patronymic. Additionally, the grammar of the second patronymic is incorrect. In Irish the second-generation patronymic has the genitive of mac, which at the relevant period is generally meic. Nowadays mic may be more common, and it would be aspirated to mhic. Ghabhann is a modern spelling, so a consistent modern form is mhic an Ghabhann. Such a second-generation patronymic would require to be preceded by a Gaelic version of Gunolfsson, which in turn would require finding or constructing a Gaelic borrowing of ON Gunnúlfr. None of the commenters was able to find an example of such, and so we are unable to make any suggestions as to how it might be constructed.

Eirik Halfdanarson. Device. Per saltire Or and azure a thunderbolt counterchanged.

Conflicts with Aldeyn von Luetringen, [Fieldless] A thunderbolt azure winged Or. There is only one CD for fielded versus fieldlessness. (12/93)

Eirik the Wandering. Device. Per pale sable and argent, five roundels in saltire counterchanged, a chief gyronny argent and sable.

We would expect that in a chief gyronny that the gyrons would issue from the corners of the chief as opposed to the unusual drawing style used here. There was also some question as to whether the combination of divided field with counterchanging five charges in saltire and a gyronny chief all in the same two tinctures could be considered excessive. See, e.g., RfS VIII.3. ("Armorial Identifiability - Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability. Identifiable elements may be rendered unidentifiable by ... excessive counterchanging....") (5/94)

Eirik the Wandering. Name.

No one was able to document an authentic English byname formed from the present participle of a word. Could we interest the submitter in a documentably period form such as Wydefare 1279 (Jönsjö, 190)? (5/94)

Eisilind of Black Thorn Keep. Device. Or, within a wreath of thorns sable a dove migrant gules, on a chief wavy vert two hourglasses Or.

The blazon is out of order; it should be Or, a dove migrant gules within a wreath of thorns sable and on a chief wavy vert two hourglasses Or. The bird has nothing about it which suggests that it is a dove rather than a generic bird. Additionally, it is not really "migrant", as it is drawn in a ventral view with the feet showing; however, "displayed" would place the head in profile. The "wreath" of thorns is so misproportioned as to be nearly unidentifiable: its sprawl is all out of proportion to its width. It is neither in annulo nor in orle, and as such, becomes unblazonable. The line of division of the chief needs to be drawn much more boldly. We are returning this for redrawing. (9/94)

Eisilind of Black Thorn Keep. Name.

The Eisi- found in Von Feilitzen is not an uncompounded name but, as shown by the header it is listed under, is a shortened form of ÆLelsige. What is postulated here is a shortened tri-thematic name ÆLelsigelind. No evidence of such tri-thematic names in Anglo-Saxon has been found. (Even if Eisi had been a single OE prototheme, there would have been a problem using it with the deuterotheme -lind. The latter is Old Germanic, not Old English.) The modern place-name is Blackthorn, and the period citations are Blaketorn and Blachetorn. (Keep is first found in English late in the 16th C., and despite its popularity with participants in the SCA, is a very unlikely name element.) (9/94)

Ekaterina Volkova. Device. Vert, two swords inverted in saltire, overall a wolf's head cabossed argent.

While the sable markings on the wolf's head in the emblazon help to give it identifiability, the "shading" on the swords made them half sable, counterchanged along their long axes. As such, they really cannot be considered "argent", nor were they divided in a way that could be readily blazoned (at first I thought per saltire, but then noticed that such blazon only worked for the upper and lower compartments of the "saltire", and not for the dexter and sinister ones). Nor have "long, skinny objects" (such as swords) been allowed to be counterchanged along their long axis for quite some time because of identifiability problems. As a consequence, this must be returned for redrawing. (12/95)

Elazar of Northumbria. Device. Per fess embattled azure and argent masoned sable, conjoined in cross elongated to base, four double-bitted axes counterchanged argent and azure, hafted proper.

The blazon does not really adequately describe the emblazon, and all of the suggestions to fix it were not much better (see RfS VII.7.b., Reconstruction Requirement). The clear difficulty of creating an adequate blazon serves to underscore the non-period style of the device. (6/94)

Elénor of Lyonesse. Device. Azure, a salamander vert enflamed within a bordure Or.

On the device, the "salamander" is not enflamed, but is rather on a flame. It is additionally in trian aspect. As drawn, the flames act like complex fimbriation of a complex charge, which has been disallowed. (8/94)

Elénor of Lyonesse. Name.

Lyonesse is a mythical land which is not allowed as a locative in the SCA. Despite the assertion in the LoI, it has been registered only four times, not "many times previously", and the most recent registration was 1981. (8/94)

Eleanora Jane of Canterbury. Device. Per chevron purpure and Or, seven estoiles in demi-annulo Or, and a unicorn rampant contourny sable.

"It has been ruled that an arch of charges is not period heraldic style. The ruling was originally for an arch of stars: `Stars surrounding only part of a charge is fantasy art.' [Baldwin of Erebor, 28 September 1984] It has since been extended to any charges `in arch'." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR October 1992, p. 30) (5/96)

Eleanora Noel. Device. Quarterly argent and Or, a wreath of flowers azure between in bend two dice gules.

A generic wreath of flowers is too close to the reserved wreath of roses. (4/94)

Eleanor Du Pré. Name.

Since there was no name form in the packet, we are forced to return this name. It is registerable in this form as a French name, but Eleanor du Pre would much better suit her stated intention to have an Anglo-Norman name. Another Anglo-Norman form of the byname is de la Preye 1279. (4/96)

Eleanor Isabeau le Coeur. Device. Azure, a heart Or within an orle of fleurs-de-lys argent.

Conflict with Robert de Termes (Renesse vol. 3, p. 357), Azure, a coeur [heart] Or. There is only one CD for the addition of orle. (2/94)

Eleanor la Maladroite. Device. Quarterly gules and azure, a fools cap and a fools cap inverted conjoined at the brims counterchanged Or and argent.

It was the clear consensus of the commenters and those attending the Laurel meeting that the two charges, conjoined and counterchanged, are not at all readily identifiable. Though this redrawing clears the earlier conflict, the identifiability problem is still sufficient grounds in and of itself for return. (See RfS VII.7.a.: "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." and VIII.3.: "Armorial Identifiability - Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability.") (5/94)

Eleri y Gwibddyn Dyrys. Name.

According to Harpy, y Gwibddyn Dyrys `the wild vagabond' is a correctly constructed Welsh phrase that resembles period Welsh bynames as little as the Melancholy Procrastinator resembles their English counterparts. The latter was returned last month (Judith the Melancholy Procrastinator, Middle) for failure to follow period models, and we do not think that the inability of most SCA folk to understand Welsh is sufficient reason to treat the present submission more leniently. Please compliment her, however, on using a period Welsh-English dictionary to document the elements of the phrase. (12/95)

Elgar of Stonehaven. Badge. [Fieldless] A Maltese star cross argent.

The submitter's argument that a Maltese star cross is but one step from a recognized period charge, a Maltese cross, is interesting but not particularly compelling. The fact remains that six armed crosses are not a period charge. Furthermore, the conflicts cited in the prior return remain. (Indeed, the issue of the conflicts was not even addressed by the submitter, so even had the College accepted his style argument, this would have had to be returned.) (12/93)

Eliana Mazdak. Name.

We need more documentation for the name, both for the given and for the overall form of the name. The submitter's documentation for the given came from the "Complete Book of Hebrew Baby Names"; the entry itself is undated. Both the title of the source and the fact that the entry is undated make us suspicious of this source's acceptability for the purpose of documenting a name for SCA purposes. While Hanks and Hodges give some support to Eliana as a possible Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese descendant of a Greco-Latin name, research by Battlement appears to indicate that H&H may have invented the derivation; at the very least, we need further support from a more reliable source.

The submitter's documentation makes the overall name a combination of a Hebrew given name with a Persian given name. Neither language appears to have formed names in this way (unmarked patronymics). A Greco-Latin derivation, if demonstrable, is only slightly better support for the combination. We need additional documentation for the overall form of the name. (6/95)

Elisabeth Browneye. Device. Or, a pile inverted vert and a chief wavy azure.

As several commenters noted, the emblazon as drawn could be equally well and as accurately blazoned as Per chevron Or and vert, a chief wavy azure. As such, it conflicts with Burman (Papworth, p. 559), Paly of six argent and sable, a chief wavy azure, with only one CD for the changes to the field. (12/94)

Elisheva bat Simon Halevi. Badge for Federated Households of Thunder. Sable, a lightning bolt in annulo points to base Or surmounted by a lightning bold palewise argent.

The use of lightning bolts as charges in and of themselves is an SCA innovation, the use of a lightning bolt in annulo is therefore to steps from period practice. This is farther then we are willing to go. We repeat the earlier suggestion made in the LoAR of April 1991, asking whether they would consider a wheel surmounted by a thunderbolt. (2/94)

Elisheva bat Simon Halevi. Name for Federated Households of Thunder.

The word federated is first cited in the OED dated to 1814. This is clearly post period. While thunder appears as an occupational byname dated to at least 1332, there was no support for the use of the word "of" in this formation. The documentation would however support House Thunder. (2/94)

Elizabeth of Glastonbury. Device. Ermine, on a bend sinister azure, a newt tergiant argent.

Conflict with Anika Gael Quicksilver (SCA), Ermine, a bend sinister azure surmounted by an open book argent fimbriated Or. While there is certainly sufficient technical difference between the two devices (removal of an overall charge, addition of a tertiary), in fact the book in Anika's device is drawn in a "barely overall" manner and is effectively a tertiary charge. As a consequence, while there is clearly a CD for the difference in type of the charges on the bend, we cannot in good conscience grant another for anything else. (5/95)

Elizabetta Venusta. Name.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. (5/96)

Elrich the Wanderer. Device. Per bend sinister argent and checky bendwise argent and gules, a bend sinister Or and in chief a griffin segreant contourny gules.

The field here, being half metal and half color and metal, is not a neutral field, but is 75% metal. Thus, the bend sinister is in violation of RfS VIII.2.a. and VIII.2.b.i. Though in defense of this submission Electrum cited a number of examples from across Europe of metal on metal Rule of Tincture "violations", not one of them was even a reasonably close match to the submission here. The precedent set with the registration of a vert trimount on an azure field of Ördög Magyar Béla and expounded in the Cover Letter of December 15, 1993, p. 2, notes that as a standard for future possible exceptions to the Rule of Contrast:

The documentation must consist of multiple examples, not two or three but at least a dozen, and not limited to a single heraldic regime, but be from across Europe. The examples must be of the exact form used in the submission: if the submitter wants a green trimount on blue, that's what must be documented -- and that documentation cannot then be used as an argument for, say, a green fess on blue. The examples must be of comparable simplicity and style as the submission. And finally, even if the evidence is accepted, it only applies to the item at hand.

As that precedent has not yet been superseded by a different standard agreed upon by the College, it remains the standard by which exceptions to the Rule of Contrast must be gauged. (4/95)

Elric Storm Crow. Device. Sable, on a bezant a hawk rising wings elevated and addorsed sable within a bordure dovetailed Or.

Conflict with Gwynaeth math Oddylluan (SCA), Sable, a bezant charged with a raven on a branch bendwise all sable, there is a CD for the addition of the bordure, but the posture change (from close to rising, wings elevated and addorsed) to the tertiary is insufficient for the necessary second. (9/94)

Elsa de Lyon. Device. Azure, a lion's jamb bendwise shackled and chained with a broken chain argent.

The jambe is neither palewise nor bendwise, but somewhere in between. As such, it's posture is unblazonable. If it were considered to be palewise, it would conflict with Fearghus O'Shannon, A tiger's jambe couped argent marked sable, with one CD for fielded vs. fieldless, but a visual check confirmed that Fearghus' jambe is basically argent with only a couple of narrow sable stripes. (1/96)

Elspeth Fauconneau. Device. Counter-ermine, on a pile argent a joscelyn wreathed azure and vert, belled Or.

There are two problems here. The first is that the joscelyn is wreathed of two colors, in violation of RfS VIII.2.b.iv. The second is that it conflicts with Pavel Salamanovich Marcev (SCA), Counter-ermine, on a pile argent a seeblatt gules. There is only one CD, for the changes to the tertiary charge. (7/94)

Elspeth Islay of Glen Meara. Device. Azure, a pegasus rampant argent, and a gore sinister plummetty argent and sable.

Conflict with The Honorable Society of the Inner Temple (Combo I, cited from Public Heraldry), Azure, a pegasus salient argent, and with Pollia (Combo II, cited from Woodward), Azure, a pegasus argent, winged Or. In each case, there is one CD for the addition of the "gore". The gore itself is not drawn properly -- it should extend to the bottom point of the shield, not end 1/4 the way up the sinister side of the shield. (10/94)

Elspeth nic Léighinn. Name.

The byname does not appear to be properly constructed. Léighinn is the genitive singular of léigheann, and is defined as 'reading, learning; a lesson, a branch of studies'. While mac léighinn is defined as 'a scholar, a student', it isn't a patronymic name and one may not then simply substitute the feminine nic for mac. (4/94)

Elzabeth Osanna Zelter. Device. Argent, upon a mount vert a pavilion between in chief two mullets voided and interlaced azure.

Commentary on this appeal ran to an unprecedented 43 pages (not counting what has appeared on the "nets", and yes, I do see and read a fair bit of the conversations held around the "electronic campfire"), much of it in 10 point type. Laurel was tempted to simply say, "Well this is obviously far to controversial to register." However, such would be unfair to the submitter; especially as much of the commentary was on issues only marginally related to the issues being appealed. To address then, the issues at hand:

None of the commenters seemed to feel that the device was overly pictorial. This issue is therefore not a bar to registration.

On the issue of the pentacles, much heat and some light was generated regarding polls and the taking of same, Constitutional law, threats of lawsuits, anecdotes regarding how the "outside world" views the SCA, and how far the "educational purposes" of the SCA should extend, to mention only some of the major points covered. As Couronne Rouge noted, however, "the issue in question is modern offense", and consideration of this device has to focus on that issue as the central one here.

The relevant portions of the Rules for Submissions are found in General Principles I.2.: "Offense - No name or armory will be registered that may be offensive to a significant segment of the Society or the general population. No submission will be registered that is detrimental to the educational purposes or good name of the Society, or the enjoyment of its participants because of offense that may be caused, intentionally or unintentionally, by its use."; Section IX. "Offensive armory may not be registered, as is required by General Principle 2 of these rules. Armory may be innately offensive from its content, or because of its usual associations or the context in which it is placed, such as the swastika which, although used in period armory, is so strongly associated with the Third Reich that it offends a large segment of the population. Armory may be considered offensive even if the submitter did not intend it to be. This section defines the categories of designs that are generally considered offensive."; and Section IX.4. "Offensive Political Symbolism - Symbols specifically associated with social or political movements or events that may be offensive to a particular race, religion, or ethnic group will not be registered. Even if used without prejudice in period, such symbols are offensive by their modern context. Thus, designs suggestive of the SS, the Ku-Klux Klan, or similar organizations, may not be used." I have underlined those portions which I believe may be applicable to the submission at hand.

The ban on pentacles/pentagrams (as Trefoil noted, the two terms are often used interchangeably. As a consequence, any decision affecting the one will of necessity apply to the other) in SCA armory is a long-standing one, by Ioseph of Locksley (1 September 1973), by Karina of the Far West (in correspondence 7 January 1976 and in the LoAR of 10 March 1978), by Wilhelm von Schlüssel (24 October 1979), and by Da'ud ibn Auda (LoAR of August 1990, p. 16). This last was reviewed by the Board of Directors in their April 1991 meeting, who noted, among other things, that "the device was not returned for its specific religious content as perceived by the submitter and her co-religionists, but for the specific anti-religious content as perceived by a far larger number of people, both within and without the SCA. Whether this latter perception is with 'good' cause, whether the distressed person 'should' feel that way, is not the point -- we're not here to declare or enforce moral correctness.... The Board has a duty of care for the whole organization. We heard from a number of people who have had problems in the communities because of perceptions of the SCA as not merely tolerating, but actively encouraging, various anti-social activities. Again, the rightness or wrongness of their perceptions is not at issue; those perceptions are simply part of the larger environment within which the SCA must operate. We can reasonably expect that the SCA will come up against similar perceptions in the future, and we cannot reasonably expect outsiders to understand the subtleties of authority underlying 'registration,' which to them will inevitably imply official recognition, approval, and sanction.... Let me add that so far as any of the Directors could see, there was no solution to this dilemma that will satisfy all our members. Whichever way we chose would cause distress to people of good will who have the interests of the SCA at heart, including ourselves. Your return seems to us to be the least bad among several unattractive alternatives." [Letter from Board of Directors to Laurel, quoted in the Cover Letter with the April 1991 LoAR, pp. 2-3]

Given these long-standing precedents and rulings, the decision then hinges on whether or not sufficient evidence of the charge's inoffensiveness has been presented to overturn them and register the charge. Of all of the evidence presented, whether anecdotal, by poll, citing case law, quoting newspaper stories (e.g., Blockbuster Music banning jewelry pentacles as "occult symbols") or in individual opinions, that most pertinent is that of demonstrated modern usage. Trefoil presented a number of modern uses of pentacles in trademarks (Prodigy, Airline International), on a national flag (Morocco) and seal (the Solomon Islands), and emblems of organizational affiliation (Order of the Eastern Star).

At this point, we have to consider context and usage, because where and how a charge is displayed does affect the perception of that charge. In looking at the examples of modern usage presented in the appeal, the Prodigy star is reminiscent of those drawn by children in grade school, in varied colors, with thicker and thinner lines, and disconnected at the chief point. The Airlines International star is done as two parallel lines; a "star gemel" if you will. The Eastern Star star has a different charge in each "pane", including the central pentagon, which helps to "clutter up" the design. The Moroccan flag is unknown to the vast majority of Americans and Europeans (and is also color on color). Hence its applicability here is lessened because of its relative obscurity. The same applies to the seal of the Solomon Islands.

In each of the cases above, the context and usage lessens the potential problems of offense. People are less prone to see negative connotations in a star seen as drawn by a child, or when other modifications (covering it with other charges, or doubling the lines with which it is drawn). These differences also serve to distance the examples presented from direct support of this design in the context of the SCA.

After much consideration and thought and careful re-reading of all of the documentation and commentary, I feel compelled to uphold the prior precedents disallowing the registration of mullets of five points voided and interlaced, whether within and conjoined to an annulet or standing by themselves. Such charges still are perceived by a significant portion of the population as "the Satanic symbol", and hence cannot be registered by the College. (7/94)

Elzabeth Osanna Zelter. Device. Argent, upon a mount vert, a pavilion between in chief two mullets voided and interlaced azure.

Despite all of the commentary on this submission which discussed such things as anti-discrimination law and various other issues, as it was in the prior submission of this device in July 1994, "`the issue in question is modern offense', and consideration of this device has to focus on that issue as the central one here." To quote from relevant portions of the prior return: "The relevant portions of the Rules for Submissions are found in General Principles I.2.: `Offense - No name or armory will be registered that may be offensive to a significant segment of the Society or the general population. No submission will be registered that is detrimental to the educational purposes or good name of the Society, or the enjoyment of its participants because of offense that may be caused, intentionally or unintentionally, by its use.'; Section IX. `Offensive armory may not be registered, as is required by General Principle 2 of these rules. Armory may be innately offensive from its content, or because of its usual associations or the context in which it is placed, such as the swastika which, although used in period armory, is so strongly associated with the Third Reich that it offends a large segment of the population. Armory may be considered offensive even if the submitter did not intend it to be. This section defines the categories of designs that are generally considered offensive.'; and Section IX.4. `Offensive Political Symbolism - Symbols specifically associated with social or political movements or events that may be offensive to a particular race, religion, or ethnic group will not be registered. Even if used without prejudice in period, such symbols are offensive by their modern context. Thus, designs suggestive of the SS, the Ku-Klux Klan, or similar organizations, may not be used.' I have underlined those portions which I believe may be applicable to the submission at hand."

"The ban on pentacles/pentagrams (as Trefoil noted [and as further research and commentary have indicated since, in dictionary definitions and in usage in correspondence and news articles], the two terms are often used interchangeably [by Wiccans and non-Wiccans alike]. As a consequence, any decision affecting the one will of necessity apply to the other) in SCA armory is a long-standing one, by Ioseph of Locksley (1 September 1973), by Karina of the Far West (in correspondence 7 January 1976 and in the LoAR of 10 March 1978), by Wilhelm von Schlüssel (24 October 1979), and by Da'ud ibn Auda (LoAR of August 1990, p. 16). This last was reviewed by the Board of Directors in their April 1991 meeting, who noted, among other things, that `the device was not returned for its specific religious content as perceived by the submitter and her co-religionists, but for the specific anti-religious content as perceived by a far larger number of people, both within and without the SCA. Whether this latter perception is with `good' cause, whether the distressed person `should' feel that way, is not the point -- we're not here to declare or enforce moral correctness.... The Board has a duty of care for the whole organization. We heard from a number of people who have had problems in the communities because of perceptions of the SCA as not merely tolerating, but actively encouraging, various anti-social activities. Again, the rightness or wrongness of their perceptions is not at issue; those perceptions are simply part of the larger environment within which the SCA must operate. We can reasonably expect that the SCA will come up against similar perceptions in the future, and we cannot reasonably expect outsiders to understand the subtleties of authority underlying 'registration,' which to them will inevitably imply official recognition, approval, and sanction.... Let me add that so far as any of the Directors could see, there was no solution to this dilemma that will satisfy all our members. Whichever way we chose would cause distress to people of good will who have the interests of the SCA at heart, including ourselves. Your return seems to us to be the least bad among several unattractive alternatives.' (Letter from Board of Directors to Laurel, quoted in the Cover Letter with the April 1991 LoAR, pp. 2-3)" "Given these long-standing precedents and rulings, the decision then hinges on whether or not sufficient evidence of the charge's inoffensiveness has been presented to overturn them and register the charge." [LoAR July 1994, pp. 11-12] Trefoil presented a goodly number of examples of the use of mullets of five points voided and interlaced in modern commercial and political venues. Included among her examples were usage by Fingerhut, the national flag of Morocco, Prodigy, the seal of the Solomon Islands, Lone Star Industries in Tennessee, a 1995 design of Diet Coke can, the 1995 Arts Resources Calendar of the City of El Paso, Texas. Clearly, this must be considered as supporting the position of the charge's inoffensiveness to the population at large. Trefoil also cited a number of articles which indicate a growing acceptance or tolerance of Wicca in general.

On the other hand, Pale submitted a sizable number of newspaper articles from across the United States in 1995 in which pentacles and pentagrams were plainly called "satanic symbols", sometimes by chiefs of police, law enforcement officers, and newspaper editors. A few examples are:

"On the door someone has spray-painted a gold pentacle " the devil's logo." (The Observer, November 19, 1995)

"But what if Satanists wanted to draw pentagrams on government property? How would Ms. Warren feel about the constitutional right of free speech then?" (The Richmond Times Dispatch, January 2, 1995, Tuesday, City Edition, Editorial, p. A-8)

"'Satan is Lord' dominates one wall. On the ceiling, the word 'Jews' is splattered with a red slash through it. Two swastikas and a satanic pentagram round out the decor." (The Record, December 3, 1995)

"'If I have an officer who is a Satanist, I'd have to allow him to put a pentagram on his squad car,' he [Police Chief Donald Grady II] said. 'I think that would be more offensive to a Catholic community [than his order requiring removal of personal and religious items from squad cars].'" (The Santa Fe New Mexican, November 17, 1995)

"The fire follows three incidents in October in which vandals broke into classrooms -- once at Hoover and twice at Glendale High School -- and either stole or attempted to steal computer parts, then scribbled pentagrams or other satanic-style symbols on the walls or chalk boards." (Los Angeles Times, November 2, 1995, Valley Edition)

"Time and nature haven't been the only enemy. Transients and youths have built fires on the floors and scrawled graffiti throughout. A pentagram is painted on the floor of one room; evidence, police say, of satanic worship." (The Salt Lake Tribune, August 21, 1995)

"As in the first case, satanic symbols known in the cult subculture accompanied the cat's body. Written in blood on one door was "Jesus is Dead" and on the other door were two pentagrams, satanic symbols featuring an inverted five-point star within a circle, also drawn in blood." (The Tampa Tribune, March 21, 1995)

"For proof, parishioners flash fuzzy photographs of a pentagram -- a Satanic symbol -- that was scratched in the gravel of the church's parking lot a few weeks after the assault." (Los Angeles Times, January 29, 1995)

Also to be considered are statements by Wiccans and other neo-pagans regarding the public perception of the pentacle/pentagram:

"Being a witch is not easy. [Morgana Katrina] Cabot said she's had rocks thrown at her and was spit on at a grocery store when people saw her pentagram necklace. They thought it stood for a worship of Satan, something she angrily denies." (The Detroit News, October 13, 1995)

"Yes, many people do connect the inverted pentagram and `satanism"." (Milamber Silver Wolf, October 27, 1995 correspondence)

"Too many erroneous ideas are being spread around i.e.; 1. That the pentagram is a symbol of Satanism. Maybe to Satanist who appriated [sic] it from the Pagan Wiccan religion...." (Faye Jones, Circle of the Emerald Dragon, February 28, 1995 correspondence)

"[M]ost companies who discover a witch on the payroll `will do anything to fire you,' she [Marie Wilhite, founder of the Pagan Elders Alliance] said. Some local witches have even received death threats." "Secrecy reigns even among themselves. `Some are so into their jobs that I know they're not telling me their real names,' Ms. Wilhite said." (The Dallas Morning News, October 30, 1995, pp. 17A, 20A)

Kit Howard, a member of ADF [Ar nDraiocht Fein, an American organization of neo-Druids founded in 1983] and their chief information officer, "We aren't taken seriously. We got covered under the usual misconceptions in today's western society that affects all neo-pagan groups -- that anything that isn't Christianity, Islam, Judaism, or any other well-recognized religion must, by definition, be Satanism." ("Modern Druidry", Renaissance Magazine, Vol. 1, Issue 1 (February 1996), p. 28)

And, of course, the experience of SCA members must also be considered. "The incident ... occured at a this year's local Renfaire, when a fighter bore an electrical tape formed pentacle on the side of his helm.... I did not even realize he had it until I saw him on the field that day. As we prepared to segue to a new demonstration, a child pointed to the fighter a [sic] loudly proclaimed to all in earshot `Look, Satan!'" (Wendy C. Donaldson/Lady Eleanor ferch Rhiwallon, June 1994 correspondence)

After careful review of all of the arguments and evidence presented, including all that presented in the prior submission of this device and the appeal of the kingdom return of Cerridwen of Raventree's device, in addition to the the four letters received after a call for a letter-writing campaign in The Circle Network News, a nation-wide Wiccan and pagan publication, I do not believe that I can say it any better than was said in the July 1994 return of this device: "After much consideration and thought and careful re-reading of all of the documentation and commentary, I feel compelled to uphold the prior precedents disallowing the registration of mullets of five points voided and interlaced, whether within and conjoined to an annulet or standing by themselves. [Based on the evidence presented, s]uch charges still are perceived by a significant portion of the population as [a] "satanic symbol", and hence cannot be registered by the College." (emphasis in original) (LoAR July 1994, pp. 11-12) (5/96)

Emer ni Maeve. Name.

Émer appears to be a unique name, that of Cúchulainn's lady. It does not seem to have been borne by any other human. Ó Corráin & Maguire doesn't give a modern form, lending support to this belief. Coghlan, p. 19, gives the modern form as Eimhear, noting that the name has had a "modern revival". (3/94)

Emma de Winter. Name.

According to the available sources, the English surname Winter is either a patronymic or a nickname in origin, so the locative preposition de is inappropriate; since the submitter permits no changes, we must return the name. (9/95)

Eógan Cú Chaille. Badge for Snorri Karlsson. [Fieldless] A shamrock vert, overall a compass star within and conjoined to an annulet Or.

The compass star and annulet combination is the kind of "barely overall" charge that we have been returning for some time now. This should be redrawn so that the charges are either entirely on the shamrock or truly overall. (2/96)

Eórann Maguire. Device. Gules, a bend sinister wavy argent between two quatrefoils Or.

Conflict with Lauterbach (Combo II, citing Woodward), Gules, a river flowing in bend sinister. As Palimpsest noted, these are essentially "Gules, a bend sinister wavy argent". Thus there is but a single CD, for the addition of the secondaries. (4/94)

Eoforwic, Canton of. Badge. [Fieldless] A tower argent charged with a sword sable.

Blazoned as "Fieldless", the emblazon forms had the charges on an azure field (the form said "field colored for contrast only"). Since what we register is the emblazon and not the blazon, this must be returned for not matching what they apparently want, which is a fieldless badge.

Additionally, this conflicts with Aelfric se Droflic, On a tower argent an acorn sable, cited in the LoI. A tower is not a "voidable" charge as that term was defined by Baron Bruce, and thus a CD may not be obtained for the change to type only of tertiary charge, per RfS X.4.j.ii. (8/95)

Eoin Mac Cainnigh. Device. Per fess azure and Or in pale a stag's head caboshed conjoined at the muzzle to another caboshed inverted counterchanged.

The style here (a mirror image in pale) is extremely unusual; indeed, the inversion of the basemost charge and the conjoining of the two charges so confounds their identifiability that many commenters, before hearing the blazon, thought that they were a single charge: a tree blasted and eradicated counterchanged. As such, it clearly falls afoul of the identifiability requirements of RfS VII.7.a. ("Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance.") (4/96)

Eoin Mac Leòid. Household name for House of the Barking Turtle.

Much as we admire Lions Blood's skilful and diligent efforts to make [a silk purse out of a barking turtle ] the best of a bad job, we agree with Harpy that the justification amounts to a "persona story". Like her, we "would like to see clear, historical examples of social/economic/political institutions named in English in some manner directly parallel to this submission" before registering such an oddity. This lack of real documentation would by itself be sufficient reason to return the household name. However, there is another difficulty with the name: the earliest OED citation for turtle as a synonym for tortoise is from 1657, beyond even the Grey Area. In period the word signified the turtle-dove, a bird not noted for its bark; the reptile was called a tortoise (though that form dates only from the 16th century). This problem could be solved by substituting tortoise for turtle, but the first problem would still remain.

Almost all of the few available period inn names are unmodified nouns; all seem to refer to pictorial signs, and a number of those are the names of common animals and birds. An inn called the Turtle would not be out of place in this group, though the sign would doubtless depict a bird, and we would certainly register House of the Turtle (barring conflict, of course). The tortoise seems a bit out of place among the more familiar cock, ram, swan, and roebuck and the more impressive elephant, but House of the Tortoise would be at worst a small step beyond the evidence. House of the Green Tortoise goes well beyond the available evidence, but since the name is still basically pictorial, it should probably be registerable. A name like House of the Three Tortoises is supported by the attested surname Sevensterre, which Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Sevenstar, think probably derives from an inn or shop sign. But House of the Barking Tortoise cannot easily be referred to a sign and therefore does not seem to be justified stylistically by the available evidence. (6/96)

Eoin Mac Leòid. Badge. [Fieldless] On an equal-armed star cross argent two drinking horns addorsed sable.

The star-cross is a modern invention and not a period charge. (3/94)

Eoin Mac Leòid. Device. Vert, on an equal-armed star cross argent two drinking horns addorsed sable.

The star-cross is a modern invention and not a period charge. (3/94)

Erasmus the Dane. Badge. [Fieldless] An oak branch, its tip enflamed proper.

Conflict with Mayster Gulford (Combo II, citing Fox-Davies, p. 106), [Fieldless] A ragged staff inflamed at the top and sides all proper, with only one CD for fieldlessness. The only other differences are the two leaves in the submission and the precise depiction of the enflaming, both of which are the visual equivalents of maintained charges. (8/94)

Eric Edwardson. Device. Purpure, two unicorns combattant argent within a bordure Or.

Blazoned as "argent", the emblazon forms had the unicorns colored as "Or". (The forms noted that the "unicorns should be argent".) Since what we register is the emblazon and not the blazon, this must be returned for not matching what he apparently wants, which has the unicorns argent. (8/95)

Eric Ibrahim Mozarab. Name change from Eric of Huntington.

No documentation has been found for combined Norse-English/Arabic names. Although the submitter allowed minor changes, we felt that the changes recommended in the commentary, to Eirico Ibrahim Mozarabe, was greater than that allowance permitted. We are therefore returning this so that the submitter can decide if he wants to change this to Eirico Ibrahim Mozarabe or would prefer some other culturally compatible name. (2/95)

Eric of Chester. Device. Per bend gules and sable, in bend a Latin cross and a decrescent argent.

The arrangement of the charges on the field is extremely unusual, and difficult to blazon adequately. They are too close together, crowding into the middle of the field, and are nearly as much in fess as they are in bend. None of the commenters could find any period coats arranged this way. Would the submitter consider the more standard arrangement of one charge on each side of the line of division? (11/94)

Eric of Kelton. Device. Per pale argent and Or, a fess gules between two griffins rampant addorsed and a tower sable.

The device was withdrawn by the submissions herald. (11/94)

Eric Stroud. Device. Argent, a chevron engrailed gules, in chief two crosses formy, in base a scorpion inverted sable.

Conflict with Cardinis (Papworth, p. 373), Argent, a chevron engrailed gules, with only one CD for the addition of the secondary charges. (3/95)

Eric Thorvaldson. Device. Bendy sinister gules and argent, on a sun azure, a Thor's hammer Or.

Conflict with Brian O Seachnasaigh (SCA), [Fieldless] A compass star azure charged with a griffin segreant reguardant Or maintaining a wavy-bladed sword fesswise proper. There is a CD for fielded vs. fieldless, but no CDs are available for the change to the type of primary or the change to type only of the tertiary. (2/94)

Eric Thorvaldson. Name.

Conflict with the father of Leif Ericsson, Eric Thorvaldsson, perhaps more commonly known as Eric the Red. (11/93)

Erik Magnusson. Azure semy of hearts gules, three bendlets sinister argent, overall a lion rampant crowned Or.

These arms are protected already, as they are identical to the arms of Birger Jarl, above. (5/95)

Ernest Cummings. Name.

The name was submitted as Ernest Cummings. Ernest did not reach England until the 18th century, and Cumming(s) appears to be a modern spelling of Comyn, Cumin, etc.; a period form of the name would be Ernis Cumyn. However, Ernest is found in Strasbourg in 1003 (Morlet, vol. I, p. 85), and the town of Comines (Flemish Komen) is in record as Commines 1086 and Cumines 1096 (ibid., vol. III, p. 67), so Ernest Cummines is an acceptable 11th century northeastern French name. Not knowing whether the Anglo-Scottish provenance or the sound and appearance are more important to him, we are unwilling to choose either alternative and are returning the name to let him make the choice. (9/95)

Ernst der Dunkelwolf. Device. Per fess indented Or and argent, two crosses formy sable.

Conflict with Plantayne (Papworth, p. 660), Per saltire argent and sable, two crosses patty sable. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. (6/94)

Esperanza Razzolini d'Asolo. Badge. [Fieldless] A mullet Or charged with a fleur-de-lys florency between five daggers points outwards sable.

Conflict with Wilhelm von Sussberg, Gules, a mullet couped Or charged with a mullet between five swords tips to center sable hilted gules. A visual review of Wilhelm's device shows that just the tips of each point of the primary mullet are missing; certainly not enough to change the outline significantly. As a consequence, there is only the fieldless CD here.

There is additionally a question of style. None of the commenters could find a similar motif: a primary charged with a tertiary X and a group of five tertiary Y's. Barring documentation of such an arrangement of tertiary charges, we believe that the motif is not a period one and therefore unregistrable. (9/95)

Eudoxia d'Antioche. Badge. [Fieldless] An owl's head jessant-de-lis argent.

A number of commenters had concerns about the identifiability of the head here. Some believed that it was indistinguishable from a leopard's head jessant-de-lis, and thus returnable under RfS VII.7.a. The fact that the head and the fleur were of the same tincture does tend to confuse the identity of each and thus to make the identifiability of the combination problematical. There was also some concern that we here we are getting too far from period practice. (Period practice being leopard's head jessant-de-lys; one step from period practice being other beast's heads; and two steps from period practice being other types of heads, including birds' heads.) Given that we have in recent years a number of different types of heads (including humanoid) jessant of items other than a fleur-de-lis (including a complex cross), Laurel does not feel that this submission is so far from SCA practice as warrant a return on that ground. (3/96)

Eudoxia d'Antioche. Device. Azure, a calypus argent, armed gules maintaining in both forepaws an arrow inverted, within a bordure flory counter-flory.

Were there not otherwise sufficient reason to return this, it would have had to have been pended to fill in the missing final tincture, which is Or

The calypus is found in Brooke-Little's An Heraldic Alphabet, p. 62 under Chatloup, and in Denys's The Heraldic Imagination, p. 155, both with line drawings. Brooke-Little describes it as "a monster with a wolf's body, cat's face and goat's horns." The monster here does not match the description: The head has a very prominent lion's mane, absent from the illustrations in both Denys and Brooke-Little. Because it does not match the defined form for the monster, it must be returned per RfS VII.7.a. ("Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance. Any charge ... used in Society armory must be identifiable, in and of itself, without labels or excessive explanation.").

The bordure is not flory counter-flory, but rather has a plain line of division overlain with fleurs-de-lis alternately facing inwards and outwards counterchanged. "The flory counter-flory line is not correctly drawn here. While the treatment was applied to ordinaries in period (e.g. the double tressure of the arms of Scotland), I ve found no period instances of its use as a complex field division. The closest analogies are the trefly counter-trefly division of von Hillinger and the per fess indented point flory division of Woodmerton. Both of the models require the flory counter-flory line to be drawn with demi-fleurs, as shown in [figure]. As drawn in this submission, the complex line is actually a group of charges, counterchanged across the field division, with half of them inverted. This is not readily blazonable and doesn't fit the period pattern for complex lines of division. (The illustration from Fox-Davies's Complete Guide to Heraldry, from which the submitter s emblazon is taken, is cited in no dated armory." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR January 1993, p. 24) (4/96)

Euginius Magnus ap Llwyd. Device change. Gyronny wavy purpure and argent.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Eulalie Lockhart. Device. Sable, a swan naiant argent and a demi-sun issuant from sinister chief Or.

Conflict with Clipping-Wicombe (Papworth, p. 307), Sable, a swan close argent ducally gorged and chained Or and with More (Papworth, p. 307), Sable, a swan close within a bordure engrailed Or. In each case there is one CD, for addition of the peripheral charge or for the change to its type, respectively. (2/94)

Evan the Forester. Badge. [Fieldless] A pair of stag's attires conjoined at their bases argent.

Conflict with Kondo (Hawley's Mon, p. 57), A pair of deer horns. There is only the fieldless CD. (9/94)

Everard Martel. Device. Argent, on a fleur-de-lys sable another inverted argent, all within a bordure azure.

There are a couple of problems with this device, which together add up to its exceeding the informal "Rule of Two Weirdnesses" (an informal name given to the idea that, in most cases, the College can accept a design that has one break with the usual heraldic style. A device that has two violations of period heraldic style, or "two weirdnesses", is less likely to be registered). Charging a fleur-de-lys is difficult at best, because of the complex nature of the charge and the difficulty of acquiring sufficient space for a charge to be placed upon it. Indeed, here it is not the fleur which is so charged, it is only the top central "petal" of the fleur. As a consequence, we are left with the problem of devising a blazon which is both concise and yet describes accurately the arrangement of the charges.

The second is the inversion of the tertiary charge. Where, as here, a tertiary charge is the same as the primary charge on which it lies, the eye expects them to be in the same orientation. Where there is not a lot of difference, as with fleurs-de-lys, between the palewise version and the inverted one, this becomes even more confusing visually.

All in all, this just is not good period style. (1/96)

Ewein Padelford. Badge. Chevronelly Or and sable, on a pale argent a hand aversant sustaining a hammer and a square anvil azure.

The three different types of tertiary charges on the pale are in the same group and thus considered "slot-machine heraldry", disallowed by RfS VIII.1.a. ("As another guideline, three or more types of charges should not be used in the same group."). (2/96)

Ewige Vogel, Shire of. Device. Argent, a phoenix sable rising from flames proper within a laurel wreath vert.

Because we cannot form holding names for groups, we are having to return this very nice group armory. (5/96)

Ewige Vogel, Shire of. Name.

RfS III.2.b.i (Branch Names) requires names of branches to "follow the patterns of period place- names". However, no one was able to provide an example of a real period place-name that could serve as a model for this name, and there was a clear consensus that "Eternal Bird" is simply not a reasonable place-name in any language. If the group particularly want a German name, we suggest that they begin by poring over a fairly detailed map of Germany to get a feel for real German place-names. A couple of period place-names containing the word Vogel bird are (in modern spelling) Vogelsberg "Bird's Mountain" and Vogelweid(e) "Bird Meadow", and the eagle (Adler) and raven (Raben, Raven) also figure in period German place-naming. (5/96)

Eyja Storsteen Knútsdóttir. Device. Per saltire azure and argent, a butterfly counterchanged between in pale two bezants all within a bordure invected sable.

The butterfly is extremely hard to identify counterchanged on the field, so much so that we are compelled to return this because of unidentifiability. (See RfS VII.7.a., which states that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance.") (3/94)

Falcon Hardin. Device. Argent, on a bend sinister vert three falcons close palewise argent.

Conflict with Nicholas of Blackheath (SCA), Argent, on a bend sinister vert a compass rose palewise argent. There is but one CD, for the multiple changes to the tertiaries. (4/94)

Falconis Turris, Shire of. Name.

Commentary was unanimous that the word order of the name was reversed here; it should be Turris Falconis. We would have simply corrected the name and registered it, but as no petition of populace support was included, we are having to return it. (3/95)

Far West, Barony of. Name for Order of the Hibiscus.

The earliest citation for "hibiscus" in the Oxford English Dictionary is dated to 1706, well past our cut-off date. (12/93)

Fearghus O'Shannon. Device. Per chevron azure and barry wavy argent and vert, two tiger's jambes in chevron couped argent, marked sable.

Conflict with Stanton (Papworth, p. 963), Sable, two lion's gambs in chevron argent. There is one CD for the field, but the sable markings on the jambes here are insufficient for another. (10/94)

Felicity Penne. Badge. (Fieldless) Perched atop the sinister horn of a jester's hood gules a bird Or.

Conflict with the Barony of Bjornsborg, A jester's hood gules, doubled and belled Or. There is a CD fieldlessness, but as the bird is but the equivalent of a maintained charge, nothing else is available for its addition. (12/95)

Feng Amlethson. Name.

Both elements of the name are problematic. Feng is from Old Norse Fengr, one of the many aliases used by Odin in his dealings with mankind; no evidence has been presented to show that it was actually used by human beings. Amleth is the translator's rendering of Saxo's Amlethus, which represents Old Norse Amlóöi (so that the actual Old Norse patronymic would have been Amlòöason). (Interestingly, this name, which is the original of Hamlet, came to mean `a fool, simpleton, imbecile; a weak person'.) However, Lind (Norsk-Isländska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn) marks the name as an alias, or assumed name, so it is not clear that this name was actually in everyday use, either. Amlóöason is a borderline case; possibly it could be justified as a patronymic formed from a byname, though evidence for such formation is fairly skimpy. Feng, however, is clearly not registerable without evidence of human use. (1/96)

Fenice d'Aix. Device. Gules, on a pile ployé throughout between two wolf's heads addorsed argent a rabbit's head cabossed sable.

What was drawn on the emblazon is not a pile. "A pile does not intersect the corners of the chief." (Baldwin of Erebor, 28 September 1984, p. 9) Nor do we charge the shod part of a chapé or chaussé field. "It is not good style to charge the chape or chausse portion of a field." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 25 January 1987, p. 9) "The charged chausse here is really something of a solecism." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 26 February 1989, p. 16) This needs to be redrawn as a pile. (5/96)

Filip Månsson. Device. Per pale indented Or and sable.

The unusual nature of the indented line (going vertical in the bottom quarter of the shield), is not similar to the example cited in Foster's A Dictionary of Heraldry, p. 19. In that emblazon the line of division has no vertical segment; the last segment in base is oriented a bit bendwise sinister of fesswise and terminates at the dexter flank of the shield just a little above the point. This is materially different from the submitted form.

Further, it conflicts with Raymond the Mild (SCA), Pily bendy sable and Or. There is one CD for modifying the orientation of the complex line of division (from bendwise to palewise). (5/95)

Finland. Release of protection of arms. Gules semy of roses argent, a lion rampant crowned Or brandishing with one human arm in armour a sword and treading upon a scimitar reversed proper.

The College has already determined that under the "Modest Proposal" we will protect all national arms. No qualifications about the size of the nation or the relative importance or recognizability of the arms were otherwise stated. (5/96)

Finn Mathie. Badge. Per bend gules and sable, a pile between two piles inverted argent.

No conflicts or other bars to registration were found, but as no forms were forwarded to Laurel, this must be returned. (1/96)

Finn Mathie. Device. Argent, within a mullet of eight points pierced gules, a dragon's head erased contourny azure.

Conflict with Alaric von Rotstern, Argent, on an eight-pointed mullet gules a griffin's head, a lion's head cabossed and a wyvern's head reversed all erased and conjoined at the nape Or. There is only one CD, for the multiple changes to the tertiary charges.

Additionally, as Palimpsest noted, "It is an oddity to have a charge within the piercing of a mullet.... I know of no period example of this arrangement, making the style questionable at best. Indeed, this is the equivalent of a charged sun eclipsed." The charged sun eclipsed has been banned, as the charge on the eclipsing is a quaternary charge, disallowed by RfS VIII.1.c.ii (see, e.g., LoAR of August 1993, p. 15). As this is effectively the same as a charged sun eclipsed, it falls under the same ban. (11/95)

Finn Mathie. Household badge for Battel of the Fang. Per bend gules and sable, a pile between two piles inverted argent.

The badge lacks the balance that is normally expected for period style, giving this a very modern appearance. Though each of the individual elements of the design are period, their combination in this way is far more reminiscent of 20th Century design than period armory. (See RfS VIII.4.d. "Armory may not use obtrusively modern designs.") (4/96)

Finn Mathie. Household name for Battel of the Fang.

There was general agreement among those commenting that this was not a reasonable period name for a warband or any other type of household. As Ensign said, Why would a medieval military company be known as a canine tooth? And in fact this meaning of fang seems to be rather late. According to the OED, the early meaning is that which is caught or taken. Battle in the intended sense seems primarily to refer to a unit in a formation, or to a formation or array itself. At an early date, therefore, a battel of the fang might be a formation of captives, or perhaps an orderly display of booty! (4/96)

Fiona Averylle of Maidenhead. Augmentation of arms. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Gules, an elephant passant trumpeting, on a chief raguly argent two annulets gules and for augmentation in center chief an inescutcheon sable charged with an annulet Or; as an augmentation, 2 and 3, Argent, a pale gules overall a dragon rampant maintaining a trumpet bendwise sinister vert.

This submission generated the greatest amount of commentary of any issue this month. Unfortunately, not a little of it was misdirected. Some of the commenters seemed to believe that both augmentations were being submitted at this time, when in fact the first one (in center chief an inescutcheon sable charged with an annulet Or) had been registered previously. There was also a fair amount of discussion as to whether we should allow augmentations to break more than one of our rules (e.g., the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a. and the layer limits of VIII.1.c.ii.), when in fact we have already registered augmentations which did so (see, e.g., Jan w Orzeldom and Jonathan DeLaufyson Macebearer). As for the violation of RfS XI.3. (the appearance of marshalling), that rule, like RfS XI.4. banning charged inescutcheons, is designed to prevent the appearance of unearned honors ("status or powers the submitter does not possess"). Such ban certainly should give us the opportunity, as with charged inescutcheons, to register them for earned honors. And there was certainly sufficient evidence presented that quartering arms is a period form of augmentations of arms.

We then have the question of registering two different augmentations to an individual. (Admiral Nelson's augmentations, and the way they make his arms nearly unidentifiable in the process, was mentioned a few times.) However, augmentations of arms, like other honors in the SCA, proceed from the Crown, and we have not previously required an account from the Crown as to why an honor was being given. We may among ourselves question the propriety of double augmentations, and indeed, if consulted in advance may advise contra concerning the wisdom of presenting two augmentations of arms to an individual, but such a grant of (second) augmentation is well within the prerogative of the Crown and not that of the College.

We come down, then, to two issues, each of which must be resolved in order to register this second augmentation. The first is that the augmentation conflicts with both the seal of the Dragon Principal Herald (it is a tinctured version of same, and therefore can be considered an exact conflict) and with the populace badge of the Middle Kingdom (Argent, a pale gules, overall a dragon passant vert) with only one CD for the posture of the overall charge. For the first conflict, there is an additional issue which will be discussed in the following paragraphs. For the second conflict, we need to receive a letter of permission to conflict signed by the Crown or the kingdom Seneschal. It has always been the policy of the College not to assume that permission is given even if explicitly stated in an LoI (which was not the case here), but to require a copy of a written letter of permission to conflict. (Apropos of this is the motto on the seal of the office of the Laurel Sovereign of Arms, Semper Litteris Mandate, "always require/get it in writing".)

The exact conflict with the seal of the office of the Dragon Principal Herald is more troublesome for a couple of reasons. One is that we have not previously allowed armory, even as an augmentation, to be an identical version of the armory of a group or office, whether or not a letter of permission to conflict existed. (See, e.g., the discussion of the proposed augmentation for Jan w Orzeldom, LoAR April 1992, p. 17: "There is also some question whether an individual or a group can grant the right to their undifferenced arms for use by someone else. The use of letters of permission to conflict (which is what Laurel considers the petition by the members of the Barony of Bjornsborg to be) in the College has always been to allow a reduced standard of difference, not to allow the use of arms undifferenced. It is Laurel's belief that the only way the use of arms registered to one party may be granted undifferenced to another is to transfer those arms, with the appropriate letters signed by both parties transferring the arms and accepting them.")

The second reason it is troublesome is that it was a period practice for the holders of an office to marshal the arms of the office with their personal arms. This does not appear to apply to former holders of the office, but only to incumbents. As a consequence, this augmentation appears to be a claim to be the current Dragon Principal Herald, which does then fall afoul of our rules against the claim to "status or powers the submitter does not possess" (RfS XI).

For three reasons, then, we are required to return this augmentation of arms: for lack of a letter of permission to conflict with the badge of the Middle Kingdom, Argent, a pale gules, overall a dragon passant vert; because it is an exact conflict with the seal of the Dragon Principal Herald, for which exact conflict permission cannot be granted; and because it marshals the arms of an office with personal arms when the submitter is not the officeholder, in violation of RfS XI. (9/95)

Fiona Muirgen Ó Cardubháin. Name.

The multiple problems with this name require more than minor correction, so we are returning it with suggestions. Her form actually has the patronymic as Ó Ciardubháin, which is one of the standard spellings; but in a feminine Irish name it must be altered to the feminine ní Chiardubháin. The 19th century invention Fiona is essentially English; the Irish name is Fíona; since she uses accents in the patronymic, it should keep its accent as well. Muirgen is an early spelling; compatibility with the rest of the name requires that this element be Muirghein. (This isn't a matter of `temporal compatibility' in the commonly understood sense; it's more like using either Greek or Latin letters to write a name but not both.) Finally, the Irish apparently did not use double given names in our period. She could drop either of the given names: Fíona ní Chiardubháin and Muirghein ní Chiardubháin would both be acceptable. Alternatively, she could keep all three elements by making this a three-generation name: Fíona ní (or inghean) Mhuirgheine Uí Chiardubháin (or the early Irish version Fíne ingen Muirgene Uí Chiardubáin). (9/95)

Fiona Randal of Avanmore. Device. Or, an owl displayed gules maintaining in each claw a thistle proper, a chief invected sable.

Conflict with Alexandru von Talmetz, Or, an eagle displayed gules, in chief a sword fesswise reversed sable. There is one CD for changing the type of the charge in chief (RfS X.4.e.: "Significantly changing the type of any group of charges placed directly on the field, including strewn charges or charges overall, is one clear difference"), but nothing for type of raptor in identical postures and nothing for the maintained charges. (8/95)

Fionnghuala Freyser. Name.

The name combines an Irish Gaelic given with and Anglo-Scottish surname. No documentation has yet been presented for such combinations at any time in period. We would have anglicized the given to Fenolla to register it, but as the submitter allowed no changes whatsoever we are forced to return it. (2/95)

Fionn Ó Cinnéide of Dun na nGall. Device. Per bend vert and sable, in bend sinister, a gull close proper and a wheel Or.

Submitted as argent on the LoI, the gull is actually proper; that is to say, with white with dark grey wings. As a consequence, the wings disappear against the color field, making identifiability of the bird very problematical. (3/94)

Fiska-Silvester Lotharssohn. Device. Per fess argent and sable, a domestic cat passant contourny sable and a codfish naiant contourny counterchanged.

The cat is not really "passant" (one of the suggestions in the commentary was "mouse-ant"), and the fish has so much black in its outline and detailing that on the large emblazon it was necessarily fimbriated to show its outline. For both problems, we are having to return this for redrawing of both charges. (5/94)

Fjorleif in Haga. Device. Azure, a horse courant reguardant between three mullets argent.

Conflict with British 26th Engineer Group (Military Ordinary #121), Azure, a horse statant in adumbration argent. There is only one CD, for the addition of the mullets. (7/94)

Flame, Barony of the. Badge for Award of the Flambeau d'Or. [Fieldless] A raguly staff Or, enflamed at the tip proper.

Conflict with Dudley, Duke of Northumberland (Combo II, citing Fox-Davies Book of Badges, p. 130), A staff raguly erect Or. There is only the fieldless CD, as the enflaming of the tip is the equivalent of a maintained charge. (10/94)

Flame, Barony of the. Badge. Sable, a flamberge gules, hilted and the blade enflamed Or.

