Submission Returns by Name

The Tenure of Jaelle of Armida


Aarnimetsä, Barony of. Order name for Aarnimetsän akatemia.

This is being returned for not following our patterns for order name. The name means, in Finnish, Academy of Aarnimetsä, Aarnimetsä being the name of the barony. However as it says in RfS 2.b.ii "Some examples are: the Order of Saint Michael, the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, the Brethren of the Sword, the Order of the Garter, La Toison d'Or (the Order of the Golden Fleece), the Order of the Golden Rose, the Order of the Star, the Order of the Swan, La Orden de la Jara (the Knights of the Tankard), the Order of Lilies." Academy of Aarnimetsä does not follow any of the exemplars. Furthermore, they would not take changes, and all order and awards must contain a designator. RfS 2.b states "Branch names, names of orders and awards, heraldic titles, and household names must consist of a designator that identifies the type of entity and at least one descriptive element. Common designators are Shire, Barony, Guild, House, Order of the, and Herald."

Finally, we feel that it is probably too generic to register. (06/22/1999)

Aarnimetsä, Barony of. Order name for Aarnimetsän kaarti.

This is being returned for not following our patterns for order name. The name means, in Finnish, Guard of Aarnimetsä, Aarnimetsä being the name of the barony. However as it says in RfS 2.b.ii "Some examples are: the Order of Saint Michael, the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, the Brethren of the Sword, the Order of the Garter, La Toison d'Or (the Order of the Golden Fleece), the Order of the Golden Rose, the Order of the Star, the Order of the Swan, La Orden de la Jara (the Knights of the Tankard), the Order of Lilies." Academy of Aarnimetsä does not follow any of the exemplars. Furthermore, they would not take changes, and all order and awards must contain a designator. RfS 2.b states "Branch names, names of orders and awards, heraldic titles, and household names must consist of a designator that identifies the type of entity and at least one descriptive element. Common designators are Shire, Barony, Guild, House, Order of the, and Herald. "

Finally, we feel that it is probably too generic to register. (06/22/1999)

Aaron Whyteshade. Device. Vert, a panther's head cabossed argent incensed between two roundels echancré Or.

These aren't roundels echancré, which are roundels with three semi-circular `bites' taken out of them at equal intervals around the circumference, but rather something that no-one was able to blazon. If they had been drawn properly, we would have registered them, for while we have banned roundels enchancré, the ban doesn't take effect until July 1997. However, since these were not correctly drawn, this will have to be returned, and any resubmission which contains roundels enchancré will have to be returned since it will be after the ban takes place. (05/1997)

Abaddon Barbarossa. Name and device. Chevronnelly gules and ermine on a cross formy sable a Maltese cross Or.

The name was originally returned at Kingdom level 9/93. An appeal was made to Laurel at that time. That appeal was returned 3/94. The submitter is now appealing this return to the Board of Directors. We are also returning the name, but we will be forwarding his appeal along with the original return and commentary, and this set of information. The original return said:

No evidence was presented either in the appeal or in the commentary that the given was ever used by humans, in or out of period. As a consequence, we are unable to register it here.

The submitter said in his appeal:

First, the submitter is addressing the RfS, Name Rules, Part II.3, Invented Names, which would allow a name from a literary source (in this case, the Bible). Secondly, the Laurel return was based on the RfS Name Rules IV.2, Offensive Names (the return claiming that Abaddon is the name of a demon). The submitter argued that point that Abaddon is in fact Satan's jailer (citing the Book of Revelation), and therefore an angel such as Gabriel or Michael.

Unfortunately the submitter still has failed to provide documentation that Abaddon was a name used by human beings in period. While is it true that both Gabriel and Michael are names of angels they are also names that were used by human beings in period. While we do allow names from literature, (see next month's cover letter for a discussion on using names from period fiction), the names must be names of human beings.

Note: while the appeal addresses a return for violating our clause on offensive names, in fact the 3/94 Laurel return did not address that issue at all, and only addressed the issue of names used by human beings.

The armory is being returned for using two different types of cross in the same armory, a cross formy and a Maltese cross, therefore running afoul of the "sword and dagger" rule.