Conflict with British Commandos (Military Ordinary #1237), Sable, a dagger palewise gules. There is one CD for the addition of the flame under the blade, but that is the only difference here. (10/94)

Florian Dupommier. Device. Per saltire Or and gules, on a cross formy a fleur-de-lys argent.

The emblazon is not drawn as any cross that any of the commenters could identify. It needs to be redrawn in a documented form. (2/94)

François la Flamme. Device. Vert, a flame Or.

Conflict with Kristen Ahearn (SCA), Vert, upon a ball of flame Or, a bull rampant to sinister head lowered sable, as cited in the LoI, with only one CD for the removal of the tertiary charge. Given the very irregular outlines of the flames in both devices, we could not grant a second CD for "shape" of the primaries. (1/94)

Francesca Lucia d'Alberto dei Lorenzi. Device. Or, a swan naiant wings elevated between in cross four fleurs-de-lys sable.

Conflict with Western Australia, Or, a swan naiant sable. There is only one CD, for the addition of the secondaries. (7/94)

Francesca Valentina Visconti. Device. Per chevron inverted Or and argent, a chevron inverted sable between three irises in chevron inverted proper and a heart gules.

Withdrawn at the request of the submitter. (6/95)

Francesca Valentina Visconti. Name.

Withdrawn at the request of the submitter. (6/95)

Francesc Miguel Joaquim Inacio. Device. Sable, a cross of Cleves Or, on a chief argent a mullet azure between a pair of drinking horns inverted sable.

The charges on the chief are not really arranged in a manner which lends itself to easy blazon, thus pointing out its probable non-period style. Were he to place the three charges in fess rather then enhancing the central charge (and reblazon the "drinking horns inverted" as simply a "pair of bull's horns"), this would probably be registerable. (2/94)

Francesco Greco. Household badge for House of Eastwood. Vert, a helm pierced by an arrow bendwise sinister argent.

The helmet here is a three-quarter view (trian aspect). Except for a very few charges like dice and tambourines, trian aspect has not been registrable for many years. "The [charge] is in trian aspect, which is not permitted in SCA heraldry." (Baldwin of Erebor, 19 January 1986, p.12) "The [charge] is in trian aspect, which is out of period." (Wilhelm von Schlüssel, LoAR 27 August 1980, p. 9) (5/96)

Franziskus von Bachheim. Device. Or, two bendlets sinister gules, overall a lion contourny maintaining a 'Bartmannskrug' counterchanged.

"Prior Laurel rulings have banned the use of animate charges counterchanged over an ordinary. While the submitter has tried to get around this ban by using a striped breed of bull, the visual effect is still that of a bull counterchanged over a pale. Heraldry is a visual art; the visual effect cannot be avoided by clever reblazons. This violates our ban on complex counterchanging and must be returned for redesign." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR September 1993, p. 24) [Per pale, a beast, overall a bend cotised counterchanged] "This falls under the prohibition of excessive counterchanging under the old rules and the requirement for identifiability in the new rules (Armorial Identifiability, X.3, p. 11). There was a strong consensus on the part of the College that the complex counterchanging rendered the [beast] virtually unidentifiable." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 26 November 1989, p. 40) The same identifiability problems occur here. (5/96)

Friederich Karl von Wolfstein. Badge. [Fieldless] Pendant from a pair of bat-wings Or a banderole azure charged with the words "semper paratus" and overall a sword proper.

There was some feeling among the commenters that this design is made from three different types of charges in a single group, and therefore falls afoul of the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a.. Especially given that the wings do not attach to the sword in the normal fashion for a "winged sword" (at the hilt), this argument has some merit. Another difficulty is the reproduction of the emblazon of the banderole from the blazon. The above blazon is the best from among several suggested, but still does not offer adequacy of reproducibility sufficient to meet the requirements of RfS VII.7.b. ("Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon.... Elements that cannot be described in such a way that the depiction of the armory will remain consistent may not be used"). The very difficulty of finding an adequate blazon is an indication of the non-period style of the badge, which is clearly modelled on modern military insignia rather than period exemplars. While it is true that the College does not normally regulate mottoes (indeed, it does not register them at all), enough members of the College recognized semper paratus as the motto of the U.S. Coast Guard that it may reasonably be argued to be intrusively modern. (9/94)

Frithiof Sigvardsson Skägge. Device. Gyronny argent and vert, an orle sable.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Frithuric Ullman. Device. Argent, on a chevron between three fleurs-de-lys purpure a sun jessant-de-lys argent.

While we have extended the ability to be jessant-de-lys to animal faces other than leopards, the only documented historical animal to have this treatment, extending it to a sun becomes two steps from documented historical practice, which is farther than we are willing to go. (1/94)

Frithuric Ülman. Name correction from Frithuric Ullman.

No one, including the submitter's own documentation, has a form of the surname with the umlaut, and such a form is extremely unlikely. (5/95)

Fritz der Gefolgsmann. Device. Gules, a hound courant, a bordure Or.

Conflict with Chaffin (Papworth, p. 60), Gules, a talbot passant Or. There is one CD for the addition of the bordure, but nothing for this rendition of "courant" and passant. Courant means "in full flight", and has both the front and rear legs are noticeably extended. The emblazon here is much closer to statant then it is to courant. (8/94)

Frostheim, Canton of. Device. Sable, a bend argent, overall a key, wards to sinister, within a laurel wreath Or.

The device must be returned for lack of a name. However, it also appears to conflict with Adington (Papworth, p. 197), Sable, a bend argent. The overall charges are effectively a single group, worth only one CD for their addition. It was suggested that the group might consider placing the key on the bend (and, of course, making it a color), thus separating it from the laurel wreath, which would thus be sufficient to clear Adington. (6/94)

Frostheim, Canton of. Name.

There was some question as to whether "frost-home" is a reasonable period-style placename, even in Swedish. More documentation supporting it would certainly have helped. However, it is in conflict with Froscheim (registered 11/85 to Aldred von Lechsend aus Froschheim as a household name) per RfS V.2. ("Branch names ... must be significantly different from other protected non-personal names" "Significantly different" is defined in V.1.a. as "significantly different in sound and appearance"). The differences in pronunciation appear to be analogous to "fish head" v. "fist head"; certainly much closer than "Auda/Ali" and not much more different than "Morgan/Morton". This is not "significantly" different. (6/94)

Fucha de la Rua. Device. Gules, on a quadruply-towered Eastern castle Or a mushroom counter-ermine, in base a scimitar fesswise Or.

No one could create an adequate blazon for the primary charge, and it does not appear to follow any specific architectural type that could be blazoned. An "Eastern castle" does not appear in any of the general reference books of heraldic charges Laurel was able to consult, nor has it been registered before in the SCA. Laurel would note that the castle does not appear to match any middle eastern or Indian architecture he has seen in his studies of those areas (though he remembers seeing a not too dissimilar edifice in one of the early Sinbad movies.) As a consequence, this must be returned because the primary charge cannot be reconstructed from the blazon (as required by RfS VII.7.b), nor can it be readily identified from its appearance alone (as required by RfS VII.7.a). (8/95)

Gabrán Mac Muireach. Name.

The patronym has to go into the genitive. The genitive of Muireach is Muirich, and the modern patronymic from Muireach is also aspirated, which would be Mac Mhuirich. As the submitter allowed no changes to the name, however, we are having to return it. (The most likely form of the given name to match the modern spelling of the patronymic would be Gabhrán. If he wanted an entirely early period version, it would be Gabrán macc Muiredaich.) (10/94)

Gabriel Eriksson Röde. Device. Gules, semy of mallets Or.

Conflict with Martell (Papworth, p. 901), Gules, three hammers Or. There is only one CD for the change to the number of charges. (8/94)

Gabrielle Therese Gonneau. Name.

While there was no commentary on the name (implying its acceptability), no name submission form was found in the files. (1/94)

Gabriel Shadewehauke. Device. Vert, on a cross bottony issuant from base Or, a hawk stooping proper.

"There is no defined `proper' for a falcon. Falcons come in a number of types, whose coloration differs not only from species to species but often between the male and female of each species." (LoAR June 1995, p. 22) (7/95)

Gaerwen of Trafford. Device. Lozengy vert and argent, a crane in its vigilance and on a chief Or three escallops sable.

No mini-emblazon was included in the LoI, as required by the Administrative Handbook. (8/95)

Gaerwen of Trafford. Device. Lozengy vert and argent, a crane in its vigilance within a bordure Or.

Conflict with Ælfgar the Pure (SCA), Azure, a heron within a bordure Or. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. (4/94)

Galem Lionel Ostwestly. Name.

There is no real documentation for either Galem or Ostwestly. No one could find any citation for Galem, though Galen is the usual Englishing of of Galenus. The town in Wales is Oswestry, not Ostwestry, nor is Ostwestly sufficiently close to be considered a reasonable variant. The registration of in November 1990 of Gilbert Ost Westley could be a pattern we could use here, but it was felt that the combined changes from Galem to Galen and Ostwestly to Ost Westley were larger than we should do without consulting the submitter. Would he consider Galen Lionel Ost Westley? (6/94)

Galinda of the Sea. Device. Purpure, a Maltese cross argent surmounted by a Star of David Or, and in chief a dove volant to sinister argent.

The star overlying the cross in this manner is visually confusing and obscures the identity of both charges. See RfS VIII.3.: "Armorial Identifiability - Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability. Identifiable elements may be rendered unidentifiable by ... being obscured by other elements of the design." (5/94)

Gamli OEðikollr. Device. Sable, a mammoth's skull affronty argent.

Conflict with Morgan Argante Elandris of Contef Gwaelon, Sable, a ram's skull cabossed argent. There is clearly a CD between the two charges, but it was the consensus of the commentary, and those attending the Laurel meeting comparing the two emblazons, that sufficient difference (per RfS X.2.) between two skulls is does not exist. (5/96)

Gaoth Makbrair. Name.

Makbrair is an English spelling of Mac Brathair `the friar's son'. It indicates a dialect in which the th was already silent, as it is today. Thus, the th in Gaoth would also have been silent, and the name would have been transcribed Ge(e), Gy(e), Gi(e), or the like. Since it is a man's name, it might well have been replaced by the more familiar Guy. Any of these would be a rather considerable change; moreover, the submitter is female, and there is no indication that she realizes that this is a man's name. We could make the whole thing Gaelic (as Gaoth Mac Brathair), but the consultation notes indicate that she wants to take her husband's surname, and his name was registered as Donal Makbrair earlier in this LoAR. We are therefore returning the name to let her decide how to proceed. (1/96)

Gareth de Bailli. Device. Azure mullety, a Saxon "feogh" rune between two bars Or.

The mullets on the device are not truly strewn, but neither are they in orle or in annulo. Because their position on the field cannot be blazoned, we are forced to return this for redrawing. (3/96)

Gareth de Bailli. Name.

Although the name appeared as Gareth de Bailli on the LoI, his form has Gareth de Bailli, and he has explicitly disallowed any changes to the name, however minor. Since the apostrophe can't be supported in either English or French, we are obliged to return the name. Even as Gareth de Bailli the name is a bit odd: the earliest attested non-literary use of Gareth is from 1593, some two centuries later than the use of the preposition and the final -i of Bailli. (3/96)

Garmon Woodworth. Badge. [Fieldless] A caltrap within and conjoined to an annulet sable.

The overall consensus among the commenters and those attending the Laurel meeting was that this submission, especially as it was drawn with the bottom central leg extended to touch the annulet, was overwhelmingly too similar to the "peace" symbol. As such, it falls afoul of RfS VIII.4.b. "Modern Insignia - Overt allusions to ... common designs may not be registered." The peace symbol (the old "Nuclear Disarmament" symbol) is a common modern design, and as such is not registrable. (6/96)

Garrett Logan Toddhunter. Device. Per pale azure and gules, a ram's head couped affronty and a chief Or.

This is being returned for redrawing. The chief is far too small. The ram's head is not really couped, nor is it erased. Additionally, as drawn, identifiability is a problem. Several commenters (and those attendees at the Laurel meeting) thought it was a rabbit's head before reading the blazon. (11/93)

Garth der Eisenzahmer. Name.

The rather poetical Eisenzähmer `iron-tamer' does not appear to follow documented models of German occupational bynames, which are of a much less metaphorical character. He might try Eisenhauer `iron-hewer', Eisenschmied `ironsmith', or Eisenführer `iron-leader', all of which refer to workers in iron. The combination of name and byname is also a little problematical: Old Norse Garr would probably not have taken the form Garth in Germany. A similar given name that would go much better with a German byname is Gherd, a contraction of Gerhard attested from 1391 (Bahlow, Deutsches Namenlexikon, s.n. Gehrt). (11/95)

Gaston de Montrevel. Device. Sable, on a sun Or a bull's head couped gules, a bordure engrailed Or.

Conflict with Sven of Vandelalven the Fierce (SCA), Sable, on a mullet of two greater and four lesser points Or, a dragon statant reguardant gules pierced through the back by a sword inverted sable. There is a CD for the addition of the bordure, but nothing for the type of the multi-pointed mullet(s) and nothing for type only of the tertiary charge on a complex primary. (1/95)

Gaston Pogue. Device. Argent, a chevron azure between two pairs of arrows inverted crossed in saltire gules and a stag's attires proper.

Brown is not the "proper" tincture for stag's attires: "There have been attires proper registered in the past, but I believe the correct policy is the one stated for ivory proper: `[It] has no fixed color. It can go from clear white to dirty yellow as it ages.' The [charge] here is yellowish, so I have made it Or." (Wilhelm von Schlüssel, LoAR 21 February 1984, p. 5) (6/95)

Gauçelm de Chambonnières. Device. Or, an owl statant sable and a base rayonny gules.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Gauçelm de Chambonnières. Name.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Gauen Farwanderer. Name.

None of the examples cited in the LoI adequately support this construction of the byname, and none of the commenters were able to find any other support for it. Suggestions for a documentable form with a similar meaning included Widfare and Wydefare. (12/93)

Gavin Mac Ciaran. Device. Per pale vert and argent, two Oriental dragons combattant counterchanged within a bordure sable.

The dragons are not "combattant"; indeed, no one was able to come up with a good blazon for their posture here ("combattant demi-tergiant"? "combattant displayed aversant"?). As a consequence, we are unable to register them. (5/94)

Gavin Mac Ciaran. Name.

The patronymic would be formed as Mac Ciaráin, not Mac Ciaran. As the submitter allowed no changes, we were unable to correct it. (5/94)

GDANSK, City of. Device. Gules, in pale two crosses formy argent, in chief a crown Or.

Nothing in the Letter of Intent to Protect nor in the commentary suggested anything about the city or its arms that warrant protection. (6/95)

Geeraert av København. Device. Per bend sinister Or and sable, a triskelion of scythes within an annulet counterchanged.

Lord Laurel deeply appreciates the amount of thought and consideration which went into this appeal and its ensuing discussion. However, the evidence presented by the commenters on this issue indicate that indeed a "significant segment of the Society" (see RfS I.2.), consisting of both heralds and non-heralds, sees the primary charge of this submission and immediately identifies it with the symbol "strongly associated" with the Afrikaaner Weerstandsbeweging, a white supremacist group whose members and symbols have been photographed for and published in a number of news magazines with worldwide publication. Given this association by a significant segment of heralds and non-heralds from a wide range of geographical locations, Laurel cannot in good conscience give this motif the Society's "seal of approval" by registering it. For more on the issue of offense, please see the attached Cover Letter. (12/93)

Gefla, Canton of. Device. Per pale Or and gules, a moose's head cabossed within a laurel wreath sable.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Gefla, Canton of. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Geirólfr of D kktungl. Device. Per saltire azure and sable, on a flame argent a gauntlet clutching a rose fesswise reversed slipped and leaved sable.

The device conflicts with Elvira de Cordoba, Per pale gules and sable on a flame argent a unicorn s head couped sable. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. X.4.j.ii. does not allow a second for the change to type only of a tertiary charge on a complex charge such as a flame. (5/96)

Geirólfr of D kktungl. Name.

The byname is intended to mean "of Darkmoon", referring to the unregistered name of his household. There are several problems here. First, as virtually all commenters noted, the English preposition is completely out of place. Several went further to note that even an Old Norse preposition is probably inappropriate, pointing out that although D kktungl might possibly be justifiable as an epithet, it cannot be construed as the name of a period place or socio-economic group. It isn't clear that it is a reasonable hypothetical Old Norse epithet; there seem to be few if any parallels. Nevertheless, we would probably have given the benefit of the doubt to an idiomatic byname that could be taken to refer to the phase of the moon at its bearer's birth or on the occasion of some notable exploit of his. Unfortunately, d kktungl is almost certainly not at all idiomatic. Though tungl is the ordinary word for "moon", its underlying sense is "a luminary", and the combination with d kkr "dark" is therefore at least faintly oxymoronic. Even more telling is the fact that Old Norse has a completely different word for the new moon: nið. Niðamyrkr is "pitch darkness and no moon". The name would be acceptable as Geirólfr Nið or Niðamyrkr. (5/96)

Gemma of the Firth. Device. Sable, a two-snaked rod of Aesculapius and overall two arrows in saltire Or.

The discussion of the restriction of medical symbols such as the rod of Aesculapius was reopened in the cover letter of March 9th, 1994. As a consequence, for now these may only be registered to those with the proper medical credentials. (4/94)

Generys of Llandygái. Name change from holding name Carolyn of Dun Or.

According to Harpy, this type of accent, used to show unpredictable stress, was not used in period and is not obligatory even in modern Welsh. Unfortunately, the submitter allows no changes, so we must return the name. Please inform her that the Welsh version of the name would be Generys Llandygai. (7/95)

Genheah Grimskonai. Name.

(Her form has a macron over the second e in the given name, but this is a modern scholarly addition that was not used in period.) Even if Gen- is a genuine Old English prototheme, which is not clear, there is no possibility of a Genheah being Grim's wife (Old Norse kona): the deuterotheme -heah is masculine. (Unlike most of the other Germanic languages, Old English never abandoned the old Germanic naming principle according to which the gender of a name was determined by that of the deuterotheme.) Since much more than a minor change would be needed to fix this problem, we must return the name.

It appears that the submitter would like a given name as close as possible in sound to Jenna and a byname that makes her persona the wife of her husband's persona; here is the best suggestion that we can make at this point. Pelican has found Iana in a late-15th century genealogical manuscript as a Latinization of Jane; in the orthography of the period it could as well have been Jana. The name Grim seems to be rare in England after the 12th century, but Grímr continued in use in Norway at least through the 15th century. Since Latinized records are occasionally also found quite late, Jana uxor Grim is a registerable, if improbable, documentary form. (Note that Grim was undeclinable in Latin, so uxor Grim is correct for Grim's wife.) (2/96)

GENOA, City of. Device. Argent, a cross gules.

This is already protected (as the ensign of England). Nothing else about either the city or its arms seemed sufficiently important to otherwise warrant protection. (6/95)

Gentle Dirk. Device. Per bend sinister enarched to base Or and gules, a dagger inverted sable transfixing an open book argent.

No period exemplars were noted which bent a line of division to base in this way. All of the examples noted were enarched to chief. Enarching a line of division to base in this manner does not appear to be compatible with period style.

Further, with the book overlying much of the line of division here, it was very difficult to determine just what it was. As a consequence, identifiability suffered sufficiently to warrant a return on those grounds alone. (9/95)

Geoffrey Linyiue. Name.

Because there was no form in the packet, we have had to return this excellent name. (For those who are curious: the byname has three syllables, and the u represents the sound of v.) (4/96)

Geoffrey MacDhomhnuill. Device. Argent, a chevron inverted between in chief a thistle and in base three crosses crosslet gules.

Conflict with Grendon (Papworth, p. 373), Argent, a chevron reversed gules. There is only one CD, for the addition of the secondary charges. (2/94)

Geoffrey of Lincoln. Device. Argent, a saltire vert, overall within a mascle a cross crosslet sable.

Conflict with Bloxham (Papworth, p. 1057), Argent, a saltire vert. There is only one CD for the addition of the group of overall charges. (It was noted by several commenters that the cross and mascle are still drawn too thin.) (1/94)

Geoffrey of Lincolne. Device. Argent, a cross crosslet within a mascle sable all between in saltire four billets saltirewise vert.

This incarnation of the submitter's armory falls afoul of RfS VIII.4. ("Obtrusive Modernity - Armory may not use obtrusively modern designs"). "Modern" is defined there as "anything outside the period of the Society". Even Laurel, who's interests in aircraft lies in the WWII era rather than modern jets, immediately recognized this as a depiction of a HUD (heads up display) gunsight. This obtrusiveness was not so obvious in earlier submissions because of the use of a saltire rather than four billets. (4/95)

Geof Weakarm. Badge. [Fieldless] A dragon's head couped sable.

Conflict with a badge of the Barony of Storvik, Paly argent and gules, a drakkar prow sable, registered in the January 1994 LoAR. There is a CD for fieldless vs. fielded, but nothing for difference in type of the charge. (2/94)

George Emerson True. Badge. [Fieldless] A beehive Or charged with a fleur-de-lys sable.

As a number of the commenters noted, even heraldically insignificant charges need in general to follow our rules. The bees ("diversely volant") on the emblazon, though heraldically not significant, do, however, contravene the rule requiring that fieldless badges have all of their charges conjoined. (12/93)

Geraint Graeme de Menteith. Device. Or, a chevron inverted gules overall a sheaf of four arrows sable.

Conflict with the County Borough of Newport (Public Heraldry, Combo I), Or, a chevron reversed gules. As British blazon practice uses "reversed" where SCA blazon uses "inverted", there is only one CD here, for the addition of the overall charge. (4/94)

Geraint Graeme de Menteith. Device. Or, on a chevron inverted gules two pheons Or overall a sheaf of four arrows sable.

The arrows here are much too small and thin. Please ask him to draw them as big as they were in his first submission. (You might let him know that the prior non-SCA conflict is no longer a bar to registration, as it is not on the protected list of non-SCA armory.) (9/95)

Gerard Andvari. Name.

Andvari was `documented' from Kolatch as the Old Norse form of Andrew, thereby providing further evidence of Kolatch's uselessness. According to Lind, Andvari is mythological, the name of a dwarf in the Sæmundar Edda hins fróa; we need evidence of its use by human beings. If he wants a Norse form of Andrew, he might consider Andres, Andreas, or Anders. (9/95)

Gerhardt Johannes Liebknecht von Erfurt. Device. Per chevron Or crusilly long sable and gules, in base a lion rampant paly Or and sable.

While both the name and device appear to be registrable, no forms were received in the Laurel packet. (And my staff didn't catch that they were missing. Sorry about that!) (1/95)

Gerhardt Johannes Liebknecht von Erfurt. Name.

While both the name and device appear to be registrable, no forms were received in the Laurel packet. (And my staff didn't catch that they were missing. Sorry about that!) (1/95)

Ghislaine d'Auxerre. Badge. (Fieldless) A fox rampant contourny sable marked argent ravishing a goose argent.

Conflict with Conrad Stronghand, Or, a wolf salient to sinister sable maintaining a rose gules barbed and seeded proper. There is a CD for fieldless v. fielded, but nothing for the type of canid, for the difference between rampant and salient, or for the type and/or tincture of the maintained charge. (4/96)

Gianetta de Rosa. Device. Azure, semy of roses Or, a unicorn's head erased contourny in base and in chief two mullets of four points argent.

The strewn charges are not roses. Indeed, not all of them are five petaled, some having six or seven, and in one case, eight petals. They need to be redrawn as heraldic roses. (11/93)

Gilcryst MacLochlainn. Badge. [Fieldless] A winged unicorn rampant contourny gyronny Or and gules.

While there are many period examples of animate charges barry or paly of two tinctures, no one could find any precedent for a gyronny treatment. As it stands, the tinctures are not really divided evenly around the charge and the gyronny treatment tends to badly confuse its identifiability. (1/94)

Gillian Elphinstone. Badge. [Fieldless] On a sun Or a shamrock sable.

Conflicts with: Kourost Bernard of the East Woods, Sable a sun eclipsed Or; Stefan of Seawood, Azure on a sun Or an eagle displayed sable; Elizabeth Siobhan of Wiltshire, Quarterly sable and vert on a mullet of eight points Or a natural panther sejant erect sable; and Seth the Seeker, Gules, on a compass star throughout Or a unicorn's head couped at the shoulders sable armed and crined gules. In each case, there is only the fieldless CD, as X.4.j.ii. (allowing a CD for the change to type only of tertiary charges) does not apply to charges upon a sun or multi-pointed mullet. (1/96)

Gillian Starke of Aberdeen. Device. Vert, a sea unicorn erect, on a point pointed argent, a gillyflower azure.

The primary charge is not drawn as a sea-unicorn, but rather as a unicornate sea-horse. Such an in-between monster has been disallowed since the tenure of Baldwin of Erebor. If we are to continue to be able to grant a difference between unicorns and horses, we are forced to require that they be drawn clearly as one or the other. Unicorns have beards, cloven hooves, lion's tails (though of course this last cannot apply to this submission), and a more goat-like than equine head.

Additionally, the point pointed would be improved by being drawn a little larger. (5/95)

Ginevra Rodney. Device. Vert, on a lozenge argent a ginger flower purpure seeded Or slipped vert.

Conflict with Amber Lang (SCA, reg. 3/94), Vert, on a lozenge argent a cat sejant guardant sable. There is only one CD, for the changes to the tertiary. (4/94)

Giolla Bhríghde Gwaelyn. Household name for Clan MacMathghamhna.

The submitter apparently misunderstood that Baron Bruce's article in the Fall 1993 issue of Tournaments Illuminated does not apply to conflicts, but rather to the style of household names. This conflicts with the Clans MacMahon, as noted by the Ansteorran College of Heralds. (7/94)

Giovanna Donnina. Device change. Sable, on a sun Or a rose gules barbed vert an orle Or.

Though blazoned as a rose on a sun, in fact the rose completely eclipses the sun's disk, making this a rose en soleil, a badge of the late Plantagenets whose use has been disallowed in the SCA (see The SCA College of Arms Glossary of Heraldic Terms, Table 1, "Prohibited Charges"). (3/95)

Giovanni di Fiamma. Device. Per pale sable and gules, a phoenix, in chief five mullets of six points, Or.

No conflicts or other bars to registration were found, but as no forms were received by Laurel, this must be returned. (1/96)

Giovanni di Giacomettino. Badge. [Fieldless] Atop a tower proper, a hedgehog affronty gules.

The hedgehog is not identifiable in this posture, from almost any distance looking like nothing more than flames gules. It was suggested that he consider using the more standard design Issuant from a tower proper a demi-urchin rampant gules. (12/95)

Gita Ameena al-Rashida. Badge. [Fieldless] A wyvern statant dexter claw elevated azure.

Conflict with Eadwine be Bocce Sele, Ermine, a wyvern undulant erect bendwise, wings elevated and addorsed, azure, orbed, langued, armed and spined Or, grasping in both legs a partly open book bendwise argent, bound gules, clasped Or. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but a visual comparison of the emblazons showed no other CDs, either for posture (which was identical but for the embowing of the neck and tail) or literary interests. (10/95)

Giuliana Audaci. Device. Pily bendy wavy sable and argent.

Visual conflict with Conrad Hebenstorm, Azure, issuant from sinister base four piles wavy in point argent. While there is clearly a CD for the tincture change from azure to sable, the overall orientation of the argent "piles" in both leads to a very strong visual similarity. While we believe it would pass Stealth Herald's "Big Lug" test The "Big Lug" test, in its simplest form, is: Would a fighter with only rudimentary knowledge of heraldry know which of the bearers of the two shields being compared he "killed" on the field. on the basis of the tincture change, the two really are too close visually. (11/95)

Giulietta da Firenze. Device. Gyronny purpure and argent, a salamander gules.

The charge as emblazoned could be better blazoned as on a flame a lizard gules. However, such a blazon demonstrates the main problem with the emblazon; the primary charge is a large, irregular blob, and the identifiability of the creature on the flames is impossible at any distance because both it and the flames are the same tincture. (See RfS VII.7.a. "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." and VIII.2. "All armory must have sufficient contrast to allow each element of the design to be clearly identifiable at a distance.") Were it to be redrawn in a more standard depiction (with only 1/2 to 1/3 the amount of flame as a number of gouts of flame issuant from rather than completely surrounding the lizard), it would probably be acceptable. (4/96)

Glen Cìanail, Shire of. Name.

Glen is English; the Gaelic word is gleann. The English form should not be used with a fully Gaelic descriptor. Cianail as glossed as 'melancholy, mournful, sad, lamentable; pensive; solitary, lonely, lonesome, dreary'. It is possible that this may apply to places, but it seems much likelier to apply to persons. Tiamhaidh 'melancholy, affecting, dismal, gloomy; solitary, dark, quiet' seems a little better; àite tiamhaidh is 'a dreary place'. Another, and perhaps better, possibility is fàsail 'desert, desolate; solitary, lonely'; one example applies it to a brook. Given the likelihood that cíanail would be applied to persons rather than places, we are returning the name to allow the submitters to decide if they want to change it to one of the other likelier possibilities (and to correct glen to gleann). (10/94)

Gondor. Sable, a tree blossoming argent.

The commentary on this and the other proposals from Tolkien was somewhat mixed. However popular the Lord of the Rings trilogy is among older members of the SCA, it appears to have lost much of its status over the intervening years. Here, the commentary generally favored not protecting these arms. (8/95)

Gorm Gutesson. Device. Quarterly azure and gules, a chevron couched from dexter interlaced with another from sinister argent.

Conflict with Bracegirdle (Papworth, p. 541), Azure, two chevrons arched couched and fretted argent. There is one CD for the change to the field, but given the blazon we are pretty much forced to assume that the chevrons are in the same position as those here. (8/94)

Gráine ní Dhomhnaill. Device. Per bend sinister gules and vert, on a bend sinister azure fimbriated Or an increscent argent between two mullets, all palewise, Or.

Conflict with Loreyn (Woodward, cited in Combo II), Or, on a bend sinister azure three estoiles Or. There is CD for the field, but nothing for changing the type and tincture of one of three tertiaries, and since this is not "simple" armory by our standards, X.4.j.ii. cannot apply. (The latter point may be moot, in any case; the illustration in Woodward shows the "estoiles" in Loreyn as mullets of six points, and X.4.j.ii. would not apply to the difference between default mullets and mullets of six points.) (4/95)

Grace of Fairhaven. Device. Checky gules and argent, a wolf passant within a bordure sable.

Conflict with Fourneys (Papworth, p. 114), Argent, a hound passant within a bordure sable. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. (3/95)

Gregor Arnulf der Wanderer. Device. Per chevron argent and azure, a chevron between two eagles sable and a wolf's head couped contourny argent.

Though there appeared to be no problems with the device, as no forms were included in the Laurel packet, we are forced to return this. (12/95)

Gregor of Falcon's Roost. Name.

The locative is entirely unlikely. As Harpy noted in her commentary, "The English language has , and had during period , a perfectly good technical term for the place where falcons 'roost'. It's called a 'mews'. I find it no more likely that a person in period would have felt the need to coin the term 'falcon's roost' than he would have felt the need to coin 'horse shed' to describe a stable." (5/94)

Gregor von Hannover. Device. Per pale gules and azure, on a pale Or a sword inverted sable.

Conflict with Cathyn Bluesword, Lozengy couped in fess gules and argent, on a pale Or, a sword inverted azure. There is one CD for the changes to the field, but nothing the change of tincture only to the tertiary sword. (2/96)

Gregory Finche. Badge. [Fieldless] A portcullis sable surmounted by a rapier Or.

There are actually two different precedents that affect this submission. One, mentioned by many of the commenters, is the precedent regarding overall charges on fieldless badges. This one states that "In cases where identifiability is maintained -- where one of the charges is a long, slender object, and the area of intersection is small -- overall charges will still be permitted in fieldless badges". (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, Cover Letter January 1993, p. 3). In this case, one of the charges is long and slender, but the area of intersection is not "small"; indeed, it runs nearly the entire length of the overall charge. Nor is identifiability adequately maintained. As several commenters noted, the rapier here effectively takes the place of one of the vertical posts of the portcullis, and it takes a bit of looking to decide that it's not a portcullis with something "funny" done to one of the uprights.

The other precedent is the often-quoted ban on "barely overall" charges. Indeed, much commentary was focused on the matter of exactly how to best blazon the rapier - was it "on" the portcullis, was it "overall", did it "surmount" the portcullis, etc.

You might recommend to him that both problems could be solved by drawing the portcullis much smaller. (5/95)

Gregory of Lyme Regis. Device. Sable, a sun and on a chief Or, in pale a sword reversed and a sword sable.

Conflict with Otto the Obscure (SCA), Sable, a mullet of four greater and four lesser points, on a chief Or a spear fesswise sable. There is a CD for the changes to type and number of tertiary charges, but per the precedent set in the LoAR of April 1993, p. 12, nothing for the change between a sun and a compass star (citing an earlier precedent granting no difference between a sun and a mullet of many points). (5/94)

Gregory of Saint Albans. Badge. Azure, two bars invected argent and in chief five piles in point Or.

"A pile should extend most if not all the way to the base; properly drawn, there would not be enough room for a charge ... to fit between the pile and the base." [Baldwin of Erebor, LoAR 16 December 1984, p. 18] "There is a long-standing precedent in the College for banning charges, including laurel wreaths, below piles on the grounds that a properly drawn period pile would not allow space for another charge to rest, in whole or in part, below the pile." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 25 February 1990, p. 19) "[A] pile would issue from farther in on the chief (rather [than] from the corners) and would almost touch the base point of the shield and would not have room for a charge beneath it". (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR October 1990 p.21) "Piles are properly drawn throughout, or nearly so; they would not come to a point at the point of the [per chevron inverted] field division, as here." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR August 1992, p. 31)

As noted in all of the precedents above, piles should be nearly throughout; these do not even come to the fess line. (1/96)

Gregory of Saint Albans. Device. Per bend Or and azure, a Celtic cross counterchanged.

Visual conflict with Ingold of the Flaming Gryphon, Per pale azure and Or, a Celtic cross counterchanged. While it is true that the line of division of both the field and the cross have been changed, in fact less than one-half of the tincture of the cross has actually been changed, and a visual comparison of the two emblazons demonstrated that in fact the only apparent change has been to the field. (1/96)

Greifental, Shire of. Name.

While Laurel is sympathetic with the travails of the shire in registering its name, a petition which is almost three years old really is a little too far out of date to be considered as adequate support for the current submission. That said, there does not appear to be any other bar to registration. A rapid resubmission with an updated petition should be sufficient. (8/94)

Grímr Blóðúlfr Berserkr. Name.

Blóðúlfr "blood-wolf" was justified in the LoI on the basis of the attested bynames blóð x "blood-axe" and kveldúlfr "evening-wolf, werewolf". We aren't sure that these are sufficient justification for the meaning "blood-wolf", but we agree with the Caidan CoH that it is likelier than "wolf-blood"; had there been no other question about the name, we'd have given it the benefit of the doubt. However, the double nickname is even more problematical. It's true that Geirr Bassi says that some Norseman had more than one nickname simultaneously; however, he does not say that more than one would actually have been used in a given instantiation of the name, and we have no examples to show what kinds of combinations were actually used. Two purely descriptive nicknames with roughly the same sense seems an unlikely combination. It seems especially unlikely for someone who is apparently a slave: Geirr says that in general only slaves had no patronymic or metronymic. Had one of the nicknames been preposed, we'd have given the construction the benefit of the doubt on the grounds that in some of the historical examples a preposed nickname seems almost to have become part of the given name; unfortunately, it is not clear that either of them can be. It is possible that with further research this name could be adequately justified; at present, however, it contains too many problematic elements for comfort. If the submitter is willing to drop blóð, the remaining three elements can be combined in a couple of ways. First, lf-Grímr inn Berserkr is probably registerable: lf- seems a reasonable nickname to prepose even without an attestation. Alternatively, there is an attested Old Norse name Grímólfr, whose deuterotheme is a variant of Úlfr; Grímólfr inn Berserkr would certainly be acceptable. (Note that the Caidan CoH was in error in thinking that berserkr would become berserki after the definite article inn: berserkr is a noun, not an adjective.) (2/96)

Grimbun Hroth. Device. Lozengy azure and argent, a bear rampant contourny gules.

Conflict with Elfarch Myddfal (SCA), Or, a bear legged of an eagle's legs rampant to sinister gules. There is one CD, for the changes to the field, but the difference in the legs only is insufficient for the second. Additionally, the field here is functionally the same as Bavaria, and may fall afoul of the ban on the use of fields lozengy bendwise azure and argent (or paly bendy azure and argent), reiterated by Master Bruce in the September 18, 1992 Cover Letter, pp. 2-3. (12/93)

Guenevere Maire of Derby. Device. Azure, on a fess enhanced wavy argent, two killer whales naiant embowed respectant proper and in base a mullet of four points Or.

This device is being returned for redrawing. The fess should be narrowed a bit to allow more room in chief, and the fess also needs to have fewer and bolder waves. As a general rule, for a complex line of division to be sufficiently "big and bold", along a fess line this most frequently means three "bumps"; along a pale or bend line perhaps as many as five. (11/93)

Guenivre du Dragon Vert. Badge. [Fieldless] A mule statant vert.

Conflict with Hirano (Hawley's Mon, p. 57), A horse statant. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for tincture against mon. (10/94)

Guise Buron vom Duesseltal. Device. Per bend sinister sable and gules, a lightning bolt Or.

Conflict with Thora of Thescorre (SCA), Quarterly sable and gules, a lightning bolt palewise Or. There is only one CD, for the change to the field. (2/94)

Guise Buron von Duesseltal. Device. Per bend sinister sable and gules, a lightning bolt palewise Or and a bordure argent.

The bordure, even on the large emblazon, is little more than a narrow line around the edge of the shield. We are having to return this for redrawing a bordure of more regular size. (You might ask him to thicken the lightning bolt a little, while he is at it.) (6/95)

Gunnar Oxnamegin. Badge for The Argent Keep. Gules, on a bend sinister sable fimbriated, a tower palewise argent.

The badge conflicts with Sandra of Calafia (SCA), Gules, on a bend sinister sable fimbriated, three fleurs-de-lys palewise Or. There is only one CD for the cumulative changes to the tertiaries. (3/94)

Gunnar Oxnamegin. Household name for The Argent Keep.

The name technically conflicts with the title Sable Argent Pursuivant registered to the Kingdom of Caid in April 1993, as here Keep must be the designator, it is therefore invisible for purposes of difference; and argent is only different from sable argent by deletion of a modifier, which is insufficient. (3/94)

Gunnarr Brunwulf. Household Name for Ducal Household Brunwulf.

There is no period precedent for this style of household name. Though there were a number of "ducal households", they were not so styled as part of their proper names. Though "House Brunwolf" would have been entirely acceptable, the submitter allowed no changes whatsoever, so we are having to return this. (6/94)

Gunther der Wanderer. Device. Per bend sinister vert and sable, a Latin cross formy Or.

Conflict with King Egbert (Papworth, p. 610), Azure, a cross patty Or. There is one CD for the change to the field but the change to type of cross is insufficient for the second CD. It may also conflict with Prester-John (Papworth, p. 609), Azure, a cross Calvary Or, with the same difference count. (11/93)

Gunther Pathwarden. Name change from Johan Kronenwache.

No one who commented on the name found Pathwarden a believable occupational byname. (2/96)

Gustav von Silberwald. Device. Per chevron sable and azure, a saltire and in base a cluster of rowan flowers argent.

The overall design does not appear to be period in style. Especially given the number of period examples of per chevron fields with steep lines of division, it is probably not safe to assume that the charge would overlie the line of division in this way. To ensure the depiction here, we would almost have to blazon the device Per saltire azure, azure, azure, and sable, a saltire.... This is something that Laurel is not prepared to do. (5/96)

Guttorm Arnessen. Device. Per pale argent and gules, in pale a Viking tent arch and an annulet counterchanged.

The College has not previously registered a "Viking tent arch" as a charge. As a consequence, this registration (and/or one of the others in this LoI) would be the "defining instance", and we need some documentation for it: either that it appeared in period armory in this form or that it is a period artifact and that this is its standard or typical form.

Blazoned in the LoI as a "targe", the large emblazon had the center "circle" tinctured as the field, leaving the visual effect of an annulet counterchanged on the per pale field. We were unsure what to make of the two interlaced lines on the annulet: on the one hand, they could simply be considered as diapering; on the other hand, they were drawn in black. In either case, they seem to be unblazonable. (5/94)

Gwendolyn ferch Dai. Name change from Gwendolen ferch Dai.

Gwendolyn is a modern spelling of a name that does not seem to have been used in period outside of literature. By virtue of its popularity in the Society it is apparently SCA-compatible, but we will at least require a less modern spelling. See the Cover Letter for a more complete discussion. (8/95)

Gwendolyn MacAuslane of Loch Lomond. Device. Quarterly vert and azure, a pine tree argent.

Conflict with Susan of Winterwood (SCA), Counter-ermine, a pine tree couped argent, with one CD for the field, and with Nishio (Hawley's Mon, p. 41), A pine tree, with one CD for fieldlessness. (9/94)

Gwendolyn of Aaron Isles. Device. Per chevron ermine and gules, a chevron sable between in chief three lilies in chevron gules and in base a dove migrant argent.

The "lilies" are not recognizable as such. We are not sure from the large emblazon form just what kind of flowers they are supposed to be. This, combined with the odd wing placement of the "migrant" dove, pushes this over the edge of acceptability in terms of identifiability and reproducability. (2/94)

Gwendolyn of Skye. Name.

Conflict with Guendolen of Skye (SCA), registered June 1992. (8/94)

Gwendolyn of the White Dragon. Name

Gwendolyn appears to be a post-period name, an unattested variant of Guendolen, which itself appears to be an invention of Geoffrey of Monmouth. of the White Dragon is a form unsupported by any English bynames like it. If she has a notable white dragon, the nearest usual period construction (using modern forms of the words) is with the White Dragon. If she lives at an inn called the White Dragon (though two-word sign names also appear to be unsupported in any documentation), it would be atte White Dragon; more likely would be simply atte Dragon (which last is documented). While we might give Gwendolyn itself the benefit of the doubt and register it, its combination with a modern fantasy-style byname pushes it beyond the bounds of acceptability. (6/95)

Gwenhwyfar Eachthighearn of Clan Scolaighe. Name.

The name follows no recognizable practice of period names. If she's Welsh, she will be Gwenhwyfar ferch E., and Eachthighearn will be respelled according to Welsh conventions. If she's Irish, she'll be G. ní Eachthigheirn or G. ní Eachthighearna, and Gwenhwyfar will be respelled according to Irish conventions. Clan Scolaighe mixes English clan and Irish Scolaighe. The examples of clan names in Woulfe show that Clann is followed by the aspirated genitive case of a forename, the (sometimes legendary) progenitor of the clan. While the Rules for Submission allow languages to be mixed in a name if the two cultures had sufficient contact, RfS III.1. also states that they must follow documented patterns. No documentation for this pattern of mixed Irish, Welsh, and English has been presented, either in the submitter's supporting documentation or by any of the commentary. (3/95)

Gwenhwyvar Nocturnal. Badge. [Fieldless] A horse rampant azure ermined Or.

As no forms were received for this submission, we are having to return it. (11/95)

Gwenhwyvar Nocturnal. Badge. [Fieldless] A horse rampant azure ermined Or.

No submissions forms were received in the Laurel packet. Thus, we are unable to register this badge. (9/95)

Gwenhwyvar Nocturnal. Badge. [Fieldless] Two quill pens crossed in saltire argent, within and conjoined to an annulet Or.

There are two problems here. The first is that the pens are not drawn "within" the annulet, but slightly overlapping it. This sort of "betwixt and between" rendering, not within but not overall, has been cause for return in the past. Second, it conflicts with Abe (Hawley's Mon, p. 51), Two feathers in saltire within an annulet. There is only the fieldless CD. (11/94)

Gwenhwyvar Ywein. Device. Azure, a lymphad and on a chief argent three loaves of bread proper.

Given the wide variety of colors for bread loaves in their "natural" state, dependent upon, among other things, the type(s) of flour used and the baking methods utilized, bread comes in a range of colors from almost white to almost black, and there does not appear to be a "widely understood default coloration" for bread proper. Neither does there appear to be an heraldic default. The submitter should choose one of the standard heraldic tinctures. (1/96)

Gwydden Lawen. Device. Sable, a fret and on a chief Or, a label azure.

Conflict with London Borough of Merton (Public Heraldry, Combo I), Sable, a fret and on a chief Or two keys in saltire, addorsed and wards to chief, surmounted by a sword, points to base, between a doubled headed eagle displayed sable, armed gules, and a lion passant sable, armed and langued gules. There is only one CD for the multiple changes to the charge(s) on the chief. (2/94)

Gwydion ap Myrddin. Badge. [Fieldless] On a sun Or a decrescent sable.

Conflicts with Kourost Bernard of the East Woods, Sable, a sun eclipsed Or; Al-Ishtiaq Khaalid bin al-Kaazim, Gules, on a bezant invected a wingless boar headed demon statant affronty facing to sinister and brandishing a sword and axe sable; Stefan of Seawood, Azure, on a sun Or an eagle displayed sable; Seth the Seeker, Gules, on a compass star throughout Or a unicorn's head couped at the shoulders sable armed and crined gules; Aodhan Ite an Fhithich, Plumetty sable and argent, on a sun of eight rays Or a feather bendwise sinister sable; and Elizabeth Siobhan of Wiltshire, Quarterly sable and vert, on a mullet of eight points Or a natural panther sejant erect sable. In each case, there is only the fieldless CD, with nothing for changing the type only of tertiary charge on a complex primary charge. (11/95)

Gwynedd Fairfax. Name.

Gwynedd, though found in Withycombe's Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, is only noted there as an undated, modern form. The closest documentable period given name is Gwineth, but as the submitter permitted no changes whatsoever, we are forced to return this. (12/93)

Gwyneth Winna. Device. Per chevron sable and vert, three mullets of nine points, one and two, and a hulk Or.

Conflict with Duncan MacThearlaich, Per chevron sable and vert, in chevron enhanced three compass stars elongated to base and in base a wolf's head cabossed argent. There is a CD for changing the tincture of all the charges, but the only way to grant the second would be to count the change to type and tincture of the bottom most charge separately from the tincture change to the charges in chief. It was not felt that such a "point count" was reasonable here, especially given that the charges have the appearance of a single group of primary charges rather than that of, say, a primary charge and a secondary group of charges. (11/93)

Haakon Bjornsson. Household name for Belgrbildrhus.

The name, which was intended to mean `House of the Fur Axe' in Old Norse, has several problems. The individual words forming the compound are combined incorrectly and are wrong for the intended meaning. Belgr is the skin of a quadruped, taken off whole, as in kattbelgr `catskin'; such skins were used as bags, as in vínbelgr `wineskin', and various other uses have even less connection with `fur'. The word for `skin' in the sense of `fur' seems to be skinn, as in skinnavara `skin-ware, peltry, fur-ware', though the word can also refer to leather. In several compounds we find lo, e.g., loólpa `a large fur doublet', related to loinn `shaggy, thick'. Bíldr or bílda is `an axe; an instrument for bleeding'; the usual word for `axe' is öx. Hús is `house', connoting the building itself; seems to have more of the connotation of `household'. Loöxarbú seems to be a well-constructed compound meaning `Household of the Shaggy or Furry Axe'; however, opinion was almost unanimous that fur axe was not a reasonable household name in any language. (9/95)

Hachille de Remiercourt. Device. Gules, on a lozenge argent a red-tail hawk volant contourny wings elevated and addorsed proper maintaining a sinister gauntlet sable.

Though under the new precedent for animals proper, we could have registered this had it been emblazoned as brown or even, presumably, brown with red tail feathers, the bird on the submission forms was quite clearly drawn as a red-tailed hawk in light phase proper. (According to the sources we checked, the red- tailed hawk also has a "dark phase".) This is exactly the type of "Linnaean heraldry" that has been banned for some time now, for the reason that one would have to consult a specialized non-heraldic source (in this case, a book on North American birds) to adequately reproduce the emblazon from a blazon. RfS VIII.4.c. notes that "[Proper] is not allowed if many people would have to look up the correct coloration, or if the Linnaean genus and species (or some other elaborate description) would be required to get it right." Such is the case here. (12/95)

Hagen Seanaeiche. Name.

There are two different problems here. The first is that it is extremely difficult to tell that the byname has been properly formed - I would have guessed from the way the photocopied dictionary entry (from Dwelly's Illustrated Gaelic-English Dictionary) is organized that the word would have been seaneiche or some such. There is also some doubt as to whether the two forms given in the dictionary, -each and -eiche are the same gender. Is one of them (specifically, the latter) feminine? If it is, it cannot go with a masculine forename.

Secondly, the combination of German forename and Gaelic byname needs justification, at the very least. None of the commenters noted any German/Gaelic interaction in period (see, e.g., RfS III.1., "As a rule of thumb, languages should be used together only if there was substantial contact between the cultures that spoke those languages." (12/94)

Halfdan the Blackanvil. Device. Argent, a chevron Or fimbriated between three anvils sable.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. (5/96)

Halfdan the Blackanvil. Name.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. Additionally, there were some questions regarding the propriety of the construction of the byname. (5/96)

Hallbiorn Ingialdsson. Device. Or, a saltire couped within a bordure sable.

Visual conflict with Gad Waldbär (SCA), Or, in pale a bear's head cabossed and two ragged staffs in slatire, all within a bordure sable. There is a CD for the addition of the bear's head, but the consensus of those seeing the two at the Laurel meeting was unanimous that there was not a second for the minor change to the saltire. (6/94)

Hallbiörn Ingjaldsson. Device. Argent, a saltire couped within a bordure sable.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Hamish ap Gwalchmai. Name.

"Hamish is not a name. It is a phonetic rendering of the Gaelic name Seumas in the vocative case, and only became misconsidered a given name by mistake by non-Gaelic speakers in post-period times. It is no more a given [name] than would be the possessive James'. If the submitter would consider the given [name] Seumas, this would work." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR November 1991, p. 19). Or, in this case, if the submitter would be interested in a monocultural name, the Welsh cognate of James is Iago. (12/93)

Hannah Cameron. Device. Argent, a fox rampant gules its tail flames proper on a chief vert three garbs Or.

As noted in the return of a proposed device for Bedwyr ap Gwrgant Amaethon ap Rhain in the LoAR of July 1994, p. 11, "We have not allowed charges of flame for quite some time." With the possible exception of a phoenix, of which the flames are a part of the definition of the charge itself ("an eagle rising from flames"), charges or, as here, parts of a charge "of flames" do not appear to be period style and tend to create the kind of visual confusion which heraldry normally attempts to avoid. (See, e.g., RfS VIII.3.: "Armorial Identifiability - Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability.") (5/95)

Hannah Ó Neilane. Name.

None of the commenters could find the patronymic in this precise form. We would have registered the anglicized Hannah O Neilane, but the submitter permitted no changes at all to the name. Thus, we are having to return this. (1/94)

Hannah O Neilane. Device. Sable, a chevron erminois between three phoenixes displayed Or.

Conflict with Bennet (Papworth, p. 387), Sable, a chevron erminois between three demi-lions rampant Or, erased gules armed and langued of the same. There is only one CD for the change to type of the secondaries. (1/95)

Hardwin Gering. Device. Per pale azure and vert, on a bezant a dragon's head couped sable.

Conflict with Douglas of Blackstone (SCA), Per pale azure and vert, on a bezant a wolf sejant ululant to sinister sable. There is only one CD, for the changes to the tertiary charge. (8/94)

Haroun ibn al-Dhi'b al-Abyadh. Badge. [Fieldless] On a dove volant, wings addorsed, vert the Arabic words "al-'izz wa'l-baqa wa'l-zafar bi-il-a'da" argent.

The "charge" here is not really heraldry, and cannot be dealt with under heraldry's conventions. And with the "corrective" outline added, it is no longer anything that can be documented from Arabic, Persian or Turkish sources. Most of the commenters could not identify the charge as a dove without the blazon, as is required by RfS VII.7.a. The identifiability problem adds to the stylistic problems the calligraphy represents. The writing here isn't really on the dove; it is the dove. And, finally, as has been noted by Laurels before, the fact that an artistic motif can be found in period (and calligraphic animals in Arabic script are found in late period) does not necessarily make such motif acceptable for registration as heraldry. (6/94)

Haroun ibn al-Dhi'b al-Abyadh. Household name for for Household Rîh Asfar.

There are two problems with the household name. The first is that no documentation was presented, nor did any of the commenters find any, that "Yellow Wind" is an appropriate name or construction for an household name. It follows no period or modern exemplars, in Arabic or any other language, of which we are aware. The second is that rîh appears, from the few dictionaries where Laurel could find it, to refer to the digestive rather than the meteorlogical wind (which was translated by another word entirely in all of the phrase books and dictionaries). The commenters were unanimous in feeling that "Yellow Fart" was not an appropriate name for a household. (6/94)

Hashem, ábu Benjamin. Name.

No documentation was presented, nor could any be found, to support the odd mix of languages and the unusual construction of the name. We would recommend that the submitter consider an all-Arabic, all-Hebrew, or all-English name, and then structure it in accordance with the normal word order and grammar for that language. (11/93)

Hauk Thorn the Wayfarer. Device. Azure, on a fess Or between three caltraps argent a brown feather proper.

The consensus of the commentary was that a "brown feather proper" is not an appropriate use of a non-heraldic tincture for a charge. Laurel precedent concurs. "The wing was blazoned on the letter of intent and the forms as proper and is in fact brown so it cannot be reblazoned in any heraldic tincture. If there had been any method of determining what sort of wing this was intended to be, we would have pended this for appropriate commentary and conflict-checking. However, the depiction of the wing is such that ... it was exceedingly unclear what type of wing this should be." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 31 December 1989, p. 25) We believe this to be equally true of feathers. (4/94)

Hector aus Pier. Badge for Haus Apfelhain. Quarterly argent and gules, an apple vert.