"If two charges are artistically distinct, but heraldically identical, they should not be used in the same armory. The reason for this is the raison d’etre of heraldry; instant identification. When the eye first sees a design such as , say, Sable, two lions and a Bengal tiger Or, it will be fooled for a moment into seeing three lions, or three tigers. There’ll be a moment of confusion until the eye sorts out the almost-but-not-quite-identical charges .and that confusion is exactly what we try to avoid. The charges, be it noted, need not be in a single group for confusion to arise. Sable, a sword between three primary and daggers being secondary. Nor need the charges necessarily be ‘artistic variants’ of one another, although that is the most common application of the rule: any two charges that are visually indistinct may run afoul of this policy (for instance, Sable, in pale a horseshoe and a torc Or). In general, if there’s a CD of difference between the charges, the ‘sword-dagger’ ruling won't apply: less than that, and one takes one’s chances. (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, Cover Letter with September 1994 LoAR, p.5)." (01/1999)

Acrisius Sospes. Name.

This is being returned for several reasons. First, for lack of documentation. While the LoI cited documentation, it did not include any, and the sources were not from the list of sources for which Laurel does not require photocopies.

Second, even if documentation had been provided, it is not clear that Acrisius is an acceptable name for use in the Society. While it is found in Greek and Roman mythology, it appears to be the name of a mythological king, and not a real person. Barring documentation that it was used by a real person, it must be returned.

Finally, while the LoI glossed Sospes as meaning lucky, the primary use of the adjective, according to Lewis and Short's Latin Dictionary, is savior, in the religious sense of the word, and therefore not appropriate for SCA usage.

The armory was registered under the holding name James of Wintermist. (09/1998)

Adam of Erin. Badge. (Fieldless) A Celtic cross argent.

This conflicts with Gormflait Suiban ni Cuallachta (SCA) Gyronny Or and azure, a Celtic cross argent, fimbriated sable., with just one CD for the field. (01/1998)

Adamastor, Shire of. Name.

Submitted as Adamastor, Shire of, from the name of the titan Adamastor. Unfortunately, no evidence was presented to show that place name were constructed from names of titans in period. It should be noted that this would - with the change of only one letter - make a fine English place name: Adamestor. Adam is one of the commonest given names in period, both in England and Scotland (Black, Surnames of Scotland, p. 7). It is well documented from the thirteenth century in the older genitive possessive form in "e" from surnames like Adamesson (Reaney, Dictionary, p. 2) and place names like Adamesplat (Smith, English Place-Name Elements, Vol. II, p. 67). Similarly, tor from the Old English torr for a "rocky peak" or "crag" is relatively common early on in the southwest and occurs elsewhere as well (Smith, op. cit., p.p. 184-185). Adam is a strong masculine noun whose Old English genitive form would be Adames (Mitchell and Robinson, A Guide to Old English, pp. 19 and 176). Thus Adamestorr or Adamestor (the latter form also appears in some Old English manuscripts with a single "r") would also have the meaning "Adam's tower". However, since the group would not allow changes, this had to be returned. Even if the group would allow changes, this would have to be returned for lack of a petition. (09/1997)

Adelaide Ehrhardt. Device. Per chevron inverted nebuly argent and sable, a demi-pegasus volant affronty, wings displayed sable and three double roses argent and sable.

The posture volant affronty has been ruled unsuitable for use in heraldry on at least two occasions (Sept. 1992 LOAR, p.48; Oct. 1992 LOAR p.23) on the grounds that it is "inherently unidentifiable". While in those case the returns involved birds, we feel that the case is just as strong for monsters. (02/1998)

Adina von der Heide. Device change. Per bend azure and paly bendy purpure and argent, in sinister chief a salamander Or enflamed proper.

This is being returned for conflict with Ardis Bluemantle (SCA) (Fieldless) A lizard tergiant Or. There is one CD for the difference in fields. Since Ardis' badge is fieldless there is nothing for position. Therefore, the only possible difference could come from the flames. The submitter has drawn the salamander properly with small goutes of flame coming off it. Unfortunately, of the eight goutes of flame, five were solid gules, and three were solid Or. Therefore, if the goutes are significant enough to count for difference, this would have to be returned for breaking tincture. If the submitter resubmits with argent flames, we would consider granting a difference. (09/1996)

Adriana Menteith. Device. Per chevron wavy purpure mullety argent and vert, in base a unicorn passant argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The wavy line of division is almost invisible. Furthermore, the line of division needs to divide the field more evenly. (09/1997)

Adriana O'Connor of Castlereagh. Device. Argent, on a bend gules between a harp vert and a rose slipped and leaved bendwise proper, a lightning bolt argent.