Conflict with British Northern Home Command (Military Ordinary #701), Azure, an apple vert. There is one CD, for the changes to the field. (In any resubmission, the submitter should be asked to draw his apple larger and rounder.) (2/94)

Hedvig Kettuin. Device. Vert, on a horse's head couped argent a trefoil purpure.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Hedvig Kettuin. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Heirs of Elendil. Sable, a tree surmounted by a crown in the midst of seven estoiles [each of six rays] in annulo, all argent.

The commentary on this and the other proposals from Tolkien was somewhat mixed. However popular the Lord of the Rings trilogy is among older members of the SCA, it appears to have lost much of its status over the intervening years. Here, although the commentary slightly favored protecting these arms, the problem here is that the description given in Lord of the Rings does not lead to an unambiguous blazon. The verbal description given therein (Professor Tolkien appears never to have drawn this himself) regarding Aragorn's standard, which has a black field, is: "There flowered a White Tree, and that was for Gondor; but Seven Stars were about it, and a high crown above it, the signs of Elendil that no lord had borne for years beyond count." The depictions which have been made of this standard have the stars in a variety of arrangements, including strewn, in annulo, and in an arc above the tree. Given the lack of a standard blazonable depiction and variety of ways in which the description in the book might be blazoned (each of which is at least one CD apart from the others), added to which is the question of whether the "stars" are mullets or estoiles, we are extremely hesitant to register something which can be depicted in so many widely varying ways. (8/95)

Helena Råtta. Device. Argent, a rat in annulo vert.

The rat is really not in a blazonable position (the closest that anyone could suggest was tergiant in annulo head to base, and even that does not adequately describe the posture of the head), and thus falls afoul of RfS VII.7.b. ("Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon."). As no "competent blazon" could be made for the emblazon, it must be returned. (3/95)

Helmut zu Jülich. Badge. [Fieldless] A delf with an arrowhead issuant from each corner Or.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Helmut zu Jülich. Household badge for Haus Jülich. Quarterly gules and Or, a lion rampant contourny within a bordure sable.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Helmut zu Jülich. Household name for Haus Jülich.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned.(10/95)

Hendricke Lambert Bloetgoet. Device. Azure, a knorr reversed and on a chief Or three gouttes de sang.

Conflict with Davie (Papworth, p. 1090), Azure, a ship with two masts Or, the sails trussed up and hoisted to the yards argent, adorned with flags adorned with the cross of England, on a chief of the second, three cinquefoils pierced gules. There is a CD for the substantial change to type of the tertiary charges, but nothing for the details of the ships nor for reversing the ship. (3/95)

Hengist of the Black Forest. Badge. Argent, a dragon salient vert, to dexter a garden rose gules, slipped and leaved vert, all within a bordure indented gules.

This is just not composed in a period manner. While there are many period examples of "an X and in chief a Y", there are none of "an X and to dexter a Y". This style has the additional problem of making the armory unbalanced. Were the rose drawn much larger, we could have blazoned the charges as "in fess". Here, however, the rose is not much larger than a maintained charge, though it is clearly not being maintained by the dragon. (If it were a maintained charge, there are conflicts in both the SCA Armorial and Ordinary and in Papworth.) (12/93)

Henri Michel du Bois. Device. Per pale azure and sable, a chevron inverted grady between a sun and two fleurs-de-lys Or.

The primary charge is not a "chevron inverted grady", and no one could come up with an adequate blazon for it. ("Grady" is a term which modifies "embattled"; it is not found as a separate line of division in and of itself.) In any resubmission, the submitter should draw the fleurs-de-lys larger to more adequately fill the space available. (12/93)

Henry d'Agincourt. Name.

While this name is, indeed, not a conflict with Henry V, and indeed does not violate any of the specific clauses of RfS V (or even IV), it does, however, fall within the aegis of RfS I.3.a. Conflicting Claims - "A name or piece of armory that creates a false impression of the identity of the submitter will not be registered." SCA names should not cause someone hearing the name to think of some individual other than the SCA person bearing that name. As an example, how many people hearing the name "Dick of Watergate" are going to think of anyone other than Richard Milhous Nixon, with whom the name "Dick of Watergate" neither conflicts nor is pretentious by the Rules? Very few in the SCA hearing the submitted name here are going to think of anyone other than Henry V. (2/94)

Henry of Stone Hill Keep. Badge for Stone Hill Keep. Argent, on a pale gules an arrow inverted argent.

Conflict with Middle Kingdom, Argent, on a pale gules three pheons inverted Or. There is only one CD for the changes to the tertiaries.

In any resubmission, please ask him to draw the arrowhead and fletching more prominently. (9/95)

Henry of Three Needles. Device. Per pale vairy gules and Or and sable, a bear passant contourny argent muzzled sable chained argent.

Conflict with Bjoern hinn Heppni (SCA), A bear passant contourny argent. There is only one CD, for fielded vs. fieldless. (9/94)

Henry of Three Needles. Device. Per pale vairy gules and Or, and sable, a bear sejant erect guardant to sinister argent, muzzled, collared and chained sable.

Conflict with Wohnsfleth (Woodward), Azure, a white bear rampant contourny collared gules. There is one CD for the changes to the field but nothing for the difference between rampant and sejant erect guardant. (11/93)

Hospital of St. Mary Bethlem. Azure, an estoile of eight rays argent.

While the name of the hospital was reasonably well-known to many of the commenters (because of its status as the origin of the word bedlam), the armory itself appears to be entirely obscure. As a consequence, there was very little support for protection of these arms. (8/95)

Höskuld Thorleiksson. Badge. [Fieldless] A wolf's head cabossed argent maintaining in its jaws a rapier fesswise sable.

Conflict with Stefan von Bernhardt, Per bend sinister azure and vert, a wolf's head cabossed argent. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but the rapier is not of sufficient size that we can in good conscience grant a second for its presence. (10/95)

Hrólfr bláskegg Rgnvaldzson. Badge. [Fieldless] A cross gurgity reversed, interlaced with an annulet argent.

The style of the badge, with its interlaced charges, appears modern rather than period in style. There is also a conflict with the Company of Turners (Papworth, p. 421), Azure, a Catherine wheel argent. There is a CD for fieldlessness, but the difference to only the number of "arms" of the "wheel" is insufficient for the necessary second. (4/94)

Hrodhaavard Raudhan. Name change from Hrafnvardhr Ruadhan.

In ON hróLr 'praise; fame, reputation', as in fagr 'fair', the final -r is organic, i.e., it is not just the sign of the masculine nominative singular; this can be seen from the fact that the -r is preserved in recorded compounds. Raudhan, for which no documentation was given, seems simply to be incorrect (though it is grandfathered to him here). It appears to be connected with the name RauLr or the adjective rauLr 'red'; the latter appears as a byname in Geirr Bassi's The Old Norse Name, p. 26. In the former case the final -an is inexplicable. If the simple adjective is intended, rauLan is the masculine singular accusative case and has no place in a name. If he wants to be the son of RauLr, the byname would be RauLsson; if he wants to be 'Red', it is rauLr; and if he wants to be 'the Red', inn rauLi. The simplest suggested solution would be for him to use the standard HávarLr: Hrodr-Havardr raudr (as representing HróLr-HávarLr rauLr). The minimum change we could have made to register the name would have involved at the very least the addition of an "r" to the given. As he allowed no changes whatsoever, however, we are forced to return the name. (11/94)

Hrolfr svero-Freyr. Device. Or, on a chevron gules between three pairs of Danish axes in saltire sable, three bezants.

The device conflicts with Estafford (Papworth, p. 489), Or, on a chevron gules three bezants. There is only one CD, for the addition of the axes. (9/94)

Hrolfr svero-Freyr. Name.

The relevant entry in Gordon is sverL-Freyr, literally 'sword-Frey'. The usual transliterations without the edh would be sverd-Freyr and Sverdh-Freyr. However, as the context of the poem from which the phrase is taken shows, sverL-Freyr is not a straightforward word for 'warrior'; rather it is a kenning taken from a form of court poetry. It is quite different from the more straightforward, earthy examples of bynames shown in Geirr Bassi and other sources. Without evidence for the use of such fanciful bynames by real people, we are reluctant to register it here. (9/94)

Hrothgar Frosthair. Device. Azure, on a pale engrailed argent a double-bitted axe sable between two mullets argent.

No emblazon forms were found in the files for the device submission. (11/93)

Hrothgar Thórsdagr. Name.

While documentation was presented for the use of day names as bynames in Old English and Middle English, such documentation is not sufficient support for such a practice in Norse, any more than documentation of a naming practice in Spanish is adequate support for one in French. We need more documentation before we can register this name. (2/95)

Hugh Montagud. Device. Azure, three bendlets enhanced Or and in base a cross crosslet argent.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Hugh Montagud. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Hvide. Barry of six azure and argent.

There was a fair consensus among the commenters that this family did not come up to the general standards of importance to warrant protection. (5/95)

Iain Anndra Ánraidh a'Ghleanna Sìodhaich. Badge. Argent, a broadsword inverted purpure, quillioned with a holly sprig fructed within an orle of holly sprigs fructed proper.

The use of foliage as part of another object creates serious identifiability problems. We need documentation of this sort of motif in period armory before we may register this. (3/94)

Iain Anndra Ánraidh a'Ghleanna Sìodhaich. Badge. [Fieldless] A broadsword inverted purpure, quillioned with a holly sprig fructed proper.

The use of foliage as part of another object creates serious identifiability problems. We need documentation of this sort of motif in period armory before we may register this. (3/94)

Iain Anndra Ánraidh a'Ghleanna Sìodhaich. Name.

The name is a confused mixture of Irish and Scottish Gaelic. While the submitter allowed minor changes, she allows minor changes only. All of the changes suggested by the onomastics experts involved greater modifications than we felt we were permitted to make under these conditions. (3/94)

Iain Anndra of Loch Sithleann. Name change from holding name LeAnn of Wastekeep.

Iain, Anndra, and Loch Sithleann are all Gaelic; the last, phonetically Anglicized as Sheelin, clearly cannot be interpreted as an English spelling. There is no evidence for unmarked patronymics in Gaelic; the Gaelic form of the patronymic would be Mac Anndra. The unmarked patronymics Andro, Andree at (Black, p. 23) occur in English names. They are probably sufficient support for Anndra as an English spelling variant, so the Anglicized Ian (or better, Ean) Anndra of Loch Sheelin would be acceptable; so would the Gaelic Iain Mac Anndra Locha Sithleann. Unfortunately, the only changes that she allows are those involving the addition or removal of accents, so we must return the name. (9/95)

Iain Jameson of Kilronan. Device. Azure, a chevron Or between three lions heads erased argent gorged of lozenges gules and a chief embattled Or.

Conflict with Peet (Papworth, p. 441), Azure, a chevron Or between three lion's heads erased argent. There is a CD for the addition of the chief, but the consensus was that while gorging may be worth a CD when the head is the primary charge, its visual impact is much reduced when occurring on secondaries, enough so that it was felt that it was not the equivalent of the addition of a group of tertiaries to the secondaries, but rather the equivalent of the addition of a maintained charge. (10/94)

Iain MacDhugal Cameron of Ben Liath. Badge. [Fieldless] An otter couchant to sinister guardant argent.

Conflict with Titus the Alchemist (SCA), Vert, a ferret statant guardant to sinister argent. There is one CD for fieldless vs. fielded, but it is extremely hard to tell the difference between statant and couchant on very short-legged critters like otters and ferrets; so much so that a visual comparison of the emblazons showed very little difference between them. (5/95)

Iain McConnor McCrimmon of Lymavady. Device. Per pale embattled Or and azure, an armored cubit arm bendwise sable grasping a thistle proper and a Latin cross bottony Or.

As in the return of the badge of Timothy of Arindale (November 1992), "The three charges are of equal visual weight, making this a group of three dissimilar charges (colloquially known as `slot-machine heraldry'. This must be returned, per Rule VIII.1.a." (10/95)

Ilaria Morgan. Device. Azure, a bird rising to sinister, wings elevated and addorsed, within a bordure argent.

Conflict with Podenham (Papworth, p. 314), Azure, an eagle displayed and a bordure argent. There is certainly a CD for the posture change to the bird, but though the bird here was blazoned as a "dove", there was nothing about it to distinguish it as a dove as opposed to a generic "bird". As such, it falls under the precedent of not granting difference between a "bird" and any specific type of bird. (8/94)

Ilmatar Iloinen. Name.

Unfortunately, Ilmatar appears to be a 19th century invention of Elias Lönnrot, the man who collected and edited folk poetry into the Finnish epic poem Kalevala. Since the submitter appears to want an authentic Finnish name, we recommend that she consult with Schwarzdrachen, Albion, or Shield. (5/96)

Ingrid Nielsdotter. Name.

Conflict with the already-registered Ingrid Nialsdotter. The difference in pronunciation between Nielsdotter and Nialsdotter is insufficient. (3/95)

Insula Draconis, Shire of. Device. barry wavy azure and argent, two dragons combattant gules maintaining between them a sword inverted, all within a laurel wreath Or.

Conflict with Thomas Hickson (SCA), Barry wavy and per pale azure and argent, two wyverns combattant gules. There is a CD for the addition of the laurel wreath, but the complexity of the two fields makes it difficult to warrant granting a second for the per pale line of Thomas' device. (2/94)

Iona of Monaghan. Device. Chevronelly inverted vert and Or, on a pale sable three fleurs-de-lis Or.

The device conflicts with Knight-Erskine of Pitrodrie (Combo I, citing Lyon I), Argent, on a pale sable three fleurs-de-lys Or. There is only one CD for the change to the field. (8/94)

Iona of Monaghan. Name.

Iona is the name of an island, and not a given name. Ione, of which it was suggested Iona may be a variant, is a 19th Century name and is therefore post-period. A variant would then be even more modern. (8/94)

Irina Francesca degli Schiavoni. Device. Per bend sinister urdy Or and gules.

Conflict with Drummond (Combo II, p. 45), Per fess wavy Or and gules, with one CD for per bend sinister versus per fess, but there was a clear consensus among the commenters that urdy is not a CD from wavy. Conflict also with Byles (Papworth, p. 182), Per bend sinister embattled argent and gules, Boyley (Papworth, p. 182), Per bend sinister embattled gules and argent, and Marie Charlotte von Lingen (Lyon II, #0571), Per bend sinister embattled Or and sable. In each case there is one CD for the change of tincture, but it was felt that urdy is not a CD from embattled. (It was pretty universally felt that urdy is a CD from nebuly, even though we treat nebuly and wavy as variants of each other.) (2/95)

Irina Francesca degli Schiavoni. Device. Per bend sinister urdy Or and gules.

Conflict with Eustace FitzJames, Bendy sinister embattled Or and gules. There is a CD for the number of panes of the field, but not for urdy vs. embattled. (9/95)

Ironwood Loch, Shire of. Badge. Gules, a latin cross throughout parted and fretted argent interlaced with an annulet Or.

Conflict with Duxbury (Papworth, p. 612), Gules, a cross voided argent. There is only one CD for the addition of the annulet. (3/94)

Ironwood Loch, Shire of. Device. Gules, a latin cross throughout parted and fretted argent interlaced with an annulet overall a laurel wreath Or.

We are having to return the device because we cannot form holding names for groups. (3/94)

Ironwood Loch, Shire of. Name.

The earliest citation in the OED for "ironwood" is dated 1657, outside even our "grey area" for documentation. (3/94)

Isabeau de Poitiers. Alternate persona name for Meirwen ferch Llywelyn.

The citation in Gruffudd for Meirwen is undated, which virtually guarantees that it is modern, and the citation in Harpy's article on "Welsh Compound Given Names" is an error, which Harpy herself notes now derives from the Latin Marinus. Thus Meirwen appears to be only a modern, post-period name. (12/94)

Isabeau de Valence. Device. Argent, a serpent glissant palewise sable between flaunches gules.

Conflict with Thorkell Oddson as cited in the LoI, Argent, a wingless sea-dragon between two flaunches gules. Though there may be sufficient technical difference, and though there is clearly a CD between Isabeau's serpent and Thorkell's sea-dragon, the visual resemblances between the two lizards are too great to grant sufficient difference here. (3/94)

Isabeau Guion d'Anjou. Device. Per bend vert and purpure, a bend erminois between a stag springing in bend and a compass star Or.

No forms were found in the file for this submission. (11/93)

Isabel du Lac d'Azur. Device. Azure, a bend sinister embattled Or between a thistle slipped and leaved argent and a pomegranate slipped and leaved Or.

Conflict with Ronchivecchi (Woodward, cited in Combo II, p. 50), Azure, a bend sinister embattled Or, with only one CD for the addition of the secondary charges. (Though the mini-emblazon in the LoI appeared to have the bend sinister raguly, it was clearly embattled on the full-size emblazon.) (3/95)

Isabel du Lac d'Azur. Device. Azure, a bend sinister Or between a thistle slipped and leaved argent and a pomegranate slipped and leaved Or.

Conflict with Fetzer (Woodward, Combo II), Azure, a bend sinister Or, with one CD for the addition of the secondaries, and with Barbara Caballeus (SCA), Azure, a bend sinister Or between in chief an open book argent leathered Or and in base a horse trippant Or, with one CD for the change to the type of the secondaries. (2/94)

Isabel la Biche d'Hiver. Device. Vert, a pear bendwise Or transfixed by a kris argent hilted sable, a chief indented argent goutty de larmes inverted.

The hilt of kris not proper (Or) as blazoned in the LoI, but sable; as a consequence it is color on color and reduces the identifiability of the knife unacceptably. It also increases the "complexity count" to nine, with four types of charges (pear, knife, chief, and gouttes) and five tinctures (vert, Or, argent, sable, and blue). While we have sometimes permitted armory to exceed the rule of thumb complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a., generally such armory has been much closer to classic heraldic style than here. (Inverted gouttes may, and perhaps should, be blazoned as icicles per Parker, p. 292.) (9/95)

Isabelle de Sancerre. Device change. Per pale sable and argent, a fret counterchanged.

Conflict with Raginheid (SCA 7/90), Per pale sable and argent, two double-bitted axes in saltire, fretted with a mascle counterchanged. There is only one CD for the changes to the group of primary charges. (4/94)

Isabel of Biconyll. Device. Or, a beacon sable flamed gules atop a mount vert, a bordure vert semy of oak leaves Or.

(3/94)

Isabel Tamar Le Fort. Badge. Per pale sable semy of arrows inverted Or and argent semy of swords inverted azure, a griffin contourny gules.

Having the halves of the field with strewn with different charges adds a great deal of complexity to an otherwise simple design. This is especially so since the two different charges are both long and slender, and both are inverted from their normal default postures, which increases the chances of them being confused. That alone might be sufficient to require a return for simplification. Combined with a complexity count which is right at the rule of thumb limits of RfS VIII.1.a. (sable, Or, argent, azure, gules, arrows, swords, and griffin), however, definitely pushes it over the edge of acceptability. (5/96)

Iseabail Urquhart. Name.

The name uses two widely divergent transliteration systems; the forename is spelled in a thoroughly Gaelic fashion, while the surname is just as clearly written in an English manner. The name would be fine as either Isabel Urquhart (the way it would be spelled according to English conventions) or Iseabail Urchardainn (the way it would be spelled according to Scottish Gaelic conventions). We would normally have made the smallest possible change and modified the transliteration of the given to match that of the surname (Isabel), but as the submitter allowed no changes whatsoever, however, we are having to return this. (5/95)

Iseult du Soleil. Device. Azure, a sun Or supported by a cubit arm proper.

Conflict with Aldam, et al. (Papworth, p. 1100), Azure, a sun Or, Wendryn Townsend (SCA), Azure, a sun in its glory Or, US 40th Division (Military Ordinary), Azure, a sun radiant of twelve triangular rays all Or, and Rev. B.K. Kerr-Pease (Lyon I), Azure, the sun in its splendour proper. In each case there is one CD, for the addition of the sustaining cubit. As drawn here, the sun visually dominates the center of the field and therefore must be considered either as the primary charge or one of a group of two primary charges. (12/94)

Isobel of Fife. Device. Gules, a lion's face jessant-de-lys Or, on a chief argent three quatrefoils sable.

As drawn the primary charge is more a fleur-de-lys banded of a lion's face Or then it resembles a lion's face jessant-de-lys. As such it conflicts with Brock (Papworth, p. 848), Gules, a fleur-de-lys Or on a chief argent a lion passant guardant of the first, with only one CD for the changes to the tertiaries. (8/94)

Ixtlilxochitl de los Indios. Name.

No evidence was submitted or noted by any of the commenters supporting this combination of Nahuatl and Spanish. From all of the historical evidence we could find, the Native Americans were given Spanish Christian names by the Spaniards under their forced Christianization and at no time was a mixed name in this style ever done. (1/94)

Jaida Badr al-Din. Name.

We must return this name for violation of RfS VI.1 (Names Claiming Rank): laqabs of the form {NOUN} al-Din "{NOUN} of the Faith" were bestowed upon princes, statesmen, generals and high officers of state by the Caliph as titles and so constitute implicit claims to rank and station. Laurel further notes that he has not seen a laqab for a woman formed from the element al-Din. (2/96)

Jakob von Hohl. Device. Per pale sable and argent, a roundel between two pallets counterchanged.

Conflict with William Gordon of York, Per pale sable and argent, a roundel counterchanged. There is only one CD, for the addition of the secondary charges. (5/96)

Ja'mala Junaida al-Badawi. Device. Per bend azure and sable, a sword inverted bendwise sinister between three compass stars elongated to base argent.

As no device forms were found in the packet sent to Laurel, we are having to return the device. (10/95)

Ja'mala Junaida al-Badawi. Name.

The given names are unattested, but their formation from masculine Ja'mal and Junaid follows a common Arabic pattern, and we would give them the benefit of the doubt. Unfortunately, none of the Arabic-speaking peoples seems to have used double given names, and this practice has been grounds for return in the past (Nasr Hasan ibn Muhammad Abdullaziz, Calontir, 11/93 LoAR). Since she permits only spelling corrections, we must return the name. Ja'mala bint Junaid al-Badawi `Ja'mala daughter of Junaid the Bedouin' would be acceptable, as would Ja'mala al-Badawiyya `Ja'mala the (female) Bedouin'. (Note that metronymics were not used in Arabic, so Ja'mala bint Junaida would not be acceptable.) (10/95)

James Allen Mark Forbes. Device. Per fess nebuly ermine and azure.

Conflict with Bourgongne (Papworth, p. 700), Per fess nebuly of three azure and argent. There is only one CD for the change to the tinctures of the field. (11/93)

James of Colby Green. Device. Plummety vert and argent, a crossbow Or armed gules.

Conflict with Baliste (Combo II, cited from Woodward), Gules, a crossbow Or. There is only one CD, for the change to the field. (7/94)

James the Tormentor. Device. Per bend sinister embattled argent and azure, a ship counterchanged.

Conflict with Neville (Combined Ordinary II, p. 247, from Fox-Davies Book of Badges, p. 127), A ship. There is a CD for fielded vs. fieldless, but nothing else here. Additionally, most of the commenters found the outline of the ship to be too badly broken up by the counterchanging over the complex line of division to be readily identifiable, which itself is a separate grounds for return. (See RfS VII.7.a.: "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." and VIII.3." "Armorial Identifiability - Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability.") (5/94)

James Thorn de Lyon. Device. Per chevron inverted Or and sable, in chief a lion's jamb gules.

The device is being returned for redrawing. The "jamb" here does not match any of the standard depictions which we were able to find of a lion's jambe, looking more like some kind of claw or talon. (11/93)

Jane Beaumont. Name.

Unfortunately, this fine name was registered on the 9/95 LoAR to a lady in Meridies. (1/96)

Jan Janowicz Bogdanski. Badge. [Fieldless] A horseshoe ensigned with a cross fitchy azure.

Conflict with Royal Burgh of Doronoch (Combo I, citing Public Heraldry), Argent, a horseshoe azure, having seven horsenails Or. As both the cross on the submission on the submission and the horse nails of the conflict are the equivalent of maintained charges, they do not add difference, leaving with only the fieldless CD. (For those who were unsure of what the horsenails look like, rather than being simply gold "dots" on the horseshoe, they are drawn in slightly trian aspect as being perhaps 1/3 to 1/2 way out of the nailholes and "issuant" from them.) (12/94)

Jan Kees Dudel. Device. Per bend azure and argent, a crescent bendwise sinister transfixed by an arrow bendwise sinister inverted argent, and a bow bendwise sinister with an arrow nocked and drawn gules.

The device is visually confusing; the eye wants to see two bows and arrows. This sort of confusion in identifiability is counter to one of the basic purposes of heraldry, which is easy identifiability. Additionally, given the relative sizes of the charges and their visual weight, this falls afoul of the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a., containing as it does three different types of charge in a single charge group: bow, crescent, and arrows. (1/96)

Jaret Stillbhard. Name.

Stillbhard was submitted as a Gaelic version of Stewart on the basis of a typo in what appears to be some edition of Robert Bain's The Clans and Tartans of Scotland; the actual Gaelic name is Stiubhard. Since the submitter has through no fault of his own got a completely erroneous notion of the look and sound of the surname, we would hesitate to correct it without prior consultation even if that were the only change required. But in fact the name would still combine obviously non-Gaelic and obviously Gaelic orthographies in a non-period fashion, so further correction would still be required. The name would be registerable as Jaret Steward, for example, but that is very far from the submitted name and even further from the Jheric Stillbhard that he would actually like. Consequently we prefer to return the name with some suggestions.

Jaret Steward would do nicely if he wishes the name to match his Scottish persona. Both Stiller, originally an English byname for a fisherman or trapper, and Stillcart, noted from 1590 by Black, may be closer in sound to his pronunciation of Stillbhard, and both would be at least roughly compatible with a Scottish persona. But if he doesn't care whether the name matches the persona, he could register something very close to what he has been using.

The Germanic Gericus, which consists of the prototheme Gair- and the hypocoristic suffix -ico, is shown by Morlet to have been in use at least from the late 7th to the mid-11th century (in a variety of slightly different spellings). The prototheme, Gair- appears as Jer- in half a dozen dithematic names; it also appears once each as Jir- and Jeir-. These 10th and 11th century spellings foreshadow its modern French pronunciation in such names as Gérard. (At that time the consonant was more like the j in English judge.) That the same change was affecting Gerico is shown by the 1188 spelling apud Jeresi of modern Gerisy, from Gerico + -iacum (Morlet, vol. III, s.n. Gerico). It appears that this softening of Ger- to Jer- occurred quite early in some cases, early enough to have preceded the eventual loss of the final c. (The usual Old French form of the name is Geri.) Thus, Jeric would seem to be quite possible as a 10th or 11th century spelling of Gerico (or possibly even the fairly common dithematic name Gerricus, Gerrich).

The byname can also be closely approximated by a Continental Germanic name, though this one is hypothetical. Morlet notes four dithematic names and a hypocorism from the prototheme Stille-, and Pelican has found a variety of examples of a deuterotheme -bard(us): Kinbardus, Adalbardus, Teutbardus, Tetbardus, Gerbardus, Ratbardus, Rekinbard, Sicbardus. This seems just sufficient to justify Stillebard and hence Jeric Stillebard. (If the submitter pronounces Stillbhard with a Gaelic bh, i.e., like English w or v, he may prefer to construct Stilleward or Stillevard, from the fairly common deuterotheme -wardus (e.g., Adowardus) or its variant -vardus (e.g., Girvardus).) (5/96)

Jean de Chauliac. Device. Sable, on a plate a unicorn's head couped purpure, and on a chief argent a decrescent purpure.

As almost all of the commenters noted, the tertiary here is not a unicorn's head, but a unicornate horse's head. Unicornate horses (and by extension, their heads) have been disallowed for some years now. (2/95)

Jean Paul de Pont. Device. Sable, a chevron Or between two griffin's heads erased respectant and an arrow fesswise argent and a bordure Or.

Conflict with Swinton-Hunter of Hafton (Lyon #902), Sable, a chevron Or between three boar's heads erased argent within a bordure Or. There is only one CD for changing the type of the secondaries. Additionally, the arrow as drawn is far too skinny, and this alone has been grounds for return in the past. (11/93)

Jean-Robert François de Marseille. Device. Per pale gules and sable, two winged cats passant addorsed, and a winged cat sejant affronty wings displayed argent.

As Badger noted: "This looks almost exactly like the 'what not to do - modern symmetry' illustration in Hilary of Serendip's article in the Knowne Worlde Handbook." See, e.g., RfS VII.1.b., Armorial Balance ("Armory must arrange all elements coherently in a balanced design.... Designs that are unbalanced ... are not compatible with period style"). (6/94)

Jerónimo Alexandre José Vicente de Cabral. Device. Argent, a brown duck naiant proper headed sable, on a chief azure two pairs of musical eighth note Or.

In addition to the problem that several commenters had with a "brown duck proper, headed sable", conjoined eighth notes are a post-period form of music notation. (2/94)

Jerónimo Alexandre José Vicente de Cabral. Name change from Dubhán Treehill.

We need documentation for the use of four given names in Portuguese in period. Even for the Iberian Peninsula, this seems a bit much. Additionally, the LoI and the submitter's forms have the fourth given as Vicente, but all the documentation was for Vincente. (2/94)

Jessica Creaven. Device. Per pale argent and vert, two serpents nowed respectant counterchanged.

There is no reasonable way to blazon the nowing of the serpents here; none of the standard heraldic depictions of nowing seem to apply to this case. (12/93)

Jessimond of Emerichs Keep. Name.

According to Withycombe, Jesmond was a common name in North Lancashire in the 16th - 18th centuries, and she adds that Jessimond is a variant of that name. She doesn t say when it is found, but we d be willing to give it the benefit of the doubt as a late-period name if it were the only oddity here. Emerich is either German, in which case it is wholly out of place in this name, or an unattested spelling of a name usually found in English records as Emeric(us) or Emery. A Middle English Emericeskepe might possibly have become Emerickeskeep by the end of our period; Emericheskeep would be a bit harder to justify. However, no example of keep in a period English place-name is known. Finally, the submitter wants her name to match her husband's, and his submission, Tobias, son of Emerich, was returned on the 12/95 LoAR so that he could choose one of the many period ways of expressing the intended idea. The present submission teeters right on the edge of registerability, going beyond the strictly documentable twice over, though in ways that are not wholly indefensible; given the submitter's expressed desire, we prefer to return it so that they can take counsel together. (If, for example, he chooses to be Tobias filius Emerici, she might prefer the Latin form Ismenia de Castro Emerici.) (3/96)

Joan Atzur d'Andorra. Device. Sable, on a sun between three caltrops Or a caltrop sable.

Conflict with Kourost Bernard of the East Woods (SCA), Sable, a sun eclipsed Or. There is one CD for the addition of the caltrops, but nothing per X.4.j.ii. for the change to type only of the tertiary. (5/94)

Johan Knutsson. Device. Azure, a saltire sable fimbriated argent and overall a tower Or.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Johanna von Schmalenbach. Device. Azure, a bend sinister wavy between in chief an increscent and a decrescent conjoined and in base a mullet of eight points argent.

Visual conflict with Geoffrey le Gentil (SCA), Azure, a bend sinister wavy between a moon increscent and a fish naiant argent. While there is a clear CD for the change in type of the charge in base, the visual similarity between the increscent and decrescent conjoined and increscent moon is so strong that we cannot in good conscience grant the necessary second. (3/95)

Johann Dähnhardt von Kniprode. Device. Per pale sable and gules, a chevronel rompu and another fracted Or, in chief a sword fesswise reversed proper.

It was the consensus of the commenters and those attending the Laurel meeting that two different treatments should not be used on a group of identical charges. Though it makes a certain amount of "visual sense" here, it really is the equivalent of a chevronel indented and a chevronel embattled, or, perhaps even more parallel to this submission, a chevronel invected and a chevronel engrailed. (7/95)

Johann Mathem. Device. Bendy sinister argent and gules, on a pale azure a unicorn rampant argent.

The "unicorn" on the large emblazon is clearly drawn as a unicornate horse. Unicornate horses have been disallowed for some years. (12/93)

Johann Sebastian von Kuhlstein. Name.

Although the place-name was submitted as Kuhlstein, it is clear from the accompanying documentation that the submitter intended Kühlstein. Despite much searching, we have been unable to find any reasonable justification in German place-naming for either form. Kühl cool does appear in a few place-names, generally modifying a word for a body or stream of water. This is not surprising; the fact that a particular brook runs cool may well be a consistent and noteworthy feature of the local landscape. But it is not clear in what sense a stone might be consistently cool (or why anyone would care). Kuhle "deep hole, pit" also occurs, e.g., in Steinkuhl "stone-pit, quarry"; but Kuhlstein, though it can be given a meaningful interpretation (as "stone from a deep pit"), makes little sense as a place-name. The submitter refuses to allow the formation of a holding name and asserts that the meaning of the name (as explained in the accompanying persona story) is important to him; we take this to mean that dropping the locative goes beyond the permitted minor changes in spelling and grammar and are therefore returning the name. (6/96)

John Alexander. Name.

Conflict with John Alexander, American artist, listed in the Encyclopedia Britannica. (7/94)

John Blackrose. Device. Per pale argent and gules, a rose slipped and leaved issuant from base sable.

Conflict with Martynaux (Papworth, p. 868), Argent, a cinquefoil sable, and with Wildenfels (Woodward), Or, a rose sable, each with only one CD for the change to the field, and with Nightingale (Papworth, p. 859), Per pale argent and gules, a rose counterchanged, with one CD for the change to the tincture of the primary. (8/94)

John de Vere. Gules, three cinquefoils argent.

As noted in some of the commentary, the arms of John de Vere are already on the protected list. However, these arms are not those, and no one presented any evidence that these arms are of sufficient import to protect as well. (8/95)

John Elliot. Device. Per chevron azure and argent, two Maltese crosses argent and an elephant's head erased proper.

An elephant's head proper is gray, tusked argent. However, in the SCA, gray is considered the equivalent of argent for contrast. "A stone tower proper [is] grey but [is] treated as if it were argent for purposes of contrast." (Wilhelm von Schlüssel, LoAR 21 April 1983, p. 3) "A bottle-nosed dolphin proper is grey and thus counts as light." (1984 RfS, IX.5.) As a consequence, the elephant's head here is metal on metal. (3/95)

John Elliot. Name.

Conflict with John Eliot, English parliamentarian and knight, b. 1592, and with John Elliot, "New England's apostle to the Indians", both of whom have their own entries in the Encyclopedia Brittanica. (3/95)

John Levet. Badge. Pily Or and gules the points ending in crosses crosslet.

Conflict with Liechtenstein, Per fess Or and gules. There is but one CD, for modifying the line of division. (6/95)

John Linsdell of Tresco. Device. Or, a bottle bendwise inverted azure distilling a goutte and a base gules.

The bottle is not a shape which was used in period, but rather one which came into wide use after the 17th century. RfS VII.3. "Period Artifacts - Artifacts that were known in the period and domain of the Society may be registered in armory, provided they are depicted in their period forms." In any resubmission the goutte should be drawn larger. (1/94)

John of Blackhawk. Device. Gules a patriarchal cross Or.

Conflict with the Counts of Toulouse, Gules, a cross of Toulouse Or. There is one CD for the change to the type of cross, but the "voiding" of the cross of Toulouse is a part of its definition and is not the addition of a tertiary charge. (8/95)

John Paul Devereaux. Device. Azure, a mullet Or voided gules between in fess two double-bitted axes and issuant from base a demi-sun Or.

Conflict with Hall (Papworth, p. 12). Azure, three battleaxes in fess Or. There is a CD for the addition of the peripheral charge, but nothing for the change to type and partial change of tincture to only one of the group of three primary charges. (2/94)

John Quest. Name.

Conflicts with Jonny Quest. (Yes, I know he's a cartoon character. He is also, based on the commentary and reactions among those attending the Laurel meeting, apparently sufficiently well-known to meet Baron Bruce's guidelines for conflict with cartoon characters. See Cover Letter of 5 December 1992, p. 2). The discussion in the LoI regarding the different derivations of John and Jonny are not really to the point. A significant percentage of people hearing the name John Quest will immediately think of the cartoon character (even the "non-herald" attending the Laurel meeting cited the cartoon character immediately upon hearing the name, with no other background or hints). (5/94)

John the Brewer. Device. Argent, a fess gules between a lion passant guardant and in base the initial B between two birch leaves sable.

This violates the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a., with three different types of charge in the secondary charge group. (8/95)

Jonathan Thorne. Household badge for House of the Argent Horse.

The badge conflicts with Keriane Saint John of Shaddoncarraig (SCA), Purpure, a horse's head erased to sinister argent. There is a CD for the changes to the field, but nothing for single-headed chess knight versus horse's head. (9/94)

Jonathan Thorne. Household name for House of the Argent Horse.

"Argent" is not a common English element; as an adjective referring to a color, its use is confined almost entirely to heraldry. English, unlike German, has no tradition of house names based on armory; the authentic usage would be White Horse. (9/94)

Jon Dai. Name.

Conflict with John Day, a minor Elizabethan dramatist, born 1574, who has his own entry in the encyclopedia Britannica. (7/94)

Josef Keeper of Tor Wulfhaven. Name.

The locative is not constructed in a documentable manner, nor is it very likely. We would have modified it to a documentable construction - of Tor Wolveshaven - but the submitter permitted no changes to spelling or grammar. (4/94)

Joseph Grünewald of York. Device. Sable, three chevronels braced, on a chief Or a compass star gules.

Conflict with Ewband (Papworth, p. 551), Sable, three chevrons braced Or, on a chief of the last as many annulets sable. There is only one CD, for the changes to the tertiary charges. (3/95)

Joseph Keringtoun. Device. Azure, semy of oak trees argent, a chevron throughout Or and in base a domestic cat passant argent.

The emblazon is more properly blazoned as Azure, a chevron Or between in chief six trees and in base in pale a tree and a cat passant argent. As such this conflicts with Abborne (Pap. 374), Azure, a chevron Or, with only one CD for the addition of the secondaries. Were this redrawn with the trees all the same size as a semy, and the cat obviously larger as a secondary charge in base, it would be clear of the conflicts cited here. (2/94)

Joseph Walter McFadden. Device. Quarterly erminois and sable, in bend two shamrocks vert.

Conflict with Wielhelm of the Bogs (SCA), Quarterly vert and argent, in bend sinister two four-leaf shamrocks palewise vert. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. (6/95)

Judith the Melancholy Procrastinator. Name.

The byname does not follow period models. To quote Harpy: `Independently, the concepts, linguistic patterns, and actual vocabulary of this byname can be shown to be period. It's in putting them together that it flies beyond the limits of anything we have any experience with in period.' Nicknames describing mental and moral characteristics tend in English to use native rather than learned words, and they tend to relate to everyday experience. A melancholy person might be called Chirelitle `cheer little', Waneles `without hope', or Malore `unhappy and unlucky'; a lazy or slow person, Comelate, Dolitel, Hasteles `without haste', or Lenealday `lean or rest all day' (Jönsjö, Middle English Nicknames, p. 21). (11/95)

Juliana de Asturias. Device. Purpure, a mullet of eight interlocking mascles within a bordure Or.

Conflict with Abaigeal Fairchile (SCA), Per chevron vert and gules, a mullet of eight points voided within a bordure Or. There is a CD for the field, but the differences to the "mullets" are not sufficient for the necessary second. (6/94)

Julian of Alderford. Badge. [Fieldless] Two chevronels inverted couped vert surmounted by a pear Or.

The "chevronels" are not at all identifable as such. (One of the guesses was straws stuck into a pear.) As a consequence, this proposal falls afoul of RfS VIII.3., "Armorial Identifiability - Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability." (12/94)

Justin du Roc. Augmentation to badge. Per bend sinister azure and sable, a madu argent, as an augmentation, in canton a sun in glory Or.

Blazoned in the LoI as above, the registered badge is actually Per bend sinister azure and counter-ermine, a madu argent. We need an accurate emblazon form before we can register this. (9/94)

Justin of Kent. Device. Argent, three crosses crosslet sable, on a chief gules a quill pen Or all within a bordure sable.

Though blazoned (and emblazoned) in the LoI without a bordure, the submission forms had exactly the same bordure as in his previous submission and included the bordure in the proposed blazon. As a consequence, it fails to correct or even address the problems for which it was returned before. (12/95)

Kageyama Kimiko. Device. Per chevron gules and sable, in chief two dragonflies and in base a lily of the valley Or within an annulet argent.

Technically this violates RfS XIII.1.a by having three different types of charge in what is considered to be a standard type of arrangement. (4/94)

Kahlland, Shire of. Device. Per bend azure and Or, a sun Or eclipsed gules, and a tree blasted and eradicated, and on a bordure sable a laurel wreath Or.

As noted in the LoAR of May 1994, "the laurel wreath is not, and indeed on a bordure cannot be, a laurel wreath." The tree is drawn very asymmetrically, making its identifiability more difficult. See RfS VII.7.a. ("Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance."). (10/94)

Kai Saerpren. Device. Per fess gules and vert, a double-bitted axe between an oak tree riven to base Or.

There are several problems here, some with the blazon and some with the emblazon. A better blazon, perhaps, than having the axe "between a tree riven to base" would be between the halves of a tree cleft palewise to the roots or cleft palewise to the base of the stock, since the submitted blazon could be easily interpreted as placing the tree in the base of the shield, as well as having the unusual grammar of having something "between" a single something else.

The identifiability of the tree on the emblazon is problematical. Several commenters mentioned it, and those attending the Laurel meeting had difficulty identifying the charge as a tree before hearing the blazon. RfS VII.7.a. requires that elements be recognizable solely from their appearance. Such does not appear to be the case here. (12/95)

Kaleigh Hayes. Name.

Kaleigh is not at all a reasonable English respelling of the Irish Ceallach. As Palimpsest noted, "Ceallach is and was pronounced with a final hard ch as in German ach or Gaelic loch; when this sound occurs in English, it is generally rendered ch, so it's unlikely that any Englishing would differ much from the Irish spellings." (3/94)

Kamal al-Din Mas'ud Shirazi. Name.

al-Din appears always to be used as part of a title in period (in the submitter's documentation, Kamal al-Din, Sharaf al-Din, and Jalal al-Din). [al-Din is usually translated as "of the Religion" or "of the Faith".] Mas'ud can be dated to period in Dodge (The Fihrist of al-Nadim), vol. 2, p. 1042. Shirazi appears to be lacking the article which Arabic normally requires: al-Shirazi. As the submitter allowed no changes, and we were unclear on which would be the most acceptable to him in any case, we are forced to return this for more work or better documentation. (8/94)

Kambreda Spicer. Name.

The given name appears to be based on a misreading by Geoffrey of Monmouth of Kein Breit. It also appears to be a name unique to one of the daughters of Brychan. This being the case we need additional documentation for its existence and its use by others before we can register Kambreda in the SCA. (12/93)

Karin Jørgensdotter Eldhierta. Device. Azure, on a bend argent three flaming hearts gules.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Karin Jørgensdotter Eldhierta. Name.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Karl Bladeslayer. Name.

The construction of the byname is not a reasonable one. "Slay" in period (or since) did not mean "to break an inanimate object". You might try recommending to him the documented Brekeblade or Breakblade (or Brekeswerd, Breaksword, Breakspear, or Brekelaunce). (12/93)

Karl Knutsson. Or, a hulk gules.

Better known to Americans as King Charles VIII of Sweden, these were his family rather than the royal arms; the equivalent of being the "father of somebody". The general consensus among the commenters was that these arms need not be protected. (5/95)

Karoline Rosenkruzeng. Name.

To quote from the 4/95 return of Karolyne Wanderer: `Caroline does not appear to be a period name. The poem from which it was documented here, quoted by Ensign, and accompanying glosses indicate that Caroline is "little Charles, one loyal to Charles" and "one loyal to Charles". It is apparent from the context and glosses that Caroline was not used as a personal name in this poem. And the November 1994 registration of Caroline was based on a faulty inference of French use from the establishment of a Fort Caroline in Florida in 1564 by French Huguenots. However, in French, carolin(e) is the adjective formed from the Latin Carolus (Charles); the fort was probably named in honor of Charles IX, who succeeded to the throne of France in 1560.'

The surname is also problematic. It was intended to be a place-name meaning `Rose Crossing', which would actually be Rosenkreuzung. No one has found evidence for kreuzung as a genuine toponymic element in German, though Kreuzweg `crossroads' appears in the surname Creuzwöger 1641 (Brechenmacher, II:113). (9/95)

Karol Johanna von Gartenheit. Name change from Karol Gartenheit.

Gartenheit, though grandfathered to the submitter as a surname, does not mean "high garden", but rather "garden-ness, the state of being a garden". As such, it is not a placename which would be used with the article von. (2/94)

Karolyne Wanderer. Name.

Caroline does not appear to be a period name. The poem from which it was documented here, quoted by Ensign, and accompanying glosses indicate that Caroline is "little Charles, one loyal to Charles" and "one loyal to Charles". It is apparent from the context and glosses that Caroline was not used as a personal name in this poem. And the November 1994 registration of Caroline was based on a faulty inference of French use from the establishment of a Fort Caroline in Florida in 1564 by French Huguenots. However, in French, carolin(e) is the adjective formed from the Latin Carolus (Charles); the fort was probably named in honor of Charles IX, who succeeded to the throne of France in 1560. (4/95)

Karolyn Wanderer. Device. Per bend sinister sable and gules, a threaded needle and three coins one and two Or.

Parker, p. 405, seems to indicate medals and coins are a later, "debased" heraldry. Certainly none have been noted in the Pictorial Dictionary, nor could we find evidence that such have been registered in before in the SCA. As these would then appear to be the defining instance of "coins" registered as charges, we need more documentation for their use as charges and/or for their depiction here as a standard one. Barring that, would the submitter consider using the more usual heraldic "coin", a bezant (or roundel Or)? (6/95)

Kataura Hachirô. Device. Azure, two chevronels braced and couped and in base three gouttes in annulo, a bordure argent.

This is the same design which was returned in the May 1993 LoAR. The new blazon does not solve the problems noted at that time by Laurel because it does not accurately describe the emblazon. A chevronel couped would not be tipped at an angle or have one leg twice as long as the other; and though there are period examples of tear-drop goutes, none have been bent like these. Moreover, this looks much more like two charges in pale. It might almost be better described as Azure, in pale an upper-case letter W inverted argent and on a plate a triskele throughout azure all within a bordure argent; the crossing of the middle bars of the "W" and the dismemberment of the plate by the triskele are, however, problematic. All in all, we must concede that the blazon will not reproduce the emblazon, as required by RfS VII.7.b, and that the elements of this design are not recognizable solely from their appearance, as required by RfS VII.7.a. and RfS VIII.3. (8/95)

Katelin Lestrange. Device. Azure, three suns in their splendor and on a chief Or, three decrescent moons azure.

Conflict with the Kaylitha Rhiannon of Southhaven, Azure, three estoiles and on a chief Or, three crescents azure. There is a CD for the change to type of the primary charges, but nothing for the orientation of the tertiary charges on the chief. (2/96)

Katerina Petrovna Pomeshanova. Name.

There was no documentation with the submission for the final element of the name, only a letter of permission from Kazimir Petrovich Pomeshanov. No one was able to document the final element (and it was not adequately documented by current standards in Kazimir's submission), and thus we are unable to register it without additional documentation. Since the submitter allowed no changes whatsoever to the name, we were unable to simply drop the problematic element to register it. (12/93)

Katerina Razin. Household badge for House Hearthfire. [Fieldless] A heart sable en soleil of rays alternately Or and gules.

No one has submitted any documentation for rays of alternating colors on similar charges in period. As the emblazon could be equally well blazoned (and as accurately) as on a mullet of four points Or on an estoile of four rays saltirewise gules a heart sable, it is four layers as well as color on color (sable on gules). Overall, this really is just not period style as we understand it. (1/95)

Katerina Razin. Household name for House Hearthfire.

Hearthfire in this meaning not dated before 1784, and is therefore post-period. We need documentation for its probable use as a surname, inn name, or order name to be registrable as a household name here. (1/95)

Kateryn of Blackwater. Badge. [Fieldless] A mullet of four points purpure.

Conflict with James IV of Scotland, as cited in the LoI, A mullet. Current precedent does not grant a CD for the difference between mullets of four points and the default (five-pointed) mullet. There is a closer conflict, however; Eleanor Leonard (SCA) A mullet of four points distilling a goutte. There is CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for the insignificant goutte and as Eleanor's is tinctureless, nothing for tincture. (11/94)

Katherine Lamond. Device. Checky argent and gules, on a pale sable three whale's tails argent.

The "whale's tails" are not particularly identifiable, as tails or as some kind of bird displayed. We doubt that they should be added to the collection of allowable "animal parts" as heraldic charges. (See also RfS VII.7.a., Identification Requirement. "Elements must be identifiable solely from their appearance.") (6/95)

Katherine Power. Name.

Aural conflict with Catherine Parr, sixth wife of Henry VIII. The differences between Power and Parr when pronounced are no greater than those between Morton the Gray and Morgan the Gray which have been held to conflict. (6/94)

Katheryn of Heronter. Name.

There was no name submission form in the file. (12/93)

Kathrine of Greentree. Device. Per fess Or and sable, a tree blasted issuant from the line of division sable and a hind lodged reguardant argent bearing in its mouth a branch proper.

As noted by a number of the commenters, and nearly unanimously by those attending the Laurel meeting who saw the large emblazon, this does cross over the line of RfS VIII.4.a., the prohibition of "overly pictorial designs". The tree issuant from the line of division and the deer in base make an unmistakable foreground/background image which is not found in examples of period heraldry. (4/95)

Kathryn of Wolf's Glen. Device. Per pale embattled gules and vert, in dexter a seawolf argent and in sinister two arrows Or.

Though technically this is not, by the Rules, marshalled arms (because of the complex line of division), the arrangement of the charges is so unbalanced that it cannot be considered to be period style (per RfS VIII.1.b.). (8/94)

Kathryn of Wolf's Glen. Name.

The byname does not appear to be constructed in a manner following period exemplars, and no documentation supporting it was presented in either the LoI or the Submission forms. As the submitter allowed no changes whatsoever we were unable to modify it to match the suggestions of Palimpsest or Crescent. (4/94)

Katia Stesnaya. Name correction from Katya Stesnaya (on the January 1994 East Kingdom LoI).

The submitted form mixes two different transliteration systems, which has the effect of changing the pronunciation of the names. The name in its entirety should adopt a single system of transliteration; either Katya Stesnaya (as already registered), Katia Stesnaia, or Katja Stesnaja. (9/94)

Katrine Vanora of Maidstone. Badge. [Fieldless] An estoile argent fimbriated vert.

Conflict with Huggard (Papworth, p. 694), Azure, an estoile argent, and with Hieronymus Dernoma (SCA), Gyronny argent and sable an estoile of seven points argent fimbriated sable. In each case there is a CD for fieldless versus fielded but nothing for the addition or change in tincture of the fimbriation. (11/93)

Katrine Vanora of Maidstone. Badge. Vert, an estoile argent.

Conflict with Hieronymus Dernoma, Gyronny argent and sable an estoile of seven points argent fimbriated sable. There is one CD for the changes to the field, but nothing for the number of points or for removing the fimbriation. (11/95)

Kat'ryna Andreyevna Koshkina. Device. Vert, a lute bendwise sinister between two roses Or a bordure erminois.

The lute is unidentifiable as such, looking more like a spoon than anything else. Lutes, like dice and tamborines, must be drawn in slightly trian aspect to be identifiable, i.e. so that the angled pegbox is visible. See the Pictorial Dictionary, 2nd ed., #483 for an example of this. (12/94)

Kay of Triasterium. Name.

Triasterium is a constructed Latin place-name modelled on such attested names as Trimontium `[place of the] three mountains' and Tripontium `[place of the] three bridges'. The underlying noun is ast?r (genitive asteris), a masculine noun borrowed from the Greek; according to the Oxford Latin Dictionary it can signify either a plant (belonging to the genus Aster), a kind of Samian clay, or `star, destiny'. Its genitive plural is asterium, so Triasterium is grammatically of the same form as its models. Unfortunately, grammatical correctness is not a sufficient condition for registerability: a proposed place-name construction must also make sense as a place-name.

That a place would be named after three mountains or bridges is completely unsurprising; that a farm, manor, or other small community might be named after three prominent trees is also believable (and documentable, inasmuch as a Latin Tres Arbores is in record). We are not persuaded, however, that Triasterium `[place of the] three asters' is at all believable as a place-name, since we cannot envision the circumstances in which three flowers would be a landmark notable enough to give rise to one. Asterium `[place of the] asters' would be another matter; many places have been named for some plant that once grew there in profusion. But as one commenter suggested, Triasterium is as implausible a place-name as Three Daisies.