This conflicts with Ceridwen of Esterfen "Argent, on a bend gules a cat sejant affronty palewise argent. There is a CD for adding the secondaries, but Adriana's device is not a simple case, since she has two dissimilar secondaries so there is nothing for changing the type only of the tertiary. (09/1998)

Adriana of Hawkwood. Badge. Ermine, a rainbow proper clouded azure.

This is in conflict with badge of Barony of Sundragon, Per fess argent and azure, a rainbow gules argent azure Or and purpure, clouded argent." , with one CD for change of field, and nothing for change of color of the clouds, or for adding an additional band on the rainbow. (03/1997)

Aelesia Emelyne Couchur. Device. Azure a chevron embattled Or.

This conflicts with Aleksandr Morekhodov Azure, a chevron embattled Or between two compass stars elongated to base argent and a sea-dragon erect contourny Or., There is only one CD for adding the secondaries. (07/1998)

AElfgifu Haraldsdottir. Badge. (Fieldless) A dolphin haurient head to chief azure, maintaining in it's mouth an acorn proper.

This conflicts with the arms of Dauphin, Prince of France Or, a dolphin haurient azure finned gules., with the only CD for fieldlessness. (12/1997)

Ælfstan Fæstenwulfe. Household name. Hælendgeard

This is being returned for lack of documentation on the household name. Additionally, the LoI glossed it as meaning sacred or healing enclosure. No documentation was presented to show that follows our exemplars for household names. (04/1999)

Ælfstan Fæstenwulfe. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation on the byname. The armory was registered under the holding name Ælfstan of Calontir. (04/1999)

Aelfthryth of Saxony. Badge. (Fieldless) An ear of wheat and a straight trumpet in saltire argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The ear of wheat is not identifiable as an ear of wheat, or any other charge. (10/1998)

Aelric of Battle. Device. Per bend sinister sable and gules, a wyvern erect, wings addorsed, argent.

This is being returned for conflict with Brychan Tammas (SCA) Gyronny Or and azure, a dragon segreant argent. There is one CD for the field, but nothing for the difference between a wyvern erect and a dragon segreant. (07/1996)

Ælric of Coventree Grove. Household Name for House Realmsedge and badge.

These are both being returned for lack of paperwork. The forms were never received by the Laurel office. Additionally, if the forms had been received we would have to return the name for non-period style. No documentation was provided, and no one in the College could provide any for any of the exemplars that we model our household names after, for household names formed using Realm as an element. (03/1998)

Aeneas Oakhammer. Device. Vert, on a bend argent a sheaf of arrows inverted sable, in sinister chief a sprig of oak leaves fructed argent.

While the field was blazoned on the LoI as vert, it was actually halfway between azure and vert. Since we register the emblazon, not the blazon, this must be returned for not being clearly one color or another. (11/1997)

Áengus ó Fearghail. Device. Argent, a saltire sable between four thistles proper.

This is in conflict with Duncan Bog Cameron (SCA) Argent, between four piles conjoined in saltire azure, as many thistles proper. As the piles, as drawn, formed a saltire thar was only barely formy. Thus there was no difference given between the piles and the saltire, making the only difference between the two submissions the tincture of the saltire. (11/1996)

Aeruin ní ó Chonemara. Badge. [Fieldless] On a feather palewise argent, a rose surmounted by a crown sable.

This is being returned for exceeding our registration limit of four. She already has four pieces of armory registered to her: Per chevron inverted sable and vert, a Grey Heron displayed argent, beaked and membered Or, and in chief a compass star gules, fimbriated argent., Per chevron inverted sable and vert, in chief a compass star gules, fimbriated, and in base two heron's heads, couped at the shoulders, respectant argent, beaked and crested Or., Per pale ermine and counter-ermine, an eagle displayed maintaining in its talons a sword bendwise and a coin, all within a bordure counterchanged sable and argent., and (Fieldless) A popinjay contourny proper, perched atop a trumpet fesswise reversed Or. To register another piece of armory, she will have to release one of the above. (12/1996)

Aeschine nic Leoid na Ceann Loch na Dallach. Name change from Kateryn of Blackwater.