Knowing that the lady has been using the name (or a close variant) for some 20 years, we hesitate to make any but the most minor changes. We are, however, able to offer one possibility that might be acceptable to her. There are a few pairs of English place-names in which Latin descriptions have been added to existing place-names to differentiate the places. Two good examples are found in Dorset. The first is that of Toller Porcorum (Tolre Porcorum 1340) and Toller Fratrum (Tolre Fratrum 1340), on the river Toller (now the Hooke). The first is `Toller of the pigs'; the other, `Toller of the brethren', was owned by the Knights Hospitallers. Another example is Ryme Intrinseca `inner Ryme', whose suffix distinguished it from the former manor of Ryme Extrinseca `outer Ryme'. (Both examples can be found in A.D. Mills's Dictionary of English Place-Names.) Reaney & Wilson mention that the surname True may in some cases derive from one of the places in Devon named Tree, Trew, True, or Trow. These are evidently minor places, since they do not appear in any of the standard English place-name references. Consequently, it is not clear what their period spellings were. The first, at least, may be from the English noun tree, which can be found as tre and tree from the 13th century to the end of our period, or from Cornish tre `homestead'; in either case Tre should be a possible period spelling. Since there are apparently several of these places, the addition of a modifier would not be surprising; and Devon is next door to Dorset, where the examples already noted are found. Thus, Tre Asterium `Tre of the asters', though exceedingly hypothetical, is probably not quite beyond the bounds of reasonable possibility. (Note that in period the given name can probably be justified only as a masculine name (from a Welsh or Breton form of Latin Caius); Withycombe's wording strongly suggests that as a pet form of Katherine it is relatively recent. This is of course not a problem in this name.) (1/96)

Kedron Vale, Shire of.Device. Purpure, semy of roses Or, a unicorn's head couped Or within a laurel wreath argent.

As holding names cannot be formed for groups, we are having to return the armory as well. (11/93)

Kedron Vale, Shire of. Name.

Name conflicts with the "Val of Kidron", a valley along the east side of Jerusalem, and mentioned a number of times in both the Old and New Testaments. (11/93)

Kefira von Reehe. Name.

No documentation was presented that Kefira is a given name in any language, nor could any of the commenters find support for the locative. (2/94)

Keja Tselebnika. Device. Azure, a owl displayed argent perched upon a wheel Or all within an annulet cloitesed argent.

"Cloitesed" is a term unknown to any of the member of the College who commented, nor is Laurel either familiar with or able to find it. It was suggested that the term is a misspelling of cottised, a term applied to bends and chevrons which have a second, smaller version of themselves on either side upon the field. However, the charge as drawn here is not an annulet with a narrower annulet paralleling either edge; it is two concentric annulets (or, as one commenter suggested, an "annulet gemel"); hence, it cannot be an annulet cottised (even should such term be correctly applicable here, which Laurel doubts). Lacking an adequate way to blazon it, the motif must be returned. (9/95)

Keldon an tSneacta. Name.

This was a difficult decision. On the one hand, Keldon, of unknown provenance but seemingly a surname in origin, is actually his middle name and is orthographically incompatible with the Irish byname. On the other hand, it is not overly intrusive to the ear, and he apparently uses it as a given name. However, his forms show that he would really like the given name Caledon, if possible; and at the last minute Pelican found a rare Roman gentilicium Caledonius. This would be an acceptable given name in the later Roman Empire and for a few centuries thereafter, but combining it with the modern purely Gaelic orthography of an tSneachta `of the snow' is very questionable. Nix is the Latin for `snow', and niveus is `white as snow'; either Caledonius Niveus or Caledonius Nix would seem to be acceptable. We are therefore returning the name in order to allow him to make a more informed decision. (7/95)

Kendrick of the Saxon Shore. Name.

Kendrick is acceptable in this spelling only as a late period given name. The phrase "Saxon Shore" comes from a 5th Century document called the Notitia Dignitatem, which includes a list of stations under the command of an officer called comes litoris Saxonici ("Count of the Saxon Shore"). This title (not name element) dates from the late 3rd Century at the earliest, and not evidence of its use appears after the breakdown of Roman authority in Britain (late 5th Century). It does not appear to have been used in any other way (say, as a placename). The combination of an extremely unlikely placename, "lingua franca" or not, which would only have been used (if at all) in early period with a late period given name exceeds the "Rule of Two Weirdnesses", iterated by Baron Bruce in his May 8, 1993 Cover Letter: "If the elements of a submitted name are dated too far apart, then any other anomaly in the name may combine to force it to be returned. ... [H]enceforth, excessive temporal mismatch may contribute to a name's unacceptability; another problem with the name may cause it to be returned." (Cover Letter, May 8, 1993, p. 4) (4/94)

Kenneth die Katze. Badge. [Fieldless] A raven's sinister wing terminating in a talon sable.

There was a fair bit of consensus among the commenters that the emblazon was not adequately blazonable from the emblazon, nor were they able to create a blazon which would adequately reproduce the emblazon, as required by RfS VII.7.a. and b. (9/95)

Kenneth die Katze. Device. Argent ermined gules, a domestic cat rampant sable armed with a sword Or between two gores sable.

Gores should issue from the corners of the chief; those here begin nearly halfway down the flanks. As a consequence, this is being returned for redrawing. (9/95)

Kenneth MacQuarrie of Tobermory. Badge. [Fieldless] A Norse sun cross argent.

As in the return of the badge for the Barony of Bonwicke (April 1994), there is a conflict with Shimazu (Hawley's Mon, p. 65), A sun cross, with only the fieldless CD. Additionally, precedent still disallows armory consisting of a single letter or abstract symbol which, as the astrological symbol for Earth, this is. (8/94)

Kenneth MacQuarrie of Tobermory. Badge. [Fieldless] A Norse sun cross sable.

As in the return of the badge for the Barony of Bonwicke (April 1994), there is a conflict with Shimazu (Hawley's Mon, p. 65), A sun cross, with only the fieldless CD. Additionally, precedent still disallows armory consisting of a single letter or abstract symbol which, as the astrological symbol for Earth, this is. (8/94)

Kerttu Katariinantytär Roisko. Device. Argent, a pale between two roundels and a chief sable.

Conflict with Fahrbek (Woodward, cited in Combo II), Argent, a chief-pale sable, or as we would more than likely blazon it in the SCA, Argent, a pale and a chief sable. There is only one CD, for the addition of the pellets. (6/94)

Kerttu Katariinantytär Roisko. Device. Gules, a chief-pale and two roundels sable.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Kestrel Corsayre. Name.

While some names of birds can be found as personal names in some European languages, documented examples all existed as name elements since the earliest records of the languages in question. But the earliest instance of kestrel (in any form) in the OED is from the 15th C., and if the etymology suggested there is right, the word derives from French forms that are quite different. Thus, it did not exist when such personal names of this type were still being created. It might make an acceptable byname, though it is a bit late to be very convincing even in that r?le, but it cannot have been a given name in our period. We must therefore return the name for lack of a given name (required by RfS III.2.a (Personal Names)). Please inform the submitter that in period corsair meant chiefly a Barbary pirate, not a pirate in general. (1/96)

Kestrelkeep, Canton of. Device. Argent, a brown eagle's head erased proper within a laurel wreath and on a chief vert three towers argent.

Laurel wreaths are by their very nature nearly circular in form. The "wreath" here is little more than two sprigs crossed in saltire, and such have been cause for return ere this. As an aside, it should be noted the spiky feathers of the bird's head makes it an eagle's head, which loses the cant we feel certain they are trying for. This is being returned for redrawing of the laurel wreath (and of the bird's head if they wish to retain the cant). (2/96)

Kiara Rowland. Device. Azure, two hippocampi respectant Or within a orle of crescents argent.

Neither the commenters nor those attending the Laurel meeting were able to identify the primary charges a natural seahorses; the most common guess before reading the blazon was "dolphins". RfS VII.7.a. requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." We are having to return this for redrawing. (9/95)

Kiera Nighthawk. Device. Argent goutte de eau, on a pile inverted azure, a bat close inverted Or.

Though blazoned as Argent goutte de eau, the field is actually Or, goutte de larmes. ("Though you know the names to say, use the tinctures anyway." From the song "A Mnemonic" by Iulstan Sigwealding ("D'eau, a gout, a silver gout...."). The real problem however is that the bat is not at all identifiable in this posture. (See RfS VII.7.a. Identification Requirement. "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance.") (9/94)

Kieran ò Chonnacht. Badge. [Fieldless] An egg gules, speckled Or, enflamed proper.

As Lord Star noted in the LoI, the identifiability of the egg on the flame is extremely problematical. Also, as drawn, the flame is not truly "proper" but is, rather, "Or, fimbriated gules". A flame has long been considered too complex a charge to fimbriate. (11/93)

Killian Ballie. Device. Per pale gules and Or, a portcullis on a chief embattled sable three thistles Or.

The "thistles" on the chief are impossible to identify as such; even on the large emblazon, they look like some kind of tulip. The flower heads are basically thistle-shaped, but the slips and leaves are nothing like a thistle's. We are returning this for redrawing. (11/94)

Kira of Callanish. Device. Per chevron ermine and gules, in base a swan argent.

Conflict with Sheryl of Thespis (SCA), Azure, a swan naiant argent crowned Or and with the Kingdom of Meridies' badge for the Gosling Guild, Per bend sable and argent, in sinister chief a swan naiant argent. In each case there is a CD for the changes to the field, but as the position of the swan on the field here is pretty much forced by the field tinctures, no CD can be granted for position on the field between these pieces of armory. (5/95)

Klaus Hartel von Ulm. Device. Bendy pily gules and argent, three mullets of eight points one and two.

The position of the mullets is not one and two, as given in the submitted blazon, but none of the commenters was able to create a blazon which would adequately reproduce the emblazon (as required by RfS VII.7.b.). The clumsiness of the few blazons which were suggested indicate the non-period style of the design. (8/95)

Knut Guttormsson. Device. Per pale argent and azure, in pale a Viking tent arch and a boreas counterchanged.

The College has not previously registered a "Viking tent arch" as a charge. As a consequence, this registration (and/or one of the others in this LoI) would be the "defining instance", and we need some documentation for it: either that it appeared in period armory in this form or that it is a period artifact and that this is its standard or typical form. (5/94)

Knut Skytja Thorgundobald. Badge. Vert, conjoined in pale three pairs of arrows inverted and conjoined in chevron and a longship under sail argent.

Conflict with MacKinder (Papworth, p. 1089), Vert, a lymphad oars in action sails furled argent flags gules. There is one CD for the addition of the arrows, but nothing for the type of ship.

The sheer convolutedness of the blazon is indicative of the less than ideal style of this proposal. Indeed, we are not certain that the emblazon will be adequately reproducible from the blazon even as modified here. (3/95)

Ko Fujibayashi Tashikage of Togakure. Alternate persona name of Vairocana Belnon of Uddiyana. (11/95)

There are several problems with this name. First, the documentation is insufficient to show that it is formed according to Tibetan practice or even that Vairocana is Tibetan. Uddiyâna (with a dot under each d) was apparently a land `famous for its magicians'; the context doesn't make it clear whether this was a real or merely a legendary place but does show that it was not Tibetan. More important, significant interaction between Tibet and pre-seventeenth century Western culture has not been demonstrated. The Encyclopædia Britannica dates the first visits to Tibet by Western missionaries to the 17th century, and the fact that the 8th century Tibetan kingdom had some contact with the Arab conquerors of Iran still leaves Tibetans at least two removes from Western Europe. (11/95)

Ko Fujibayashi Tashikage of Togakure. Name.

This name does not seem to follow period models of Japanese name construction: both Ko and Fujibayashi are documented as surnames, but no evidence has been presented for multiple surnames in Japanese. Tashikage is apparently an error for the documented nanori (official given name) Toshikage. (11/95)

Konall Rogersson. Device. Or, a serpent embowed counter-embowed palewise contourny gules, a bordure gules ermined Or.

The universal reaction of those attending the Laurel meeting, including the non-heralds, was that this device is immediately and overwhelmingly reminiscent of Superman (Or, an S within and conjoined to a bordure gules). The submitted device contains a motif with strong modern connotations and cannot be registered. See RfS VIII.4.b., "Overt allusions to modern insignia, trademarks, or common designs may not be registered." (8/95)

Konstanza von Brunnenburg. Device. Per fess gules and azure, a fess dancetty flory Or.

Conflict with Plowden (Papworth, p. 702), Azure, a fess dancetty the two upper points fleur-de-lys Or. While there is a CD for the change to the field, the addition of complex changes to an already complex line of division on only the bottom are not sufficient for the necessary second. (6/94)

Kormack O'Kelly. Badge. [Fieldless] A cloudless natural rainbow in the shape of a crescent inverted and overall a phoenix head of flames, proper.

While the grandfather clause (RfS VII.8.) applies to originally registered elements and motifs, it does not then allow registration of different charges similarly treated. In this case, a phoenix of flames is grandfathered to the submitter, but not a phoenix' head, which is considered an entirely different charge. Additionally, the overall charge is not identifiable as a phoenix' head, and it should probably be reblazoned as an "eagle's head of flames". There was also some question as to whether this arrangement would fall afoul of the ban on overall charges in fieldless badges instituted by Baron Bruce. I believe it would; neither charge is "long and skinny" and the intersection cannot really be characterized as "small". (4/94)

Kökejin of the Iron Horde. Device. Argent, a pall vert, overall a stag's massacre sable, a bordure vert semy of water-bougets argent.

This was pended from the August 1993 Laurel meeting so that the submitter could provide the Laurel office with an emblazon showing the tertiaries on the bordure as one of the more standard depictions of water-bougets (rather than torii gates). No corrected emblazon form has been received. (12/93)

Kriemhild Walther. Device. Azure, a dragon-tailed demi-woman erect and dexter-facing sustaining a spear argent.

This dragon-tailed demi-woman blurs the distinctions between two existing period charges: the mermaid and the man-serpent. Indeed, a non-herald who came into the room during the meeting and saw the device mistook the charge for a mermaid. As a consequence of this event, the consensus of those at the Laurel meeting, and the commentary, it was felt that this charge fell into the same general category of "halfway between" charges as unicornate horses, and should not be allowed. (1/95)

Krisha Wanda Kazimira. Name change from Krzysia Wanda Kazimirova.

Nothing in the documentation submitted with this appeal indicates that Kazimir is a surname, we are unable to register this form. All the evidence that the commenters could find indicates that Kazimir is a surname, and the submitted documentation does not support the contention that Kazimir is a surname. (The first element of the "name" the submitter cites appears to be volni, "free, independent", not a given name. This situation helps to dramatize one of the major reasons we require that all documentation in another language be translated into English.) (11/93)

Krista al Kamil. Name.

None of the commenters were able to find better documentation for the given. As the submitter's own source, Family Names in Australia and New Zealand, is clearly post-period and had no dated citations for the name, the name must be assumed without better evidence to be post-period. The example of combined Arabic/Spanish names is not sufficient support for combined Swiss/Arabic names. (The submitter seemed to be confusing the Swedes and the Swiss in her documentation. Caches of Arab silver coins have been found in Scandinavia, not Switzerland. And the presence of Arabic silver coins in Sweden is only evidence that the trade routes extended that far, not that the people at the two ends of those trade routes had any direct dealings with each other.) (5/94)

Kuji Ka Onimusashi. Device. Vert, a sheaf of arrows surmounted by a vajhra fesswise Or.

There appears to be only one prior registration of vajhra, in a badge registered in 1984. It's very rarity outside the SCA and a single ten-year-old registration in the SCA leave us wondering if the charge is necessarily compatible with SCA heraldry. The unusual nature of the arrows should needs to be blazoned. However, we seem never to have used the term bowel-raker before, making this the defining instance. We need documentation that this kind of arrowhead was known in period. (The unusual heads make it very difficult readily to identify these charges as arrows of any kind.) (1/95)

Kusunoki Yoshimoto. Device. Argent, a Japanese stream fesswise azure within and conjoined to a bordure sable.

The primary charge is not blazonable in standard heraldic terminology, as required by RfS VII.7.b. ("Any element used in Society armory must be describable in standard heraldic terms"). The closest anyone could come here was barrulets bevilled arrondy, and even that does not truly describe the nature of the charges or their partial conjoining. (9/95)

Kynda of Hollyoak. Device. Per bend azure and sable, on a bend wavy between two oak-leaves argent three holly-leaves azure.

Prior Laurel precedent (December 1993 LoAR, p. 12) does not grant a CD between oak leaves and holly leaves. As a consequence this is being returned for the use of two different but heraldically similar charges on a single device. Additionally the bend is drawn halfway between wavy and wavy bretessed. It needs to be redrawn with a proper wavy. (4/94)

Kynda of Hollyoak. Name.

The derivation of the given name is a further stretch of conjectural elements then we are willing to go. Each single element of conjecture is not too unreasonable in itself, but the cumulative effect of all of the conjectural elements in the chain is just too much. Palimpsest noted that the number of conjectural steps to get Kynda from documented examples is about three. The College has long been willing to accept reasonable variances from documented examples, but to accept a series of three conjectural steps is more than we are willing to go. The byname does not appear to be a reasonable interpolation from Holy Oakes (there are almost no examples of "holy" becoming "holly" in this type of name), nor could any of the commenters find any other exemplars of (type of tree) + (other type of tree) names. (4/94)

Kyne Wynn the Kind. Device. Azure, a heart between two rapiers inverted in pile, a chief invected argent.

As noted in both the LoI and by many of the commenters, the complex line of division on the chief is far too shallow. Additionally, the rapiers are not in pile, yet neither are they palewise or any other blazonable orientation. This must be returned for redrawing. (10/95)

Kyrin Charissa de Cameron. Name.

As Hund noted, "The documentation is not sufficient as the quote in the LoI is the whole of the documentation from that source. This citation lacks dates and the referenced section has several Bonifaces, with no reference to the name Kyrin in any of them." None of the other commenters were able to lend any further support to the name from any other source. Additionally, it would appear to be a masculine name, which with Charissa would make the name one of mixed gender; while the SCA registers cross-gender names, mixed gender names have been disallowed for some time. (6/94)

Kyrstyan of Cambion. Name.

No documentation was presented for the byname beyond a statement that it is the name of the submitter's household. [This is not entirely true: the registered household name is Clan Cambion. Even to invoke the Grandfather Clause, the name would need to have been submitted as Kyrstyan of Clan Cambion.] Despite a few registrations of the byname from several years ago, we are unwilling to extend the grandfather clause beyond immediate family members. We need some documentation for the byname before we can register this. (2/94)

Kytte of the Thorny Rose. Device. Per bend rompu sable and argent, an ansata cross argent and a rose slipped and leaved bendwise proper, a bordure counterchanged.

The line of division of the field is not rompu; neither is it bevilled. Per bend bevilled would have the "jagged bit" in the center going the other way. As we were unable to find a reasonable way to blazon this, we are forced to return it. (6/95)

Kytte of the Thorny Rose. Name.

Inn names, which the byname here is said to be based on, were not expressed by the term "of the"; the form used was "atte" (at the). No documentation whatsoever was presented for the byname (other than it "is an Inn that [her] parents run"), and "thorny" seems somewhat redundant for roses. Kytte atte Rose would be a fine name, but is beyond the purview of "minor changes", which the submitter did not allow in any case. (6/95)

Ladislaus de Brady. Device. Per fess wavy azure and barry wavy argent and azure, a demi-sealion conjoined to a demi-hulk of a ship argent.

The device conflicts with Robert of the Isles, Counter-ermine, a demi-wolf erect conjoined in fess to the sinister half of a lymphad argent. There is a CD for the changes to the field, but conjoining the beasts to the demi-ships so reduces their identifiability that a visual comparison demonstrated their overwhelming similarity. (9/95)

Ladislaus de Brady. Name.

In the absence of any evidence for Polish/English names, this combination seems a bit too improbable to register. He might consider Ladislaus de Praga, a Latinized form of Ladislav of Prague. (9/95)

Lasairfhona ni Dhoinneanaigh. Device. Gules, a catamount sejant to sinister, on a chief rayonny Or three goblets gules.

The rayonny line of division of the chief is too small to be truly identifiable. Please ask the submitter to draw it with larger and fewer rayons. (11/93)

Lassarina of Esclavonia. Name.

Esclavonia is an older name for Slavonia, once the eastern part of the kingdom of Croatia and later a part of Yugoslavia; Lassarina is an Anglicized (or Latinized) Irish given name. No evidence was offered of cultural contact sufficient to support this combination, which seems quite improbable. (If the submitter is strongly attached to the name and wishes to search for such evidence, a possible starting point is the life of St. Kilian: though Irish, he was a bishop at Würzburg, Germany, in the late 7th century. The obvious questions to be answered are whether Irish monks got as far east as Slavonia and whether any women accompanied them.) (2/96)

Lassar ingen Aeda. Device. Sable, on a flame Or a raven displayed sable.

Conflict with Kristan Ahearn, Vert, upon a ball of flame Or a bull rampant to sinister, head lowered, gules, with one CD for the tincture of the field, but nothing for the change to type only of the tertiary charge. Conflict also with William of Sark, Sable, a flame proper. A visual check showed William's to be drawn as Sable, upon a flame Or a flame gules. There is thus only one CD for the change to the type and tincture of the tertiary charge. (8/95)

Laurentius Astronomus Andreæ. Device. Azure, an astrolabe Or between three mullets argent.

Conflict with Astroll (Papworth, p. 10), Azure, an astrolabe Or. There is one CD, for the addition of the mullets. In addition, the "astrolabe" submitted was colored in as only the front or cover plate without the backplate, allowing the field to show through the various "holes". (6/94)

Lauretta da Stellafessa. Name.

"Stellafessa" was given as Italian for "Rivenstar". However, the grandfather clause (RfS II.5.) does not apply to translations ("only the actual name element from the originally registered submission is covered by this permission"), and neither "stellafessa" nor "rivenstar" would be likely to be acceptable on its own without reference to the name of the Barony in which she resides. (6/94)

Lea of Crystal Mountain. Name.

Lea is the submitter's modern middle name. As Laurel noted in returning Needham Bledsoe (10/91 LoAR, Outlands), a modern middle name may be used as a Society given name only if it is a given name by type, and Lea is not; originally: it is a locative surname derived from Old English leah `glade; meadow; wood'. In addition, Crystal Mountain struck most commenters as a very unlikely period place-name. Mountain itself is rare in period place-names; and while one might find a large outcrop of crystal -- indeed, the OED quotes the phrase `A crystal clyffe' from c.1325 -- it seems very unlikely that one could find a whole mountain of the stuff. (11/95)

Leila Sa'ida bint al-Majnun. Name.

There are two problems with this name: Majnun is a masculine given name, so it should not have the definite article al prefixed, and no one has yet found a period Arabic example of a double given name. Either Leila bint Majnun or Sa'ida bint Majnun would be acceptable, but since she allows no changes, we must return the name. (9/95)

Leonhard von Löwenturm. Device. Pean, a lion couchant contourny Or.

Conflict with Mairi Rhianna nam Beanntan (SCA), Per fess argent and vert, a catamount (felis concolor) couchant sinister proper. There is only one CD for the changes to the field. (1/94)

Leximus Taurus. Device. Sable, a fess argent, a triangle throughout counterchanged between three columns argent.

The badge lacks the visual cohesiveness that is normally expected for period style, giving this a very modern appearance. (See RfS VIII.4. "Armory may not use obtrusively modern designs.") It also has a bit of a "field/ground" confusion: Is the field sable with an argent triangle throughout, or is the field argent, chapé and a base sable? (See RfS VIII.3. "Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability." and VII.7.a. "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance.") Though each of the individual elements of the design are period, the way in which they are combined here is far more reminiscent of 20th Century design and the geometrics of "op-art" than period armory. (RfS VIII.4.d. "Generally modern style in the depiction of individual elements or the total design may not be registered. Artistic techniques and styles developed after 1600 should not be used in Society armory. Charges may not be used to create abstract or op-art designs....") (4/96)

Líadaine nic odháin. Device. Per bend vert mullety argent and Or, an arrow fesswise Or surmounted by a decrescent argent and a tree vert.

The design uses three different types of charge in the primary charge group. This falls afoul of the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a., "As another guideline, three or more types of charges should not be used in the same group." "Additionally, given the relative sizes of the charges and their visual weight, this falls afoul of the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a., containing as it does three different types of charge in a single charge group: bow, crescent, and arrows." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR January 1996, p. 29) (5/96)

Li Fei-Yen. Name change from Arabella Cleophea Winterhalter.

Withdrawn at the request of the submitter. (6/95)

Lìsidh nighean Catrìona nic Lachlainn. Name.

The available evidence strongly suggests that Lìsidh is post-period, at least in this form, which is apparently modeled on the English pet form Lizzie. Being unable to find any minor change that would salvage it, we must perforce return the name.

The submitter's worksheet indicates that she wants a Scots Gaelic as close as possible to what she submitted. On the other hand, she allowed only minor changes, so it isn't clear how authentic she wants to be. She may wish to know that the use of a metronymic is not particularly authentic. And as Harpy points out, even Gaelic-speakers in period seem to have used Anglicized written forms of their names. Thus, something like Elspeth Nik Lachlann would not be out of place in a 16th century Scottish record. Ealasaid (or other given name) nighean Chatriona nic Lachlainn would probably be registerable, but it would not be authentic. (Here we have added the required aspiration to the metronym and dropped the modern accents.) (5/96)

Lindorm Ericksson Blad. Device. Or, a wingless wyvern statant gules.

Conflict with Dragomanni (Combo II, cited from Woodward), Or, a dragon gules. The only difference is for the removal of the wings. (6/94)

Linné, Carl von. Tierced per pall gules, vert and sable, on a pall argent between three coronets Or, a torteau charged with an egg inverted argent.

There was a fair consensus among the commenters that these arms did not come up to the general standards of importance to warrant protection. Not even a commenter who collects the arms of great scientists was familiar with these arms. (5/95)

Linnet Aniochdmhor. Name.

There are three problems with the name submission. First is that neither a name submission form nor documentation were included for the byname. Second, no one has been able to find examples of Gaelic bynames with non-Gaelic forenames (in this case, English/French). Third, the existence of "dark", "fair", and "little" as epithets do not lend adequate support to "merciless". Merciless is not a physical characteristic, as the others are [Ming the Merciless notwithstanding! J]. (10/94)

Linnet the Bewildered. Name.

The byname was only documented from a citation to 1685, 35 years beyond the limits of our "gray area" for documentation. The byname is clearly post-period. (1/94)

?liyah bint Leyl@. Name.

The Arabs do not seem to have used matronymic formations (which this is) in their names, either in period or since. Of only two instances in history which Laurel has found in his researches, one was 'Isa ibn Maryam (Jesus the son of Mary), which was clearly a special case. (4/94)

Lloyd of Penrose. Badge for House Penrose. Per pale Or and gules, a Latin cross counterchanged.

Conflict with Clopton (Papworth, p. 617), Per pale Or and gules, a cross patty counterchanged. While there is easily a CD between the types of cross, none of the commenters saw the change as sufficiently substantial to allow us to invoke X.2. (11/94)

Lloyd of Penrose. Badge for House Penrose. Per pale Or and gules, three Latin crosses counterchanged.

Conflict with Elwyn Tenways, Per pale Or and gules, three crosses patonce counterchanged. There is a CD for type of cross, but the consensus of those commenting was that X.2 did not apply between a Latin cross and a cross patonce. (2/96)

Lochac, Principality of. Badge transfer from West Kingdom for the Lists Office. Azure, a scroll unrolled bendwise Or, overall a dexter gauntlet grasping a sword argent, hilted and fimbriated sable.

The letter from Lochac with the appropriate signatures accepting the transfer of this badge had not been received by the time of the Laurel meeting. (11/93)

LONDONDERRY, City of. Device. Sable, a human skeleton seated and facing dexter Or atop a mount vert, contemplating a tower in dexter chief, on a chief argent a cross and in dexter chief a sword gules.

The odd charge and chief of London notwithstanding, the arms do not even appear in most of the heraldic texts familiar to members of the College. If they do not even appear at all in most of the heraldic texts we use, it is hard to understand how they can be considered sufficiently important to protect. (6/95)

Loothly Shaw, Canton of. Device. Vert, a phoenix Or within a laurel wreath and on a chief argent three bullrushes proper.

The "wreath" here was not drawn as such, but was more two "sprigs of laurel, tips crossed in saltire". A wreath should be nearly a complete circle (see, e.g., the example given in the appendix to the latest version of the Glossary of Terms, issued last month). This is being returned for redrawing. (6/96)

Loothly Shaw, Canton of. Name.

Loothly "hateful, disgusting, loathsome, repulsive, hideous, horrible" does not seem to be compatible with English place-naming patterns, and we are by no means sure that it is a plausible description of a thicket in any case. The closest element appears to be Old English ful "foul, dirty, filthy", though this is usually applied to water. Nevertheless, Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Fullshawe, cite Henry de ffulshaghe 1332, who evidently dwelt "by the muddy wood"; perhaps they would consider Fulshaghe, Fuleschawe, Fulshaw, etc. all fine forms of a place-name with the original meaning "foul (muddy) wood". (6/96)

Loric Silvestris. Badge. [Fieldless] A fret couped Or surmounted by a unicorn rampant sable.

There are two problems with this submission. First, it is of the "barely overall" variety which has long been reason for return. Second, if the unicorn were made large enough to be truly "overall", it would have the problem of overall charges in fieldless badges. In the Cover Letter to the November 1992 LoAR, p. 3, Baron Bruce as Laurel implemented a partial ban on this pattern, excepting "where one of the charges is a long, slender object, and the area of intersection is small." Such is not the case here; as a consequence, it must be returned. (5/96)

Lothaire le Noir Plouvier. Name.

No documentation was provided for the use of double surnames in French, particularly when such a combination results in the appearance of a single byname such as "the Black Gutter". (11/93)

Louise LaMotte. Badge. [Fieldless] A butterfly inverted azure.

Conflict with Constance von Messer, Argent, a butterfly azure marked proper. There is only one CD, for fieldlessness. Given the overall symmetry of a butterfly, the inversion here does not significantly change the outline, and no CD can be granted for inverting it. (5/96)

Lucan von Drachenklaue. Device. Sable, a dragon's gambe couped apaumy argent, maintaining a pomme, on a chief argent, a coronet embattled sable.

The dragon's gambe in this posture is extremely difficult to identify. This has been cause for return before (see, e.g., the LoAR of June 1993, p. 21). (12/93)

Lucia del Mar. Badge. Azure, a goat's head couped within a bordure argent.

Conflict with Carlos Richey (SCA), Azure, two rams heads in bend sinister erased and respectant within a bordure argent. There is only one CD for the change in number of primary charges. (5/94)

Lucia del Mar. Device. Azure, a goat's head couped, a chief wavy argent.

Conflict with Geoffrey of Northaven (SCA), Azure, a kid's head erased and on a chief nebuly argent three English robins volant proper. There is only one CD for removal of the tertiaries. (5/94)

Lucinda of Naevehjem. Badge. Azure, a periwinkle, a bordure invected argent.

Conflict with Bessington (Papworth, p. 868), Azure, a cinquefoil argent, British 23rd Division (Military Ordinary #676A), Azure, a rose argent, and with Royal Burg of Inverbervie (Public Heraldry, Combo I, and Scotts II, p. 358), Azure, a rose argent, barbed and seeded proper. The visual differences between a periwinkle and a rose are too small to allow for a CD. As a consequence, in each case there is only one CD for the addition of the bordure. (2/94)

Ludwig der Hartnäckig Drache. Device. Ermine, a pall dovetailed sable, overall a bull-headed dragon passant to sinister gules.

Even in the large emblazon, the dragon is difficult to identify. It needs to be drawn larger, as does the dovetailing of the pall. (9/94)

Ludwig der Hartnäckig Drache. Name.

The byname bears too little resemblance to bynames of this sort used in period, being more complex than documented similarly-formed period bynames. Would he settle for Ludwig der Drache? (9/94)

Lupus of Arundel. Badge. Argent, on a flame of fire proper a gout de sang, a bordure sable.

The gout is unrecognizable as such on the flames, appearing to be a part of the flames rather than a separate charge. Additionally, the flames are (for the most part) Or, fimbriated gules, which is not allowed. (8/94)

Lyddy Arundell de Curnow. Device. Purpure, on a bend sinister argent, three caldrons palewise sable.

The device conflicts with Urien Aflonyddwynt ap Taliesin Darianlas, SCA Purpure on a bend sinister argent three roses purpure barbed and seeded proper. There is only one CD for the changes to the tertiaries. (11/93)

Lyddy Arundell de Curnow. Name.

one of the commenters were able to support either Lyddy, the use of the French de in the name, or the unusual spelling of Kernow, nor did the submitter's documentation adequately support these. The given name is taken from a work compiled in 1871 which includes names, as noted on the dedication page, "both ancient and modern, native and foreign" (emphasis added). (11/93)

Lynn O'Liam of the Lavender Isles. Device. Or, a willow tree proper, on a chief vert four increscents Or.

The device conflicts with Ariel de Narbonne, Or, a willow tree couped and on a chief vert three suns in splendor Or. There is only one CD, for the changes to the charges on the chief. (8/95)

Lynn O'Liam of the Lavender Isles. Name.

Liam does not seem to have been a period diminutive of Irish Uilliam; had this been the only problem with the name, we would simply have dropped O'Liam, as she expressly allows. Unfortunately, both of the other elements are somewhat problematic as well. Lynn is her modern middle name. As Laurel noted in returning Needham Bledsoe (10/91 LoAR, Outlands), a modern middle name may be used as a Society given name only if it is a given name by type, and Lynn is in origin a locative surname; she might consider the period diminutives Lina and Linet. Finally, although lavendre (referring to the plant) goes back at least to the thirteenth century, no one was able to document the naming of islands for their flora as a period English practice. Given the modern perception of Lynn as a given name and its close similarity to the attested Lina, we would have been willing to overlook either of these problems as a single `weirdness'. But as it stands, the name has too many problems to be registered. Would she consider Lina Lavendere of the Isles? (8/95)

Máiri ni Raghallaigh. Badge. Azure, semy of bees argent.

Conflict with Napoleon (registered elsewhere in this LoI), Azure, semy of bees Or, with one CD for the change to the tincture of the charges. (1/96)

Madeleine de la Forest. Name

The name conflicts with Madelaine de la Forêt, registered 6/90. (9/95)

Madigan of Kandahar. Device. Gules, on a fess rayonny argent a mascle knot sable.

The mascle knot is an SCA invention, with only two registrations, and is unattested anywhere else. As such, it is not sufficiently well-known or defined (outside of the Pictorial Dictionary) to retain as a registrable charge, nor does there appear to be sufficient interest to continue to register it in the future. (3/96)

Mael Marden. Badge for House Ravenskeep. [Fieldless] On a tower Or, a raven's head erased contourny sable.

Conflict with US 37th Artillery Regiment (Military Ordinary #1292), Gules, a tower Or windowed gules with a clock marked sable. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but we lack the necessary second for the change to the type only of the tertiary. (7/94)

Mael of the Outlands. Badge for House Ravenskeep. [Fieldless] A raven's head couped and sinister facing sable.

Conflict with the Barony of Ravens Fort, [Fieldless] A raven's head erased contourny sable, holding in its beak a heart gules. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but the maintained heart is too small for the second CD. (11/93)

Magdalena Asmarit di Venezia. Badge. Per pale Or and argent, a dolphin haurient embowed azure.

Conflict with the Dauphin of France, Or, a dolphin haurient azure, finned gules. There is only one CD, for the change of tincture of the field. (6/95)

Màiri ni Raghallaigh. Household name for Wodenes Wornas.

OE worn is `large amount, number; troop, company, multitude, crowd; progeny'; the household name could be Odin's troops, Odin's company, or Odin's children. Though a number of the OE and Germanic royal lines claimed ultimate descent from Woden, such claim appears to be limited to royal families; inappropriate for use in the SCA. (See also, for example, the November 1993 return of the household name of one Da'ud ibn Auda for Bayt al-Da'ud, David's house. "Per RfS V.5., "Names that unmistakably imply identity with or close relationship to a specific person or literary character will not be registered." As Master Bruce noted, any claim of relationship -- be it "house of David", "descendants of David", or "drinking buddies of David" -- will run afoul of this Rule." (LoAR 11/94) If we wouldn't register "descendants of David", we should not register "troops/children of Woden" for the same reasons.) (6/95)

Maíre ingen I Cathasaigh. Device. Purpure, a pale ermine, overall an antelope rampant and a bordure potenty Or.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

MAINZ, City of. Device. Gules, in bend two wheels yoked by a cross couped argent.

The charge is an unusual one which occasionally gets it mention in some heraldic texts. Other than that, nothing about the city or its arms seems sufficiently important to warrant our protection. (6/95)

Maire O'Shannon. Device. Barry wavy vert and argent, a sea-unicorn contourny azure.

The field needs to be drawn more clearly and boldly wavy; even the large emblazon was more like irregularly "ripply". At the same time, it might be well to show the submitter what the standard sea-monster "erect" posture looks like. (5/94)

Maire Pacok O'Nolan. Device. Argent, a peacock in its pride vert.

Conflicts with Mahala de Sorbonne (SCA), Argent, a peacock in its pride proper, a bordure invected purpure; Munt (Papworth, p. 329), Argent, three peacocks in pride proper; and Tannis of Tir-y-don (SCA), Argent, a peacock passant regardant bendwise proper. As noted by Laurel in the LOAR of October 1992, p. 29, "peacocks have green bodies". As a consequence, there is only one CD against Mahal for the removal of the bordure; one CD against Munt for change in number; and a CD against Tannis for posture. (5/94)

Ma'isah 'al Bahirah. Name.

The byname is not documented as anything but a given name, even in the submitter's own documentation, and is inappropriately used with the article al- ("the") here. Arabic name construction and the submitter's wishes prevent us from dropping the article, and so we must return this. (6/95)

Malachi Halfdan Brightskull. Device. Per chevron rayonny paly, barry, bendy, bendy sinister Or and sable and gules, in base a Jelling beast nowed to sinister.

The line of division is not rayonny, but rather alternately indented and a sort of wavy double-crested. The upper portion of the field is far too complex and follows no period exemplars of which we are aware. [One commenter suggested "checky Campbell".] Any one of these would normally be sufficient cause for return. Additionally, there may be a conflict: Asbjorn Gustavsson of Rode, Azure, a Norse Jelling beast nowed erect and reversed argent, with only one CD for the change to the field. (11/93)

Malachi Halfhand. Device. Sable, on a pile inverted argent a Thor's hammer sable, a chief rayonny argent.

As no forms were included in the Laurel packet, we are having to return this. (4/96)

Malcolm of Fife. Device. Gyronny argent and vert, an astrolabe Or.

Conflict with Brian Caradoc, Gules ermined, an armillary sphere Or. There is a CD for the changes to the field, but the difference between this astrolabe (which is missing its chart, the back plate) and an armillary sphere, which amounts to another round thing with openwork tracery, is insufficient to grant the necessary second. (6/95)

Malcolm Rorie Rowntree. Device. Argent, a pentaskelion of peacock feathers proper within a bordure wavy purpure.

The peacock feathers were not really identifiable as such; the addition of a second "eye" in the center of each feather confuses their identity. Peacock feathers have only one "eye", located at the tip of the feather. Further, the emblazon did not have the feathers "proper"; they were colored mostly purple, with the "eyes" being of various hues of purple and blue. Peacock feathers proper should be mostly blue and green. (5/96)

Malcolm Rorie Rowntree. Device. Purpure, a triskelion of comets heads outward between three comets conjoined one and two in orle argent.

The blazon here, while marginally better than the one in the LoI, still does not adequately described the outer group of comets: they are disposed in orle, but they are oriented in annulo, and as a result neither blazon is entirely satisfactory. This is an indication that the style of the design itself isn't period. The use of a single charge in what appears to be two separate groups of charges on the field is also an anomaly. And if they aren't two separate groups, then the arrangement of the six identical charges on the field is an anomaly. (2/94)

Manfred von dem Schwarzwald. Badge. [Fieldless] A stag trippant sable attired maintaining a lance bendwise sinister argent.

Conflict with Larh (Papworth, p. 58), Argent, a stag sable, Hertington (Papworth, p. 58), Argent, a hart passant sable, and Klettenberg (Woodward, Combo II), Argent, a stag passant sable. In each case there is only one CD for fieldlessness, as the maintained charge is insufficient for the necessary second. (2/94)

Manus MacDhaibhidh. Device. Argent ermined vert, a dog statant contourny coward sable.

Conflict with Ceallach Chas, Ermine, a wolf statant contourny sable and a chief azure; Malcolm of Ered Sul, A scottish terrier statant contourny sable; and Lettice Atwode of Sandhyll, Gyronny gules and Or, a greyhound statant contourny sable. In each case, there is a CD for the field, but we do not grant difference between types of canine. Just as "a sword is a sword", a canid is a canid. (11/95)

Mar Arthursson. Badge. [Fieldless] A fang Or.

Blazoned in the LoI as a "tooth", the charge is better blazoned as a fang; the default tooth is generally emblazoned as a human molar. It is not identifiable as drawn here. The charge was registered in August 1991 in a Middle Kingdom badge, but only on appeal and against Laurel's inclinations; more recently there is a return of shark's teeth for lack of identifiability ("It was the overwhelming consensus of the commentary that the "shark's teeth" were unrecognizable, as is required by RfS VII.7.a., Identification Requirement." Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR September 1994, p. 15) (5/96)

Mar Arthursson. Device. Gules, a tent Or.

The emblazon did not show a tent of any kind, but rather a "viking tent arch", a charge which has been returned before for further documentation. "The College has not previously registered a `Viking tent arch' as a charge. As a consequence, this registration (and/or one of the others in this LoI) would be the `defining instance', and we need some documentation for it: either that it appeared in period armory in this form or that it is a period artifact and that this is its standard or typical form." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1994, p. 17) We have not received any additional documentation for the charge since that time. As a consequence, we must return it here for additional documentation. (5/96)

Mara von dem Turlin. Name.

Although the LoI gave the name as shown, it was in fact submitted as Mara von dem Türlîn, and the submitter forbids all changes. This is unfortunate, for although von dem Türlin is an attested 13th century form, the circumflex over the i is a modern scholarly indication of vowel length that was not used in period, and we must therefore return the name. (1/96)

Marcus Isenax. Device. Sable, a two-headed tyger rampant, heads addorsed, within a bordure Or.

The monster here is not the heraldic tyger; we are unsure exactly what it is. The Pictorial Dictionary, 2nd ed., #766, notes that the specific characteristics of the tyger are "its body is much like that of the wolf, but it has a crest of tufts on the back of its neck, and a tusk pointing town from its nose." RfS VII.7.a. requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." Since that is not the case here, we are forced to return this for redrawing. (5/96)

Margaret MacGillivray. Device. Or, a fox sejant gules, a chief raguly purpure.

As no forms were included in the packet, we must return this device. (10/95)

Margaret of Enniscorthy. Device. Azure, a fret and on a chief argent three crosses crosslet fitched sable.

As no forms were included in the Laurel packet, we are having to return this. (4/96)

Margaret of the Érainn. Name.

Margaret is far, far too late to be combined with the name of an early Irish tribe (they arrived in Ireland between 500 and 100 B.C.), with a temporal difference of a millennium or more. Palimpsest suggested that Má(i)rgrég Érennach would be more likely, but we felt that such a change went beyond the "minor" changes that were permitted. (10/94)

Margie of Glen More. Name.

We have an unusually large body of evidence for period pet forms of Margaret and Margery, including those now written Meg, Maggie, Madge, Peg, and Peggy; none retains the r. To judge by the pattern of these diminutives, Margie would arise from a simpler Marge; unfortunately, Marge itself does not fit the pattern of the attested forms and seems likely to be a more recent invention. (She might consider the attested 16th century form Margyt; alternatively, it appears from her form that she may be entitled to Margie under the Legal Name Allowance.) (6/96)

Margrethe Sifritsdottir of Helsinore. Device. Per fess azure and sable, a levrier rampant contourny reguardant Or.

Conflict with Connor MacTavish (SCA), Lozengy azure and argent, a wolf rampant contourny queue-fourchy Or. There is one CD for the change to the field, but nothing for type of canine, number of tails, or head position. (2/95)

Maria Louise von Lübeck. Device. Azure, a lotus flower in profile proper.

Conflict with Charla Noel du Lac, Azure, a dexter gore Or and a lotus in profile argent (with only one CD, for the removal of the peripheral charge); with Arabella Cleophea Winterhalter, Purpure, ermined Or, a lotus blossom in profile argent (with only one CD for the changes to the field); with Alisoun Kirkcudbright of Heatherheath, Azure, in pale three bees, one and two, and a lotus blossom in profile, slipped and leaved, argent (with only one CD for removing the bees); and with Katja Dara, Per chevron vert and sable, a lotus flower in profile argent (with only one CD for the change to the field). (9/95)

Marie Solange Chantal de Sainte Geneviève. Device. Gyronny argent ermined and azure, a caltrap Or.

Conflict with the badge of Scellanus of Skye, Azure a caltrap Or; with Morgan of Aberystwyth, Gules, a caltrap Or; and with Selene of the Northern Woods, Sable, a caltrap Or. In each case there is but a one CD, for the changes to the field. (12/95)

Mark de Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte. Device. Azure, three chevronels braced between in chief four fleurs-de-lys and in base a mullet argent.

Conflict with Wyville (Foster's The Dictionary of Heraldry, p. 211), Azure, three chevronels braced argent. There is only one CD, for the addition of the secondary charges. (3/95)

Mark FitzRoy. Device. Or, two bendlets wavy azure between a bear's head erased contourny and an anchor gules.

Conflict with Longecombe (Combo II, citing Dictionnaire Heraldique), Or, two bendlets wavy azure. There is only one CD, for the addition of the secondaries. (3/95)

Marlene Moneta. Device. Azure, a dagger proper, hilt and guards fleury, and on a chief wavy Or, a ribbon fesswise azure.

The ribbon is an SCA invention. While the Armorial and Ordinary has five registrations of a ribbon, the most recent is 1984. In three of those it is a maintained charge or the equivalent. A fourth has three scarves "knotted in triskelion", which have a different and more substantial appearance. The fifth, which has the ribbons as a primary element, also has them intertwined into a mascle -- effectively, a mascle of two ribbons. Thus, the charge appearing in the Pictorial Dictionary, and copied here, has never been registered before in this form as a significant element of armory in the SCA. Its loops and twists are unblazonable, leaving a great deal of variation in appearance and making it virtually impossible to reconstruct accurately from the blazon alone, which would violates RFS VII.7.b. There seems to be no compelling reason to register the ribbon as an heraldic charge. (9/94)

Marpaly zdeg. der Bach. Name.

According to Palimpsest, a close reading of the documentation for the given indicates that it probably isn't a real name. As no copies of the documentation were included in the Laurel packet, we are unable to either confirm or refute this statement. As a consequence, we are returning this for further documentation. (6/94)

MARSEILLES, City of. Device. Argent, a cross azure.

This is already protected as the flag of Finland. Nothing else about the city or its arms seems sufficiently important to warrant our protection. (6/95)

Martin Andreas of Windsor. Device. __________, a mandrake argent between three goblets Or.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Martin Andreas of Windsor. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Martin de Theleme. Name.

Thélème appears only in fiction, and is therefore not a place from which a person who lived in period can come. He needs to find another byname before we can register this. (12/94)

Martin de Theleme. Name.

While the submitter is correct that the Rules for Submission allow "new name elements, whether invented by the submitter or borrowed from a literary source", the full text of RfS II.3, Invented Names, reads "New name elements, whether invented by the submitter or borrowed from a literary source, may be used if they follow the rules for name formation from a linguistic tradition compatible with the domain of the Society and the name elements used." (emphasis added). The specific examples in the subtext are constructed OE dithematic names and the justification of a hypothetical Sheepford by appeal to the attested English place-names Oxford, Swinford, and Hartford.

The "abbey of Thélème" was an abbey appearing in the writings of Rabelais whose only rule was Foy ce que vouldras ("do as thou wilt"). It is pretty clear from this that Rabelais got the name from the Greek noun thélêma, "will". As such, the name does not "follow the rules for name formation" in either the French or Greek linguistic tradition; it is, rather, purely a literary construct designed to reinforce the effect that Rabelais was seeking. (6/95)

Martyn Map. Device. Vert, a cross parted and fretted between in bend two open books argent.

Conflict with Plowman (Papworth, p. 621), Vert, a cross voided argent. As we grant no heraldic difference between a cross parted and fretted and one voided, there is only one CD, for the addition of the secondary charges. (3/95)

Mary Black Axe. Device. Gules, on a heart argent two axes in saltire inverted blades to center sable.

As a number of commenters noted, RfS XI.4. disallows having more than one charge on a shape which was used for the display of armory. As a heart was such a shape, the presence of two axes means we have to return this design. (2/95)

Masala a'Laon. Household name for House Syrocco.

The spelling syrocco is found in an English work of 1617, where it is described as the name given by the Italians to the South-East wind; this puts it within the Grey Area as a word. (The actual Italian term was apparently s(c)irocco or scilocco.) However, socio-political units do not seem to have been named after atmospheric phenomena in period. There are a few examples in which a fairly standard place-name element is modified by a word naming an atmospheric phenomenon; one is Windhill (Yorkshire West Riding). But before registering what is essentially House North-East Wind, we need evidence that such a name conforms to period practice. (1/96)

Masala a Laon. Name.

Although the name appeared as Masala a Laon in the LoI, her form has Masala A'Laon. The byname is intended to be the French locative expression à Laon `at or to Laon'; this certainly could have appeared as a Laon in period, but A'Laon is impossible. This is sufficient reason to return the name, since she allows no changes, but there are other problems. First, the 11/90 registration of à Laon to Layla Dragon à Laon may have been an error; no one has found any evidence for the use of the preposition à in locative bynames of this type. And secondly, mixed Arabic/French names are at best problematical. On the one hand Arabic/Spanish names are well-attested; on the other, Krista al Kamil (West) was returned on the 5/94 LoAR for want of evidence for Swiss/Arabic names. And since Laon is in the north of France, this Arabic/French hybrid is hardly less improbable. (10/95)

Mathewe Stonethrower. Name.

The original meaning of the verb to throw was "to turn or twist", and it is this sense that is found in all of the available period bynames and occupational terms that contain this element (e.g., sylkthrowster "one who twists raw silk into silk thread"). Despite one commenter's facetious suggestion that a stonethrower might therefore be a maker of quartz-fibre rope, stone is not a substance capable in any period sense of being twisted or spun, and stonethrower is not justifiable as an occupational term analogous to others with the same second element. The modern meaning of to throw, i.e., "to hurl, to cast", goes back at least to 1300 and could conceivably be found in a period byname. The casting of stones is not a believable occupation, however, so any such byname would be a nickname based on a habit or perhaps some specific incident. Such nicknames, when they incorporate a verb and its object, are overwhelmingly of the form , like the name Shakespeare and the noun pickpocket. Thus, Throweston(e) might be acceptable, though it appears that to throw generally did not have the desired sense when such nicknames were most common. Oddly enough, the verb to warp did originally mean to cast, to hurl; Werpestan or Warpston(e), which would probably have been more idiomatic, would certainly be registerable. Finally, there is an attested byname Putstan put stone, where put probably has much the same significance as in the athletic event of putting the shot and may well refer to an early version of the same contest.

The submitter allows minor changes but would like to preserve both the meaning and the sound. All of the suggested forms change the sound considerably, and the one that makes the smallest change is also the most questionable, so we are returning the name for further input. (6/96)

Mathieu Bohemond. Name.

Unfortunately, this fine name conflicts with Matthew de Beaumont, registered 9/93; they simply sound too much alike. (12/95)

Mathieu Chartrain. Device. Gules, two bars enarched between four annulets, three and one, Or.

Conflict with Harcourt (Papworth, p. 17), Gules, two bars Or. There is a CD for the addition of the secondaries, but enarching of this type is a period artistic convention to represent the curvature of the shield. (2/94)

Mathieu Chartrain. Device. Per pale gules and azure, two bars enarched between four annulets, three and one, Or.

Conflict with Burdus (Papworth, p. 29), Sable, two bars between three annulets in chief and a fleur-de-lys in base Or. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for either the enarching of the bars or change to type of one-fourth of a group of secondaries. (8/94)

Mathuin MacRae. Name.

The most obvious problem with the name is that Mathuin is Gaelic while MacRae is Anglicized. Since the submitter thinks that the whole is Gaelic, and allows changes, this could be corrected by replacing MacRae by the Gaelic form, MacRaith. Unfortunately, Mathuin (or rather Mathúin) is a strictly modern spelling of Mathghamhain, and the change from Mathuin MacRae to Mathghamhain MacRaith is certainly not minor, so we are forced to return the name.

The submitter is under the impression that Mathúin is a Gaelic version of his modern given name, Matthew. This error arises from the fact that the surname Matheson can represent either the modern Gaelic patronymic surname M'Mhathain derived from Mathghamhain or the English patronymic surname Matthewson. It is reinforced by his mispronunciation of the name, which is actually pronounced approximately `mo-HOON'. In case he is most interested in keeping a version of his modern given name, we note that Maitiû, pronounced approximately `mah-tyoo', is a genuine Gaelic borrowing of Matthew; a slightly older form is Maidiú. (1/96)

Matthew D'Aeth de Lyon of Aix. Name change from Matthew Death Lyon of Aix.

No one was able to document D'Aeth as a period form from any source, and Bardsley strongly implies that such spellings as this one are no earlier than the 19th Century. We need additional documentation for D'Aeth. (1/95)

Maura Ballard. Device. Purpure, a bend sinister between two iris blossoms Or.

Conflict with Reynardine of the Glaive, Purpure, a bend sinister between two glaive heads addorsed Or. There is only one CD, for the change in type of the secondary charges. (11/95)

Maura Brighid of Darkwood. Device. Argent, a tree eradicated gules between flaunches counter ermine.

Conflict with Okstede (Papworth, p. 1112), Argent, an oak branch eradicated gules, with one CD for the addition of the flaunches, but by prior precedent nothing for the difference between a branch and a tree. (3/94)

Maura Brighid of Darkwood. Device. Gules, on a sun argent a tree eradicated sable.