There are several problems with this name. First this name mixes Gaelic and non-Gaelic names the same name, which is against our rules. The forename, Aeschine, is somewhat obscure, but it apparently isn't Gaelic, and therefore cannot be used in a Gaelic name. Furthermore, the place-name is neither grammatical nor normal period Gaelic locative formation. We have no late period examples of place names formed in this manner, and the grammar of this kind of genitive construction seems to have changed in the modern language, so it is difficult to know how to form any but a simple, early byname of this type. It is certain, however, that na Ceann Loch na Dallach is ungrammatical: the first na makes no sense at all. There is also a question about dallach. It doesn't appear to be correct modern or early Gaelic; our best guess is that it should be dalach, the genitive of dail `field, haugh, land in a bend of a river', but we can't be sure. We evidently have available an Anglicized form of the locative (Kean Loch na Dallach); we have yet to see any evidence that Gaelic even formed locatives from complex place names such as this; why don't we try this in an English context. Now nic Leoid just might pass as Anglicized, given that Black mentions a Torquil M'Leoid de Leohus in 1338, which certainly isn't a Gaelic context. It's hard to say whether nic would stay precisely -- we've got Nyk showing up in the 16th century, but nothing really to go by any earlier. We can work further on the place name from several angles in Black. There's Kinloch, identical to the first two elements -- the medieval forms have an unnerving tendency to insert an epenthetic -de- between the two elements (e.g. Kindelough 1202) but we think this is partly an artifact of the stress pattern, for we don't see it in the following Kinlochie (e.g. Kenlochy 1438). Now, under various Loch-X names, we see that the Anglicized forms tend to run the whole together as a single word, e.g. Lochmalony (1391). We see the same tendency in place names in Johnston (PNS) such as Kenlochrannoch (1532). Taking the na Dallach part in the original as being Anglicized, which is certainly plausible, we can come up with something like Kenlochnadallach for a whole along the lines of Aeschine nic Leoid of/de Kenlochnadallach, for a fully Anglicized form of the name. (04/1997)

AEthelmearc, Kingdom of. Acceptance of transfer of badge from Connor M'Eleam. (Fieldless) A millrind argent.

This is being returned for violating the procedures set forth in the Administrative Handbook. The Administrative Handbook, IV.C.6, states: Any submission involving the transfer of a registered item from one individual or branch to another must include both a statement from the owner authorizing the transfer and a statement from the recipient accepting the transferred material. There was no transfer on the LoI, there was no letter of acceptance from AEthelmearc, and no letter of transfer from Connor. (06/1998)

AEthelmearc, Kingdom of. Badge for Equestrian Guild. Gules, a single-headed chess knight reversed argent.

This conflicts with Keriane St John of Shaddoncarraig Purpure, a horse's head erased to sinister argent., with one CD for the difference in the fields. The single-headed chess knight is not a period charge. Therefore difference is based on a visual comparison. The details of the chess knight’s base are the only difference, and are too trivial to be significant. (05/1999)

AEthelmearc, Kingdom of. Order name for Order of the Sylvan Nightingale and badge. (Fieldless) A rose leaf inverted Or distilling a goutte de sang.

The order name is being returned for not following the requirements of the rules for order names. The moreso since the definition for "sylvan" being relied upon as being period appears to make the word a noun rather than an adjective. RfS III.2.b.ii. requires that "Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards. These are often the names of saints; others are similar to sign names (see RfS III.2.a.iii). Some examples are: the Order of Saint Michael, the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, the Brethren of the Sword, the Order of the Garter, La Toison d'Or (the Order of the Golden Fleece), the Order of the Golden Rose, the Order of the Star, the Order of the Swan, La Orden de la Jara (the Knights of the Tankard), the Order of Lilies." None of the exemplars use two nouns in a row without a conjunction.

The badge is being returned for nonreproducibility. No blazon could be constructed that would adequately reproduce the emblazon. (05/1999)

Agnarr Skulason. Device. Quarterly sable and gules, in fess a sword inverted and a drinking horn argent.

This is being returned for breaking RfS XI.3., which states that "Armory that appears to marshall independent arms is considered presumptuous." The rule goes on to note that such marshalled fields "may be used with identical charges over the entire field, or with complex lines of partition or charges overall that were not used for marshalling in period heraldry." Additionally, "Charged sections must all contain charges of the same type to avoid the appearance of being different from each other." Since two different charges are used on the two sides of the palar line, this looks like the marshalled arms of Per fess sable and gules a sword inverted argent, impaled with Per fess gules and sable a drinking horn argent.

A similar return was made 6/96 in the case of Yves le Chat Blanc when Master Da'ud as Laurel returned Per pale sable and ermine, in canton a domestic cat's face argent, a bordure counterchanged argent and sable., and said

"This falls afoul of RfS XI.3., which states that "Armory that appears to marshall independent arms is considered presumptuous." The rule goes on to note that such marshalled fields "may be used with identical charges over the entire field, or with complex lines of partition or charges overall that were not used for marshalling in period heraldry." The use of a counterchanged bordure here is not used in the usual way of an overall charge (indeed, bordures were, and are, used in a number of countries for cadencing), and serves in no way to lessen the appearance of marshalling. Indeed, the fact that the bordure is not counterchanged of the field only serves to accent the appearance of the dimidiation of two independent coats, Sable, in chief two cat's faces, a bordure argent and Ermine, a bordure sable.". (08/1998)

`Afra' bint Tamir al­Sahrahwayyiah. Device. Vert, a fess sable fimbriated, overall a mosque, in canton a decrescent Or.

This is being returned for lack of documentation. We can find no indication that a mosque has ever been registered before in the SCA. As a consequence, this would be the defining instance of the charge. Previous Laurel Sovereigns of Arms have returned items for lack of documentation, c.f. a winch (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR 9/92, p. 42), a Mongol helm (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR 12/92, p. 15), a zalktis (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR 1/93, p. 28) and a Viking tent arch (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR 5/94, p17). Therefore, we need evidence that this depiction of a mosque is a period depiction before we can decide if it is a registerable charge. (09/1997)

Agravaine Rhiwallon. Device. Azure, two wolves rampant addorsed each brandishing a flamberge argent between in pale a sun argent eclipsed sable and a chevron rayonny on the upper edge argent.

This submission is being returned for style. There are many non-period elements to this submission, the combination of them push it over the edge. These include: using the chevron abased as a secondary charge, using a complex line of division other than embattled on just the upper edge, and the SCA style of eclipsing of the sun. (07/1996)

Ahbel of Regnesfolc. Name and device. Azure, two spears in saltire, in chief three bells two and one, all Or.

The name is being returned for lack of documentation for Regnesfolc. According to the LoI it is a registered household name. However, that does not mean that the submitter can use it. Household names, unlike official SCA group names, are not automatically acceptable for SCA name usage. Please inform the submitter that barring documentation that Ahbel is a period form of Abel it is not registerable.

The armory is being returned for a redraw. The primary charges are not recognizable as spears; they are too short, too round, with too large a cross-piece too close behind. They are not in fact recognizably anything that we could reblazon. (08/1998)

Aidan MacEgan. Device. Argent semy of millrinds fesswise sable, an axe azure and a dragon's tongue gules in saltire.

This is being returned for the use of a dragon's tongue, which is not an acceptable charge. In the return of Aaron Clearwater, August, 1992. Bruce, as Laurel said:

"The one registration of a `dragon's tongue' in the SCA, back in 1973, does not make it an identifiable charge. Nor does it seem in keeping with period armory: tongues were not used as charges, so far as I know."

Barring evidence that this charge was used in period it must be returned. (06/1998)

Ailig a'mire. Name and device. Per chevron sable and Or, a lymphad, oars in action, sail furled, sable, a beacon atop the mast enflamed and pennons gules.

The name has several problems. No documentation was provided, and none could be found for Ailig as a period given name, although it is used today to translate Alex. Period forms of Alexander include Alusdar and Alastar. As for the byname, it does not mean flirt and in fact is not personal word at all, but is an abstract word. Depending on the context, it can mean "sport", "sporting", "levity", "fury", "rage", frenzy", etc. The proper form of the adjective, which would not suffer lenition, the name would then be Mear. If the noun form is used, the article would not be used, so it would become Mire. However, we feel that this is to great a change to make without consulting with the submitter and we are returning this.

The device conflicts with Otto the Confused Per fess wavy argent and barry wavy azure and argent, a galleon proper sails set sable., with one CD for change to the field. (10/1997)

Ailith of Sarum. Name.