Conflict with Anthony the Sinister, On a mullet of ten points argent, a pheon sable; Loren Shadwydpere o'Moerlonde, Per chevron abased azure and argent, in chief on a sun argent, eclipsed sable, a pear argent; Fine of Clare, Per pale azure and gules, on a sun argent an estoile of eight rays sable; John Emeris of Ellenar, Sable, a mullet within a sun of wavy rays eclipsed argent; and Rathnar Blaiddgwyn, Sable, a wolf's head cabossed within a sun eclipsed argent. Each of these has a CD for the field, but because X.4.j.ii. does not apply to charges placed on a sun, there nothing for type only of tertiary charge. (Several of these conflicting armories also have quaternary charges, which do not count for difference). Conflict also with Conroy der Rote, Gules, on a sun argent, a falcon's leg couped a-la-quise proper, with only one CD for the multiple changes to the tertiaries; and conflict with Seth the Seeker, Gules, on a compass star throughout Or a unicorn's head couped at the shoulders sable, armed and crined gules, with only one CD for tincture of the primary and nothing for sun vs. compass star ("multiply-pointed mullet"). (1/96)

Mavis Isleen Reynebaud of Falcon's Keep. Name.

Mavis is not documented before 1891. Isleen is unlikely as a period Englishing of the Irish name Aisling, which would more likely be Anglicized as Ashling. The submitter permitted only minor changes, and we believed the changes necessary to register some form of the name went beyond this allowance. (3/94)

Méadhbh Ysolde fra Skuyö. Name.

Meadhbh (no accent) is a modern spelling of an ancient Irish name; Ysolde is an Anglo-French spelling of the Old French Iseaut, and the locative is modern Norwegian. Taken as a whole, the combination is too unlikely linguistically to be permissible. Additionally, there is some question about the locative being formed correctly. Unless the Swedish name of the island of Skye is Skuy, the submitted form is unlikely. (11/93)

Meadhbh n¡c Fhaoiltighearna. Badge. Argent, a wolf statant contourny atop a chain and broken shackle sable.

Conflict with Harald de Sort Ulv af Danelaw, Argent, a wolf sejant to sinister sinister forepaw raised sable. As the chain and shackle here are clearly the equivalent of maintained charges (and because "dogs is dogs" in the same way that "swords is swords"), there is only one CD for changing the posture of the primary charge (to statant from sejant). (1/96)

Meaghan ferch Rhys. Device. Per bend vert and sable, on a plate a horse's head contourny issuant from dexter base sable.

The tertiary charge issuing from the edge of the roundel effectively looks like the field in the shape of a horse's head overlapping onto the roundel. The overall device appears badly unbalanced, in violation of RfS VIII.1.b. ("Armory must arrange all elements coherently in a balanced design."). (10/94)

Medb Renata. Badge. [Fieldless] On a mullet of eight points argent a bear's pawprint sable.

Conflict with Anthony the Sinister (SCA), [Fieldless] On a mullet of ten points argent, a pheon sable. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but as the mullets are not simple charges, there is no CD for changing the type only of the tertiary. (6/94)

Medb Renata. Badge. [Fieldless] On a sun argent a bear's pawprint sable.

This is still in conflict with Anthony the Sinister, [Fieldless] On a mullet of ten points argent, a pheon sable. There is one point for fieldlessness, but mullets of many points and suns are heraldically equivalent, so there is no CD between them. Nor does a sun allow application of X.4.j.ii. to give a CD for change of the type only of the tertiary charge. (2/96)

Medraut Beorhtwig. Badge. Azure, on a goutte argent a sword sustained by a hand and forearm couped gules.

Withdrawn from consideration by the submitter. (2/95)

Medraut Mac an Tuile. Device. Vert, on a bend sinister Or five shamrocks sable.

Conflict with Cruser the Ranger (SCA), Vert, on a bend sinister Or, a star of David between two mullets of six points gules. There is only one CD, for the cumulative changes to the tertiaries. (3/94)

Megan de Guillaume. Device. Per saltire purpure and argent, in pale two snowflakes and in fess two fleurs-de-lis, a bordure counterchanged.

Snowflakes have been disallowed for some little time now. If the submitter would be interested, the escarbuncle is a similar charge which would be quite acceptable. (3/95)

Meghan Oriana Lauder. Badge. [Fieldless] A Bowen knot crosswise gules.

Conflict with Douglas MacAndrew, Pean, a Bowen knot in cross gules fimbriated Or. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but we grant no difference for fimbriation. (6/95)

Meghan Oriana Lauder. Badge. [Fieldless] Four hearts voided interlaced in cross, points outward, Or.

As several of the commenters noted, the hearts lose their identifiability when arranged and interlaced this way. Additionally, there is a visual conflict with Eilis ni Roibeard O'Boirne (SCA), [Fieldless] A quatrefoil knot. There is a CD for fieldlessness, but the differences between the two "knots" is too small to grant the necessary second. (5/94)

Megryth Bowbreaker of the High March. Device. Azure, ermined, on a pale Or a viol inverted gules.

Conflict with Giancarlo Armati de Fogliano (SCA), Fusily argent and azure, on a pale Or a rebeck gules. There is only one CD for the change to the field, with insufficient difference for inverting the tertiary charge. (There is no difference grantable for the change in type between a rebeck and a viol.) (12/93)

Melchior af Härö Sund. Device. Or, two unicorns combattant sable.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Melchior av Härö Sund. Badge. [Fieldless] Three fishing hooks conjoined sable.

We need some documentation for this form of the fishing hook as a period charge before we can register it, as this would be the first instance of such a charge registered in the SCA. (3/95)

Meleri Gyfford. Device. Azure, a coney salient argent and on a chief Or three golpes.

These are registerable, but there was no name or device form in the packet. (11/95)

Meleri Gyfford. Name.

These are registerable, but there was no name or device form in the packet. (11/95)

Merfyn Gareth ap Mouric. Device. Sable, an Aaron's rod Or.

Conflict with William de Montgilt (SCA), Sable, a serpent erect reguardant Or. There is certainly a CD for the difference in type between an Aaron's rod and a serpent, but the visual similarities are sufficient that it was not felt that X.2. (sufficient difference) would apply here. (2/95)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of Guidon. Sable, a comet fesswise argent.

Withdrawn from submission by the Kingdom. (6/94)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Badge for the Ember Herald. [Fieldless] A trumpet and a beacon without flame or ladder in saltire sable.

There is a long-standing policy that badges for subsidiary offices which have a higher-level equivalent will not be registered. The subsidiary offices are to use the badge registered for the higher-level office. (6/94)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Name for Order of Guidon.

Withdrawn from submission by the Kingdom. (6/94)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Name for Order of the Ascending Swan.

The earliest date given by the OED for the word ascending is 1482 for the verbal substantive (the act of rising); the earliest adjectival citation is for the sense of sloping up; acclivitous and is out of period, being from 1616; and the earliest citation for the desired meaning is from 1667. Only this last is directly relevant to the present submission, and it is beyond even the Grey Area. Rising, dated to 1610 in the desired sense, would be acceptable. (3/96)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Title for Ursine Pursuivant.

We have found five mundane heraldic titles that might be adjectival. Besides the better known 14th century Vaillant or Volant King of Arms, A. Wagner (Heralds of England, pp. 55-7) mentions pursuivants temp. Henry V named Joyeulx and temp. Henry VI named Secret (or Segret), Diligent, and Desirous. However, they do not appear to support the indiscriminate use of adjectives as heraldic titles. First, it appears likely that Vaillant or Volant was an epithet of the man himself; both words were so used (Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Valiant, Volant), and he is called William Vaillant. The titles Diligent and Secret probably refer to traditional virtues of heralds and therefore prefigure the motto of the English College of Arms, Diligent and Secret, which can be traced at least to the time of Henry VIII (Wagner, p. 133). Desirous as a heraldic title probably means `full of eagerness or spirit; eager, ardent, esp. in deeds of arms'; this meaning, though now obsolete, was current in the 14th and 15th centuries. This leaves only Joyeulx, which, even if it have no direct reference to arms, armory, and heralds, is none the less like Vaillant, Diligent, Secret, and Desirous in naming a quality of character or spirit. And like them, it could be a motto and so belong to a known class of heraldic titles.

Ursine `bearlike' is neither a plausible motto nor a description of character or spirit and therefore does not appear actually to follow the period models that it most nearly resembles. Since it is intended for the pursuivant of the Barony of Small Grey Bear, perhaps they would consider the title Ursel Pursuivant; Reaney & Wilson cite a William Vrsel 1163, and surnames were a major source of heraldic titles. It would be very appropriate, since Ursel is a diminutive of Ursus `Bear'. (12/95)

Meri of the Bears. Device. Argent maily gules, a bear's head cabossed sable mounted on a pole issuant from base azure.

Conflict with Bjorn Sigurdsson (SCA), Paly gules and argent, a bear's head cabossed sable. There is one CD for the changes to the field, but nothing for the pole, which is visually nothing more than a maintained charge. (3/95)

Merit-ankht-Seker of Sakkara. Name.

It is very difficult to tell from the documentation whether the "given" is constructed properly by the rules of ancient Egyptian, but there is sufficient support for the general form of the name and for the use of god's names in the position here among pharaonic names that we are giving it the benefit of the doubt. The locative "of Sakkara", however, is problematical; Sakkara appears to be a modern name. Additionally, the site itself was a necropolis (literally, a "city of the dead", a burial ground) at the time of the pharaohs, and is not a place living people would be "from". (The Encyclopedia Brittanica notes specifically that the Arab village Saqqarah near the site is "modern".) The ancient city nearby, where people actually lived, was the one which we now call Memphis.

Another, and more basic, question regarding this submission, is whether and how well pharaonic Egyptian names fit into the scope of the SCA. Rules for Submission I.1. notes that "The Society for Creative Anachronism studies pre-Seventeenth Century Western Culture. The period of the Society has been defined to extend until 1600 A.D. Its domain includes Europe and areas that had contact with Europe during this period." (emphasis added) The Introduction in the Preface of the 1995 Organizational Handbook defines the scope of the SCA even more narrowly: "The Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc. is a non-profit educational organziation devoted to the study of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Most of its activities take place in the context of a social structure adapted from the forms of the European Middle Ages...." (emphasis added) And the submitter herself admits that this persona is outside the scope of the Society. In her own words, she is "a traveller, both through space and time, to the period and place of the Society".

On the other hand, the College more or less routinely allows Roman and Greek names to be registered. Is this name significantly different from those? If I may quote Harpy: "The cultures of classical Greece and Rome were accessible to medieval Europeans (at least, cultured and literate ones) from written records -- records that were deliberately and consciously preserved. But the language of the hieroglyphs was dead; knowledge of the writing system lost completely. Recall that it was only with the late 18th century discovery of the Rosetta Stone, with its trilingual inscription including Greek, that "modern" people were again able to try to decipher the writings of ancient Egypt. A classical Roman name, or a Biblical Hebrew name would in some way be accessible to a medieval European (highly educated scholar), but an ancient Egyptian name would not be something that he could have any knowledge of or familiarity with. There is simply no connection available." In other words, yes, there is a difference. Ancient Greece and Rome "had contact" with Europe during "the Middle Ages and Renaissance" through their writings; pharaonic Egypt did not. Ancient Egyptian names thus appear to be outside the scope and domain of the SCA, much as Australian flora and fauna or Australian aboriginal names are. (3/95)

Meuris of Antioch. Badge. [Fieldless] A sprig of two cherries proper.

Visual conflict with the Barony of Rowany, Two rowan leaves conjoined vert, pendant therefrom three berries gules. A comparison of the two emblazons demonstrated an overwhelming visual resemblance, which the difference in number of berries did not reduce. (6/96)

Michael die Zauberzunge von Essen. Device. Sable, a cross enhanced across the shield gules fimbriated and in dexter base a cobra coiled erect affronty Or.

To respond to one of the submitter's points in his appeal of the prior returns of this device: fimbriation of the cross is not a problem. The College has long allowed fimbriation of ordinaries, of which the cross (the standard "cross throughout", as here) is one.

The other issues, however, do not fall in the submitter's favor. The enhanced and off-center cross is not period style, nor would it be expected to shift this way in order to "make room" for the charge in dexter base (see, e.g., the arms of the City of London, Argent, a cross and in dexter chief a sword gules). (The submitter's argument that the cross here is "enhanced across the entire shield" is based on his misunderstanding of the word "entire"; crosses are "throughout" by default (that is, they are normally "extended to the edge[s] of the shield"). Hence the term "enhanced across the entire shield" does not describe this cross, which can be better blazoned as "enhanced to sinister chief".) Such a motif is inherently highly unbalanced, and no evidence was presented for its existence in period.

The one example presented for a cross enhanced and offset this way is modern: the arms of Pope John Paul II, designed for him by Archbishop Bruno B. Heim when he became Archbishop of Krakow and later modified by changing tinctures when he was invested as Pope. These are clearly modern arms, and cannot be used as evidence for period style usage.

The other arguments the client makes, that his persona is that of a German living in Poland and so he has taken Polish style arms, are not germaine to the underlying issues. As has been often said, we do not consider persona stories. (These arguments are historically flawed as well, in that the arms are not any known Polish style (even were the unusual cross to be found in period Polish heraldry, the cobra certainly is not), and given the historical relationship of the Germans and Poles, as a German he would have borne German-style armory, not Polish.)

In sum, the device is severely unbalanced, and similar motifs have been returned many times before. Lacking period support for such off-center crosses, we must return this device. (9/95)

Michael Fiaduróe. Device. Sable, an eagle stooping and in base a bow and sword in saltire argent.

The device is clear of Staylton (Papworth, p. 304), Sable, an eagle volant argent, with CDs for the posture of the eagle and the addition of the charges in base. However, by prior Laurel precedent, this is three different charges in a standard arrangement, and thus falls afoul of the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a. (3/94)

Michael Fiaduróe. Name.

There is clearly a problem in the transcription of the byname. Not having a copy of Dineen, but using another book to make a guess as to what the Gaelic letters were using Roman letters, the best that Laurel could come up with was fhiadhuroe, but (given my lack of experience in reading Gaelic letters), I am not entirely sure of even that. As a consequence, this is being returned for further documentation. (3/94)

Michael of Aquitain. Device. Vert, on two bars wavy argent five oak leaves three and two vert.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Michael of Casteles Kepe. Badge. [Fieldless] A sea-dragon azure.

Conflict with Eadwine be Bocce Sele, Ermine a wyvern undulant erect bendwise, wings elevated and addorsed, azure, orbed, langued, armed and spined Or, grasping in both legs a partly open book bendwise argent, bound gules, clasped Or. There is one CD for the fieldlessness vs. fielded, but the orientation of Eadwine's monster is a cross between erect and bendwise. The body is basically erect, the overall orientation between head, body and tail, is bendwise. A visual comparison of the two demonstrated sufficient similarity (the palewise orientation of the body tended to obscure the bendwise overall orientation of the monster) that we did not feel we could in good conscience grant the second necessary CD for posture. (6/96)

Michael of Marlborough. Device. Per pale azure and vert, three swords conjoined in pall throughout between three mullets argent.

Conflict with Marson (Papworth, p. 1110), Gules, three swords in pairle hilts inward argent between a fleur-de-lys in chief and a mullet in each flank of the last. There is a CD for the change to the field; however, the change to the type only of one in the group of three secondary charges was sufficient to grant the second CD. (The precedent that several commenters wanted to apply here does not. Propounded in the Cover Letter of September 6, 1990, p. 2, that precedent states:

It has been decided, for purposes of X.4.d, e and h of the Rules for Submission, that the bottommost of three charges, either on the field alone or around an ordinary, is defined as one-half the group ... multiple changes to the basemost of three charges under this definition will be granted a maximum of one CVD.

In this case, we have neither the basemost of three charges, nor are they "alone on the field or around an ordinary". (11/93)

Michael van Bergen. Device. Or, on a bend sinister sable a fleur-de-lys nourrie palewise argent.

Conflict with Mawle (Chesshyre and Woodcock, The Dictionary of British Arms, Vol. 1, p. 326), Or, a bend sinister sable. There is only one CD, for the addition of the tertiary charge. (10/94)

Michelle O' Domhnallain. Badge. Per pale purpure and gules, on a key cross throughout argent a county coronet gules.

Conflict with Rhys fitzGilbert (SCA), Per bend sinister gules and argent, in dexter chief a key cross nowy pierced argent. There is a CD for the field, but the change in position of the cross Rhys' device is forced by the field. As the cross here is not an ordinary or "similarly simple" geometric design, X.4.j.ii. cannot apply to the change in type only of the tertiary charge. (11/93)

Middle, Kingdom of the. Badge. Azure, four pheons in saltire, points to center Or.

Conflict with Sidney Smith, Esq. (Fox-Davies, The Art of Heraldry, p. 211), Gyronny of eight gules and sable, four pheons in saltire, points to center, Or. There is only one CD, for the change to the field. (10/94)

Middle, Kingdom of the. Badge. Gules, four pheons in saltire, points to center Or.

Conflict with Sidney Smith, Esq. (Fox-Davies, The Art of Heraldry, p. 211), Gyronny of eight gules and sable, four pheons in saltire, points to center, Or. There is only one CD, for the change to the field. (10/94)

Middle, Kingdom of the. Badge. Purpure, four pheons in saltire, points to center Or.

Conflict with Sidney Smith, Esq. (Fox-Davies, The Art of Heraldry, p. 211), Gyronny of eight gules and sable, four pheons in saltire, points to center, Or. There is only one CD, for the change to the field. (10/94)

Middle, Kingdom of the. Badge. Sable, four pheons in saltire, points to center Or.

Conflict with Sidney Smith, Esq. (Fox-Davies, The Art of Heraldry, p. 211), Gyronny of eight gules and sable, four pheons in saltire, points to center, Or. There is only one CD, for the change to the field. (10/94)

Middle, Kingdom of the. Badge. Vert, four pheons in saltire, points to center Or.

Conflict with Sidney Smith, Esq. (Fox-Davies, The Art of Heraldry, p. 211), Gyronny of eight gules and sable, four pheons in saltire, points to center, Or. There is only one CD, for the change to the field. (10/94)

Middle, Kingdom of the. Badge. Vert, scaly argent, four pheons in saltire, points to center Or.

Conflict with Sidney Smith, Esq. (Fox-Davies, The Art of Heraldry, p. 211), Gyronny of eight gules and sable, four pheons in saltire, points to center, Or. There is only one CD, for the change to the field. (10/94)

Middle, Kingdom of the. Name for Order of the Red Company.

The name is acceptable, but there was no name submission form in the packet. (9/95)

Middle, Kingdom of the. Title for Jessant-de-lys Pursuivant.

As noted in last month's return of the title Ursine Pursuivant (Meridies), the few apparently adjectival period heraldic titles do not support the indiscriminate use of adjectives as heraldic titles; all of them name qualities of character or spirit and could reasonably serve as mottos. Jessant-de-lys is neither a plausible motto nor a description of character or spirit, nor is it the name of an heraldic charge; it therefore does not appear actually to follow the period models that it most nearly resembles. (There was also no submission form in the packet.) (1/96)

Middle Marches, Barony of. Badge. Argent, a chevron inverted gules, overall an arrow inverted within a bordure dovetailed sable.

The arrow shaft and fletching are drawn far too small to be considered period style. This alone has been cause for return for redrawing in the past. However, here the bordure is also far too narrow and the dovetailing drawn nowhere nearly boldly enough. This too needs to be redrawn. (3/94)

Mikhail Kazimir. Name change from Mikhail Vojaka Kazimorov.

Nothing in the documentation submitted with this appeal indicates that Kazimir is a surname, we are unable to register this form. All the evidence that the commenters could find indicates that Kazimir is a surname, and the submitted documentation does not support the contention that Kazimir is a surname. (The first element of the "name" the submitter cites appears to be volni, "free, independent", not a given name. This situation helps to dramatize one of the major reasons we require that all documentation in another language be translated into English.) Additionally, Mikhail Kazimir is too close to his legal name, even under our more relaxed standards. The minimum change guaranteed to be sufficient is the deletion or addition of a syllable: John Smith to John the Smith, Mikhail and Michael are simply to close. (11/93)

Milada von Felsonhoff. Badge. [Fieldless] A butterfly per fess azure and argent.

Conflict with Cho, Matsudaira of Okayama, and Machino (Hawley's Mon), A butterfly. In each case, there is only one CD for fieldlessness. (12/94)

Miranda Kennedy. Name.

As noted in the March 1994 return of Miranda of Halidon Hill, "Miranda was coined by Shakespeare after the close of our period. While we have often registered names used by people documented only from the 'grey area' (1600-1650), fictional names from literature are more problematic. Given the relatively small number of prior registrations of Miranda, as well as the dates of these registrations, we do not feel compelled to continue registering the name as SCA-compatible." (6/94)

Miranda of Halidon Hill. Name.

Miranda was coined by Shakespeare after the close of our period. While we have often registered names used by people documented only from the "grey area" (1600-1650), fictional names from literature are more problematic. Given the relatively small number of prior registrations of Miranda, as well as the dates of these registrations, we do not feel compelled to continue registering the name as SCA-compatible. (3/94)

Mireille de Carcassonne. Device. Per fess sable and argent, a cross botonny Or charged with a rose gules, barbed and seeded proper.

In keeping with the commentary and subsequent December 1993 return of the badge of Anton Tremayne, the weight of commentary was that this conflicts with the Earl of Toulouse (Papworth, p. 613), Gules, a cross bottony voided Or, with one CD for the change to the field but without the necessary second for the change to type only of the tertiary. (3/94)

Mireille de Carcassonne. Name.

The given name is post-period; the first person to use the name was born in 1861. (3/94)

Miriam Engelke. Device. Azure, three otters statant in annulo a bordure argent.

Conflict with Barbara Viggiani Milanese (SCA), Azure, six mice couchant in annulo and a bordure argent, with one CD for the number of beasties in the circle, but no one at the Laurel meeting where the emblazons were compared could see granting another for either type or posture of the animals. Conflict also with Elspet NicDhubhghlaise bean Iain Mhic Thomaidh (SCA), Azure, three cats couchant in annulo argent, each biting the tail of the cat previous. Here there is a CD for the addition of the bordure, but again, a visual comparison demonstrated insufficient difference in type or posture to overcome the vast visual similarities. (1/95)

Miriam Meggett. Device. Azure, a pile inverted ployé argent ermined azure between two cups Or.

Conflict with Ovingham (Papworth, p. 676), Per chevron sable and ermine, in chief two cups covered Or. There is only one CD for the changes to the field, as we have traditionally not granted difference between per chevron chapé and a pile inverted. (5/94)

Miriam of Bristol. Device. Gules, two estoiles and a Norwegian elkhound statant argent.

Conflict with Lizbeth Ravensholm (SCA), Gules, a wolf passant regardant argent armed sable, perched on its back a raven croaking proper. There is a CD for the addition of the estoiles, but no other countable differences between the two. (5/95)

Miriel d'Estoile. Badge. Sable, in pale a compass star and three bars wavy couped argent.

The arrangement of the charges is very modern. The badge also conflicts with Ethelfield (Papworth, p. 39), Sable, three bars wavy argent, and with Basire (Papworth, p. 43), Gules, three bars wavy argent and in chief a mullet of six points of the second. Against Ethelfield there is a CD for the addition of the charge in chief, and against Basire for the tincture of the field. Given the changes in the Rules, she may wish to reconsider submitting her previous proposal, which would now clear against the conflicts for which it was returned. (2/94)

Miyamoto Yoshi. Device. Sable, a swan migrant between in dexter chief four mullets of eight points and in sinister base one mullet of eight points all within a bordure invected argent.

The device, as almost every commenter noted, is grossly unbalanced and not period style. See, e.g., RfS VIII. "All elements of a piece of armory must be arranged into a design that is compatible with period armorial style, as is required by General Principle 1B of these rules." and VIII.1.b. "Armorial Balance - Armory must arrange all elements coherently in a balanced design." (5/94)

Miyamoto Yoshi. Name.

Even in the submitter's own documentation Yoshi is not listed by itself as a nanori, but only as an element in a nanori. It cannot stand as a name by itself, but must be used in combination. (5/94)

Mór Dúin Ruaid. Device. Per pale azure and argent, a Lacy knot and on a chief three triskeles all counterchanged.

The name has not been registered, nor does it appear to be in submission. As a consequence, we are unable to process the armory. (2/96)

Mór Rígán. Name.

Irish usage doesn't seem to allow either double given names or unmarked patronymics. In some cases we have been able to get around the problem by interpreting the second element as a nickname, but it is not possible to do so here: as a nickname Rígán could only be 'sub-king, chief', which would fall afoul of RfS VI.1. ("Names Claiming Rank + Names containing titles, territorial claims, or allusions to rank are considered presumptuous"). There was also a ríga(i)n 'queen or noble lady', which would go better with Mór but which is equally problematical. However, Rígán definitely was a personal name, so there seems to be no bar to her being Mór ingen Rígáin, 'Mór daughter of Rígán'. However, the addition of patronymic particle and resultant change to the genitive seemed to us to be larger changes than she allowed on the submission form. (9/94)

Modius Monsdraconis. Device. Device. Sable, a flame between three points argent.

As noted in a the return of another proposal which also used three points: "Although all three 'points' are mentioned in heraldic tracts, in practice only the base one appears to have been used; and even in the tracts, the dexter and sinister points are described as abatements of honor, to be used separately, and not in conjunction." (LoAR April 1992, p. 19). (1/94)

Modius Monsdraconis. Name.

The grammar appears to be incorrect; normal Latin formation would keep the elements separate as either Mons Draco (dragon mountain) or as Mons Draconis (dragon's mountain). In addition, the locative would almost certainly use the preposition de, which takes the ablative case, as "de Monte Dracone" or "de Monte Draconis". While the submitter permitted minor changes, he also noted that the sound of the name was important to him, and we felt that either of the changes here exceeded the level of changes allowed. (1/94)

Montanus Granum, Shire of. Name.

While the name may be translated as "mountainous grain", that phrase follows no example of placename construction which anyone could document. Granum is a neuter, second-declension noun meaning "a grain or seed". Montanus, -a, -um is a first/second declension adjective meaning either "pertaining to a mountain, found on a mountain" or "mountainous". At the very least, the adjective needs to agree in gender with the noun: montanum granum. But that leaves us with a phrase that means either "a seed found on a mountain" or "a seed that is mountainous in form". Neither of these makes any particular sense as a placename. Without knowing what the submitters want the name to mean, we are unable to render any particular assistance with it. (9/94)

Morat d'Orleans. Name.

Morat, as a variant of Maurat, is only documented as a locative surname. As a consequence, the name as submitted lacks a given name. (2/94)

Mordaut Freyulf. Badge. [Fieldless] A plate, overall a natural panther passant sable.

This violates the restriction on overall charges in fieldless badges (the sole exception to which is a concession to SCA style in allowing "long, slender objects" such as swords, spears, etc. where the "area of intersection" is small). This policy was recently reiterated in the LoAR of 13 June 1993, p. 17. Here, while identifiable, neither of the charges is "long and slender", and the area of overlap is quite large. (12/93)

Morgaine ferch Cadwr. Name.

Morgaine is apparently an English spelling of the masculine Welsh name Morgan, as may be seen from Bardsley's mention (s.n. Hailstone) of the 1583 marriage of Morgaine Hubble and Tomison (Thomasine) Halestone. Morgaine therefore cannot well be the daughter of Cadwr. Since she permits no changes, we must return the name. (2/96)

Morgana Elisabetta da Rosate. Badge. [Fieldless] A Norse sun cross purpure, overall a rose argent barbed and seeded proper.

The rose is really not drawn large enough here to be "overall", and if it were, it would significantly obscure the identity of the underlying charge. In the Cover Letter to the November 1992 LoAR, Baron Bruce as Laurel implemented a partial ban on overall charges in fieldless badges, excepting "where one of the charges is a long, slender object, and the area of intersection is small". The only reason the area of intersection here is relatively small is because the rose is drawn to just surmount the center of the cross (the "barely overall" type of overall charge that have been cause for return for quite some time now). Were it drawn large enough to be truly "overall", it would more obviously fall afoul of this ban. (6/96)

Morgana of Raglan. Badge. Or, a melusine proper crined gules.

Conflicts with: Donnan the Truehearted, Per pall inverted azure, vert, and argent, a mermaid in her vanity, facing and her tail flexed to sinister, proper; Fionaghal nan Eilean, Azure, a blackhaired mermaid embowed to sinister, drawing a bow and arrow, all proper; and Ondine Patru de Limantour, Azure, a mermaid proper, holding in both hands a scarf, striped longitudinally gules and purpure, arched over her head. In each case there is a CD for the field, since we grant no difference between regional depictions of the same charge. (Melusines are the Continental mermaid; the mermaid is the British version.) Conflict also with Pamela Hewitt the Harper, Or, a brunette mermaid contourny playing a harp proper, a bordure gules, with one CD for dropping the border. (1/96)

Morgan ap Harry. Alternate persona name for Eduardo Negro y Albo.

We need some documentation for the form of the byname; none of the commenters cited any examples of "[surname] y [surname]" to period. It is especially needed here, where the byname literally means "black and white". (5/94)

Morgan Brianna MacBride. Name.

Brianna is a modern name that has been ruled "SCA-compatible"; its use is a definite "weirdness" and costs the name any further benefit of the doubt (see SCA-Compatibility is Weird in the 1/96 Cover Letter). In period Morgan is strictly a man's name, so Morgan Brianna cannot be a double given name; but if Brianna is interpreted as a metronymic, there is no way to reconcile the patronymic MacBride with what we know of period naming practice in Great Britain. To quote Harpy, "I can't make this one work". This alone would almost certainly be sufficient reason to return or modify the name; the use of the "SCA-compatible" Brianna removes any possible doubt.

Morgan MacBride would be entirely acceptable; Morgan Brianna and Brianna MacBride would be non-period but registerable. Her form allows minor changes, but she has imposed specific restrictions on their nature. She does allow us to respell Brianna, but we doubt that this permission extends to respelling it and are therefore obliged to return the name. (5/96)

Morgan de Comyn. Device. Sable estencely, three flames Or.

The flames are not Or, but Or with an internal detailing line of gules (Or, fimbriated internally gules?) which is drawn too significantly to simply ignore. This needs to be redrawn as simply Or flames. (10/94)

Morgan de Comyn. Name.

Black notes that there is no positive evidence for the view that the Scottish Comyns were from Comines, and also notes that the name always appears without the preposition in the early records. Reaney makes a very good case for the view that Comyn is in origin simply a personal name, with which the article de would be inappropriate. The documentary evidence seems to be clear: with probably just one known exception, the surname Comyn was understood not to be locative, and was at least used as if it were so understood. Laurel is hesitant to base a registration on a single scribal example made almost a century after the death of the man named. We would have dropped the article to register the name as Morgan Comyn, but the submitter allowed no changes. (10/94)

Morgan fitz Arthur de Grey. Badge. Argent, a griffin's head erased vert, beaked gules, collared by a viscount's coronet and chained Or.

Though the LoI noted that the badge was for the household, the forms indicated that it is a personal badge for the submitter.

As noted by several commenters, there is no defined viscomital coronet, "either as a physical entity or an heraldic convention." As noted in the return of Lucan von Drachenklaue (LoAR November 1991), "Viscounts and Viscountesses may use the default heraldic coronet (a crown indented of three points) if they so choose." The "griffin's head" lacks the prominent ears which differ a griffin's head from an eagle's. Given that the coronet is necessary to obtain sufficient difference from Fitz-Thomas (Papworth, p. 913), Argent, a griffin's head erased sable, we are returning this for redrawing. (8/94)

Morgan fitzArthur de Grey. Household name for Raven's March.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Morgan Mc Innes. Device. Quarterly sable and purpure, a unicorn's head couped argent armed and crined between in bend sinister two unicorn's horns bendwise Or.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Morgan Mc Innes. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Morgan ni Lochlainn. Badge. Argent semy-de-lys, a bordure gules.

Conflict with Mountjoy (Papworth, p. 857 and Woodward, 112), Argent, the field replenished with fleurs-de-lys gules. There is only one CD, for the addition of the bordure. (3/95)

Morgan of The Oaks. Device. Per fess dancetty argent and sable, three trees couped proper, a stump eradicated argent issuant therefrom a sword inverted Or.

Withdrawn by the principal herald for lack of a registered (or submitted) name. (6/95)

Morgan Sparhawk. Device. Per pale purpure and Or, two horses passant respectant counterchanged.

The horses here are neither passant nor rampant, but are in a posture roughly halfway between the two. This is being returned for redrawing as either one or the other. (2/96)

Morgan Torrie Kavanagh. Name.

The name does not appear to follow period models. Kavanagh is an Anglicization of an Irish surname that became hereditary at an early date. In this Irish context Torrie is a late Anglicization of Tuiridh, itself a borrowing of Old French Thierri; it is a hereditary Anglo-Norman surname. (In an English context Torrie can also be an unmarked patronymic directly from Thierri.) Before registering such a combination, we need evidence for Irish use of double hereditary surnames. Morgan Torry would have been very good. And since there is an Irish place-name whose English form is Cavan, Morgan Torrie of Cavan would also be quite acceptable and would preserve more of the sound of the submitted name. (2/96)

Morgan Wynne. Name.

The name conflicts with Morgan ap Wynne, registered 8/88. (11/95)

Morien Gwynne Bran. Device. Purpure, a bird close, a bordure rayonny argent.

Conflict with Rosamund of the Misty Meadows (SCA), Purpure, a heron close supporting in dexter upraised talon a rose argent barbed and seeded proper. There is one CD for the addition of the bordure but as a generic "bird", this could legitimately be drawn as nearly any kind of bird, and we cannot in good conscience grant a second CD for type. (1/94)

Moriz von Nordlingen. Device. Lozengy couped in fess argent and sable, on a chief azure three roses barbed and seeded gules.

Conflict with Brown (Papworth, p. 576), Barry of six argent and azure on a chief of the second three 5-foils Or, Chabnor (Papworth, p. 576), Checky argent and gules on a chief azure three 5-foils Or, and Mockett (Papworth, p. 576), Or on a chief azure three 5-foils of the first. In each case there is only one CD for the changes to the field. (1/94)

Morna of the Glee-wood. Name.

Glee-wood appears to be a unique creation of Margaret Williams for her book on Middle English literature, and no one could find any other documentation to support it. (11/93)

Morwenna Adeva ferch Gruffudd of Northaven. Device. Gules, on a flame Or a mullet gules, a chief embattled Or.

Conflict with Anthony of the Light (SCA), Gules on a sun Or a cross of St. Anthony gules a chief embattled Or. There is one CD for the change to type of the primary charge, but not a second for the change to type only of the tertiaries. On any resubmission, please ask the submitter to draw the chief wider. (1/94)

Morwenna Bengrych Rhos y Blaidd Cadarn. Name.

There are two problems with this submission. One is the question of the registrability of "of the moor of the mighty wolf", even in Welsh. The formation does not appear to follow any particularly period patterns. The other is that no submission form was found in the Laurel packet. (10/94)

Morwenna Gwir. Badge. [Fieldless] A triskelion arrondi of vines surmounted by a periwinkle argent.

[Irreverent comment from the Laurel meeting: "Weed whacker, one; kudzu, three!" J] There were several problems with this badge. The "triskelion" of vines is not really identifiable as such. Very few of those seeing the emblazon without the blazon came up with "triskelion" to describe the vines. The "vines" themselves are inadequately blazoned; the default "vine" is a grapevine. We cannot ascertain from the emblazon what kind of vines these are, but they are clearly not grapevines. Some of the commenters questioned whether the "triskelion arrondi of vines" was any more than an elaborate "slipping and leaving", which could then lead to a conflict with Breant (Papworth, p. 868), Gules, a cinquefoil argent (with a CD for fieldlessness and possibly another for the addition of the large "slipping and leaving"), and with Titus of Wormwood (SCA), Purpure a cinquefoil slipped and singly leaved argent (with the fieldless CD, but only a change to the style of the slipping and leaving). Moreover, the overall design appears to run afoul of the ban on overall charges in fieldless badges, as the area of intersection is not "small". (9/94)

Morwenna 'r Glyn. Name.

Conflict Morwen o'r Llyn, per RfS V.1.a., which notes that "two name phrases are considered significantly different if they differ significantly in sound and appearance" (emphasis added). It was the consensus of those at the Laurel meeting that the differences between the two names are not sufficiently "significant". (7/94)

Mountain Edge, Shire of. Device. Per fess azure and argent, a fess of three lozenges conjoined between three laurel wreaths counterchanged.

Conflict with Joshua the Pilgrim (registered 3/95), Per fess azure and argent, a fess fusilly counterchanged. There is only one CD, for the addition of the secondary charges. (7/95)

Mountain's Edge, Canton of. Name.

The justification given in the LoI for the form of the name doesn't work. Even taking "edge" to mean "boundary, frontier", it is clear from the construction that the name means "boundary/ frontier belonging to the mountain", not "mountain frontier". Palimpsest's research found that the Old English ecg ("edge") in place-names is "the sharp edge at the top of a hill, esp. an escarpment", and suggested from this the name Mountain Edge. Even better would be Edgemont. But since they did not allow any changes whatsoever to the name, we are having to return this. (5/94)

Mountain's Edge, Shire of. Device. Per fess enhanced azure and argent, a fess enhanced indented counterchanged in base a laurel wreath vert.

Lion's Blood is correct in noting that the fess is "not dancetty, as the defining characteristic of that complex line is the fact that the indentations on both sides line up. Therefore, if it is anything, it is indented."

However, as Triton quoted of an earlier decision, "The blazon stated the design to be 'per fess rayonny enhanced'. As many in the College noted, there is no such thing. What we have here is a chief, properly enlarged in the period manner to allow the harp to be clearly visible." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 21 January 1990, p. 1). And, of course, we cannot have an ordinary (or any other charge, for that matter) overlying a chief. While the suggestion was made that perhaps we could drop the two instances of the word "enhanced" from the blazon and treat the upward shift as merely the artistic allowance of greater space for the single charge in base, that sort of "artistic enhancement" would generally only apply to the ordinary and not to the underlying line of division, which would then, of course, destroy the effect the submitters are trying for. As a consequence, the stylistic problems are too great to be overcome with a mere reblazoning and allowance for artistic license.

Additionally, the overall design has a very modern "feel" to it, reminding Laurel of nothing so much as some mid-20th Century Icelandic civic heraldry which also uses the "mirrored mountains" motif.

Finally, even if the device were not returned for its own problems, it would have had to be returned because the group's name was returned in the May 1994 LoAR, and we cannot form holding names for groups. (7/94)

Mredyth Vetrgaupa. Name.

Not only is the combination of an Anglicized Welsh masculine given name with a compound Icelandic byname highly improbable, but the problems with documenting the form of the byname. There are no compounds of the form vetr-<name of animal>, and the examples cited in the LoI are not support for this form. Nor does the byname have any likely signification on its face. In the absence of adequate documentation, we are forced to return this. (5/94)

Muirghein ni Ghrainne. Badge. [Fieldless] On a tower azure, a hawk's lure argent.

Conflict with der Durner (Manesse 101) Argent, a belltower azure roofed gules containing a bell argent. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but the type change between a bell and the hawk's lure insufficient on a complex charge like a tower, and the red roof too small to allow a CD for tincture change. (7/94)

Muirghen Ruadh. Device. Per fess rayonny gules and azure, a dragon sejant erect to sinister and a mullet of eight points formed of two delfs voided interlaced Or.

The line of division on the device is not really rayonny, but is rather the unregisterable wavy crested. (3/94)

MUNICH, City of. Device. Argent, a monk statant affronty arms outspread proper vested sable maintaining in his sinister hand a book gules.

While some argued that these arms were in the same category as Bern, that city is a national capital. The arms, while canting, do not otherwise appear to warrant our protection. (6/95)

Myron Duxippus Draco. Device. Per chevron inverted gules and sable, a dragon statant reguardant Or.

Conflict with Percival de Toulouse, Per fess indented azure and gules, a wyvern passant Or. There is one CD for the changes to the field, but as dragons and wyverns are simply the British and Continental variants of the same charge the SCA grants no difference between them, and precedent has long held that there is no CD between passant and statant, which involves only the moving of one leg. (5/96)

Naevehjem, Barony of. Name for Order of the Dragon's Dream.

This does not appear to follow any period exemplars of which we are aware, nor does it match in style their other "Dragon's [part]" proposals. Order names in period seem to have been based on tangible objects (such as the Order of the Golden Fleece) or on abstract concepts which members of the Order embody (such as the Legion of Honor.) The "Order of the Dragon's Dream" doesn't appear to fit either of these categories. (2/94)

Naevehjem, Barony of. Name for Order of the Dragon's Flame.

As noted in the LoI, this conflicts with the Barony of the Flame and the Flame Pursuivant. Presumably this is why no submission form for the name was included in the Laurel packet. (2/94)

Namara abdul Jemeel. Name.

There are several problems with this name. Namara was justified as a feminization of Namir; period examples of feminizing Arabic masculine names by addition of -a are known, but the change of the second vowel from i to a is very unlikely. Moreover, examination of the documentation shows that the name found there is actually al-Namir, an epithet of some kind rather than a given name. Jemeel appears to be a variant of the name usually transliterated Jamil, meaning "beautiful, graceful, handsome"; however, it is not one of the traditional attributes of Allah on which names of the form 'Abd al-X or Abdul-X are based. Finally, Laurel has never seen a cognomen of this type used by a woman in period. (4/96)

nan Críoch Tuatha, Stronghold of. Device. Argent, a sea-lion gules within a laurel wreath vert, in chief a wooden palisade wall with a gate tower proper.

The identifiability of charge in chief, "a wooden palisade wall with a gate tower", is problematical. A registration of this submission would apparently be the first, and therefore defining, instance of such a charge. Especially in the case of charges not registered previously, the College requires documentation that the charge (a) has been used in period armory or (b) is compatible with similar charges in period armory, and (c) has a standardized depiction which would make reproducability from the blazon possible. We need such documentation here. (8/95)

Nasir ibn Khaziz. Name.

Then-Lord Clarion was unable to document either Nasir as a given name in its own right (it appears as a phrase in a title), nor the patronymic. As no documentation was enclosed in the Laurel packet which supported either of these elements, we are having to return the name. (1/94)

Nasr Hasan ibn Muhammad Abdullaziz. Device. Sable, a scorpion holding in its pincers an arrow fesswise, in chief a crescent Or.

The device is being returned for redrawing of the arrow. Even on the large emblazon it is far too skinny to be considered period style. (11/93)

Nasr Hasan ibn Muhammad Abdullaziz. Name.

The name is not formed in any manner that we could document in period. None of the Arabic-speaking peoples appear to have formed names using a double given name. Since the submitter did not allow any changes or corrections whatsoever, we are having to return this. (11/93)

Natalie the Lamp Lighter. Device. Azure, on a pale bretessed between two lit candles Or a lit candle gules.

The device has a visual conflict with Eileen Rahel do Pico, Azure, on a pale bretessed Or between two candles argent enflamed a recorder proper. There is a CD for the tincture of the secondary candles, but it was the consensus of those attending the Laurel meeting who compared the two emblazons that the recorder proper and candle gules looked too much alike to grant the necessary second. The tincture change (from brown to red) was much more prominent than the type change. (10/95)

Natalie the Lamp Lighter. Name.

No evidence was presented that lamp-lighting was a period occupation. We shouldn't be surprised to find that it was, but given the doubts expressed by several commenters, we need some actual evidence that the byname is reasonable. The closest that we can come are some period occupational terms for lantern-bearers or candle-bearers, e.g., Latin lanternarius and the derived French surname Lanternier. (The situation is analogous to the first registration of a previously-unused charge.)

The name on the LoI was changed at kingdom from Natale Domini the Lamp Lighter, with the intended meaning `Christmas Day Lamp Lighter'. She might consider Latin Natalia Domini `Natalia [daughter of] Dominus'; both Latin names are attested from late Roman times. If the idea of Christmas is particularly important to her, she might consider something like Noel Cristemasse, which would be an excellent 13th century English name. (11/95)

Nathair Airgid, Shire of. Device. Per saltire gules and sable, a bird-winged pithon erect its tail environed of a laurel wreath argent.

The charge in base is not a laurel wreath, which is a nearly circular charge, but is rather two sprigs of laurel crossed at the tips. Such renditions of wreaths have been cause for return in the past. Additionally, the primary charge as drawn is not a pithon (for an example of which see the Pictorial Dictionary, 2nd ed., No. 571); it is, rather, a legless, bird-winged dragon, which in this posture looks remarkably like a hippocampus. Indeed, one of the non-heralds attending the Laurel meeting believed that it was such upon seeing it. As such, this does not meet the requirements of RfS. VII.7.a. ("Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance").

Nathaniel Brewer. Device. Per chevron gules and azure, in base a garb Or.

Conflict with Grosvenor, Azure, a garb Or; Floeda fram Beram Beorh, Counterermine, a garb Or banded gules; Asdis Stafansdottir, Per fess azure and vert, a garb Or embrued and Grane the Goldman of Hippogriff Tower, Sable, three stalks of wheat as in a garb Or, all cited in the LoI. There is in each case a CD for the changes to the field, but the slight abasement of the garb here is within the artistic limits for a charge in the center of the field. Nathaniel's garb may be in base, but only in the sense that it is in the lower compartment of the field; cover the line of division and it is within the range of reasonable positions for a central charge on a plain field (albeit slightly abased). As a consequence, no CD can reasonably be granted for position on the field. (8/95)

Niamh de Burgh. Name.

The name combines Gaelic and English name elements in a way that has not yet been documented in period. de Burgh became in Ireland de Burk, which was then taken into Irish as de Búrc. We would have modified the name thus to register it, but as the submitter allowed no changes whatsoever we are forced to return it. (2/95)

Nicolas der KatzenJäger. Device. Per pale Or and purpure, two cats sejant respectant counterchanged.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Nicolas der KatzenJäger. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Nicole-Julienne Laviolette. Device. Per chevron azure and vert scaly Or, three fleurs-de-lys in chevron, each within a mascle Or.

"The use of multiple gold fleurs-de-lys on blue is not permitted in SCA armory: it is too strongly suggestive of a claim of connection to French royalty. ... The prohibition is supported by period practice. ... The period examples are so numerous that I feel I must uphold the Society's ban on gold fleurs-de-lys on blue backgrounds." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR July 1992, p. 23) That the fleurs here are within mascles does not lessen the suggestion of that claim. (5/94)

Nicoletta di Padova. Device. Gules, a swan naiant and on a chief argent three roses gules.

Conflict (as cited in the LoI) with Parlan MacGillivray (SCA), Gules, a swan naiant, wings elevated, and on a chief argent three trefoil knots gules. There is a CD for the change to the type of tertiary in this simple armory, but the change in wing position is insufficient for the necessary second. (5/94)

Nordmark, Barony of. Badge. [Fieldless] A piece of chain fesswise sable interlaced with a ribbon Or.

It was the clear consensus of those attending the Laurel meeting that the charges were unidentifiable from the emblazon; the interlacing of the ribbon with the chain so reduced the identifiability of each that their identity was lost. (See RfS VII.7.a., Identification Requirement. "Elements must be identifiable solely from their appearance.") (6/95)

Nordmark, Barony of. Badge for the Lists Office. [Fieldless] An annulet of rope nowed in base gules surmounted by a sword and a quill pen crossed in saltire argent.

There are two problems here. While overall charges have been allowed in fieldless badges where identifiability of all the charges is maintained and the area of intersection is relatively small (as is the case here, admittedly), this proposal has two overall charges, which goes beyond the pale of the registered examples to date. Additionally, this proposal consists of three dissimilar charges in a single group, and thus falls afoul of the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a. (6/94)

Nordmark, Barony of. Order badge for Vita portens väktare. [Fieldless] A step-gabled portal ensigned with a Celtic cross intended on the outer edge all argent.

Conflict with Kirchener (Combo II citing Woodward), Gules, a church argent, and Radouin le Perisuen (Combo II, citing Fabulous), Sable, a chapel argent lit sable. In each case there is only the fieldless CD, as the specific forms of the various types of architecture here are too similar to grant the necessary second CD. (3/95)

Nordmark, Barony of. Order name for Vita portens väktare.

"Guardians of the White Gate" seems to be more than one step from period practice (the example given in the LoI was the Knights of the Hospital of St. John). We need an exemplar rather closer to this form for adequate support for this proposal. (3/95)

Odo Uthyr of Jararvellir. Name for House Pillaging Falcons.

No support could be found by any of the commenters for the household name, nor does it appear to be formed in a period style. (1/94)

Oengus of Greymist. Name.

The locative is extremely unlikely. We know of no period name formations of this "misty" type. The many "color + thing" locatives the submitter cites in his documentation (e.g., Blackwood, Blackwell, Blacklock, & co.) are all much more "physical" than this proposal. (2/94)

Oengus of Greymist. Name for House Greymist.

This suffers from all of the difficulties of the personal name, and additionally conflicts with the Principality of the Mists, with the only difference being the addition of the adjective, which is insufficient by our current rules. (2/94)

Olaf Hakon. Name.

Conflict with Olaf IV of Norway and Denmark, Olaf Haakonsson, cited in the Encyclopedia Brittanica. (12/94)

Olaf Hilditónn. Device. Sable, a triquetra argent.

Conflict with Charles Stewart O'Connor, Gules, a triquetra argent. There is just one CD for the field. (2/96)

Olav Guttormsson. Device. Per pale argent and sable, two dragon's rails conjoined in annulo and in chief a viking tent arch, all counterchanged.

The College has not previously registered a "Viking tent arch" as a charge. As a consequence, this registration (and/or one of the others in this LoI) would be the "defining instance", and we need some documentation for it: either that it appeared in period armory in this form or that it is a period artifact and that this is its standard or typical form.

A number of commenters also had difficulty identifying the charge in base. Most thought it some kind of torque. And as Green Crown noted: "This rendering of a dragon's tail was declared unregisterable in the August 1992 LOAR (p.27); conjoining two of them only makes things worse." (5/94)

Olof Gudmundsson Stormkråka. Device. Per pale wavy argent and barry Or and sable, in dexter a crow sable.

Conflict with Trenothen (Papworth, p. 214), Argent a Cornish chough sable and with Hampden (Papworth, p. 295), Argent, a raven croaking sable. There is one CD for the change to the field, but the position on the field is forced by the change of tincture to the sinister half (since it is not allowable to place a charge on a divided field which is of one of the tinctures of that field, as the identifiability of the charge would then be nearly negligible). (8/94)

Olof Vitval. Device. Sable, a fess wavy between in chief a whale and in base a snowflake, all argent.

Conflict with Sir Francis Drake (Papworth, p. 751), Sable, a fess wavy between two polar stars argent, and Bullbrooke (Papworth, p. 761), Sable, a fess wavy between two helmets argent. There is only CD for the changes to the secondary charges. You might let him know that in any resubmission that snowflakes are no longer allowed as charges (see Cover Letter to this LoAR). (8/94)

Olov Henriksson. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Onuphrius Dru Overende. Badge. [Fieldless] A winged serpent erect argent.

A visual comparison of the emblazons confirmed that this conflicts with Tyra Stewart of Moray (SCA), Azure, a fanged, bat-winged green tree python (Condropython viridis) erect, gorged of a collar trailing three links, argent. There is a CD for fieldless vs. fielded, but the change to the type of wings is too slight to count for the necessary second. (1/95)

Oonami Yoshirou Kageyoshi. Device. Per pale sable and Or, a double nami counterchanged.

The charge is not readily identifiable solely from its appearance, as required by RfS VII.7.a. Additionally, it requires the use of non-European blazon terms to adequately describe it. "We don't register mon in the traditional Japanese style. Our emphasis is on European armory; our policy on Japanese-style submissions parallels the Society's policy on Japanese personae. Japanese personae are considered visitors to a European court (v. the SCA Organizational Handbook, p.74); Japanese-style armory are considered the attempts of such visitors to register their mon with a European king of arms.... This policy has been in place at least since April 83 --- as have the policy's logical extensions. Mon must be blazonable in European heraldic terminology, and meet European standards of style; a decade of registrations has shown they can do this and still keep their Japanese aura." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, 8 May 1993 Cover Letter (with the March 1993 LoAR), pp. 2-3) Here, the use of a Japanese great wave, or nami, has no European heraldic equivalent; it cannot be described in European heraldic terms. Neither does the use of the term "double" serve to adequately describe the relationship between the two waves. (8/95)

Ori Vidfari. Device. Per fess embattled sable and azure, on a demi-plate issuant from the line of division a double-bitted axe gules, and in base seven mullets of four points in annulo Or.

The device is right at the edge of the complexity limits of VIII.1.a. That, combined with its very modern "feel". (See, e.g., RfS VIII.1.b.: "Armorial Balance - Armory must arrange all elements coherently in a balanced design.") (5/94)

Ori Vidfari. Name.

The name was only documented as the name of a dwarf, a mythological creature, and none of the commenters could document it as a name used by humans, in or out of period. (5/94)

Otto von Koblenz. Badge. Sable, a mascle of four swords, overall a wolf's head erased contourny argent.

The wolf's head is not really "overall" the mascle of swords; it is rather in that "barely overall" arrangement which has been cause for return in the past. It should either be drawn large enough to be truly "overall" or a little smaller so that it falls entirely within the mascle of swords. (7/94)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Title for Golden Heart Herald.

Conflict with the Philippine's Order of the Golden Heart. The only difference is the designator, "invisible" by our rules. (2/94)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Badge for Legion of Gallantry of the Outlands. [Fieldless] An estoile Or charged with a pomme.

Conflict with Kourost Bernard of the East Woods (SCA), Sable, a sun eclipsed Or. Normally we would be willing to grant a CD between the default six-armed estoile and a sun, but the addition of the tertiary roundel here leaves us with a nearly overwhelming visual similarity. As a consequence, there is only one CD for fieldless versus fielded, and nothing for the type of primary charge nor the tincture of the tertiary roundel. (11/93)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Badge for the Outlands Equestrian Guild. [Fieldless] On a sun vert a saddle complete Or.

Conflict with Duncan Vitrarius, Argent, a sun vert eclipsed Or. There is one CD for fieldlessness but nothing for the type only of the tertiary charge. (11/93)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Badge for the Queen's Champion of the Outlands. [Fieldless] A demi-stag argent, armed and unguled, issuant from a rose Or.

The rose as drawn is in trian aspect and extremely difficult to recognize. As a consequence, it loses its identifiability as a rose. [The most common comment was that the stag appeared to be wearing a tutu.] (11/93)

Owain ap Rhys. Device. Azure, on a fess between three celtic crosses Or a castle azure, a bordure lozengy azure and Or.

The bordure is very odd. As colored on the large emblazon, there is a row of blue demi-lozenges along the chief portion of the azure field, and the bordure and field blend into each other. (1/94)

Owen ap Robert. Device. Per bend sinister azure and sable, a dragon passant Or, blindfolded gules.

Conflict with Percival de Toulouse, Per fess indented azure and gules, a wyvern passant Or, as cited in the LoI. There is a CD for the changes to the field, but wyverns and dragons are merely artistic variants of the same charge, just as mermaids and melusines are. (1/96)

Owls' Haven, Shire of. Device. Argent, a Great Horned owl proper within and perched upon a laurel wreath vert grasped by a wyvern's claw vert issuant from a ford.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. (5/96)

Owls' Haven, Shire of. Name.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. (5/96)

Owyne of Clan Frog. Badge for Clan Frog. Counter-ermine, a frog statant within a bordure argent.

The frog is not in an identifiable posture. It appears to be somewhere between couchant and sejant. Additionally, it is drawn in trian aspect, which perspective-style drawing is disallowed by RfS VII.1.c.i. (3/94)

Oxenstierna, Jöns Bengtsson. Or, a bull's scalp (oxenstjärna) gules.

These arms are already protected in the identical arms of Axel Oxenstierna, above. (5/95)

Padraic the Fierce. Badge. [Fieldless] Two ostrich feathers in saltire argent and overall a Celtic cross sable.

In the Cover Letter to the November 1992 LoAR, Baron Bruce as Laurel implemented a partial ban on overall charges in fieldless badges, excepting "where one of the charges is a long, slender object, and the area of intersection is small." The area of intersection here is not small, with the bulk of the cross lying on the feathers. As a consequence, this badge falls afoul of that ban. It should also be remembered that one of the arguments leading up to the 1992 decision was that this style does not seem to occur in period badges. No new evidence contradicting this has been presented since that time. (6/96)

Padraig Dillon of Liaththor. Device. Azure, a bend embattled argent between a lion rampant and an owl rising, wings addorsed, Or.

Conflict with Wallies (Papworth, p. 184), Azure, a bend embattled Or, with only one CD for the addition of the secondary charges. (9/94)

Padraig Gliadrachan Ceallach. Device change. Vert, a griffin segreant Or maintaining a trefoil argent and on a chief Or three hearts sable.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Pagan L'Ósarro de Montpeller. Name.

All of the documentation seems to indicate that the byname should be either l'Ósarro or Lósarro. However, the submitter allowed no changes whatsoever to be made, so we are forced to return this. (2/95)

Pål Abjörnsson Lo. Device. Ermine, a lynx passant guardant and a chief gules.

Conflict with Rhiwallon (Papworth, p. 75), Ermine, a lion passant guardant coward gules. There is only one CD, for the addition of the chief. (3/95)

PARIS, City of. Device. Gules, a lymphad under sail atop waves of the sea issuant from base argent, a chief azure semy-de-lys Or.

The city is important, and a capital, but the arms themselves appear to be relatively obscure (even Laurel himself never saw them before their appearance in this Letter of Intent to Protect). (6/95)

Patricia the Whaleseeker. Name.

No one found Whaleseeker a plausible period byname, and most commenters found it intrusively modern in form. Despite the Norse trade in narwhal horns, the large Icelandic-English Dictionary compiled by Cleasby, Vigfusson, and Craigie has only one hval- (`whale-') compound describing an occupation, namely, hvalskyti `harpooner', and it seems unlikely that whaleseeking was a discrete occupation separate from command and navigation. Geirr Bassi notes the Old Norse byname hvalaskúfr `a seabird which follows the whales', which would certainly seem to be appropriate for a notably successful whaler; unfortunately, it is questionable whether it could reasonably be combined with the Latin Patricia. (1/96)

Patrick Donovan of Warwick. Device. Per bend azure and argent, a bend sinister counterchanged between two Japanese cranes displayed in annulo gules.

The Japanese crane displayed in annulo was returned for being not identifiable some time ago, having more in common with roundels and crescents than European renditions of birds. (9/94)

Paul d'Estoile. Device. Argent, on a cross between in chief two estoiles azure in base an estoile argent, a bordure counterchanged.

No documentation has been found for counterchanging a bordure over an ordinary. That, combined with the unusual arrangement of the estoiles, is sufficient grounds for return. (3/94)

Peter Schneck. Badge for Seitsemän Pyhän Unikeon veljeskunta. Sable, a sun Or eclipsed sable.

Conflict with Kourost Bernard of the East Woods, Sable, a sun eclipsed Or. This is an exact conflict. (5/96)

Peter Schneck. Device. Gules, a schnecke issuant from dexter chief and a falcon's head issuant from sinister base argent.

Conflict with Frederick Tinamou the Untames (SCA), Gules, a bald eagle's head and shoulders issuant from base argent holding in its beak the sword inverted bendwise sable. The addition of the schneck is a CD, but the visual similarities between the bird's heads are overwhelming. (3/95)

Peter Schneck. Device. Sable, a schnecke issuant from dexter chief Or.

Conflict with Damian Thorvaldsson, Sable, a gurges Or. There is clearly a CD between a schnecke and a gurges, but the consensus of the commentary and those attending the meeting that RfS X.2. does not apply between them. (5/96)

Petro Zos Chabina. Name.

No one was able to verify the place-name, for which no documentation was provided. There does not appear to be a Czech preposition zos; this is probably an error for z, which appears in the name of the Czech printer Adam z Veleslaína (1546-99). He may wish to consider that the usual Czech form of the given name seems to be Petr, though Petro is at least a modern variant. (8/95)

Petrus Dragonmoor. Name change from Petrus von Burghausen.

The form of the name is problematical. The OE word was draca, genitive singular dracan; in the modern forms it almost invariably appears as Drake, though the genitive has occasionally survived as Draken-. As a consequence, Drakemore and Drakenmore are both likely forms, with possible modern reflexes Drakemoor and Drakenmoor; Dragonmoor goes against all of the available examples. We believe that modifying the name to Drakemoor was a larger change than we felt we should make without consulting the submitter, particularly considering that his household name (House Dragonmoor) has been returned recently (for conflict). (The submitter documented the byname from the surnames Dragon and Moor. This has never been sufficient documentation for a combined surname like this. The example usually used is that we can document the surnames Smith and Jones from period sources, too, but we would not then register the combined surname "Smithjones".) (6/95)

Petrus von Burghausen. Household name for House Dragonmoor.

Aural conflict with the Shire of Draca Mor. RfS V.1.a. specifies that "Two name phrases are considered significantly different if they differ significantly in sound and appearance. Name phrases that are not significantly different are said to be equivalent." The two names here are significantly closer in sound to each other than the "Auda/Ali" test. (12/94)

Phiala O'Ceallaigh. Device. Vert, a fret interlaced with a mascle within a bordure argent.

There does not seem to be sufficient visual difference between this fret and mascle from either a plain fret or from fretty (which we treat as interchangeable in any case). As a consequence, this conflicts with Capell (Papworth, p. 883), Vert, fretty argent, and Salkeld (Papworth, p. 879), Vert, a fret argent. In each case, there is only a single CD, for the addition of the bordure. (2/95)

Philippe de Tournay. Device. Sable, a chevron gules fimbriated between three pairs of calipers Or, in base a reremouse argent.

Conflict with Bawdrick (Papworth, p. 481), Sable, on a chevron argent, another gules. There is a CD for the addition of the secondary charges but nothing for the change of the tincture of what is essentially fimbriation. (5/94)

Philip the Pilgrim. Household badge for Maison du Caudron. Per fess sable and argent, a two-handled tankard sustained by a pair of cubit arms fesswise and a cauldron counterchanged.

There is here a single charge group consisting of three different types of charges (tankard, cubits, and cauldron). As this is the definition of "slot machine heraldry", this submission falls afoul of the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a. ("three or more types of charges should not be used in the same group"). (9/95)

Philip the Pilgrim. Household name for Maison du Caudron.

The household name conflicts with the Order of the Cauldron, registered 7/87 to the Barony of Septentria. The designators Order and Maison are `invisible', and English cauldron and Anglo-French caudron are not significantly different in either sound or appearance. (9/95)

Phineas Kepler. Device. Sable, three hearts in pall points outward Or, issuant from each point a serpent argent.

A number of the commenters encountered a lot of difficulty in coming up with a blazon which would accurately describe and reproduce the design. The amount of difficulty experienced is an indication of its poor, or at least non-period style. As a consequence, we must return this per RfS VII.7.a. (Identification Requirement) and VII.7.b. (Reconstruction Requirement). [The cross gringoly, cited in the LoI, appears to be unattested in armory, making it not the best justification for this design.] (10/95)

Phoebe ui Tighearnaigh. Name.

Period practice does not seem to mix English and Gaelic spellings in the same name; this would be fine in the fully Anglicized form Phoebe O Tearney, but the submitter allows no changes whatsoever. Note that even if someone could discover a Gaelic form of Phoebe, the surname would need to be feminized to inghean uí Thíghearnaigh or more likely its abbreviation Ní Thíghearnaigh, both signifying `daughter of an Ó Tíghearnaigh'. (Also, X ui Y is never correct: is the genitive singular or nominative plural, while a simple patronymic will always use the nominative singular Ó or its older variant ua.) (9/95)

Pirkko Ihana. Name.

The name Pirkko is derived from Swedish Birgitta or perhaps Irish Brigit; unfortunately, it appears to be a modern derivative, the earliest known examples being from the early 20th century. Since the submitter appears to want an authentic Finnish name, we recommend that she consult with Schwarzdrachen, Albion, or Shield. (5/96)

PISA, City of. Device. Gules, a key cross argent.

The only "claim to fame" that the arms have is that they appear to be the defining instance of a key cross. That alone does not appear to be sufficient to warrant our protection. (6/95)

Priscilla of Wyvernwood. Device. Per pale sable and purpure, a pegasus segreant argent.

Conflict with Margherita di San Gimignano, Per bend gules and ermine, a winged unicorn rampant wings addorsed argent, armed, crined, unguled, and chased Or, and with Arianwen of Urquart, Vert, a horned pegasus salient argent, armed and unguled azure. In each case there is only one CD, for the difference in the fields. (On Margherita's device, the monster is drawn more as a unicornate pegasus than it is as a winged unicorn, though it has some features of both.) (12/95)

Ráadhán Súil-glas. Device. Per bend sinister azure and vert, a bend sinister wavy argent between two flames of fire proper.

As for the device, flames are not proper, but rather Or with a [prominent] interior line of gules. This is being returned for redrawing with either flames proper or flames Or. (9/94)

Ráadhán Súil-glas. Name.

The word shown at (Dinneen, 1146) is súil-ghlas 'bright-eyed', and aspiration of the adjectival second element is normal after the feminine noun súil. The hyphen is most likely not a period usage, so the probable form of the byname would be Súilghlas. However, as the submitter allowed no changes whatsoever to the name, we are having to return it. (9/94)

Radbot Gunter. Device. Gyronny argent and gules, a pawprint sable.

Conflict with Antonietta Zampa del Gato (SCA), A cat's pawprint sable. There is one CD, for fielded vs. fieldless, but we do not grant difference between types of pawprint. (10/94)

Radu Drakula. Device. Per fess enarched sable and vert, a wolf- headed serpent erect contourny and in base a crescent argent.

Withdrawn from consideration by the submitter. (5/96)

Radu Drakula. Name.

Withdrawn from consideration by the submitter. (5/96)

Raffaelle de Mallorca. Badge. [Fieldless] A compass star gyronny argent and purpure.

Conflict with Almarek of the Dunedain, Ermine, a mullet of four points gyronny argent and purpure, there is a CD for fieldlessness, but the overwhelming visual similarities between a mullet of four points and a mullet of four greater and four lesser points/compass star, both of which are non-period charges, mandates against granting a second CD for this relatively minor difference. (6/95)

Raffaelle de Mallorca. Device. Gyronny purpure and argent, a compass star elongated to base, a bordure counterchanged.

Conflict with Kelly de l'Estoile, Gyronny of six purpure and argent, a mullet of six points azure within a bordure counterchanged. There is a CD for the tincture of the primary charge, but there are no other countable differences between the two devices. (6/95)

Ragna Kolgrimsdottir. Badge. [Fieldless] On an oval azure a horseshoe argent.

"If a charge can be considered a medium for heraldic display, it may not bear a tertiary in a fieldless badge: such a design is interpretable as a display of arms, with the tertiary as a primary. For instance, we don't permit [Fieldless] On a lozenge argent a fleur-de-lys gules: since the lozenge is a medium for heraldic display, this looks like a display of Argent a fleur-de-lys gules. Such arms-badge confusion is reason enough for return, even if the display in question doesn't conflict. In this case, the triangle inverted must be considered such a medium, comparable to the escutcheon, lozenge, or roundel. It may be considered either an early style shield . . . or a lance pennon." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR March 1993, p. 25) A cartouche is a recognized medium of heraldic display, having been used a various times for clerical estates and for women's armory. That being the case, the cartouche may not be charged as is done here. (5/96)

Ragnar Bölvisbörrskjaldar. Name.

The byname was originally submitted as Bölvisbörr, which the submitter mistakenly thought meant `mischievous warrior'. Bölv¡ss is `detestable, mischievous' (literally `bale-wise'), but börr is a kind of tree. The error stems from a misunderstood entry in Zoöga's Old Icelandic Dictionary in which börr skjaldar, literally `shield's tree', is glossed as a poetic term (i.e., kenning) for a warrior. The Caidan CoH caught the error and added skjaldar in an attempt to rectify it.

Unfortunately, there is no evidence that such poetic expressions were actually used as bynames, which were much more down to earth. We therefore reaffirm the precedent set in the 9/94 return of Hrolfr sverö-Freyr (Atenveldt), in which Laurel declined to register a similar kenning with the following explanation: The relevant entry in Gordon is sverö-Freyr, literally `sword-Frey'. The usual transliterations without the edh would be sverd-Freyr and Sverdh-Freyr. However, as the context of the poem from which the phrase is taken shows, sverö-Freyr is not a straightforward word for `warrior'; rather it is a kenning taken from a form of court poetry. It is quite different from the more straightforward, earthy examples of bynames shown in Geirr Bassi and other sources. Without evidence for the use of such fanciful bynames by real people, we are reluctant to register it here. The simple bölviss is attested as a byname, and the constructed compound bölviskappi `mischievous (or detestable) warrior or champion' seems justifiable on the basis of the examples Hitd?lakappi `H¡tdale-warrior' and jarlakappi `champion of earls' from Geirr Bassi. Either of these is more than a minor change, however, so we are returning the name for further work. (1/96)

Ragnar Hermanssohn. Device. Checky gules and argent, an eagle's head erased Or.

There are a couple of problems with this proposal. The eagle's head is drawn in trian aspect, which alone would probably be grounds for return for redrawing. However, there are also several conflicts, including the one mentioned in the LoI with the US 39th Infantry Regiment (Military Ordinary #788), [Fieldless] A falcon's head erased Or holding in the bill an ivy leaf vert. There is a CD for fielded vs. fieldless, but nothing for the difference between a falcon's head and an eagle's head nor for the maintained charge. Additionally, there are conflicts with von Almbeck (Siebmacher, p. 157), Sable, a eagle's head couped Or; and with Hugh Louis (SCA), Per chevron dovetailed Or and sable, in base an eagle's head erased Or. In each case there is only one CD for the change to the field. (12/93)

Ragnarr Grásíða. Device. Argent, a Bengal tiger rampant contourny sable striped argent.

Conflict with Houri the Savage, Argent, a lion rampant sable armed, orbed and langued gules, with only one CD for posture; and with Gweneth Atwater, Argent, semy of roses azure, seeded Or, a domestic cat rampant to sinister guardant sable, with one CD for the strewn charges. Conflict also with Elizabeth Ruthven Carmichael, Argent, in chief a cat couchant to sinister and in base two cats rampant reguardant addorsed sable, with only one CD for adding two cats (but no more for the different posture of the added cats). The College has consistently not granted a CD between types of feline or for the addition/tincture of stripes of a natural tiger. (2/96)

Raimund of Jutland. Device. Sable papellony argent, an alphyn passant Or.

Conflict with Alanna of Atenveldt, as cited in the LoI, Per fess wavy azure and gules, a tyger passant Or. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. By prior Laurel precedent, "the visual similarities of the primary charges [an alphyn and a tyger], combined with the lack of a clear heraldic difference in period, is too strong to grant the necessary second CD." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR November 1993, p.18) The presence of a field treatment in addition to the change of field tincture does not add another CD. Per RfS X.4.a.i., when other than peripheral charges are present, a maximum of one CD can be obtained for changes to the field. (1/96)

Raimund of Jutland. Device. Sable, papelonny argent, an alphyn passant Or.

Visual conflict with Love (Papworth, p. 97), Vert a heraldic tiger passant Or mane and tuft of the tail argent. There is clearly a CD for the changes to the field, but the visual similarities of the primary charges, combined with the lack of a clear heraldic difference in period, is too strong to grant the necessary second CD. (11/93)

Ramón de Castellón de la Plana. Device. Azure, issuant from a chevron, a demi-lion contourny maintaining an anchor, between three compass stars argent.

Withdrawn from consideration by the Kingdom. (7/94)

Ramon the Chronologer. Device change. Sable, an hourglass within an orle of compass stars Or.

Conflict with Cianth Smith, Sable mullety of four points argent, an hourglass Or. There is only one CD for the tincture of the mullets, as we do not grant difference for mullets of four points versus compass stars (see, e.g., LoAR 6/95, p. 24) or for an orle of charges versus semy of charges (see, e.g., LoAR 1/94, p. 15).

Randwulf Widefarer. Household name for Haus Kaperschiff.

Kaperschiff is German for a ship used by privateers. Haus Kaperschiff is therefore analogous to House Warship, House Q-Ship, and House Trawler. Such names are too generic to be registered and in any case do not follow any of the usual period models for household names (e.g., names of Scottish clans, ruling dynasties, professional guilds, military units, inns). Ships' names are probably another reasonable model, so perhaps the submitter should simply name his Kaperschiff. (1/96)

Ranulf l'Errant. Device. Sable, a wolf rampant argent, on a chief embattled gules three compass roses Or.

This violates RfS VIII.2.b.i., the "rule of contrast", which requires that all charges placed on the field have good contrast with the field. The examples of low-contrast armory presented by the submitter are not on point. Of the examples presented, five are registrable in the SCA now (with either the charge or the field being neutral), two more are borderline, and the other two have the low contrast charge as the primary rather than a peripheral. None have any direct support for this submission. Artistic details such as arming, languing, etc. are not generally required to follow the rule of contrast. We do not understand the reference to Laurel's arms; these arms do not break the rule of contrast. Military badges are traditionally not subject to the same restrictions as real armory. In short, only one of the examples presented by the submitter lends any support at all to his case here.

The Ansteorran College added three period examples, another that is quite likely to be period, and eight more of unknown date. But only one of them, Wigfall, has a complex line of division (the rest being plain) and even that one does not show the exact motif being submitted. This is not sufficient support to meet the current requirements for an exception to the Rules. (7/94)

Raoghnailt Marie Beatrix de la Barbe. Badge. Per bend sinister vert and sable, a Jelling beast winged argent, langued Or.

The primary is not the defined Norse Jelling beast. As it cannot be unambiguously identified from the emblazon, and since it cannot be adequately reproduced from the blazon, we cannot register it. (9/94)

Rashid al-Hilal. Badge. [Fieldless] Two peacock's heads addorsed and entwined, issuant from a crescent Or.

Conflict with Mori (Hawley's Mon, p. 48), A Japanese crane displayed. There is the fieldless CD, but visually the only change is the addition of a second head. The crescent in this submission is almost exactly the same shape as the wings of the Japanese crane, without the internal detailing. (11/94)

Rashid al-Hilal. Name.

Hilal is a given name which does not appear to have been used with the article al-. Nor does "the Crescent" appear to follow the pattern of Arabic bynames with which we are familiar. Would the submitter consider Rashid ibn Hilal? (11/94)

Rasimus der Grave. Name.

Unfortunately, der Grave is "the Count", so we must return this name for violation of RfS VI.1 (Names Claiming Rank). (4/96)

Ravenwood, Shire of. Name.

Conflict with the Shire of Ravenswood, registered October 1979. (6/94)

Raym 'Inan bint Rabi'ah. Name.

The name was submitted as Raym Inan Bint Rabiyah on the LoI; we have replaced this with the spelling that appears on her form and in her documentation. Unfortunately, Rabi'ah is feminine, and the use of metronymics does not appear to be part of Arabic naming practice. Neither does the use of two given names; both practices have been grounds for return in the past (Aliyah bint Leyla, Middle, 4/94 LoAR; Nasr Hasan ibn Muhammad Abdullaziz, Calontir, 11/93 LoAR). We recommend that she drop one of the given names and replace Rabi'ah with a masculine name. (8/95)

Red Spears, Barony of. Badge. Ermine, two boar spears in saltire surmounted by another palewise argent enflamed sable.

The "enflaming" here is not, but is rather "a sheaf of three spears-shaped flame" charged with a sheaf of three spears. This is much too complex for a flame to be. It's identifiability suffers sufficiently that it becomes next to impossible to identify it as a flame. (Picture it without the spears on it; they tend to give it better definition.) The flames here act only as a very complex fimbriation, which has been previously disallowed.

Additionally, this is very close to Wulfstan the Unshod (SCA), Per pale gules and vert, two poleaxes in saltire surmounted by a spear palewise argent. There is a CD for the change to the field, but the complex fimbriation counts for nothing, and the visual similarities of the poleaxes to the boar spears was evident to those who saw them at the Laurel meeting. (5/95)

Red Spears, Barony of. Badge. [Fieldless] A boar's head proper transfixed by a boar-spear gules.

There does not seem to be a defined heraldic "proper" for boar's heads, and the beasts in nature run from a light mottled brown to almost black. (8/94)

REGENSBURG, City of. Device. Gules, two keys in saltire wards to chief argent.

Nothing in the Letter of Intent to Protect nor in the commentary suggested anything about the city or its arms that warrant protection. (6/95)

Reynard d'Outremer. Device. Or, on a chevron wavy between three lions rampant gules, three crosses potent Or.

There are two reasons for the return here. The first is administrative. No submissions forms were received by Laurel for this device. Second, the chevron is drawn such that it is nearly impossible to tell that it is "wavy". Please get him to draw the chevron with a big, bold wavy. (6/95)

Rheanna Gwenhwyfar of Trefaldwyn. Name.

Submitted as Rhenna Gwenhwyfar of Trefaldwyn, the given name as shown on the forms was actually Rheanna. While Rheanna does appear in Hanks and Hodges, it also appears to be a modern invention. Please see the Cover Letter for additional commentary on the use of Hanks and Hodges' works as documentation for SCA names. (11/93)

Rhianna macGrioghair. Name.

Rhianna is not a documented name (not even the submitter's documentation gave this form) and has been returned before for lack of evidence of its use. macGrioghair, being fully Gaelic, needs to match the gender of the forename: Nic Ghriogair. (6/95)

Rhianna Valeria. Device. Argent, three gouttes in annulo, in chief a county coronet and on a chief gules two roses argent.

While it is clear what effect the submitter is trying for on the device, it only works with this specific rendition of the gouttes. It has been Laurel practice in the past to return items which only "work" because of a specific artistic rendering. In this case, were the gouttes drawn in a common period style (like icicles) it would vastly alter the triskele effect in the center of the shield. Would the submitter consider a torteau charged with a triskele argent? (1/94)

Rhianna Valeria. Name.

No one could find any support for the given name, and it has been noted many times in the past that prior registration in the SCA does not constitute adequate documentation. (1/94)

Rhiannon Átha na nDraighean. Device. Vert, a chevron fracted and in chief three bowen knots Or all within a bordure counterchanged.

The bowen knots are not very recognizable as such. The loops at the corners should be much larger to improve identifiability. As with a different submission returned recently, we need documentation of bordures counterchanged over charges. (4/94)

Rhiannon Alricesdohtor. Device. Barry wavy argent and azure, an escallop inverted counterchanged, on a chief azure two mullets of four points Or.

This is an excessive use of counterchanging. Period style would have the field or the primary as barry, not both. RfS VIII.3.: "Armorial Identifiability - Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability. Identifiable elements may be rendered unidentifiable by ... excessive counterchanging.... For instance, ... [a] complex divided field could obscure the identity of charges counterchanged." Such appears to be the case here. (5/94)

Rhiannon Cathaoir-mor. Device. Azure, on a pale endorsed argent, three escallops inverted gules.

Conflict with Muireann a Dun na Traighe (SCA), Azure, on a pale endorsed argent three lozenges azure. There is only one CD, for the changes to the tertiaries. (6/94)

Rhiannon Wild Heart. Device. Vert, between two flaunches barry wavy argent and azure, a unicornate seahorse erect, argent.

The submitter's original submission with a unicornate horse's head was returned in September 1986 for the use of the name Rhiannon combined with a horse or unicorn on the armory. Her resubmission, with a unicornate horse's head, was returned in February 1991 for the use of the name Rhiannon combined with a horse or unicorn on the armory. This is now being returned in November 1993 for the use of the name Rhiannon combined with a horse or unicorn on the armory. (Additionally, the charge here, as before, is an impermissible unicornate (sea)horse. Unicornate horses have been disallowed for some time because they blur the distinction of unicorns and horses.) (11/93)

Rhonwen Angharad. Device. Vert, a heron-headed torque argent.

Conflict with Gyra (Riestap), Vert, an annulet argent. As in earlier returns of other armory in 1991 and 1992, there is only one CD between a torque and an annulet. Additionally, some commenters question whether any artifacts with this type of head have ever been found. (5/94)

Rhun Rolfson. Device. Azure, on a bend argent three wildcat heads caboshed gules.

Conflict with Andrea de Champs de Batailles, Azure, on a bend argent a unicorn's head palewise couped sable between two cinquefoils purpure, and with Pasgen ap Rhys, Azure, on a bend argent a dragon passant azure, armed and scaled Or, and in canton an emerald proper. In each case there is only one CD for the changes to the tertiaries. (1/96)

Rhys Afalwin. Badge. [Fieldless] A cider press sable.

The emblazon of the "cider press" here does not match the defined examples registered previously, nor could a drawing be found of the press outside the SCA. As a consequence, the charge here is unidentifiable without recourse to the blazon, and disallowed by RfS VII.7.a. (3/96)

Rhys of Harlech. Badge. [Fieldless] A bear rampant sustaining a lance vert.

Visual conflict with Sebastian von Baden (SCA), A bear statant erect vert maintaining in the dexter paw a sword and in the sinister paw a spear proper. A comparison of the two emblazons at the Laurel meeting demonstrated their similarities; the most visible difference was the addition of the sword in Sebastian von Baden's. (12/94)

Rhys Woolf. Household name for Domus Phoenicis.

Conflict with the Order of the Phoenix and the Shire of Fenix. As "domus" here is the designator, the difference has to come down to the difference between the singular and the plural, which here is insufficient. (6/94)

Rígán hinn Stilligr. Badge. Argent, a rhinoceros rampant azure.

Conflict with Kendall Tempest (SCA), Argent, a rhinoceros rampant gules, registered elsewhere in this LoAR, with only one CD for the change to the tincture of the beast. (2/94)

Richard Larmer. Device. Gules, a boar's head couped Or, on a chief ermine three gouttes de larmes.

The chief as drawn is not "ermine" charged with three gouttes de larmes, but rather is "argent, charged alternately with ermine spots sable and gouttes de larmes". If he would redraw the chief with more and smaller ermine spots so that it truly appeared to be ermine (e.g., two rows of spots), it would correct this problem. (1/94)

Richard of Greenhorn Mountain. Name change from Richard de Montcornet.

This was not a name resubmission, as noted in the LoI, but rather a name change, as his name was registered as Richard de Montcornet in the November 1992 LoAR. As a consequence, it requires the standard action fee. (The currently registered actually appears to be a better construction and, as was noted in the November 1992 LoAR, is "close to the submitter's intended meaning.") (7/94)

Richard of Wolfscairn. Name.

The locative is extremely unlikely. Wolfscairn is not comparable to Wolferlow (Wulfhere's hl@w - burial mound). Even though cairn/carn is Scots Gaelic and carn is also Welsh, none of the sources show -ca(i)rn as a theme. All available onomastic evidence shows cairn would come as the first element in a placename. Carn and its variants appear in actual placenames only as simplex forms or first elements of compounds, rather than as the final element in a compound such as this. (Even if it were, the locative would more likely be Wolfercairn, following the period examples.) (9/94)

Richard Surefoot Mallory. Device. Per pale argent and gules, a dragon gules and a natural tiger argent marked sable combattant, a bordure counterchanged.

This falls afoul of RfS XI.3., the ban on the appearance of marshalling in armory. This submission has the clear appearance of impaled arms, which the counterchanged bordure does not in the least diminish. (2/94)

Richenza von Schwerin. Device. Argent, a spider inverted sable.

Conflict with Andrew of Riga (SCA), A spider proper, Hagar Bodyguard (SCA), Gyronny azure and argent, a spider extended sable, and with the 81st West African Division (Military Ordinary), Or, an Anansi spider displayed tergiant sable. In each case there is one CD for the field, but inverting a spider is visually akin to reversing a ship; the charges are sufficiently symmetrical that inversion/reversal is not a Clear Difference. (10/94)

Riona nighean Thaoig mhic Iurnain. Name.

The only available documentation for Riona is Peadar Morgan's statement in Ainmean Chloinne: Scottish Gaelic Names for Children that it is an occasional diminutive of Scots Gaelic Catrìona. Morgan gives no indication that it is a period diminutive, and it is completely unlike any of the corresponding documented period English diminutives, e.g., Kit. Lacking evidence either for a pattern of similar period Gaelic diminutives or for a period English form of which it could be a Gaelic spelling, we are unwilling to assume that it is a legitimate period form. Since we do not consider the change from Riona to Catriona minor, we must return the name.

A question was raised in commentary about the "grand-patronymic" Iurnain, whose nominative case would be Iurnan. Specifically, Morgan gives Iúrnan gives this as the name of the saint commemorated at Killearnan (Cill Iúrnain), while Johnston in the apparently more scholarly Place-Names of Scotland makes the Gaelic form cill Iarnain. It appears that both are in a manner of speaking correct. To judge by entries in O'Brien's Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniæ, the Irish form of the name was Iarnán. However, Calder (A Gaelic Grammar, p. 158) gives Cill-iùrnain as the Gaelic form of Killernan, and Dwelly makes it Cill Iùrnain. Iurnan, originally perhaps just a dialect variant of Iarnan, evidently became the usual form of the name in Scots Gaelic, and both spellings should be acceptable. (6/96)

Riona of Caerleon. Name.

he only available documentation for Riona is Peadar Morgan's statement in Ainmean Chloinne: Scottish Gaelic Names for Children that it is an occasional diminutive of Scots Gaelic Catrìona. Morgan gives no indication that it is a period diminutive, and it is completely unlike any of the corresponding documented period English diminutives, e.g., Kit. Lacking evidence either for a pattern of similar period Gaelic diminutives or for a period English form of which it could be a Gaelic spelling, we are unwilling to assume that it is a legitimate period form. Since we do not consider the change from Riona to Catriona minor, we must return the name.

The submitter notes prior registrations of Riona; unfortunately, these seem to have been based on a misunderstanding. At least in the two most recent cases, the 1/94 and 12/94 registrations of Riona Gillian McAllister and Riona Cullenagh respectively, Riona was supposed to be an Anglicization of Rígnach (later Ríoghnach). However, this justification doesn't work: evidence from other names indicates that the name would probably have been rendered phonetically in English as Rinagh. (In fact it was apparently usually Anglicized non-phonetically as Regina.) Even if the final consonant were for some reason dropped, the name would still come out Rina: Irish ío and English io represent different sounds, and the latter would not have been used as a phonetic representation of the former. (6/96)

Riordan Robert MacGregor. Badge. [Fieldless] On a flame of fire proper a thistle flower purpure slipped vert.

This is drawn as a flame Or fimbriated gules which has been disallowed for quite some time. (4/94)

Riordan Robert MacGregor. Badge. [Fieldless] On a flame proper a thistle flower purpure slipped vert.

Blazoned in the LoI as a "flame proper", the device is emblazoned as "a flame gules charged with a flame Or charged with a thistle flower purpure, slipped vert". Blazoned this way, it is obvious that it contains a quarternary charge, which is not allowed. A flame proper will properly have some gouts of red flame in the Or areas and some gouts of yellow flame in the gules areas.

Versus Annette of Faire Monte (SCA), Three flames conjoined in pall inverted gules, thereon a thistle proper, cited in the LoI, there is only the fieldless CD. Annette's emblazon shows a thistle with the slip and leaves forming a pall inverted, lying on a single gules flame (yes, this would now be considered to be color on color). Were the flame in Riordan's badge truly "proper" (which would then be approximately 50% Or), there would be a tincture CD in addition to the fieldless one, which would clear Annette's badge. (10/94)

Riordan Robert MacGregor. Badge. [Fieldless] On a flame proper a thistle flower purpure slipped vert.

The only difference between this submission and the previous one is the addition of a few very small gouts of Or flames in the upper tongues of the gules flame, and two very small gouts of gules flames in the Or flame. This is insufficient to bring it clear of the conflict with Annette of Faire Monte (SCA), Three flames conjoined in pall inverted gules, thereon a thistle proper. For a more detailed discussion of what an heraldic flame proper should be, please see the discussion and examples in the accompanying cover letter. (4/95)

Rising Waters, Barony of. Badge. [Fieldless] A fire arrow Or enflamed proper.

Numerous conflicts (from Papworth, Hawley's Mon, and Combo II (from Fabulous)) with [Field], an arrow Or. In each case there is only one CD for fieldlessness. (5/94)

Róna of Abergavenny. Name.

All of the documentation that any of the commenters could find indicates that Rona is a 19th Century name, well out of our period. (8/94)

Robard Mathias. Device. Gules, a pall inverted argent between three lit candles Or.

The device conflicts with de Sachsegrun (Combo II, citing Woodward), Gules, a pall reversed argent. There is only one CD, for the addition of the secondary charges. (1/95)

Robard Mathias. Name.

Conflict with Robert Mathias, American decathlete, who has his own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica. (1/95)

Robert Bedingfield of Lochmere. Device. Vert, a nude woman rampant proper crined gules maintaining a tankard and in chief three roses Or.

"Rampant" does not appear to be a human posture. Parker, p. 488, defines rampant as "of an animal, and especially of a lion=rearing". Admittedly, there are a few registrations of such in the A&O, but the most recent appears to have been in 1985. Would the submitter consider a wild woman (statant affronty)? (1/95)

Robert de Zwijger van Limburg. Device. Argent, a bend sinister cotised vert between a ship's compass rose and a grenade sable flammant proper.

The charge in chief is neither a compass rose nor a compass star; it is, rather, a mullet of four greater and four lesser and eight even lesser points (or as someone at the Laurel meeting put it, "four Daddy points, four Mama points, and eight little Baby points" ). At the very least, we need documentation for this charge; better would be documentation that it is a period charge considered different from a standard heraldic compass rose and from a compass star. (11/95)

Robert Fergus. Name.

Conflict with Robert Ferguson, a 17th Century British conspirator and pamphleteer, and with Robert Ferguson, an 18th Century Scottish poet; each of them have their own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica. Per the recently revised RfS V.1.a.ii.a., the bynames are insufficiently different in sound. ("Two bynames of relationship are significantly different if the natures of the relationships or the objects of the relationships are significantly different. ...Richards is equivalent to Richard and to Richardson; in each case the sound is insufficiently different." (5/94)

Robert Fitz Samson. Device. Per pale argent and Or, a chevron embattled between a fox sejant gules, a demi-eagle reguardant sable, and a fox sejant gules.

The commentary was nearly unanimously uncomfortable with this design. Only one period example of something similar was found in the arms of Henri Habervile, Azure, in dexter chief a lion passant guardant and in sinister chief and in base cinquefoils pierced Or, and even that one had the divergent charge in the more to be expected dexter chief. We need more documentation of this motif in period before we register it. (See RfS I.1., Comparability. "Usages documented to have occurred regularly prior to that date within that domain shall be automatically considered compatible unless they have been specifically declared incompatible.... Usages not so documented may be defined as compatible by these rules, Laurel precedent, or a policy statement of the Board of Directors. In all cases, the burden of proving compatibility shall lie on the individual making the submission or that individual's duly constituted representatives.") (4/96)

Robert le Sawer. Device. Azure, on a pale argent a crutch proper.

Conflict with Corrmacc na Connacht, Azure, on a pale argent a sword inverted gules, with the Barony of Illiton, Azure, on a pale argent a mermaid erect affronty proper, scaled Or, crined vert maintaining in her right hand a trident bendwise sinister and in her left and upraised hand a grey granite tower proper, and in base a laurel wreath vert, and with Guatemala, Azure, on a pale argent a wreath vert surmounted by two rifles bayonets fixed surmounted in base by two sabres in saltire proper all surmounted by an open scroll palewise argent charged with the words Libertad 15 de Septiembre de 1821 Or and perched thereon a quetzal bird vert bellied gules, each with only one CD for the changes to the tertiaries. (10/95)

Robin of Bristol. Name.

Conflict with Robert of Bristol, registered September, 1989. As Robin is a diminutive of Robert, the two names are in conflict. The armory was registered under the holding name of Mark of Unser Hafen. (11/93)

Robin of Gilwell. Badge. [Fieldless] An owl contourny argent.

Conflict with Elaine d'Hibou, Per bend vert and Or, an owl close to sinister argent. There is only the fieldless CD. (10/95)

Robin Wilderkyn. Name.

By following the examples given by Lady Ensign of Boykin, Webkin, and Revekyn, the byname here would appear to mean literally "little wild animal". As a consequence, this version appears to suffer from the same problem as its previous incarnation, Robin Wildeorcynn (returned in the LoAR of 11/93). The armory was registered under the holding name of Melissa of Sternfeld. (1/94)

Robledale, Shire of. Device. Per pale Or and azure, an oak leaf inverted and fructed within a laurel wreath counterchanged.

The evidence for support submitted with the device does not meet the requirements of the administrative handbook. Though it was signed by three quarters of the officers, it was also dated February 29, 1992. We need more timely evidence of support. (12/93)

Robyn de Rohan. Device. Or, a compass-star vert, in chief a label dovetailed couped sable.

Though the submitter is the daughter of Rodema of Rohan, Or, a compass star vert, and may display Rodema's device with a label, but must have a letter of permission to conflict (there is only one CD for the addition of the label) to register it with the College. (9/95)

Robyn of Pevensy. Name.

Every spelling found of the placename has an "e" at the end (i.e., Pevensey and Pefenesea and Peuenséa). As the submitter would allow no corrections whatsoever to grammar or spelling, we are having to return this. (1/94)

Rochelle Finur. Name.

Even in the submitter's own documentation, the "given" is cited only as surname. The submitted name lacks a given. (3/94)

Roger of Blackmoore. Device. Sable, a pair of deer antlers in saltire Or and in chief a moon in her plenitude argent.

Not even the large emblazon showed deer antlers (more correctly, attires), but something akin to "two palm fronds crossed in saltire at the stems". We are returning this for redrafting as recognizable attires. (Would the submitter consider a massacre?) (2/94)

Rohan. Vert, a horse courant argent.

The commentary on this and the other proposals from Tolkien was somewhat mixed. However popular the Lord of the Rings trilogy is among older members of the SCA, it appears to have lost much of its status over the intervening years. Here, the commentary generally favored not protecting these arms. (8/95)

Roisin Rhys. Badge. [Fieldless] A mouse sejant erect contourny Or.

Conflict with Edward the Ugly, Vairy vert and argent, a gopher statant erect to sinister Or. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for type between two rodents. (11/95)

Roland von Boitzenburg. Device. Gyronny argent and azure, an estoile within a bordure Or.

Conflict with Catheryn Cameron Stewart Morgan (SCA), Gyronny of twelve azure and argent, a mullet of eight points within a bordure Or. There is a CD but not sufficient difference between a mullet of eight points and an estoile, nor is there anything for the number of panes in a gyronny field. (8/94)

Roland Wortman. Device. Checky argent and sable, a double-headed eagle displayed Or maintaining in each talon a sword argent surmounting a wing, in chief three mullets gules.

The poor contrast of the swords with both the wings they overlie and with the field creates a serious identifiability problem here. As Palimpsest noted: "While it is well established that maintained charges need not have as good contrast as major charges, here they are visually tertiary charges in a particularly unfortunate tincture combination. Additionally a portion of each sword which extends over the edge of the wings is on an argent check, having zero contrast." (3/96)

Rolant von Reichenau. Device. Purpure, five gingko leaves stems crossed in center Or.

Conflict with Ooka (Hawley's Mon p. 13), In cross four gingko leaves stems to center. There is one CD for fielded vs. fieldless, but the addition of only one leaf to the same arrangement is insufficient for the necessary second CD. (1/94)

Rolf de Chablis. Device. Per pale Or and sable, a chevron counterchanged and overall a wyvern displayed gules.

Unfortunately, this striking device conflicts with Flegg (Papworth, p. 376), Per pale Or and sable, a chevron counterchanged. There is only one CD, for the addition of the overall charge. (If he resubmits with this wyvern, please tell him to make it all gules. The belly, underlegs and underwings on the large emblazon were argent, amounting to nearly half the tincture of the monster, and nary a way to blazon it adequately.) (1/94)

Rolland von Fries. Device. Per pale gules and sable, an eagle displayed checky Or and gules, kleestengel sable.

The checky Or and gules eagle is completely unidentifiable on the gules portion of the field. While we have allowed checky ordinaries to share a tincture with the field, their simple outline makes it obvious what they are and identifiability is not lost. Here, because of the complex outline of the charge, that is not the case.

Conflict also with Moravia (Neubecker, p. 90), Azure, an eagle checky Or and gules, crowned Or. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for removing the crown, and the addition of the kleestengel is frequently treated as only an artistic variant of a standard eagle, and thus worth no difference. (1/95)

Romana la Suertuda. Name.

The byname was said to by Spanish for `the Lucky', but there was no documentation for it, and no one could support the formation. Nothing close has the same meaning, so we are returning the name for further work. Please inform her that the article was seldom used in Spanish adjectival bynames. (1/96)

Rondallyn of Gòlgotha. Badge. [Fieldless] A double rose proper conjoined to three holly leaves in pall Or.

The rose here is drawn as "just barely" overall, which has been cause for return in the past. However, if drawn correctly as "overall", it falls afoul of the requirements on fieldless badges with charges overall promulgated by Baron Bruce, as both the identifiability of the underlying charges would be compromised and the area of intersection would not be small. (8/94)

Rory Blackhand. Device. Argent, a chevron checky gules and argent between three sealions reguardant sable, a bordure gules.

Conflict with Suttie of Balgone (Combo I, citing Lyon I), Argent, a chevron checky gules and argent between three hunting horns sable garnished within a bordure gules. There is only one CD, for the change in type of the secondaries. (1/95)

Rory Matadin O'Donnell. Name.

ince the Irish do not seem to have used double given names, this name could only be justified either as a late-period English name or as an Anglicization of an Irish name of the form <given name> <nickname> <patronymic>. Both possibilities depend on the nature of the element Matadin, which is documented only from Ronan Coghlan's occasionally questionable chapter on given names in the Book of Irish Names.

It probably did exist, though no direct evidence has been presented. It appears to be a diminutive of early Irish matad `a common dog, a cur', also used contemptuously of persons. The more usual diminutive would be Matadán, later Madadhán, which appears in O'Brien's Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniæ (as Matudán) and in the surname Ó Madadháin. However, the popular variant Ó Madaidhín, which is apparently old (P. Woulfe, Irish Names and Surnames, p. 593), supports the existence of an early Matadín(e). The late-period pronunciation of the name is reasonably accurately represented by the contemporary Anglicization O Maddine; thus, even if madaidhín or madadhán `little cur' is a possible late- period Irish nickname, it would have been Anglicized similarly, to maddine, madden, or the like. Rory Madden O'Donnell would be registerable as an Anglicization of Irish Ruaidhrí madadhán Ó Domhnaill `Rory "little cur" O'Donnell'; but since he allows no changes, we must return the name.

He might prefer to consider a rather different name altogether. According to his form, he wants the name to mean `Red Dog of the Donnell Sept'. The name Cuán is a diminutive of `hound, wolf', and rúadh `red' is a common nickname, so Cuán rúadh Ó Domhnaill is very close to what he wants. It could be Anglicized to Cuan (or Quan) Rowe O'Donnell. (12/95)

Rosalind Ashworthe. Device. Ermine, a rose proper between three gouttes de larmes, a bordure gules.

The use of gouttes intermingled with ermine spots of about the same size is visually confusing, as, as one commenter noted, the "gouttes get lost among the ermine spots". As they are necessary to clear a conflict with Beverly (Papworth, p. 859), Ermine, a rose gules, they must be visually prominent, and they are not here. (5/94)

Rosalind O'Maughan. Badge. [Fieldless] On an estoile of seven points Or, a German chimera rampant gules, tailed sable.

Conflict with Eric von Kampf (SCA), Sable, on an estoile Or a death's head gules, with one CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for the change to type only of the tertiary. Conflict also with Martyn ap Cadwalladr the Bold (SCA), On a sun Or a cross crosslet fitchy gules, with Royal University of Ithra (SCA), Gules, on a sun Or eclipsed gules, an Arabian lamp flammant Or, and with Bruce of Brandy Hall (SCA), Purpure, on a sun Or a dagger gules. In each case, there is one CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for change to type only of the tertiary on the complex charge. (10/94)

Rose Boncoeur. Badge. Vert semy of ears of wheat, a beehive Or.

Visual conflict with Roland of Skep Glen (SCA), Vert, a beehive between three bees, wings closed, Or. While it can be argued that there are CD's for both number and type of the semi charges, the visual similarity between the two is overwhelming. (12/94)

Rose de Le Mans. Badge. (Fieldless) A phoenix vert rising from flames proper.

Conflict with Seti (Hawley's Mon, p. 50), A phoenix displayed. There is only the fieldless CD. (11/94)

Rose Morgan. Device. Sable, a lion dormant and on a chief argent three roses purpure barbed and seeded proper.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Rose Morgan. Name.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Roterde, Canton of. Device. Gules, on a tankard Or a laurel wreath sable, a chief per fess embattled azure and argent.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Roterde, Canton of. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Rouge Anne Marie de Maurier. Name.

No evidence has been presented to support French use of prefixed nicknames other than gros `large' and petit `small', whose use is inferred from such extant surnames as Grosclaude and Petitjean. The widespread surnames Rouge and Lerouge clearly indicate that the epithet rouge was used, but we need evidence for this unusual placement before we can register it. We would have dropped the problematic element, but she allows no changes, so we must return the name.

The submitter's documentation is quite beside the point. It consists of photocopies of documents written in a post-period hand summarizing what appear to be 14th and 16th century records concerning ownership of land. The first notes the purchase of le petit rouge péage de Péronne `the little red toll-house of Péronne'; the second is headed by what appears to be a place-name Bois-Rouge `Red-Wood'; and the last includes la seigneurie de la Grange-Rouge, paroisse de Saint-George-sur-Cher, tenue par N. Gallocheau `the manor of the Red Barn, parish of St.-George-sur-Cher, held by N. Gallocheau' in a list of fiefs held of the King by one Thomas Bohier, Knight, baron of Saint Cirque, lord of Chenonceau and of ...elles, general of finances. These transcriptions, if accurate, show that the adjective rouge `red' was used in period and that it had been incorporated into place-names, but they have no bearing on its use in personal names. (1/96)

Rowan McCann. Device. Argent, a wolf's head affronty conjoined to wings displayed azure, vorant of a dove Or, a bordure urdy azure.

There are a number of problems with the device. Though blazoned on the LoI as a "winged wolf's head", the emblazon does not show what one would expect from that blazon, but rather has a pair of wings issuant from the wolf's head just below the ears. As a consequence, its identifiability is diminished, as it takes a long look to determine what is happening here. Neither is the head truly erased (but it is not couped, either). The dove is almost entirely unrecognizable in this position. In any resubmission, the submitter is advised to draw the bordure thicker. (9/94)

Rowena Longstrider. Device. Purpure, a cooking pot within four baker's paddles fretted argent.

The paddles oriented in four different directions does not appear to be period style, and is extremely difficult to blazon accurately. "A similar design was returned in July 1993 `because the arrows are pointing in four different directions, the blazon required to describe it would be so complex as to clearly show the non-period style of the submission.' We have the same problem here." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR November 1993, p. 15) Were the paddles in their expected orientations (the palewise ones paddle end to chief and the fesswise ones paddle end to dexter), this would probably be registrable. (9/95)

Rowena the Peregrine. Name change from holding name Rowena of Arn Hold.

Conflicts with Rowan Perigrynne. The minor changes of adding an "a" to the given and the article are insufficient to clear this name. (11/93)

Roxanne Blackfeather. Name change from Ruaidhri Blackfeather.

(Her form has Roxane.) This was a very difficult decision. The issue is the scope of the Grandfather Clause. The basic principle is that an item once registered remains so even if for some reason it ceases to be registerable. As is explained in the 22 February 1993 Cover Letter, we have extended the principle in two ways. First, we allow the original submitter to register further instances of the problematic element provided that they introduce no new violations of the rules; and secondly, we extend the allowance to the original submitter's nearest kin. In this case the question is whether Roxane Blackfeather violates the present rules and precedents in any way that Ruaidhri Blackfeather does not.

Unfortunately, the answer depends on how one thinks of the latter name. (1) One might attempt to justify Blackfeather as a lingua anglica byname, but then one would have to show that it fits the semantic pattern of Irish bynames. If one adopts this view, then the present submission has essentially the same problem: it hasn't been demonstrated that Blackfeather is a reasonable (translation of a) byname in any period culture in which the name Roxane is likely to have been used. On this view the Grandfather Clause applies. (2) Alternatively, one might take Blackfeather to be a modern spelling of a hypothetical Middle English byname analogous to the attested Whitphether and Blakhat (J. Jönsjö, Middle English Nicknames); in that case the problem is the incompatible orthographies of Irish Ruaidhri and English Blackfeather, and the name would probably be registerable (if not particularly plausible) in the form Rory Blackfeather. On this view the only problem with Ruaidhri Blackfeather is a superficial incompatibility in the way the name is written, while Roxane Blackfeather suffers from a fundamental incompatibility in the nature of its elements; this is a new problem, and the Grandfather Clause does not apply.

When Ruaidhri Blackfeather was submitted on the 5/90 Eastern LoI, the examples from Jönsjö were in fact used to justify the byname. This served to place both names in the British Isles in period, and at that time no further justification was necessary. Thus, both the original justification and the probable registerability today of the form Rory Blackfeather suggest that the second interpretation is the sounder of the two. Add Keystone's statement that the submitter actually wants a name from around the time of Alexander the Great, and we find it preferable to return the name with suggestions.

Single names were probably the norm in Hellenistic culture, but bynames certainly were not unknown. We suggest that she consider a locative byname: they seem to have been recorded relatively often, and they are comparatively easy to form. Classically they are often adjectives, as in Roxane Persike `Roxane [the] Persian' and Roxane Kyzikene `Roxane of Cyzicus' (literally `the Cyzicene'). (Alexander's wife was a Bactrian, so Roxane Baktria is probably ill-advised.) In the New Testament one finds similar names with the definite article, e.g., Maria hê Magdalênê `Maria the Magdalene'; we do not know whether this usage was also found in Alexander's day. Simple descriptive adjectives are probably also appropriate, e.g., Roxane he Kale `Roxane the Fair'. (Note that all of the final es are syllabic; they more or less rhyme with way.) The lady lives in Pittsburgh; we suspect that there is someone at one of the universities there who can help with the grammatical details once she has an idea of what she'd like. (12/95)

Ryugatani, Stronghold of. Device. Per fess wavy Or and azure, a wingless dragon rampant to sinister sable and a laurel wreath Or.

The name for the group was returned in the June 1994 LoAR, and as we cannot form holding names for groups, we are having to return this. (A couple of commenters noted the similarities between the wingless dragon here and "Godzilla walking out of the water to menace Tokyo". Was the comparison intentional?) (10/94)

Ryuugatani, Shire of. Name.

There was a fair amount of commentary with the belief that a Japanese place-name does not appear to fall within the defined scope of the Society, which is pre-17th Century Western culture (RfS I.1. See also "Scope of the Society: Period and Culture" in the Organizational Handbook, pp. 74-75). "Its domain includes Europe and areas that had contact with Europe during this period." (RfS I.1.) It was noted that while there was clearly some contact in very late period between Europe and Japan, and evidence that some few Japanese actually visited Europe, the contact between Europe and Japan was not great enough to justify a Japanese place-name in pre-17th C. Europe. (6/94)

Sabrina Keeley de Josephi. Name.

There are several problems with this name. The most obvious is that all of the documentation (with the exception of the Italian "de", which was from an Italian-English dictionary), was from the works of Hanks and Hodges, which have been demonstrably unreliable as the primary (or sole) documentation for period names. Sabrina was not used by Geoffrey of Monmouth as stated in the documentation; he used the form Habren, from Hafren. Sabrina has been returned in the past for lack of documentation as a period name. Even Hanks and Hodges, as in the submitted documentation, notes that Keeley is "of recent origin and uncertain etymology", which is clearly not evidence of period usage. As Lord Palimpsest noted, Josephi appears to be primarily a 16th Century patronymic surname from the Latinized Josephus. It may also be a Jewish form (according to Hanks and Hodges). But in neither case is the Italian/French/Spanish "de" appropriate with it. (12/93)

Sadira bint Raya al-Asiri. Name.

The only support for Sadira comes from Kolatch, who offers the improbable gloss "ostrich returning from water"! The closest name found in more reputable Arabic name books is Sa(a)bira, from a word meaning "patient, enduring"; though not yet documented as a period name, it would be acceptable for registration. Rayyâ is a documented period feminine name, and the vagaries of transliteration from the Arabic would probably justify the submitted spelling in the metronymic bint Raya "daughter of Raya". However, it still does not appear that metronymics based on personal names were used in Arabic-speaking cultures. Laurel has found just one example (apart from the inherently exceptional Isa ibn Maryam "Jesus son of Mary"), and Ensign has one example of a metronymic apparently based on the mother's occupational byname. This latter discovery indicates the desirability of further research, but for now the overwhelming weight of cultural and onomastic evidence argues against overturning the precedents against registering Arabic metronymics. Finally, the byname al-Asiri is the masculine form of the locative and denotes a man from the province of Asir; the feminine is al-Asiriyya(h).

The name would be acceptable as Sabira bint al-Asiriyya or indeed simply as Sabira al-Asiriyya, but these are considerably more than minor changes, so we are returning the name for further work. We suggest that the submitter be put in touch with Laurel, who is always happy to help with Arabic names. (5/96)

Saint Swithin's Bog, Shire of. Badge. Gules mailed Or, on a bezant a raven displayed wings inverted head to sinister sable.

Conflict with Gwynaeth Math o Ddylluan (SCA), Sable, a bezant charged with a raven on a branch bendwise all sable. There is a CD for the field, but the changes to tertiary charges are insufficient for the necessary second. (5/94)

Sakura Kita Maikeru. Device. Sable three cherry blossoms in fess and a great wave fesswise to sinister, a chief enarched argent.

As emblazoned, the charge in base could be better blazoned, and is more recognizable, as a base wavy crested, which is not a registrable charge. (2/94)

Salvador Juárez de Xochimilco. Device. Per bend argent and gules, a fess Or between a pair of feathers in saltire vert and an eagle-footed goblet Or, within a bordure per bend gules and Or.

RfS VIII.1.a. is a rule of thumb, not a hard and fast measure carved in stone. We have in the past registered armory with a "complexity count" of nine, and returned armory with a complexity count of seven, based on the overall design, balance, etc. Here, while the complexity "count" is right at the "Rule of Thumb" limit of eight (four types of charge, four tinctures), the basic design is badly unbalanced (a per bend field and a fess, with two different types of secondary charges which, though in the default placement for charges around a fess, looks unbalanced because of the field division); the counterchanging of the bordure is of a different tincture than the field. While no single element is too much, the combination here certainly exceeds the unofficial Rule of Two Weirdnesses, and is not really period in style. (See, e.g., RfS I.1.b., "All elements of a submission shall be used in a manner that is stylistically compatible with period usage.", and RfS VIII.1.b., "Designs that are unbalanced, ... are not compatible with period style." While each individual element of the design here is, the combination really is not.) (10/94)

Santiago Llaurenç Stevän Montalifero de Tortosa. Name.

Santiago is not the Catalan equivalent of James, as stated on the submitter's forms, but rather is Saint James. Acceptable forms would appear to be Iago and perhaps Jago, but as the submitter allowed no changes whatsoever, we are having to return this. (3/95)

Sapphire of Silverthorne. Name.

No evidence that Sapphire is a variant of the Biblical Sapphira has been presented, nor could any of the commenters find any. (Sapphire itself is a post-period given name.) (4/94)

Sarasi Candrah. Device change. Per bend sinister wavy and per fess azure and ermine, on a roundel counterchanged an increscent double enarched sable.

While the unusual counterchanging and obscuring tertiary charge are presumably grandfathered to her, the "increscent double enarched" is not a period charge and cannot be reliably reproduced from the blazon. The most recent registration (of only two) in the Armorial and Ordinary was decade ago. As has been noted by many who held this office before, we are not bound by the mistakes of the past. We need documentation for the use of this charge before we register it. (6/95)

Sarolta of Sarkel. Device. Azure, on a lozenge ployé throughout argent a flame gules voided Or, in chief two table-cut gemstones fesswise argent.

The flame was not emblazoned as proper (which would have more Or gouts in the gules, and gules gouts in the Or), but rather as flame gules, voided Or. Voided or fimbriated flames (and other charges with complex outlines) have been disallowed for some time now. (12/94)

Sarra Bossard. Device. Argent, a coney couchant proper, on a chief vert three goblets Or.

Coneys do not appear to have a "widely understood default coloration", and indeed, in nature may come in brown, gray, white, or may change according to the seasons. As such, we may not register a coney "proper". (9/95)

Sarra Katherine d'Argent. Device. Per chevron azure and gules, a dragon salient argent, maintaining in its sinister forepaw an egg Or.

The posture of the dragon is ambiguous, being closer to passant bendwise than segreant or salient. As a consequence of this ambiguity, there are several possible conflicts, most notably Dragho (Woodward, p. 292), Azure, a dragon argent. If redrawn with a proper segreant or salient, these conflicts should be clear, with CDs for the changes to the field and for posture of the monster. (6/94)

Sayf al-Tanweer, Canton of. Name.

The submitters have not demonstrated a practice of placenames derived from laqabs, nor could any of the commenters lend support to this formation. Neither does the cited example of Cairo (al-Qáhirah, "the Victorious") support this name. Originally called al-Mansúriyyah, it later became al-Qáhirah al-Mu'izziyyah, "the victorious [city] of [the Fatimid Caliph] Mu'izz [li-Dín alláh]", similar to the fashion by which "The City of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels" (el pueblo de nuestra señora la reina de los angeles) became Los Angeles. (2/94)

Seán ó Móráin. Device. Vert, on a fess sable fimbriated between an Irish Wolfhound couchant and a Celtic cross, three mullets of six points irradiated Or.

The mullets on the submission are not truly irradiated; they each have but a single dash or line radiating outward between each of the points of the mullets. He might review his brother's registered device as a better model for mullets of six points irradiated. (5/96)

Seamus Maitiu an Ruaid. Name.

There are two problems here: first, Irish doesn't seem to have used double given names or unmarked patronymics; and secondly, Irish adjectival bynames don't seem to use the definite article (here an) when the given name is present. There are two quite different ways to fix the name, depending on what he wants it to mean: Séamus mac Maitiú Ruaidh is `James, the son of Red Matthew', while Séamus Ruadh mac Maitiú is `Red James, the son of Matthew'. Since he indicates a desire to preserve both the meaning and the sound of the name, we are unwilling to make the choice for him. (1/96)

Sean Anderson. Device. Sable on a latin cross bottony argent a sword inverted sable.

The device conflicts with Bickerstaff (Papworth, p. 619), Sable, a cross crosslet argent. There is a CD for the addition of the tertiary sword, but nothing for the difference between bottony and crosslet or for the lengthening of the lower limb of the cross. (12/94)

Sean Anderson. Name.

The name conflicts with John Anderson, unsuccessful candidate for U.S. President in 1980, who appears in the Encyclopedia Brittanica. (12/94)

Sean MacKieran. Device. Tierced per pall potent, gules, and purpure, two male griffins combattant and a bordure Or.

No one found any bar to registration of this armory, but as no emblazon forms were received by Laurel, we are unable to process this submission. (5/95)

Sebastian Blacke. Device. Vert, a Jerusalem cross sable fimbriated Or, a bordure Or semy-de-lys sable.

RfS VIII.3. requires that "Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability", and goes on to note that "Voiding and fimbriation may only be used with simple geometric charges placed in the center of the design." In an effort to develop a rule of thumb that could be used as a guideline in determining when a charge was "simple" enough to be fimbriated, Baron Bruce as Laurel stated that "if the voided charge can be reblazoned as On a [charge], another --- that is, if the inner line and the outer line of the voided charge are geometrically similar --- then it's simple enough to void." He then went on to note specifically that a griffin's head was not simple enough, and that "mullets, hearts and triangles are all simple enough to be voided or fimbriated." (Cover Letter, January 15, 1993 (November 1992 LoAR), pp. 2-3) Since that time, we have registered compass stars fimbriated, but we have also returned both roses and suns as being too complex to fimbriate. It is Laurel's belief that a cross potent, the central cross in a cross of Jerusalem, falls into the same "too complex to fimbriate" category as roses and suns. Even were that not felt to be the case, however, the amount of fimbriation, of both the cross potent and the four surrounding crosses couped, is excessive and sufficient grounds for return in and of itself. (12/95)

Sebastian of Colbridge. Device. Per pale azure and gules, a fox's mask Or.

Conflict with Isabella of Greycliffs (SCA), Per bend sinister embattled sable and vert, a fox's mask Or. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. (10/94)

Sebastian of Rotherwood. Device. Per pale argent ermined azure and azure, a griffin segreant contourny Or.

Conflict with John ap Griffin, Vert, a griffin segreant to sinister Or, and with Iriel of Branoch, Sable, a hippogriff rampant to sinister Or. In each case there is a CD for the field. (9/95)

Sela Mac'A'Phearson. Badge. On a two-towered castle azure a wheel argent.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Sentinel's Keep, Barony of. Name for Order of Vigilance.

Conflict with the San Francisco Vigilance Command (Encyclopedia Britannica, Index Vol. 2, p. 907). As the designators are considered "invisible" for difference, this differs only in the addition of the locative, which is insufficient for order names. (2/94)

Seòsaidh Frangan MacFaolchiar. Name.

There are several problems with this name. The surname is a hypothetical compound of Gaelic faol `wolf' and ciar `dusky, black'; both elements are used in compound Gaelic personal names of this type, so the basic idea is sound. It appears, however, that the name would be Faolciar in the nominative case and Faoilchéire in the genitive case after Mac. More important, the double given name is not compatible with period Gaelic naming practice. His permission to make minor changes preserving the meaning of the name allows the spelling of the surname to be corrected but probably does not extend to dropping the middle element, so we must return the name. Seosaidh Mac Faoilcheire and Joseph Francis MacFyllaghery would both be acceptable. (MacFyllaghery is a hypothetical late-period Anglicization of Mac Faoilcheire.) (10/95)

Serena Ravensworth. Device. Argent, a pale embattled counter-embattled between two ravens displayed facing sinister sable.

The pale is drawn far too narrow, enough so that it cannot be reasonably blazoned as such. We are returning this for redrawing. (9/94)

Shattered Oak, Shire of. Device. Sable, in pale a lightning bolt and a forked tree blasted issuant from a mount argent charged with a laurel wreath sable.

The fact that none of the commenters was able to suggest a good way to blazon "a tree being split by a lightning bolt" is a strong indication of the non-heraldic nature of the design. Additionally, the lightning bolt tends to get lost among the branches of the tree, making the design somewhat ambiguous visually. The design could be much improved by removing the lightning bolt entirely. (5/96)

Sheela Marcq. Device. Argent, a domestic cat azure and a unicorn purpure salient respectant, each sustaining a staff, the staffs crossed in saltire, proper.

This falls afoul of RfS VIII.1.a., Armorial Simplicity: "As [a] guideline, three or more types of charges should not be used in the same group." The visual effect of the design here is almost overwhelmingly that of "an X, a Y, and a Z, one and two", which is three different types of charge in the same group. (2/95)

Shevaun Sheine Cheseldine. Name.

The name as submitted appears to be made up of modern variants of the individual elements. It is thus incompatible with the period and domain of the Society, as required by RfS I.1. As a consequence, we are required to return this for modification to period forms or for better documentation of each element than the works of Hanks and Hodges. (12/93)

Shoshana bat Malachi. Device. Argent, two cypress trees couped vert and a natural antelope statant sable.

Conflict with Ley (Papworth, p. 1118), Argent, three pine trees vert, with Kempthorne (Papworth, p. 1117), Argent, three pine trees proper, and Fouger (Combo II, from Dictionnaire Heraldique), Argent, three pine trees eradicated vert. In each case, there is only one CD, for the changes to the bottommost of three charges two and one. (9/94)

Siani Euraid. Device. Sable, on a bend sinister enarched argent a garden rose, slipped and leaved, azure.

Conflicts with Sulmetingen (Woodward) Sable, a bend sinister argent; with Elaina de Sinistre (SCA), Sable, on a bend sinister argent an apple gules slipped and leaved proper; and with Eibhlin Catriona Moireabh (SCA), Per bend sinister vert and azure, on a bend sinister argent a rose gules slipped and leaved vert, seeded argent. In the first case, there is a CD for the addition of the tertiary; in the second, there is a CD for changing the type and tincture of the tertiary; and in the third case, there is a CD for the change to the field, but nothing for the change to tincture only of the tertiary. In each case, the enarching of the bend is only an artistic variant and counts for nothing. (3/94)

Siban ni Sheaghdha. Name.

This conflicts with Siobhan ni Seaghda, registered 10/88: Siban is the older spelling of Siobhan (which would better match the late spelling of the patronymic). (11/95)

Sibeal O'hOgáin. Device. Vert, on a lozenge Or a spray of mistletoe vert, fructed argent, on a chief Or three lozenges vert.

As emblazoned, the berries are clearly drawn as quarternary charges, which have long been disallowed. Were they simply an artistic detail, we would probably ignore them entirely, but here they take up a significant amount of space on the tertiary mistletoe. (3/94)

Sibylla Greystone of Stotesbury. Badge. [Fieldless] On an escallop inverted argent, a triskelion gammadion in annulo gules.

The triskelion gammadion has been returned previously because of its close resemblance to the symbol used by the Afrikaaner Weerstandsbeweging, a South African white supremacist group whose members and symbols have been photographed for and published in a number of news magazines worldwide. (See, e.g., the return of the device of Geeraert av København, LoAR of December 1993, p. 10, and the accompanying Cover Letter dated 12/29/93. (3/94)

Sìne Alwyn. Name.

The name mixes Gaelic and English orthography in a non-period fashion. In a late-period Scottish record the given name would have been recorded in English orthography as Jeane, Jeene, Jeanna, or the like; see Black's The Surnames of Scotland s.nn. Macgillewie, Towers, and Sleigh. Alternatively, the whole name could be made Gaelic by substituting a Gaelic form of the surname, but we were unable to find convincing evidence for such a form. We dislike making more than the smallest changes to given names; and since the submitter seems to want a Gaelic name, we are returning this in preference to registering it as Jeanna Alwyn. (6/96)

Sigrid Tomasdottir. Device. Per bend sinister azure and Or, an eye proper and a Viking helm affronty azure.

There were serious identifiability problems with the charge in base. (See RfS VII.7.a. "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance.") The "viking helm" is not a defined charge, and was not particularly identifiable as any kind of a helm in this posture. (Except for ear pieces and "affronty" posture, it is similar, but not sufficiently similar to be so blazoned, to the Norman helm shown in the Pictorial Dictionary, 2d ed., #377b.) (4/96)

Sigtryggr inn Tryggvi. Device. Sable, a lion's head cabossed between three roundels Or.

Conflict with Miranda Flamekeeper, Sable, a lion's head cabossed between three flames of fire Or. There is only one CD, for the change in type of the secondary charges. (4/96)

Sigurd Hardtrader. Name.

No evidence was presented for hard or for trader (hardimarchaunt does not really support it, since ME hardi 'bold, courageous' is distinct from hard, and the compound is French rather than English). We need evidence that the modern idioms represented by this name are period. Certainly the idiom of "trading hard blows" on the field (one of the two meanings being attempted by the submitter) appears to be modern. And the idiom of 'a trader who drives a hard bargain' is so far unsupported by documentation (the best Harpy could suggest was in Jönsjö: Hardlad and Hardmon (i.e., "hard-man"). (5/95)

Simkin Colfox. Device. Argent, a fox courant contourny sable between three trefoils vert.

Conflict with Fergus Mac Ruaidhri (SCA), Argent, a fox courant to sinister gules between three trefoils vert. There is only one CD, for the change in tincture of the primary. (8/94)

Simón Santiago de Córdoba. Badge. [Fieldless] On a sun azure a lozenge Or

Conflict with Brian O Seachnasaigh (SCA), [Fieldless] A compass star azure charged with a griffin segreant reguardant Or maintaining a wavy-bladed sword fesswise proper. There is a CD for the fieldless difference, but by precedent nothing for the difference between a sun and a compass star, and nothing for the change to type only of the tertiary on a charge this complex. (3/94)

Simon de Roquefort. Device. Sable, a baton sinister couped gules fimbriated between in bend an oak sprig Or and a boar passant argent.

The device falls afoul of the complexity limits of RfS VIII.1.a. It has three charges of nearly equal visual weight in a single group, with the "primary" baton having the same visual "presence" on the field as the "secondary" charges. As a consequence, the charges appear to be a single group of primaries rather than a primary charge between two secondaries. (2/94)

Simon Rodberhting. Device. Per bend sinister argent and azure, a lotus blossom in profile and a moose statant contourny counterchanged.

To quote the prior return in the September 1992 LoAR, page 42, "there is a CD for type of primary charges, but because both armories contain a cup-shape flower in dexter chief, we cannot grant sufficient difference of charge per rule X.2" (emphasis added). While there is certainly a CD between the two types of flower, there is not "substantial difference", which is what the application of X.2. requires. As a consequence, the prior conflict must stand, because the type of all of the group of charges is "substantially changed". (4/94)

Sinéidin Ban Thorin. Name.

Sinéidin may be a (relatively slight) misspelling of Sinéidín. It is probably not period, and is at best a late-period spelling. Ban is definitely period; the modern form is bean. Thorin is a Norse name that may have been used by human beings but that certainly must have been rare; its use in an Irish name is therefore doubly improbable. The Irish appear to have modified borrowed names to match Irish spelling and pronunciation; though we may guess at how Thorin would have been treated, but we can't know. And since it would have undergone some changes, the name cannot be correct as submitted, even if we allow all of the other anomalies. A possible "fix" was a very speculative modern Sinéidín Bean Thoráin. Other alternatives include Ban Thoráin or Ban Thoirenn, but only with a given name demonstrably early enough to match this form. However, since the submitter allowed no corrections, we are having to return the name. (Laurel's thanks to Palimpsest for a very detailed discussion, of which this paragraph is the gleanings.) (8/94)

Sinech ingen Óengusa manaig meicc Senaig Ua Liatháin. Device. Gules, two lion-headed serpents nowed in a Wake knot respectant within a bordure Or.

The "extra twist" that each of the serpents have outside the knot renders the identifiability of the knot somewhat problematical. Were the submitter to place the heads on the ends where the tails are now (and vice versa), and straighten out the knot into a more regular Wake knot shape, this should be registrable. As it is, it is being returned for redrawing. (6/94)

Siobhán ní Fhloinn uí Donnabháin. Device. Azure, a unicorn's head erased contourny argent, armed Or, between in pale a triquetra and a triquetra inverted and in fess an increscent and a decrescent argent.

The style of the device with its rotational symmetry is very modern in style, and thus is in contravention of RfS VIII.4., Obtrusive Modernity. While there were some German arms which had rotational symmetry, this was generally three identical charges in pall, bases to center. The use of two charges in pale "respectant" or "addorsed", and two different charges in fess, also "respectant" or "addorsed", is not period style. (11/93)

Siobhan Eliot. Device. Argent, on a cross between four needles gules a cat rampant argent.

Conflict with Pile (Papworth, p. 646), Argent, a cross between four nails gules. There is a CD for the addition of the tertiary cat, but the difference between nails and needles is not sufficiently large to grant a second. (11/94)

Siobhan nic Ghiolla Mhin. Device. Sable, a sheaf of arrows between flaunches Or.

The arrows are drawn with small heads and fletchings. Such have been cause for return for redrawing in the past, and this must be returned as well. (5/95)

Siobhan ni Riain of Briell. Device. Vert, a pedestalled sundial, and on a chief argent three quatrefoils slipped and leaved vert.

Conflict with Hjalmar von Aachen (SCA), Vert, a castle argent portalled and masoned sable, on a chief argent three oak leaves vert. There are simply not enough outline or visual differences between this sundial and a tower, or between the tertiary oak leaves and the quatrefoils, to get the necessary two Clear Differences. (3/94)

Sionan de Prendergast na t'Seanachaidhe. Device. Argent, a cockatrice erect gules holding in each talon an oak leaf, on a chief vert three bells Or.

The bells are not recognizable as such. Handbells would have handles, and even church bells would have a "loop" at the top where it would normally attach to the crossbeam and would have the clapper showing. These are drawn as hillocks couped as much as anything. (8/94)

Sionan de Prendergast na tSeanachaidhe. Name.

The submitter's arguments are not on point. She appears to be confused as to the difference between an and na. It is not a simple difference of gender. In modern Irish na is used in the feminine genitive singular and in all cases and both genders of the plural; everywhere else the form an is used. In particular, an is used in the nominative singular of both genders. Since the byname is in apposition, must therefore be in the nominative case, so the article is an irrespective of the gender of seanchaidhe (or the person named). Moreover, the examples have nothing to do with the construction used in her name, as in each case the article is in the genitive.

As noted by the submitter, Irish has indeed undergone great changes. But the language still has a real grammatical structure; it isn't chaotic. Joyce's statement to the effect that Irish 'degenerated' after the Anglo-Norman invasion is more a matter of taste than historical fact; it would be safer to say simply that it changed. The loss of 'pure grammatical forms' to which he refers need be nothing more than the difference between Middle Irish and Early Modern Irish. Certainly there is no reason to suppose that he is describing a complete breakdown of the underlying grammatical system. The Norman invasion caused a breakdown only in the strongly and artificially conservative tradition of written Irish. Written Old Irish was a monopoly of the monasteries who, for reasons of their own, used a "classical" form of the language, much as medieval scholars continued to write in classical Latin as the spoken language took off on its own path. The profusion of dialectal variants that show up in written Irish after a clump of disasters including , but not limited to , the Norman invasion interrupted the monastic written tradition merely reflect the profusion of spoken dialects that had existed all along rather than a sudden breakdown of the language. (Laurel's thanks to both Palimpsest and Harpy for the extensive research on these issues.) (5/94)

Siward Kestle. Device. Or, a castle and in chief three mullets inverted purpure.

The mullets in chief are not in fess; neither are they one and two or in chevron. They do, however, come far too close to the disallowed arch of charges to be registered. This is being returned for redrawing with the mullets either in fess or in a clear one and two or in chevron. (10/95)

Skalla Gorm the Frenzied. Badge for House Red Herring. [Fieldless] A herring naiant gules.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. (5/96)

Skalla Gorm the Frenzied. Device. Per pale sable and gules, a harpy displayed wings inverted brandishing two swords argent.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. (5/96)

Skalla Gorm the Frenzied. Household name for House Red Herring.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. (5/96)

Skalla Gorm the Frenzied. Name.

As no forms or submission fees were ever received for this submission, it must be returned. (5/96)

Sophia de Forest. Device. Quarterly argent and argent semy of fir trees proper overall a griffin segreant azure maintaining a torch vert enflamed gules.

"Semy should cover a defined area, not part of a field. The effect here is visually confusing and unbalanced." [Baldwin of Erebor, LoAR 10 Mar 85, p.14] That is the case here. It is impossible to tell where the argent ends and the argent with semy begins, making the device visually confusing and unbalanced. (2/96)

Sorcha mac Fáelán. Name.

Sorcha is feminine and cannot be Fáelán's son; as his daughter she would (with necessary grammatical changes) be Sorcha ingen Fháeláin (using early spellings) or Sorcha inghean (or ) Fhaoláin (using modern spellings). However, the name conflicts with Sorcha ní Fhaolain, registered 6/90. (3/96)

Stanislaw Dumbrowski. Device. Argent, a ram rampant sable within a bordure counter-ermine.

The device conflicts with Buckton (Papworth, p. 60), Argent, a goat salient sable attired Or. There is one CD for the addition of the bordure. Conflict also with Bishoprick of Chur (Siebmacher, p. 10), Argent, a goat rampant sable, by the same count. (8/94)

Stanislaw Dumbrowski. Name.

No documentation was submitted for the byname, and none of the commenters were able to find any which was not post-period. (8/94)

Stefan Grey of Kent. Device. Per chevron inverted azure and sable, a chevron inverted between a portcullis and three goblets argent.

Conflict with Danahild nic Choluim, Per chevron inverted azure and sable a chevron inverted between a dove volant and three harps argent, and with Amber Blackwood, Per chevron inverted azure and sable a chevron inverted between an arrow fesswise and three decrescents argent. In each case there is only one CD, for the change in type of all the secondary charges. (9/95)

Stefan Temnaia Palatka. Device. Per fess gyronny gules and Or issuant from the line of division and Or, a stump snagged proper and in base a rose bendwise sinister gules slipped and leaved vert.

The use of a gyronny half of a field which shares a tincture with the other half of the field, so that in this case an Or gyron is next to the Or half of the field, makes creates a severe identifiability problem; it is extremely difficult to figure out just what the field division/s is/are. RfS VII.7.a. requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." To do so here requires more time and effort than is consistent with the general principles of armorial identifiability. (4/96)

Stefan z Czarndoliny. Name.

The documentation for the locative notes only the preposition z (of, from) and the separate elements czarny (black) and dolina (valley); there is no indication of how these elements should or could be combined. While the genitive (required by the preposition z) of dolina is indeed doliny, no documentation whatsoever has been given that czarny would combine with it in this way. We need some additional documentation that this is correctly formed before we can register this. (6/95)

Steffen Albert Rheinbauer. Device. Bendy of four azure and argent, a rose slipped and leaved bendwise sinister proper, the slip overlain by a sinister gauntlet aversant bendwise argent, all within an orle of chain Or.

The tinctures work only because of the careful placement of the gauntlet and the specification of just four traits to the field. In general there is and can be no guarantee that part of the argent gauntlet will not lie on an argent trait and disappear altogether. Armorial designs requiring such careful placement or specific charge sizes to "work" or to avoid contrast problems have been returned in the past as not being period style. (12/94)

Steinsee, Canton of. Warband name for Die Steinwache vom Steinsee.

The name means "The Stone Guard (or Watch) of the Stone Lake"; the intended meaning of "The Stone Guard of Steinsee" would be Die Steinwache von Steinsee. However, no one was able to offer any reasonable interpretation of the name. [Irreverent suggestion: petrified sentries?] (6/96)

Sten Gustavsson Sture. Or, three seeblatter in bend sable.

The feeling among the commenters was somewhat borderline, with a slight edge to those who felt that the arms were not sufficiently important to protect. (5/95)

Sten Svantesson Sture. Per fess Or and azure.

The feeling among the commenters was somewhat borderline, with a slight edge to those who felt that the arms were not sufficiently important to protect. (5/95)

Stepan Zabolotskoi. Device. Azure, on a bend between two Russian Orthodox crosses argent, a cattail proper.

Conflict with Anne of Flaming Gryphon (SCA), Azure, on a bend between two horse's heads couped argent a deadly nightshade vine vert flowered purpure. There is a CD for the change in type of the secondaries, but the change to type of the tertiaries is insufficient and the slight tincture change (to brown from purpure) of the "flower" part of the long green plant is not enough to count. (1/95)

Stephen de Huyn. Badge. [Fieldless] A cross of Santiago argent.

While the cross of Santiago can be found in the Pictorial Dictionary, its presence there appears to be based on its presence in an article by Erasmierz Waspanieski in the 1987 Known World Heraldic Symposium Proceedings, where it is noted as "75 - S. JAMES, Santiago. A composed cross. The badge of the chatelaines of the cathedral church of S. James in Compostela. It is not attested in period or Society Armory". The only other instance of it is found in Elvin, pl. 11, fig. 2, which gives a quite different form. Given the lack of attestation in armory in or out of the SCA (aside from two registrations to the Barony of Rising Waters during Baron Bruce's tenure), and a different form of it given in the only non-SCA source in which we could find it, the cross of Santiago is insufficiently defined to be registered beyond the two registrations already in the Armorial. (2/96)

Stephen von Repgow. Name.

His form actually has Von Repgow, despite the fact that his own documentation says that the upper-case V is incorrect. Since he forbids changes, we must return the name. (1/96)

Steuen Cur Tgellast. Name.

The original documentation for Cur is based on a misunderstanding of Withycombe's citation `Matheus Cur 1166', in which Cur is a reference to the Curia Regis Rolls. It is a perfectly acceptable byname, however: Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Curr, have Hugo le Cur 1212. Tgellast, documented from the 1606 parish register of St. Keverne, Cornwall, presented a fascinating problem. The initial consonant combination Tg is very improbable, since it does not occur in either English or Cornish. Harpy points out that G. Pawley White (A Handbook of Cornish Surnames, p. 54) notes a surname derived from the town of Tregellast (cf. Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Tregellas: Nicholas de Tregellest 1297) and offers the following explanation: `Given how common the element tre is in Cornish place (and thus sur-) names, it would not be surprising to find it abbreviated. So I believe we can interpret Tgellast as T'gellast, i.e. T[re]gellast.' This interpretation is confirmed by a close examination of the photocopies of the microfilm of the register: the cross-stroke of the T has a pronounced upward hook not found on any other upper-case T on the page, of the sort not uncommonly used in Elizabethan secretary hand to mark an elision. Another example is the surname Tfallack, which appears in the printed summary but is unfortunately from a different page of the register; it is clearly a similar abbreviation of Trefallack, probably Trevellack `walled homestead' (T.F.G. Dexter, Cornish Names, Truro, 1968, p. 28).

Normally we would simply expand the scribal abbreviation and register the name as Steuen Cur Tregellast; the combination of bynames is more reasonable than most and could probably be given the benefit of the doubt. However, his forms indicate that he does not care about the meaning and does care about the sound of the name, and he thinks that Tgellast is homonymous with cellist. Since Tregellast sounds quite different, we prefer to return the name for further work. If he resubmits this with a double surname, he should try to document the form. (1/96)

Steven of Naevehjem. Device. Azure, two chevronels braced, in chief an owl displayed argent.

The owl here is not really displayed but rather striking affronty, a posture which has been grounds for return in the past. (2/94)

Stronghold of the Northern Marches. Name.

By the Rules, the name conflicts with House de la Marche (registered to Jehan de la Marche) and with the March Pursuivant. (3/94)

STUTTGART, City of. Device. Or, a horse rampant sable.

The fact that Porsche uses the horse from the city's arms on its automobiles does not make the arms sufficiently important to warrant our protection. (6/95)

Styringheim, Canton of. Name.

No documentation was included, nor were any of the commenters able to supply any, for the formation of the name. Branch names are generally modeled on place names; "land of the unruly" does not appear to follow any period model of which we are aware. (8/94)

Sundrifaire, Shire of. Name.

The documentation submitted does not support the compounded name. "Sundri" is neither a kind of merchandise, a time of year, nor a reason for holding a fair. None of the commenters could determine from the name or the documentation what the name here is supposed to mean, and so no one could suggest any possible alternatives or better rationalizations for the submitted name. (6/94)

Sun, Principality of the. Badge for the Order of the Dagger of the Sun. [Fieldless] On a fireball proper, a dagger Or.

The badge, as drawn, is not a fireball, but a pellet between four separate flames. As such, it violates the ban on fieldless badges consisting of disconnected charges. (11/93)

Sun, Principality of the. Badge for the Order of the Sword of the Sun. [Fieldless] On a fireball proper, two swords crossed in saltire argent.

The badge, as drawn, is not a fireball, but a pellet between four separate flames. As such, it violates the ban on fieldless badges consisting of disconnected charges. (11/93)

Sun, Principality of the. Name for the Order of the Sword of the Sun.

The name conflicts with Sweden's Order of the Sword. Addition of the locative is insufficient to clear. (11/93)

Susan MacGregor. Badge. Gules, a swan naiant argent.

Conflict with Sheryl of Thespis, Azure, a swan naiant argent crowned Or. There is one CD for the change of field tincture, but nothing for removing the maintained crown. (4/96)

Susanna Grey. Device. Sable, a decrescent argent on a chief vairy Or and vert in pale two broadarrow heads that in base inverted points conjoined sable.

The arrowheads are unidentifiable on the chief. Their complex outline, made more complex by the unusual conjoining and rendered less easily identifiable by conjoining them palewise on a charge whose narrowest dimension is along a palar line (essentially putting the longest axis of the charges on a line which has the least amount of room), coupled with the busy background, made their identity nearly impossible to determine at any distance. (5/95)

Susan van Ham Langille. Device. Argent, a bend sinister enarched purpure between a horse's head couped sable and a heart fracted distilling three gouttes gules.

The heart is not fracted in any standard heraldic fashion, and is not blazonable in any way which would reproduce the emblazon. Gareth of Bloodwine Gorge has a heart blazoned as rent which is sufficiently different from the depiction here that we did not feel that we could use that term here. (2/96)

Susan van Ham Lengille. Badge. Argent, a heart fracted gules distilling three gouttes de sang.

The heart is not fracted in any standard heraldic fashion, and is not blazonable in any way which would reproduce the emblazon. Gareth of Bloodwine Gorge has a heart blazoned as rent which is sufficiently different from the depiction here that we did not feel that we could use that term here. (2/96)

Süleyman al-Hazar. Device. Per bend sinister stepped to base sable and argent, a decrescent Or and a Lochaber axe bendwise sinister reversed gules.

Master Bruce, in the Cover Letter of 18 September 1992, had a page-long discussion of fields per bend [sinister] bevilled: the version here matches none of the attested forms, but is the inversion of the acceptable form found in Legh's Accidence of Armory. At the very least, this would have to be returned for redrawing. However, it was additionally noted that allowing per bend bevilled fields (which normally appeared without charges) to be charged might be considered if the charges were in a balanced arrangement. Unlike charges on each side of a bevilled line do not appear to meet this criterion. (2/94)

Suzanna the Herbalist. Badge. Sable, three dandelion blossoms Or, one and two.

Conflict with Akizuki (Hawley's Mon, p. 16), Three carnations, one and two, with only the fieldless difference, and probably with van Blommestein (Combo II citing Woodward), Sable, three marigolds slipped and leaved Or, with one CD for the arrangement of the flowers. (9/94)

Svana Mánagalinn. Name.

The submitter has constructed mánagalinn from mána and galinn in an attempt to produce an Old Norse epithet meaning "moon-mad". According to the Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby, Vigfusson, and Craigie, máni is hardly used in prose in any era, and outside of poetry it can be used only in certain phrases; the usual word for "moon" is tungl. It was indeed associated with madness: among its compounds are tungls ki `epilepsy', tunglmein `a kind of scurvy in the head', tunglsjúkr `moon-sickness, lunacy', and tungloerr `moon-mad, lunatic (as an adj.)'. Thus, the basic idea is fine; but in view of Cleasby's comments on máni, we are not willing to register the hypothetical mánagalinn when an attested word with exactly the desired meaning already exists. We should be delighted to register Svana tungloer or Svana in tungloera "Svana (the) Moon-mad", but even knowing that she is most interested in the meaning of the name, we consider this far too big a change to make without consultation. (4/96)

Sven Örfendur. Device. Argent, a sloth pendent contourny from a branch couped sable.

RfS VIII.4.c. notes that "Excessively naturalistic use of otherwise acceptable charges may not be registered. Excessively natural designs include those that depict animate objects in unheraldic postures, ..." The sloth here appears to be simply a photocopy of a drawing of the natural animal. It is certainly in no heraldic posture, even inverted, and no one was able to suggest either (1) a blazonable posture for it, or (2) that this would be the default posture for a sloth.

RfS VII.7.a. notes "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." Here, several commenters thought that the charge was of a beast's head with very large ears before hearing the blazon.

This must be returned for both identifiability and excessively naturalistic depiction. (10/95)

Sven Tyrvisson. Device. Purpure, on a pile indented Or a double bit axe sable.

Piles should not issue from the corners of the chief. And if reblazoned as a chaussé field, this conflicts with Ulric von Ravensway (SCA), Or, a double-bitted bearded axe sable, with only one CD for the field. We are therefore having to return this for redrawing. (3/94)

Swamp Keype, Canton of. Name change from Swampkeep, Canton of.

Given the combination of weak evidence for this spelling of the noun "keep", the modification to the name by splitting into two parts the already registered name (not a common English period practice, under the best circumstances) and then modifying the spelling of only the last element, we find the combination highly unlikely. (3/94)

Swan the Red of Stonehall. Device. Argent, a swan naiant contourny gules.

Conflict with Jocea Anne Gallowglass (SCA), [Fieldless] A swan naiant contourny gules. There is only one CD for fielded vs. fieldless. (5/94)

Sylvanus of Sutherland. Device. Vert, a lion salient maintaining a sword inverted between three mullets argent, all within a double tressure flory Or.

The "double tressure flory" is misdrawn here; a double tressure flory would be drawn with single fleurs underlying both tressures. More importantly, however, it infringes on the double tressure flory counter-flory, the Royal augmentation of Scotland, a restricted charge which may not be registered in the SCA. (12/93)

Taariq ibn Akmal. Device. Argent, a phoenix and on a chief gules three roundels argent.

Conflicts with Blodwen ferch Maigred, Argent a phoenix and on a chief gules a fire arrow reversed argent. There is only one CD, for the changes to the tertiary charges on the chief. (1/96)

Tadg in Sinnach. Alternate persona name of Tadhari al-Zaa'ir.

Zaa'ir was documented as a name but not as a word, so it is not clear that al-Zaa'ir is an acceptable byname. He intended it to mean `the visitor'; Laurel suggests Tadhari al-Garib `the stranger'. If he prefers to keep the sound, he might try the patronymic form Tadhari ibn Zaa'ir. (8/95)

Taliesin ab Iago. Device. Azure, a rose argent, barbed vert and seeded gules, within a stag's attires argent.

Conflict with Royal Burgh of Inverbervie (Lyon II, p. 358), Azure a rose argent barbed and seeded proper. There is only one CD for the addition of the attire. A number of other similar conflicts were noted by the commenters. (4/94)

Taliesin d'Argonne. Device. Per fess azure and vert, in chief two rapiers inverted in saltire argent and in base a dragon rampant to sinister Or maintaining a tower argent.

It was the consensus of those attending the meeting as well as most of the commenters who wrote on this submission, that the device is visually Vert, a dragon rampant contourny Or maintaining a tower argent, on a chief azure two rapiers inverted in saltire argent. As such, it is color on color. He needs to redraw this with a field division which is clearly per fess. (6/95)

Tamlene ap Guidgen. Device. Gules, a chasing hammer and a tierce dovetailed Or.

Technical conflict with Duncan Bruce of Logan, Gules, a mallet within a two-headed serpent in orle, heads at either end and respectant Or. There is a CD for changing the type of the secondary/peripheral charge, but no other CDs could be found under any of the sections of RfS X to grant the necessary second. (7/95)

Tammilinna, Canton of. Device. Gules, an oak tree eradicated within a laurel wreath Or.

Conflict with Shire of Brantestone, Quarterly argent and sable, an oak tree within a laurel wreath Or. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. (5/96)

Tamsin Kymbel. Device. Gyronny purpure and argent, a saltire dovetailed counterchanged.

In the LoAR of September 1991, a saltire dovetailed gyronny was returned for, among other reasons, the following: "The combination of a dovetailed line on a gyronny saltire is pretty clearly post-Period style. Even though the SCA has long allowed the use of dovetailed as compatible with our style, and has allowed the use of saltires gyronny, the combination seems obtrusively modern. (See RfS VIII.4.d.: 'Generally modern style in the depiction of individual elements or the total design may not be registered.')" We have the same problem here. (11/94)

Tara ni Connmhaigh. Name.

The prior registration of Tara as a given name hinged on the statement "If the given name and the place name [Temair] are identical in Irish, and Tara is a valid anglicization of the latter, then it should be acceptable as an anglicization of the former." The problem is that Tara is not an acceptable Anglicization of Temair; only of the genitive case of the name: Temra (pronounced approximately 'tev-ra). Tara is not an Anglicization of Temair but rather an English name for the place derived specifically from the context in which it appears as a place name (e.g., "hill of Tara"). (A similar case occurs with Erin, as a poetic English name for Ireland is based on the genitive case (Éireann) of the Irish name Éire.) Since the given name Temair would not normally be found in the genitive, it is unlikely that it would be taken into English in the genitive form. (1/94)

Tara of Montrose. Device. Or, on a mountain purpure a rose Or.

As noted in the LoAR of September 1993, p. 10, "mountains, as variants of mounts, should be emblazoned to occupy no more than the lower portion of the field". As in the emblazon here the mountain is sufficiently high so as to immediately be thought of as a per chevron field by most of the commenters and everyone at the Laurel meeting, there are multiple conflicts with "[Field], a rose Or". This needs at the very least to be redrawn so it is identifiable as a mountain rather than a field division. (4/94)

Tara of Montrose. Name.

As noted in the return of Tara ni Connmhaigh in the January 1994 LoAR, "The prior registration of Tara as a given name hinged on the statement 'If the given name and the place name [Temair] are identical in Irish, and Tara is a valid anglicization of the latter, then it should be acceptable as an anglicization of the former.' The problem is that Tara is not an acceptable Anglicization of Temair; only of the genitive case of the name: Temra (pronounced approximately 'tev-ra). Tara is not an Anglicization of Temair but rather an English name for the place derived specifically from the context in which it appears as a place name (e.g., "hill of Tara"). (A similar case occurs with Erin, as a poetic English name for Ireland is based on the genitive case (Éireann) of the Irish name Éire.) Since the given name Temair would not normally be found in the genitive, it is unlikely that it would be taken into English in the genitive form." (4/94)

Tatiana de Calais. Device. Quarterly vert and purpure, a cross between in bend two keys wards to chief and in bend sinister two hearts Or.

This device submission violates Rules for Submission XI.3., Marshalling, "divisions commonly used for marshalling, such as quarterly or per pale, may only be used in contexts that ensure marshalling is not suggested." The fillet cross was often used on marshalled arms, and thus the cross here does not remove the appearance of marshalling. (11/93)

Tatiana Nikonovna Landysheva. Name change from Tatiana Nikonovna Besprozvannyja.

As the submitter's own documentation notes, the adoption of "artificial" surnames, such as Landyshev (from landys, lily of the valley), by the Russian Orthodox clergy "began at the very end of the seventeenth century" (Unbegaun, p. 217). As a consequence, the surname is documentably post-period. (2/95)

Tegen Meanbh. Device change. Per fess wavy sable and gules papellony argent, in chief three increscents argent.

Conflict with Signý Jólinnardóttir, Per fess wavy sable and barry wavy argent and azure, in chief three increscents argent, registered last month, with only one CD for the field. (1/96)

Teleri Erfyl of Arrow Lane. Device. Per bend sinister purpure and vert, a horse salient Or.

Conflict with Rietheim (Siebmacher's Wappenbuch, p. 30), Argent, a mule rampant Or. There is only one CD, for the change to the field. (6/94)

Tempio, Shire of. Device. Azure, a Doric colonnaded portico within a laurel wreath argent.

Conflict with Casanova (Woodward, p. 363), Azure, a house argent, and a number of others, Azure, a (temple, church, etc.) argent. In each case there is only once CD for the addition of the laurel wreath. As several commenters if we do not give a CD between even radically different types of ships, we should not do so among various types of buildings. Further, the type of Casanova's "house" is completely unspecified. As we do not grant a CD between a generic bird and any other specific bird, we cannot see granting difference between a generic house (building) and any other type of house (building). (4/94)

Teresa of Winterhawke. Name.

None of the cited examples justifies this combination in the byname (Wynterskale and Wintretune both obviously refer to places ("hut" and "town", respectively) that are used in winter). No one was able to document any kind of "winter + bird" or "winter + animal" names at all. As a descriptive surname, Winterhawke is unlikely in the extreme; as a place name, it is impossible. (4/94)

Thea Siobhan Wolve. Name.

Thea is a post-period diminutive and therefore, unregisterable in the SCA. Siobhan is out of place in anything but an all-Gaelic name, being usually anglicized as "John". None of the commenters were able to corroborate the surname, and the submitter's only documentation appears to have come from a "bucket-shop" heraldist, not a very reliable source. (1/94)

Thecla Doria of Andritsaena. Badge. [Fieldless] A candle enflamed Or.

Conflict with Gilraen of Regen (SCA), Vert, a candle and candlestick flammant Or. A visual check of the files indicates that Gilraen's candlestick is the vertical type and therefore insufficient to grant a CD, leaving us with only the fieldless difference. (8/94)

Theodora Tedaldi. Device. Per bend azure and argent, a decrescent argent and a brunette woman's head and shoulders proper vested azure.

The woman's head and shoulders are primarily metal on metal, which creates a disallowable contrast problem against the argent field. "Since human flesh [proper] is a `light' tincture, it has insufficient contrast with the argent field." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 25 January 1987, p. 19) See RfS VIII.2., Armorial Contrast. (3/96)

Theresia von Lantwüeste. Device. Per bend azure and argent, a harp Or and three roses gules barbed vert.

There did not appear to be any problems with the device but as the submitter would not allow the formation of a holding name, we are having to return the armory as well. (3/94)

Theresia von Lantwüeste. Name.

Unfortunately, none of the documentation in this appeal was strictly to the point. Compound names do not always follow the same rules as phrases. Bach notes that the first element in compounds such as this is always a place name, which Land or Lant is not. There were several possible fixes mentioned in the commentary, but as the submitter allowed no changes whatsoever to be made to the name, we were unable to apply any of them. (3/94)

Thevenin a la Cotte d'Azur. Device. Per chevron fleury in point argent and azure, an estoile argent.

The estoile was misblazoned in the LoI as azure. Normally, this would have been pended for consideration under the corrected blazon, but there is a conflict with Hieronymus Dernoma, Gyronny argent and sable, an estoile of seven points argent fimbriated sable. There is a CD for the changes to the field, but there is nothing for removing the fimbriation or for the position of the estoile on the field, as the argent estoile could not lie on the argent portion of the field. (10/95)

Thierry Gutherie. Device. Sable, a bee, on a chief urdy Or two bees sable.

Not even the large emblazon was clearly either a chief urdy or a field per fess urdy. It needs to be redrawn as one or the other. (1/94)

Thomas Brandon. Badge. [Fieldless] A Catherine wheel azure.

Conflict with Akimoto (Hawley's Mon, p. 68), A wheel, and with Miyaki, Kano, and Tsugaru (Hawley's Mon, p. 96), Dark, a wheel light. In each case there is a CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for the tincture of the wheels. (4/94)

Thomas Brandon. Device. Argent, a bend sinister between two Catherine's wheels azure.

Conflict with Thomas of the Isles (SCA), Argent, a bend sinister between a chair and a roundel azure. There is only one CD, for the change in type of the secondaries. (9/94)

Thomas Gryffyth. Device. Per pale vert and argent, a unicorn and a dragon combattant counterchanged.

This motif is considered marshaling, per RfS XI.3. "Such fields [quarterly and per pale] may be used with identical charges over the entire field, or with complex lines of partition or charges overall that were not used for marshalling in period heraldry." The device here has two different types of charge, one in each half of the field. The field does not have a complex line of division or a charge overall. As a consequence, this must be returned for the appearance of marshalled arms. (9/95)

Thomas MacConnor of Ulster. Device. Quarterly gules and argent, a raven displayed maintaining in base a sword and a quill pen in saltire sable all within a bordure embattled counterchanged.

Conflict with Rurik of Mirkwood, Quarterly gules and argent, a falcon displayed sable. There is only one CD, for the addition of the bordure. (9/95)

Thomas sur la Chaise Azurée. Name.

None of the commenters were able to document this form in French, and comparable forms in English and German do not adequately support the same form in a different language (French). (3/94)

Thomas the Green. Device. Vert, a smith's hammer and on a chief argent a broad arrowhead between two loops of rope ends to chief crossed in saltire sable.

Withdrawn from consideration at the request of the submitter. This had been pended from the September Laurel meeting. (1/96)

Thora Asbiornsdottir. Device. Purpure, a lily of the valley slipped and leaved argent.

Conflict with Eden of Lionsguard (SCA), Purpure, an iris argent. There is at best one CD, for the change in type of flower. (10/94)

Thora Redhair. Device. Per fess gules and argent, three plates in chevron and a butterfly per chevron gules and vert.

There are two problems with the device here. The first is that the field is not really per fess, but neither is it a field and a chief. This in itself is grounds for return (January 1994 LoAR, p.17). Either way the field is blazoned, the placement of the plates is highly unusual.

The butterfly is so poorly rendered that it was completely unidentifiable to all of the commenters. That, combined with the very carefully contrived "per chevron" treatment so that the forewings are one tincture and the rear wings another, would be sufficient grounds for return even without the problems with the field. (7/94)

Thorbjorn Osiss Brandsson. Household badge for Hrogn fra Osiss. Per pale sable and argent, a rose argent, a wolf's head cabossed sable, and a chief embattled counterchanged.

The "wolf's head" was entirely unidentifiable as such. Guesses included a bird of some sort, and a couple of other suggestions which delicacy forbids us to repeat. We must return this for not meeting the standard set in RfS VII.7.a., "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." (8/95)

Thorbjorn Osiss Brandsson. Household name for Hrogn fra Osiss.

The correct Old Norse construction for the household name would be Osiss Hrogn `Osiss' spawn'. Fellows Jensen notes in Scandinavian Personal Names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, pp. XXIX, LI-LII, that many English place-names of Scandinavian origin contain bynames rather than full dithematic names. Osiss `estuary ice' is his registered byname; to the extent that it is an acceptable byname, it should also be an acceptable determiner in a constructed place-name like Osissby. Hrogn, however, is `roe (of fish)', with which it is cognate. It was used as a nickname, but we have no evidence that it ever acquired the extended sense of English spawn. We suggest that afspringr `offspring, progeny; band, detachment of troops' might be very appropriate. In the first sense it would be used in the plural, making Osiss Afspringar; in the second it would be singular, making Osiss Afspringr. (Osiss Börn `Osiss' children' might also be acceptable, though barn `child' was only rarely used metaphorically for `offspring'.) (8/95)

Thorfinn Asleifsson the Solemn. Device. Or, on a lozenge fesswise between three mullets of four points sable a mullet of eight points Or.

The lozenge is throughout to chief and to the sides of the field, which is neither period style nor blazonable. He might try using a more standard lozenge. (3/94)

Thorfinnr inn vegsvinni Ingason. Device. Per chevron throughout azure and argent, two clouds argent and a bird migrant sable.

Conflict with Brigid of Skye, Per chevron azure and argent, three clouds counterchanged, with only one CD for the changes to the bottommost of three charges two and one. (3/96)

Thorkil Stormchaser. Name.

The byname does not appear to be formed in a style that would have been used in period. All of the bynames any of the commenters found were formed in the manner of the examples cited in the LoI, Chacepork (chase-pork) or Chasemuine (chase-monk), and even these examples were not really equivalent to the submitted byname even should it be modified to match the documented pattern (Chasestorm). (12/93)

Thorsheim, Canton of. Device. Gules, pendant about the neck of a double-headed goose argent a heart gules all within a laurel wreath Or.

Conflict with Poland, Gules, an eagle displayed argent. There is one CD for the addition of the laurel wreath, but the goose displayed is insufficiently different from an eagle displayed to grant a CD for that, and the consensus was that the very small heart about the neck is more a maintained charge than a tertiary and so insufficient for a CD. (5/95)

Thorstig Hrothgarsen. Name change from holding name Warren of Rivenoak.

The given name does not appear to be a justifiable construction. Thor- is a productive prototheme, but it must be combined with an actual deuterotheme; unfortunately, there is no evidence for an Old Norse deuterotheme -stigr, and the variant -stigi occurs only in Hástigi, an assumed or literary name and the name of a giant. (The closest thing to a justification of -stig as a deuterotheme is the example of Beinir and Thorbeinir, mentioned in the LoI, but even it doesn't really support the use of an arbitrary simplex (`free-standing') name as a deuterotheme, since the simplex form Beinir is merely a variant form of the attested deuterotheme -beinn. The patronymic is internally inconsistent: by the time -sen came into use, Old Norse Hrógeirr had generally become Rodge(i)r, and it had apparently never had a in the second syllable.

The nearest documented names to Thorstig that Pelican can find are forms of the Old Norse name Tósti. It can be found as Thosti in both English and Scandinavian sources, and in England it occasionally appears as Tostig. There also seems to be an unusual Scandinavian instance of Thorsti. Since the form with internal r is known only from a Scandinavian source, while terminal -ig is an English spelling, we are unwilling to hypothesize a hybrid Thorstig, but Thostig is within the range of Anglo-Scandinavian spelling variants. Thostig Rodgersone would be a fine Anglo-Scandinavian name. (11/95)

Thorvald Egilsson. Badge. [Fieldless] A savage proper maintaining in dexter hand a beehive and in sinister hand a drinking horn Or.

Conflict with Bari the Unfettered, Barry argent and gules, a naked man manacled on each wrist, lengths of broken chain pendant, and a length of broken chain at his feet, all proper. There is clearly one CD for the fieldlessness, but nothing for posture or the maintained charges. (1/96)

Thorvald Fridtjofsson. Device. Sable, a drakkar prow Or.

Conflict with Aethelthryth of Acleah (SCA), [Fieldless] A dragon's head couped Or. There is only one CD for fieldlessness. We have traditionally granted nothing for the difference between a drakkar's prow and a dragon's head. (6/94)

Thorvald Frithiofsson. Device. Sable, a drakkar prow within a bordure Or.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Thorvarthr Hakonson. Name.

The submitter spent a lot of time documenting the given name, but the genitive form of Hákon is Hákonar, making the patronymic Hákonarson. As he would not allow minor changes to the name which changed the sound of the name, we are having to return this rather than simply correct the grammar. (3/94)

Three Mountains, Barony of. Badge for Ordo Aegidis Honoris. Per fess indented of three points azure and argent, in chief a gorgon's head Or.

Conflict with Francesca Lucia d'Alberto dei Lorenzi, A gorgon's head cabossed Or. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for location on the field versus a fieldless badge. "Placement on the field cannot be counted against a fieldless badge." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR September 1992, p. 42) (6/96)

Three Towers, Marche of. Device. Argent, three towers sable within a laurel wreath vert, a bordure embattled azure.

No petitions of populace support were included with the forms, as required by the Administrative Handbook. As a consequence, both name and device must be returned for lack of evidence of support.

While similar to the Shire of Silfren Mere (SCA), Argent, a tower sable, its base environed of a laurel wreath vert, all within a bordure embattled azure, there are CDs for the number of primary charges and for the position of the laurel wreath on the field. Unfortunately, however, wreaths "lying as on a bordure" have been returned in the past; wreaths should be nearly circular in shape -- when they are not, their identification as wreaths becomes problematical. (2/95)

Three Towers, Marche of. Name.

No petitions of populace support were included with the forms, as required by the Administrative Handbook. As a consequence, both name and device must be returned for lack of evidence of support. (2/95)

Thurstan de Barri. Badge. [Fieldless] An annulet surmounted by a winged lion- dragon sejant to sinister Or winged argent.

The lion-dragon here is neither truly surmounting the annulet, nor is it within and conjoined to it. This type of "barely overall" arrangement has been cause for return for quite some time, and is cause for return here. (2/96)

Thyra Thorkilsdottir. Device. Gyronny arrondy vert and Or, a Lisbjerg gripping beast sable.

The Lisbjerg gripping-beast seems to have been registered only once, in March 1978 to Bjorn of Havok. In the November 1986 LoAR a `borre-style gripping beast' was returned in part because `[t]he gripping beast is not a consistent heraldic charge which could reliably be rendered by a competent heraldic artist'. Such appears also to be the case with the Lisbjerg gripping beast. Indeed, no one was able to find a source for it outside the Pictorial Dictionary, which is, it must be remembered, but a compilation of charges which have been registered in the SCA even if only, as with this charge, once. Given the obscurity of the charge, its difficulty of reproduction from the blazon, and the fact that it has not been registered since the time of the original registration some 17 years ago, we do not feel that it remains appropriate for registration in the SCA. (12/95)

Thyra Thorkilsdottir. Name.

Thorkilsdottir is an attested form of Thorkelsdóttir; unfortunately, the name appears as Thyra Thorkillsdattir on her form. The second l can be justified, but dattir is a problem. It is justified by the submitter as a transliteration of a runic version of Danish datter. Now it is true that from 800 to 1100 or so the common runic alphabets in Scandinavia used the i-rune to represent both i and e; in fact, there were only sixteen different runes, so many of them not only represented several different sounds but also corresponded to several different Roman letters. A runic version of the Old Danish patronymic Gormssun appears on a stone from c.935 at Hällestad, Skåne, for example, in a form that is usually transcribed kurms sun (E.V. Gordon, Introduction to Old Norse, Oxford, 1971, p. 191). But when Roman letters were used, the distinctions between k and g, u and o, i and e, etc. were maintained. The submitter is of course welcome to write her name in runes, but we register it in the Roman alphabet in a form consonant with period practice. With no evidence for the spelling dattir we must therefore return the name, since she apparently permits no changes. (A consistent transliteration of the most likely runic version of the patronymic would in any case be urkilsdotir: since double letters were very rarely written, and extant Danish runic inscriptions have urkil.)

The forename is also a bit problematical. E.H. Lind (Norsk-Isländska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn, col. 1229) shows only -i, -e, and -y for the final vowel and gives Thyri as the Old Danish form. Lind also mentions one of the two runic versions in the 10th century Old Danish runic inscriptions on the Jelling stones, noting that it corresponds to West Norse Thorvé; these are transcribed urui and aurui (R.W.V. Elliott, Runes, New York, 1959, p. 31). (The a should have a reversed comma dangling from its lower edge to indicate a nasal vowel.) The only more or less authoritative evidence offered for the variant Thyra is in A History of the Vikings, by Gwyn Jones, who at one point names the wife of Gorm the Old `Thyri (or Thyra)'. Still, Jones is generally quite careful with names, so there is presumably some basis for his parenthetical comment, and in the absence of any other problems with the name, it would probably suffice. (12/95)

Thyri Gullinvargr. Device. Per chevron throughout Or and azure, two garden roses gules and a wolf's head erased affronty Or.

Conflict with Kullingwike (Papworth, p. 861), Per chevron Or and azue, in chief two roses gules, stalked, leaved, barbed and seeded of the first, in base an ostrich feather argent. There is only one CD, for the changes to the bottommost charge. (6/94)

Tibor of Rock Valley. Device. Vert, a delf Or.

Versus La Rana (SCA), Vert, on a cushion Or, a frog sejant affronty vert, crowned Or, cited by several commenters, there are CDs for the type of primary charge (the softer lines and tassels at each corner are fairly conspicuous on La Rana's device) and for the removal of the tertiary frog. However, it does conflict with the Prefecture of Miyazaki, Japan (Flags of the World), Vert, three delfs conjoined in bend Or, with only one CD for the change in number of delfs. (2/95)

Tibors de Narbona. Device. Vert, a compass star and a chief argent.

Conflict with Alisoun Fortescue of Maplehurst, Vert, a compass star of sixteen points and on a chief argent three mullets of four points vert. There is a CD for the removal of the tertiaries, but the difference between the primary charges is insufficient for the necessary second. (9/95)

Tiernan ni Cearnaigh. Name.

Tiernan is either a 20th century Irish spelling or and Anglicization of the man's name Tighearnán and requires a masculine form of the patronymic; Tighearnait is a hypothetical feminine version of the same name based on a well-documented Irish pattern. The name would be fine as Tighearnán Ó Cearnaigh or Tiernan O Carny, both masculine, or as the feminine Tighearnait ní Chearnaigh. We are unwilling either to make so great a change in the given name or to saddle her with a man's name, so we are returning the name to let her decide what is most important to her. (9/95)

Tierney Shay O'Malley bint Muhammad. Device. Ermine, a trefoil pierced between two flaunches purpure, charged with a decrescent and an increscent, within the horns of each a mullet argent.

On the device, at the least the tertiary groups need to be redrawn. The mullets are not "within" horns of the crescents, but are rather conjoined to bottom horn of each. The resultant conjoined charge is somewhat confusing and probably not period style. (You might let her know that the mirror symmetry of the device is not period style either, though we have not used such an argument as a bar to registration in the past.) (9/94)

Tierney Shay O'Malley bint Muhammad. Name.

Though the formation of this name is closer to the period examples of mixed Spanish/Arabic names (see Domingo [Muhammad] Marín de Leén, elsewhere in this LoAR), there remain a number of problems with the name. No evidence has been found to support a combination of Englished Irish and Arabic. Tierney (the extraneous "h" in the given in the LoI was a typo) is a masculine name, and thus can hardly be the bint (daughter) of Muhammad. Tierney itself is a bit questionable as a given name. The name of the mediæval chronicler was Tigernach (modern Tighearnach or Tiarnach); the associated modern patronymic is Ó Tighearnaigh. Thus it is the surname that is pronounced something like (O) Tierney, the final gh being nearly silent; the forename itself ends in the sound of the ch of loch. Period Englishings are generally fairly phonetic, it would be surprising to find that Tierney was a period Englishing of the forename. Another difficulty is the use of two surnames (three, if you count the patronymic). Double surnames are not rare in Gaelic; they do not appear to exist at all! (9/94)

Timur Borte. Device. Per chevron sable and azure, a chevron fracted tip inverted between two wolves combattant argent and two falchions in saltire proper.

The inversion of the "tip" of the fracted chevron is unattested in any of the heraldic literature; no one could find evidence that this or similar treatments of other ordinaries existed, either in period or since. (7/95)

Tirlach Kinsella. Device. Sable, a compass star elongated gules, fimbriated argent, overall a lion's head cabossed Or, langued gules and orbed vert.

The lion's head is too small; it is just barely overall, which has been reason for return in the past. Another problem is that the "compass star" is drawn almost as a mullet of eight points elongated to base, rather than as a true compass star, compounding the identifiability problem. Additionally, there is a conflict with Corin du Soleil (SCA), Sable, a sun gules fimbriated Or, surmounted by a panther's head erased reversed Or. There is a possible CD for the changes to the overall charge, but no more than that, as by current precedent there is not a CD between a compass star and a sun. (3/94)

Titus Flavius Aurelianus. Device. Gules, a thunderbolt, a bordure Or.

The prior return for conflict with the Ermine Street Guard (Gules, a thunderbolt Or), was appealed on the ground that the arms of the Ermine Street Guard do not appear in Appendix E to the Administrative Handbook and thus are not protected. However, the Administrative Handbook also specifically notes that:

G. Significant Personal and Corporate Armory from Outside the Society-- Contemporary or historical armory will generally be considered significant if it appears in the standard references in Appendix E. Armory of individuals whose names would be protected may also be protected even if it does not appear in standard heraldic references due to limitations of age and scope of those works.

Thus, protection of items (by not registering in the SCA items which conflict by our Rules) is not limited only to those items already appearing in Appendix E; at the time of the return Laurel was free to decide that the armory of the Ermine Street Guard is significant corporate armory, though too new to be listed in any of the references in Appendix E. That being the case, there is no reason to overturn the original return; certainly not on the grounds addressed by the appeal. (11/94)

Tjorkill Kanne. Device. Per saltire argent and sable, a griffin displayed counterchanged ducally crowned gules.

The posture of the monster, with the coronet helping to "hide" the griffin head's ears and making the outline of the head much more complex, only serves to reduce its identifiability as a griffin and not a winged lion. Indeed, many commenters, and those attending the Laurel meeting who saw the large emblazon, believed upon that it was a winged lion rather than a griffin until hearing the blazon. The counterchanging of the monster over the field further confuses the eye. (Indeed, some felt that it was in and of itself sufficiently confusing to warrant return on this ground alone.) As a consequence of the visual complexity and difficulty in adequately identifying the charge, the device falls afoul of RfS VII.7.a., the Identification Requirement.

A second question noted by some of the commenters was the propriety of the posture (displayed) for quadrupeds. Indeed, there have been some quadrupeds recently which have been reblazoned as sejant erect affronty, as displayed is considered to be a bird posture. An added difficulty is that the monster here does not really appear to be displayed, but rather salient affronty, wings displayed. Such a posture is not heraldic, and acts to further reduce the identifiability of the charge.

For all of these reasons, then, this must be returned for redesign. (11/95)

Tobias, son of Emerich. Name.

The name was submitted as Tobias, son of Emerich, but this patronymic construction does not seem to have been used in English, even as a translation from other languages. It is not clear whether the submitter intends the name to be English or German; in either case the Latinized Tobias filius Emerici, which is an exact translation of the submitted name, would be fine. In English the usual form was simply Tobias Emeric; the similar Tobias Em(m)erich would be fine for German, as would Tobias Emeriches. If he wants to preserve as much as possible of the submitted form in a German name, Tobias Em(m)eriches sone follows rare but attested models. Given the wide variety of registerable alternatives, we prefer to return the name to let him decide which he prefers. (12/95)

Tofa Sigurdrsdattr. Name.

The patronym is not properly constructed. Sigurdr takes a genitive in -ar; the Old Norse form would be Sigurdardóttir; a later form would be Sigurdsdotter. Other registrable forms would be Sigurdardatter or Sigurdsdatter. As the submitter allowed no changes, we are having to return this. (6/94)

Tomás Skotakollr. Device. Azure, a lion statant between two mullets and a point pointed all within a bordure Or.

The "point pointed" here really simply is not; it is far too narrow to be reasonably blazoned as such. As a consequence, we are returning this for redrawing with a standard heraldic point pointed. (12/95)

Tominaga Tadamasa. Device. Sable, on a fess cotised argent issuant from and within the horns of a crescent a demi-arrow all within a mascle sable.

The mascle on the fess isn't, since it has no perceptible width; even in the large emblazon, it amounts to nothing more than a heavy line. As noted in the commentary, "there is no good way to blazon the crescent and fletching" here. We can't call the arrow just fletching because the drawing clearly shows a significant part of the shaft as well. One generally thinks of a demi-<object> as being animate and including the head; this is, as was pointed out, the chiefmost half of an arrow in its default position. It was argued by several commenters that the collocation of charges on the fess is "slot-machine", since three types of charge are involved in what seems to be a single group (crescent, arrow, mascle). There was also some discussion that the identifiability of the conjoined arrow/crescent was badly compromised; a number of commenters thought it was a badly-drawn ship until hearing the blazon. (RfS VII.7.a. requires charges to be recognizable solely from their appearance.) For all of these problems, this must be returned. (10/94)

Tora-no-Shida Gozen. Name.

We need more complete documentation for the elements of the name. (No documentation was included in the Laurel packet.) The only name element that the commenters were able to independently support was Tora, though gozen was found as a common noun meaning "morning"). No, though spoken, usually isn't written in Japanese. The submitter's understanding of the name's meaning is not entirely correct; it would be "Gozen of the Tora branch of the Shida clan". (1/94)

Torcail Gilleghaolain. Badge. [Fieldless] A thistle flower slipped in the form of a cavendish knot fesswise proper.

Conflict with the House of Savoy, A savoy (or cavendish) knot. As with the August 1993 return of the Middle Kingdom's badge for the Order of the Cavendish Knot, there is only one CD for fieldlessness. (2/94)

Torcail Gilleghaolain. Name for House Caer Knot.

The household name conflicts with the Company of the Knot, a Monarchical order of Knighthood founded in Naples in 1352. If caer is considered as an adjective, and the designators "house" and "company" are invisible for purposes of difference, then this differs by only the addition of the adjective. This is insufficient difference by the Rules.

The name also has, to all intents and purposes, a double designator: in English, House Fort Knot. The fact that they are in different languages only serves to exacerbate the problem. He needs to choose just one. (2/94)

Torleif Sverkersson Hvide. Device. Gules, three jew's harps inverted argent.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Torquil ban MacNiel. Name.

The name was registered as Torquil ban MacNeil in the January 1994 LoAR, which spelling matches the documentation. No documentation or other reasoning for the unusual "ie" spelling of the patronymic was presented. (3/94)

Torre de los Brazos, Shire of. Badge. Azure, a tower between in fess two swords, a bordure Or.

While no conflicts were found, no petition of support from the officers and/or populace was included, as required by the Administrative Handbook (General Procedures for Submissions C.5., Evidence of Support). (7/94)

Tott. Quarterly gules and Or. Sometimes, Quarterly Or and gules.

There was nothing from the description given which led the commenters to believe that these arms were sufficiently important to protect. (5/95)

Trevor Arrowsmith. Device.

Though a number of examples of multi-layer counterchanging were presented by Pennon, the counterchanging of a complex charge (the pheon) on another complex charge (the flame) here makes the identifiability of either problematical. Initial reactions at Laurel's were of a "flame voided counterchanged", with the pheon only becoming apparent after looking more closely at the design. As Pennon noted, "If all of the charges remain clearly identifiable, there should be no problem." That is not the case here. (11/94)

Trevor Arrowsmith. Name.

Though the occupational byname is fine, with citations to the 14th Century, Trevor is a locative surname, from the Welsh tref fawr, "large homestead". The client needs a given name here. (11/94)

TRIESTE, City of. Device. Gules, a spearhead stylized as a fleur-de-lys argent.

While the charge on the arms appears to be unique and therefore gets it occasional mention in heraldic texts, nothing else about either the city or its arms seems sufficiently important to warrant protection. (6/95)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge. Azure, pendant from a chain of five hawk's bells, within a bordure argent.

It was the consensus of some of the commenters and of all those attending the Laurel meeting that this badge pushes the line a little to far and does infringe upon the restricted knight's chain, A closed loop of chain. Indeed, given the fact that the default heraldic chain has "large, open links", only the hawk's bells keep this submission from being the restricted knight's chain (on a blue field). While the bells are arguably a significant design element, they are equally arguable as the equivalent of maintained charges worth no heraldic difference. Especially given the fact that the restricted chain is an emblem of a Society-wide order, we felt it best to take the conservative approach here and return this for conflict with the badge for the knights. (6/95)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge. [Fieldless] A triskele Or.

Conflict with Goraidh Ailean n Gordonaich, Purpure, a triskelion pometty pallwise Or. There is only one CD, for fieldless vs. fielded. (9/95)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Crown's Order of Gratitude. Per pale azure and vert, a triskele Or.

Conflict with Goraidh Ailean n Gordonaich, Purpure, a triskelion pometty pallwise Or. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. (9/95)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Emerald Sea. Barry wavy vert and argent, a triskele Or.

Conflict with Goraidh Ailean n Gordonaich, Purpure, a triskelion pometty pallwise Or. There is only one CD, for the changes to the field. (9/95)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Fletcher. Argent, an unfletched arrow inverted between two feathers sable.

Conflict with Lawnslot of the Black Lance, Argent a lance between flaunches sable. An unfletched arrow is visually and heraldically indistinguishable from a lance, leaving only one CD for the change to the type of the secondary/peripheral charges. (2/96)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of Trimarian Gratitude. Barry wavy argent and azure, a triskele Or.

Conflict with Goraidh Ailean n Gordonaich, Purpure, a triskelion pometty pallwise Or. There is only one CD, for the change to the field. (9/95)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for the Order of the Argent Estoile of Trimaris. Azure, an estoile of five rays within a bordure argent.

Conflict with Isaac de Hugo, Azure, an estoile of eight rays within an annulet and a bordure all argent. There is a CD for removing the annulet, but the difference between the number of rays of one non-standard variant of a charge and another non-standard variant of the same charge is insufficient for the necessary second. (6/95)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Name change for Order of the Cravat Blanche of Trimaris from Order of the White Scarf of Trimaris.

No name change form was included in the paperwork. Additionally, the word cravate appears not to be dated to period; both citations which Lord Palimpsest found were just outside the "gray area" of 1600 to 1650. (Were it determined to be permissible, the correct form would appear to be cravate blanc.) (1/94)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Name for Order of the Argent Morningstar of Trimaris.

While the name appears to registrable under the Rules, no name submission form was included in the paperwork. (1/94)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Name for Order of the Argent Sword of Trimaris.

While the name appears to registrable under the Rules, no name submission form was included in the paperwork. (1/94)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Title for Golden Dolphin Herald.

Submitted for Barony of Darkwater, heraldic titles are registered to the kingdom. Conflict with the Dolphin Herald of Caid and with Atlantia's Order of the Golden Dolphin. (3/94)

Tristain of Tyne Weir. Device. Per chevron rayonny argent goutty de sang and gules, a triskelion arrondi pometty argent.

The primary charge is neither a classic "triskele" or "triskelion pometty", both of which are shown in the Pictorial Dictionary. As something halfway between the two, we are returning this for consultation with the submitter and redrawing as one or the other. (2/94)

Tristan Heart-Rose the Unbalanced. Name.

The overall construction of the name is extremely unusual, and appears to have no period exemplars. The submitter documents Heart and Rose as surnames, but does not show anything like how they could be combined in this fashion. The meaning of the term "unbalanced" seems far too late for a period byname. The principal herald may wish to pass on to him some of [then] Palimpsest's suggestions for period names of similar meaning. (6/95)

Tristan the Dragonheart. Name.

The byname is somewhat questionable in both form and semantic content. It is presumably modelled on Lionheart, a modern English translation of the Old French byname cuer de lion commonly associated with Richard I of England. It is by no means clear that this byname was used in English in period. The earliest OED citation for the word lionheart is only from 1665, while the French byname gave rise to an hereditary English surname and can be found (in variously Anglicized spellings) in London and at least five counties, including Yorkshire, in the 13th and 14th centuries (Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Codlin). Such a wide distribution strongly suggests that the name had multiple sources, which in turn implies that the French phrase was at some point a familiar idiom with a generally understood meaning. To judge by the citations given by Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Corderey, Anglo-French cuer de rei king's heart was another such phrase. Each of these phrases seems to have embodied a popular association of ideas, and each has been preserved only in a French form.

It is not clear that cuer de dragon embodies a metaphor that would have been equally meaningful in period; at least in Germanic tradition dragons seem to have been primarily associated in the popular mind with treasure hoards and deep places in the earth. None the less, we would be inclined to give a mediæval form like Cuerdedragon, Querdedragon, etc. the benefit of the doubt. Similarly, despite the absence of period English forms of bynames of this type, we would be willing (even without the lingua anglica allowance) to register Lionhert(e), Lyonhert(e), Lionhart(e), etc. as possible Middle English forms of an attested Anglo-French byname. Tristan Dragonhert would require the benefit of the doubt on both counts; Tristan the Dragonheart adds the further anomaly of the definite article, which corresponds to nothing in the French models. Still, we would have dropped the definite article and registered the name as Tristan Dragonhert had the submitter allowed minor changes; since he did not, we are returning it. (5/96)

Tristram Faustus Chantereau. Badge. Gules, a Catherine's wheel Or bladed and within a border argent.

Conflict with The Master and Fellows of St. Catherine's College (Public, Combo I), Gules, a Catherine wheel Or, and with Marteioys (Papworth, p. 1121), Gules, a wheel Or. In each case, there is only one CD for the addition of the bordure. (2/94)

Troy of Seleone. Household Name for Emerichs Keep.

Emerich is either German, in which case Keep is out of place, or an unattested spelling of a name usually found in English records as Emeric(us) or Emery. A Middle English Emericeskepe might possibly have become Emerickeskeep by the end of our period, though Emery Keep accords better with the available evidence. Moreover, no example of keep in a period English place-name is known. With a change in the generic term, however, the name can be made to follow period models very closely. Modern Barnard Castle was recorded as Bernardescastell in 1399, and there is also a place named Richards Castle ((baronia) Castri Ricardi 1212); Emericescastell would be an exact parallel of these names.

However, this submission was made before the 12/95 return of his personal name submission, Tobias, son of Emerich, and the 3/96 return of his lady's personal name submission, Jessimond of Emerichs Keep. The lady wanted her name to match her husband s, and the present form implies that the household name is intended to match both. Normally we would be inclined to make it Emericeskepe and give kepe the benefit of the doubt; but since we do not know how they will modify their personal names, we prefer in this case simply to return the household name. This way they can resubmit at no extra cost a version that matches their revised personal names; the alternative would force them either to live with a mismatched household name or to pay to change it. (5/96)

Truvor Hörtha-Knút. Device. Sable, a lion's head cabossed between three roundels Or.

The lion's head is not really identifiable as such; many of the commenters and those attending the Laurel meeting thought it was a face in a hood of some kind. Please show the submitter a lion's head cabossed. The roundels are drawn too small and tend to look lost in the corners of the shield. Please ask him to draw them larger. (4/95)

Truvor Hörtha-Knút. Name.

The commenters were very wary of placing much confidence in Time-Life books as period name documentation. No one could find Truvor or anything like it in any other sources. Given that fact, it seems likely that Truvor is a unique documentary form and not a name actually used at all.

Hörtha-Knút is not a simple given name, but rather a byname/given name combination (the given name being Knút). As a consequence, the name as a whole does not follow any Norse naming practice with which we are familiar, as the Norse do not seem to have ever used unmarked patronymics. Making it Hörtha-Knútsson (son of Knut the Hordalander) would improve the construction immeasurably, but unfortunately would then fall afoul of the prohibition on claiming direct relationship to historical figures. (4/95)

Tuilelaith in rautha. Device. Per bend sinister embattled vert and sable, two roses argent.

Conflict with Roby (Papworth, p. 870), Quarterly azure and Or, in the first and fourth quarters a cinquefoil argent. There is a CD for the changes to the field, but nothing for the difference in type between cinquefoils and roses. (11/93)

TURIN, City of. Device. Azure, a bull rampant Or.

Nothing in the Letter of Intent to Protect nor in the commentary suggested anything about the city or its arms that warrant protection. (6/95)

Turlough Ó Cuinn. Device. Gyronny gules and ermine, on a pale rayonny Or a spear proper.

Spears do not appear to have a default "proper"; the one here has a wooden (brown) shaft and an argent spearhead, which gets lost very quickly on the Or pale, making the spear unidentifiable as such. Might we suggest making the spear sable? (2/95)

Turris Aquilae, Shire of. Device. Or, on a hurt an eagle displayed Or and on a bordure azure a laurel wreath Or.

The laurel wreath is not, and indeed on a bordure cannot be, a wreath, which when properly drawn is nearly a closed circle. Rather, here it is "two sprigs of laurel, stems crossed in base". (5/94)

Twin Moons, Barony of. Name for Order of the Moon's Heart.

"Moon's Heart" does not follow any exemplars of period order names of which we are aware. (See RfS III.2.b.ii., Names of Orders and Awards. "Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards.") (6/95)

Tyrse av Hammerfest. Device. Per fess wavy Or and sable, two Thor's hammers counterchanged.

The line of division on the device needs to be drawn much more boldly. The "waves" on the large emblazon were barely recognizable. (11/93)

Tyrse av Hammerfest. Name.

The name has no documentation for the given or supporting this form as a feminization. (11/93)

Ulf Gunnarsson. Device. Azure, two harps and a wolf sejant erect guardant argent.

Conflict with Brees (Papworth p. 98) Azure a wolf rampant argent. And with Clece (Papworth p. 98) Azure a wolf salient argent). This was the subject of a lively debate at the Laurel meeting, as well as in the commentary. In the end, the basic philosophical position of subsuming changes to posture, orientation, type, etc. under changes to number (e.g., Azure, two lions combattant Or conflicts with Azure, a lion rampant Or, with one CD for adding the second lion, but nothing for then changing its orientation) required this to be seen as a conflict, too, with a CD for changing the number of charges, but nothing for then changing their type as well. (2/94)

Ulfhethinn the Bold. Device. Sable, a panther rampant guardant argent spotted sable incensed gules and an orle of plates.

Conflict with Prenne (Papworth, p. 134), Sable, a lion rampant argent between eight plates. There is a CD for type for the difference between the cats, but that is all. (8/94)

ULM, City of. Device. Per fess sable and argent.

Nothing in the Letter of Intent to Protect nor in the commentary suggested anything about the city or its arms that warrant protection. (6/95)

Ulrich Maximilian Neidlinger. Device. Azure, a bend Or, overall a wyvern argent, on a chief gules, three cow's heads cabossed argent.

The chief is color on color, and therefore disallowed per RfS VIII.2.b.i. (11/94)

Ulrich von Adlerburg. Badge. [Fieldless] A heart Or charged with another sable.

As this could as easily (and not incorrectly) be blazoned [Fieldless] A heart sable fimbriated Or, this still conflicts with van Roden, Argent a heart sable (Rietstap). In addition, as a heart is demonstrably a standard shape for the display of armory in period, this also conflicts with Flanderis (Papworth, p. 342), Gules a bordure Or, Bass (Papworth, p. 343), Sable a bordure argent, and Corane (Papworth, p. 343), Sable a bordure Or, a label gules. In each case there is only one CD for the change to the field, to the tincture of the bordure, or for removing the label, respectively. (1/94)

Ulrika Elsabet Koenen. Name.

No evidence has been presented that Ulrika is any more likely a period name than the previously returned Ulrike. Contrary to the statement in the LoI, the spelling of the given in Withycombe is Ulrica, and it is described as "occasionally borrowed from German". As commentary on the earlier submission noted, Bahlow notes that Ulrike was "fashionable c. 1800 as a recent feminization". Ulrica, however spelled, does not appear to be a period name. (5/95)

Ulrike Elsabet Koenen. Name.

All of the documentation found by the commenters confirmed that Ulrike is an 18th Century feminization. We would have substituted Ulrica, documented in Withycombe, but the submitter allowed no changes whatsoever to the name. (9/94)

Ulvar van der Nederlanden. Badge. [Fieldless] A phoenix vert rising from flames, within and issuant from an annulet of flame proper.

The annulet of flame proper and the flames beneath the phoenix are drawn as flames gules fimbriated Or, a motif which has been disallowed for some years now. Additionally, and as noted by Laurel before, "We have not allowed charges of flame for quite some time."' (LoAR July 1994, p. 11) (12/95)

Uma, Canton of. Device. Vert, a birch tree and on a chief argent three laurel wreaths vert.

Conflicts with Shire of Cypress Hills (SCA), Vert, a tree blasted and eradicated, on a chief argent three laurel wreaths vert. There are technically no CDs between the two devices. (11/94)

Umm Yaasmeen Sahar. Name.

The kunya (honorific) Umm Yaasmeen `mother of Yaasmeen' is in effect an `upside-down metronymic'; and just as metronymics do not seem to have been part of Arabic naming practice, no one has found a kunya based on a feminine name. We have previously returned Arabic names for incorporating metronymics (e.g., Raym 'Inan bint Rabi'ah, Atenveldt, 8/95 LoAR, and Aliyah bint Leyla, Middle, 4/94 LoAR); given the equal lack of evidence for the reciprocal practice and its equal implausibility in the male-oriented Arab culture, consistency requires that we return this name as well. (12/95)

Una of Blackberry Hollow. [Fieldless] On a triskele argent the letter U vert entwined on the sinister side of a blackberry bramble sable leaved vert.

This item had been pended because the tincture of the letter had accidentally been left out of the blazon. The very poor contrast between the sable and vert vine and the vert U leave us facing rather good-sized problems of identifiability of the charges. Additionally, while we have allowed entwining, most entwined charges were either snakes (of which entwining around a column or rod is a period motif) or larger, more readily identifiable plant charges such as a rose, its slip entwined around a long, thin object (again, rather like a column or rod). The use of a letter here does not seem to be a reasonable extension of period practice. (1/95)

Urho of the Pines. Device. Argent, a pinecone and on a chief vert an arrow argent.

The pinecone is substantially unrecognizable as rendered, appearing here only as a pointed cartouche with cross-hatching. (1/94)

Urho of the Pines. Name.

No one was able to document Urho as a given name and it was not cited as such in the submitter's documentation. We need documentation of its use as a given name in period before we can register this. (1/94)

Vair Couvert, Shire of. Appeal of return of name change from Shire of Encinal.

The submitted name is not just an Anglo-French hybrid; it has the specific form {English nominal descriptor} {French toponym}. The examples of Bumpstead Helion and Teyn Gegras do not apply (and are slightly inaccurate). Bumpstead is by itself a complete English place-name to which has been added the French surname of the man who once held the lands, Tihel Britto or de Helion. Teyn Gegras (properly, Teyn Gras), is another example of the form {English place-name} {surname of French owner}. Vair Couvert follows another pattern altogether, one that still hasn't been documented. (And since the pattern involves the use of two languages in a single phrase, it must be documented pretty thoroughly; one or two isolated examples would probably be insufficient.) As the Laurel office is unable to consider alternate submissions, we were unable to register the documentable change they said they would accept ("Vair Hollow"). Initial commentary by some of the commenting heralds would seem to indicate that Vair Hollow is a registrable name. (1/94)

Valentine FitzKathrine. Name.

The form of the byname (Fitz mother's name) does not seem supported by the evidence. All of the documented names formed on forenames are formed on masculine ones. The exceptions that were noted were not formed on forenames at all: Henry fis le Rey ("son of the King") and FitzEmpress (the latter cited in the LoI). Neither of these support the form of the byname submitted. (8/94)

Valerian le Archer. Device. Sable, a unicorn rampant argent.

Conflict with Annora Marianna Francesca Moro di Castions di Zoppola, Sable, a unicorn statant erect and in chief three roses in fess argent. There is a CD for the removal of the roses, but a comparison of the emblazons demonstrated that the two monsters are in nearly identical, and therefore heraldically insignificantly different, postures. (There are some minor differences to the leg positions, but that is all.) (6/96)

Valter Henriksson Järf. Name change from Valter Henriksson Djerfve.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Vatavia, Barony of. Badge. Azure, an orb between four dragonflies in saltire, tails to center, Or.

Conflict with Lamont (Papworth, p. 1095), Azure, a mount Or, and with the flag of Belau, Azure, a bezant. ln each case there is only one CD, for the addition of the dragonflies. (Versus Belau, the cross on the orb is the equivalent of a held or maintained charge, insufficient for a Clear Difference.) (10/94)

Vidalen de Villena. Name.

Since there was no name submission form in the packet, the name must be returned. In addition no one was able to confirm the documentation for Vidalen or to document it independently as a given name. (9/95)

Vidhar Ulfr Frøsgodes son. Device. Per pale argent and vert, a tree eradicated and in dexter chief a boar's head erased gules.

Withdrawn from consideration at the request of the submitter. (8/94)

Vidhar Ulfr Frøsgodes son. Name.

Withdrawn from consideration at the request of the submitter. (8/94)

VIENNA, City of. Device. Sable, a double-headed eagle displayed and haloed Or, in chief an Imperial crown proper with fibulae Or, as an augmentation, the eagle's breast charged with an inescutcheon gules, thereon a cross argent.

The arms, as the LoItP notes, have an interesting story. Nothing else about them seems sufficiently important to warrant our protection. And, as noted, the original arms of the city (Gules, a cross argent), are already on the protected list under the arms of Savoy. (6/95)

Viviana of Huntington. Device. Azure, two dolphins haurient respectant and in chief three mullets argent.

Conflict with Alethea of Fair Isle (SCA), Azure, two dolphins haurient respectant and in chief a mullet argent. There is one CD for the change to number of secondaries. (6/94)

Walraven Van Nijmege. Name.

The submitter has used excellent sources for his documentation; unfortunately, 16th century orthography has played a dirty trick on him. The 1566 map on which he thought to read Nijmege actually has a tilde over the final e. This standard scribal abbreviation for an omitted n or m was still in common use in the 16th century, in print as in manuscript, and other place-names on the same map confirm its use here (e.g., Bate[n]borch, Campe[n], Lichte[n]foerde, Wachte[n]donck, Reckelichuse[n], Crane[n]borch). As a matter of long-standing tradition we do not register scribal abbreviations. We would have expanded the abbreviation and replaced Van with van in accordance with normal period practice so as to register the name as Walraven van Nijmegen, but he permits no changes whatsoever.

It is questionable whether the submitted form can be justified from the remaining documentation. The final n appears by about the year 1000; forms without it are recorded at least into the 12th century, but in Latin contexts. There is a gap in the documentation between c.1200 and the 16th century, but it appears that final n was established by the time the first part of the name became Nij-. It is possible that evidence can be found to justify Nijmege, but in the meantime we must regretfully return the name. If no such evidence can be found, Walraven de Numege would be an excellent 12th century version without final n, and Walraven van Numege would probably also be acceptable. (1/96)

Walter of Huntsdale Keep. Device. Argent, a linden tree eradicated proper, on a bordure vert, three compass stars argent.

No emblazon forms were found in the file, and the sheet stating only "You already have the device" was not sufficiently precise to allow us to track it down. (9/94)

WARSAW, City of. Device. Gules, a mermaid proper tailed argent brandishing a sword and targe Or.

Nothing in the Letter of Intent to Protect nor in the commentary suggested anything about the city or its arms that warrant protection. (6/95)

Wege Teague. Name.

A combination of an Old English forename with what can only be a fairly late English form of an Irish surname is too far from period practice. Additionally, Wege appears to be a variant spelling of Wegga, which pretty much rules out 'way' as a possible pronunciation, as the submitter believes. Feilitzen shows Wege and Weghe as occurring in Domesday Book, identifying them with the name with Wegga, which appears to be Scandinavian. Palimpsest suggested several possible alternatives, but as the submitter's preference was to only allow corrections which kept the sound of how he believes the submitted name is pronounced, we thought it best to return the name rather than modify it so that the submissions herald or principal herald could discuss the various proposals with him and he could choose for himself which he prefers. (10/94)

Weland Healfdene. Device. Argent, three bull's horns in annulo azure.

Conflict with Horneck (Papworth, p. 950), Argent, three buglehorns, one in chief and two in base, counterembowed azure, adorned, stringed and garnished Or. There is only one CD, for the change in type of charge. The arrangement appears to be nearly identical. (10/94)

West, Kingdom of. Title for Ordonnance Pursuivant.

The title's meaning here ("systematic arrangement, esp. of written materials ... a plan or method of literary or artistic composition") does not appear to follow any of the period exemplars for heralds titles. (See RfS II.2.b.iii.) (4/95)

West, Kingdom of. Transfer of Badge for the Lists Office to the Principality of Lochac. Azure, a scroll unrolled bendwise Or, overall a dexter gauntlet grasping a sword argent, hilted and fimbriated sable.

The letter from Lochac with the appropriate signatures accepting the transfer of this badge had not been received by the time of the Laurel meeting. (11/93)

Whispering Pines, Canton of the. Name.

The name does not appear to be formed in a manner required by RfS III.2.b.i. ("Names of branches must follow the patterns of period place-names."). The only even remotely similar placename to this one that anyone was able to find was Loudwater (Ekwall, p. 305), and it doesn't really come close enough to support the construction here. (6/95)

Wiesenfeuer, Barony of. Name for Keepers of the Ebon Flame.

"The word ebon does not appear to be used in any save a most literal sense (relating to ebony) until the very last of the 16th Century." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1992, p. 21). Additionally, the name as constructed conflicts with the Barony of the Flame and with the Flame Pursuivant. As the LoI noted, Keepers is the designator, and therefore "invisible" for purposes of conflict. As a consequence, there is only the addition of the modifier "ebon", which is not sufficient difference. (12/93)

Wild Hares, March of the. Device. Vert, a rabbit's head couped contourny within a laurel wreath argent.

The device conflicts with Artemis the Innkeeper, Vert, a rabbit's head erased contourny argent. There is only one CD for the addition of the "laurel wreath". Additionally, as drawn, the laurel "wreath" isn't, but is two sprigs of laurel conjoined in chevron inverted. Please discuss the circular nature of a laurel wreath with the submitters. (12/93)

Wild Hares, March of the. Name.

None of the commenters could find any period models for this placename formation, nor was any documentation supporting this form included with the submission. Additionally, the name is obtrusively modern in that the first association many of the commenters had was the tea party with the March Hare described so amusingly by Lewis Carroll. Would the submitters consider something like March of Leporaria (from the Latin leporis "hare" and the place name suffix -aria), Harehope ("hare valley"), or Harewood ("hare wood")? (12/93)

Wilhelm Bruhn. Device. Quarterly gules and vert, four drinking horns interlaced in saltire Or.

RfS VII.7.a. requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." The drinking horns here were variously misidentified by the commenters. Most took it to be a single charge, not four charges interlaced. There was a general consensus that interlacing four charges like this is probably not a very good concept because of the identifiability problem. (5/96)

Wilhelm the Red Hawk of Brandenburg. Name.

The Red Hawk does not appear to be a reasonable English byname, particularly in conjunction with the German form of the given name. The example of Albert the Bear of Brandenburg does not sufficiently support the form for the [color + animal] of Brandenburg. (4/94)

Wilhelm von Homburg. Device change. Argent, a bend Or fimbriated within a bordure gules.

Conflict with Haward (Papworth, p. 256), Argent, two bendlets and a bordure gules. There is a change in tincture only to the space between the bendlets -- or as we may equally well blazon the submission as "Argent, on a bend gules another Or, all within a bordure gules" and Haward as "Argent, on a bend gules another argent, all within a bordure gules", there is only a tincture change to the tertiary charge, which is insufficient for a CD. Conflict also with Ireton (Papworth, p. 183), Argent, a bend voided gules, with a CD for the addition of the bordure but nothing for the change to tincture only of the tertiary, and with Burghwell (Papworth, p. 27), Argent, on a bend within a bordure gules, three martlets Or, with one CD for the changes in type and number of the tertiary charges. (11/94)

Wilhelm von Winkelried. Device. Argent, bend sinister dovetailed vert between two Mamluk rosettes azure.

This is being returned for redrawing of the secondaries. Mamluke rosettes, as defined for SCA heraldry, and as found on period artifacts, have only six arms. (11/93)

William Blackwing. Name.

None of the commenters could find any surnames based on the English word wing. (The surname Wing itself is apparently locative.) Indeed, no examples of <color><animal part> were found. Nor is there an English tradition of surnames based on armorial bearings (as there is in Germany, for example). As a consequence, there is no support at all for the byname. (9/94)

William Cavendish. Name.

Conflict with William Cavendish, William Cavendish, William Cavendish, William Cavendish, and William Cavendish (Encyclopedia Britannica), including the first Duke of Devonshire, the second Earl of Cavendish, the first Duke of Cavendish, the fourth Earl of Cavendish, the fourth Duke of Cavendish, and the Prime Minister of England (1756-57). But it is clearly a good name! (10/94)

William de Marmoutier. Device. Per bend sinister gules and checky Or and sable, in dexter chief a torch enflamed Or.

Conflict with British 18th Artillery Training Brigade (Military Ordinary), Per fess gules and azure, overall a torch enflamed all Or, and with British 218th Brigade (Military Ordinary), Sable, a crescent torch palewise Or enflamed gules. In each case there is a CD for the changes to the field, but as the move of the torch to dexter chief in this submission is forced by the field tinctures, we can grant no difference for placement on the field. (2/95)

William Griffin Blackthorne. Device. Gules, a griffin's head couped contourny, on a chief argent a staff entwined with a leafless vine.

As noted by all of the commenters, the tincture of the staff and vine are missing from the blazon. Normally, Laurel would supply the missing tincture and pend the device for research under the corrected blazon, but as the staff and vine are colored in as "gray", which is neither an heraldic tincture nor "proper" for staffs and/or vines, we are returning this so that the submitter may choose another tincture for these charges. (3/95)

William of Øland. Device. Or, a stump snagged proper, a bordure per pale sable and vert.

Conflict with Kerensa of Willowmere (SCA), Or, springing from a fracted stump, a field daisy stalked and leaved proper. There is a CD for the addition of the bordure, but nothing for the fracting of the stump or for the maintained daisy. (2/95)

William of the Battered Helm. Device. Sable, on a chevron argent between two ram's heads respectant and a ram's horn Or three hoof prints sable.

If I may quote from the commentary of Actuarius and Orle: "We have rules for the purpose of giving us objective standards for the comparison of armory. This permits us to definitely state that two pieces of armory are in conflict with one another, or that they are clear of conflict and permits us to clearly state why. This frees us from having to depend on finding the 'most myopic person on this planet' to make our judgements for us. We understand that you may feel that your device and the cited conflict are very different, however under our rules they are in conflict. While we can sympathize with the submitter's feelings we must follow the rules. The kingdom College of Heralds was correct in their return." This submission is in conflict with Tibbs as cited in the LoI. It is also in conflict with Cowper (Papworth, p. 521), Sable, on a chevron between three goat's heads couped argent, as many ogresses. Though technically no closer to the submission than Tibbs by the RfS, it is perhaps visually closer to the non-heraldic eye. (9/94)

William Ravenhair. Name.

The earliest citation (and the only one in period) for "raven" as referring to color is dated 1600, and is used as an adjective to describe the shade or quality of blackness, not as a substitute for black ("My Misteresse eyes are Rauen black"). Would the submitter consider the period expressions Blacklock, Blakelok or Blakheued? (1/94)

William Ross. Device. Per pale wavy gules and Or, on a sun of eight rays azure a pheon inverted argent, a bordure counterchanged.

There is no record that this name has been submitted or registered. We are unable to register armory without a name submission accompanying or preceding it. (9/95)

William Tinker. Device. Azure, a bull rampant contourny atop a base argent.

Conflict with Chrystofer Kensor (SCA), Azure, a wolf rampant to sinister argent maintaining a halberd argent hafted Or. While there is certainly a CD for the differences between the beasts, a visual check of the files demonstrated a clear visual similarity between the two devices. (8/94)

Wintermist, Shire of. Badge. [Fieldless] A snowflake gules.

Conflict with Blount (Papworth, p. 684), Barry of five argent and azure, an escarbuncle gules, as cited in the LoI. As noted in the LoAR of 17 October 1993, p. 17, there is not a CD between a snowflake and an escarbuncle. (2/94)

Wintermist, Shire of. Badge. Purpure, a lyre and a bordure invected Or.

It was the consensus of the commenting heralds and those attending the Laurel meeting that there is (and should be) a CD between a lyre and a harp. Thus this should be clear of the SCA badge for the Ministry of the Arts, Purpure, an Irish harp Or. However, the charge as drawn is not a period lyre, which according the Pictorial Dictionary has only 4 strings running between the top bar and the sound box, and the strings do not overlie the top bar. As one commenter noted, this is far more like the "lyre" found on a Georgian clock pendulum. The RfS require that period artifacts be depicted in their period form (see RfS VII.3.). Hence we are returning this for redrawing. (7/94)

Wolfger of Rheinfelden. Device. Gules, a cross formy fitched at the foot sable.

Conflict with Dorothea of Caer Myrddin, Argent, a cross patty sable. There is one CD, for the change to the field, but fitching a cross is not worth the necessary second. (11/95)

Wolfhardt von Achterturm. Device. Azure, two owls and a tower and on a chief embattled Or a mullet of eight points azure.

As no forms were ever received by Laurel, we are forced to return this. (11/95)

Wolfhardt von Achterturm. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Wolfsau, Canton of. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Wolfsberg, Canton of. Name.

Because no forms were ever received from Schwartzdrachen, this must be returned. (10/95)

Wulfhere Slaende Falk. Badge. [Fieldless] A falcon striking to sinister argent.

Conflict with Johann Klaus Drager (SCA), Per pale sable and vert, an eagle rising to sinister, wings elevated and addorsed, argent. There is only one CD for fieldlessness. (5/94)

WÜRZBURG, City of. Device. Sable, a banner quarterly gules and Or flying from a pole bendwise Or.

Nothing in the Letter of Intent to Protect nor in the commentary suggested anything about the city or its arms that warrant protection. (6/95)

Wyll Hauk. Device. Argent, within a vol an eagle's head erased gules.

Visual conflict with John Milton, Argent, a double-headed eagle displayed gules, and Brandenburg, Argent, an eagle displayed gules crowned Or. While there is sufficient technical difference between them, the overwhelming visual similarities (here, that of an eagle with the tail and legs missing, as well as a little bit of the neck), especially against Brandenburg (which is usually drawn in a German style, closer to the charges here than the usual English style), are simply too much to allow registration.

The discussion by some commenters regarding kleestengeln was not entirely on point; the College has always treated kleestengeln as an artistic difference, not the addition (or removal) of tertiary charges, especially as in many cases in period they seem to have been drawn on or left off at the discretion of the artist. 10/95)

Wyn Caradoc of Anglesey. Device. Gules, on a cross nowy quadrate Or a dragon passant gules.

Conflict with Elsa von Thüringen, Gules, on a cross nowy quadrate Or a fireball proper. There is only one CD for the changes to the tertiary charges. (8/95)

Wynne Snowmane of Ravens Keep. Name.

The documentation for Wynne is weak; this spelling does not seem to have appeared until after the name became a surname. (Palimpsest did suggest an alternate, the Welsh Wyn.) The most serious problem, however, is the lack of documentation for the element "mane". Given the very large number of documented nicknames which refer to hair, and their high frequency of use, this lack of documentation is significant. We need better support for the byname. (8/94)

Wystan of Blackwood Keep. Badge. Gules masoned argent, a maple leaf Or.

Conflict with the badge for Canada, A maple leaf. As the Canada badge is tinctureless, there is only one CD, for the addition of the field and its treatment. (3/95)

Xavier de Saône. Device. Argent, on a bend sinister wavy azure between a sun and a decrescent gules, three mullets of six points argent.

The "waves" of the bend sinister were drawn so shallowly as to be hardly worth blazoning. This is being returned for redrawing with proper "big and bold" waves. (2/94)

Xavier de Saône. Name.

Xavier appears to have been only used as a locative surname in period. As a consequence, the submitted name lacks a given. (It was also suggested that du Saône, "of the Saone", is more likely than the submitted form of the locative.) (2/94)

Xavier Tormod Macleod. Name.

As with the return of Xavier de Saone in the February 1994 LoAR, no evidence has been found that Xavier was anything but a placename in period. The use of Xavier as a given name comes after the canonization of St. Francis Xavier, which occurred in 1622. (10/94)

Yaroslav the Persistent. Badge. Gules, on a mullet of thirteen points argent a pellet within an annulet sable, a bordure argent.

Though as blazoned the badge has only three layers, the appearance is of at least four (Gules, on a sun argent a pellet charged with an annulet argent....) The overall appearance, of course, is of a "bulls-eye" -which was noted even on the LoI next to the mini-emblazon ("This is not a bullseye!"). It is not really period style heraldry. Finally, there is a visual conflict: Cynedd ap Gwen (SCA), Sable, a sun eclipsed within a bordure argent. There is a CD for the change to the field, but going from a roundel (eclipse) to a roundel within an annulet is a visual change only equivalent to adding a quaternary annulet, insufficient for a second CD. (11/94)

Yehudit Bat Rina. Device. Per chevron sable and gules, six pairs of stalks of wheat crossed in saltire three, two and one Or.

There is no record that this name has been submitted or registered. We are unable to register armory without at least a name submission accompanying or preceding it. (9/95)

YORK, City of. Device. Argent, on a cross gules five lions passant guardant Or.

Nothing in the Letter of Intent to Protect nor in the commentary suggested anything about the city or its arms that warrant protection (aside from one commenter who was familiar with them from having traveled there, and another who was marginally willing to protect them "on the grounds of rampant Anglocentrism"). (6/95)

Yrsa kistill Gunnarsdóttir. Device. Per fess engrailed vert and sable, a fish haurient argent.

Conflict with Brendel the Swordfish, Azure, a swordfish palewise haurient embowed to sinister argent . There is a CD for the field, but nothing for the type between a generic fish and a swordfish. (5/96)

Ysabeau Morgan Beauclerc. Device. Or, a dragon sejant erect to sinister, and on a chief sable between two Libra glyphs a pale Or.

Despite the blazon of the "chief", the visual reality of this device is one of an Or field with two charged cantons. Charged cantons are reserved in the SCA for augmentations. (11/93)

Ysabet an Ealaiontoir. Name.

The name mixes Anglo-French and Irish Gaelic spelling codes in a manner not found in period. If the Gaelic byname is kept, a Gaelic form of the given name is needed; Ó Corráin & Maguire, Irish Names, p. 165, give Sibéal and Isibéal as Irish borrowings of the French Isabel. However, we have not been able to confirm that ealaiontoir is modern Gaelic for `artist'; the closest that we have come is Scots Gaelic ealdhantair `artificer'. Perhaps she would consider the period byname ceárd `artisan, craftsman', which appears in Anglicized Scottish records as Kerd(e), Card, and (slightly out of period) Caird. Ysabet Kerd would be a reasonable English version of Gaelic Isibéal (an) Ceárd `Isabel (the) Artisan'.

All of the registerable forms involve more than minor changes, and in any case there was no name form in the packet, so we must return the name. (12/95)

Yuri Bolschich. Name.

Name returned for lack of documentation of the surname. None of the commenters were able to find Bolschich in period. We need better documentation for the surname. (11/93)

Yuri Bolschich. Name.

The line of division on the device needs to be drawn with much fewer and much bolder nebules. (Listed in the LoI as a resubmission, this appears to be such only at the Kingdom level and not at Laurel.) (11/93)

Yves le Chat Blanc. Device. Per pale sable and ermine, in canton a domestic cat's face argent, a bordure counterchanged argent and sable.

It was the overwhelming consensus at the Laurel meeting that this falls afoul of RfS XI.3., which states that "Armory that appears to marshall independent arms is considered presumptuous." The rule goes on to note that such marshalled fields "may be used with identical charges over the entire field, or with complex lines of partition or charges overall that were not used for marshalling in period heraldry." The use of a counterchanged bordure here is not used in the usual way of an overall charge (indeed, bordures were, and are, used in a number of countries for cadencing), and serves in no way to lessen the appearance of marshalling. Indeed, the fact that the bordure is not counterchanged of the field only serves to accent the appearance of the dimidiation of two independent coats, Sable, in chief two cat's faces, a bordure argent and Ermine, a bordure sable. (6/96)

Zacariah of Westlake. Device. Vert, a wall argent masoned sable between two crossbows and two swords in saltire Or.

Conflict with Ancel FitzCharles (SCA), Vert, a fess embattled argent, masoned sable, between three hammers Or. There is only one CD for the change to the type of all the secondaries. (12/93)

Zahra Xena Theano. Name.

The documentation for Xena is very weak, coming as it did from a book called A Treasure of Names; Xena does not appear in such very general modern works as Hanks and Hodges. Additionally, the overall structure of the name is neither Arabic nor Greek, as required by the Rules (see RfS III. and III.1). (Since the submitter noted on the forms that the sound of the name was the most important element to her, she might consider Sarracina or Sarrazina, feminizations of Sarracino found in Talan Gwynek's A Glossary of the Personal Names in Diéz Melcón's Apellidos Castellano-Leoneses published in the Proceedings of the 1993 Known World Heraldic Symposium.) (3/95)

Ziegfried Gunter von Wieselburg. Badge. [Fieldless] A demi-weasel erased rampant sable.

The "weasel" was not identifiable as such. Most commenters, and those attending the Laurel meeting, thought it was a wolf. You might suggest that he try photocopying or tracing the same charge from his device, which is decidedly more "weasel"-like. In the meantime, we must return this for not meeting the standard set in RfS VII.7.a., "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." (8/95)

ZÜRICH, City of. Device. Per bend argent and azure.

Nothing in the Letter of Intent to Protect nor in the commentary suggested anything about the city or its arms that warrant protection. (6/95)


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