Unfortunately, Sarum is not the OE name for Salisbury, but rather is a ghost name. In manuscripts the Latin Saresberia was abbreviated to something that looks rather like Sa4. This was 'merely an early manifestation of the medieval scribe's habit of abbreviating such letters as ended in a horizontal stroke by means of a vertical stroke through this', but because the resulting symbol (represented here by 4) 'frequently stands for ­rum', the abbreviation has been improperly extended to Sarum (Johnson & Jenkinson, 67). The contemporary form of the name can be seen in William de Salesberie (1115) and Robert de Salisbyr' (1273). Clearly Old Sarum must then have been called something like Old Salisbury; Old Sarum seems to be an antiquary's name for the older ruins, based on a misreading of the medieval records. Since the submitter does not allow changes, we are forced to return this name. (11/1997)

Ailred Mac Pìoba An Thòrra Dhuibh. Household name for Cinneadh Pìoba and badge. Ermine, a wyvern volant wings elevated vert, bellied and winged gules, breathing flames proper, playing a set of bagpipes sable.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. Additionally the household names shares some of the construction problems with the submitted name. (01/1998)

Ailred Mac Pìoba An Thòrra Dhuibh. Name and device. Ermine, a wyvern volant wings elevated vert, bellied and winged gules, breathing flames proper, playing a set of bagpipes and a tower issuant from base sable.

This is being returned for mixing English and Gaelic orthography in the same name. Ailred is the name of an abbot of Rievaulx, but it is an English name. The closest Gaelic form would be Ailearán. The byname needs some work. As the letter of intent indicates, the first element means "son of a bagpipe", not "son of a piper". To get "piper", you have to use pìobair, which is a masculine noun indeclinable in the singular (Calder, A Gaelic Grammar, p. 85). As the occupationals normally use an article which will cause lenition in the following masculine genitive, the phrase should be mac a’ phìobair (ibid., pp. 29 and 101). The initial consonant in torr does not lenite (ibid., p. 29). Genitive singular adjectives do lenite (ibid., p. 30). If the byname he actually wants is "son of the piper of the Black Tower", he is looking at something like mac a’ phìobair as an Tòrra Dhuibh. Or for an all English form he could be Ailred Piper of Blacktower. Since either form would be a major change, we are returning the name to let the submitter choose the form he wishes.

The armory is being returned for conflict. As emblazoned, the wyvern is more than 50% gules, which brings it into conflict with the Shire of Drachensheim Or, a dragon passant gules, atop and its tail entwined about a tower sable., and Reinald FitzAlbert de la Tour Phenix (SCA) Ermine, issuant from a ruined tower sable a phoenix gules enflamed of flames proper. In the first case there is one CD for the field, but nothing for tincture of the wyvern or for position. In the second case there is a CD for type of one of two primary charges , but again nothing for type or position. (01/1998)

Aíne inghean Cillín. Badge. (Fieldless) A heart Or.

This conflicts with Karl von Schattenburg (Fieldless) A seeblatt Or. We give no difference between a heart and a seeblatt, leaving the only difference the one for fieldlessness.

Additionally, the heart shape was used to display armory, making this the equivalent of Or, and we do not register plain tinctured fields. (06/22/1999)

Aislinn the Faeire. Name and device. Purpure, a dragonfly argent and a gore argent estencely purpure.

The name combines Gaelic and English orthography in the same name. The Anglicized forms of Aislinn would be Alice or Elsha. Normally we would make the name all Gaelic or all English, but in this case we are not sure which element is more important to the submitter, so we are returning the name so the submitter can decide. The device is being returned for breaking our ban on charged gores which were banned effective March 1992. Estencely is a semy of sparks, and we consider semy of anything as a group of charges, and not a field treatment. (09/1997)

Aislinne of Alainmor. Household name for Cinneadh Tallai Beinn.

The household name was supposed to be Gaelic for "Clan of the Mountain Hall", though it was incorrectly constructed. More importantly, this follows none of the period models for household names. Possible models include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart). (01/1997)

Alameda de los Leones Marcela Viscamo Hidalgo Marques y Torres. Name.

In discussing the return of this name, I can do no better than to quote Fause Losenge:

I'll deal first with the individual elements, then with the construction. The common noun alameda actually refers to a grove of poplar trees, though it now implies a mall or public walk. As should be evident from its derivation, the name Alameda is a place-name (and therefore also a surname), not a given name. The phrase de los Leones `of the lions' cannot possibly be a confirmation name: such a name would certainly have Christian significance and would normally be an attribute of the Virgin. The name de la Luz mentioned in the LoI is a good example, since in Spanish Mary is sometimes known as Nuestra Señora de la Luz `Our Sister of the Light' (Tibón s.n. Luz). To the best of my knowledge she has never been referred to as `of the Lions'. Marcela is probably a legitimate feminine given name, though Tibón has nothing closer than Marsella among modern names. He makes this a variant of Marselia, which is from Latin Marcilia, a gentilicium derived from Marcus; given the pronunciation of Spanish ll as (approximately) ly, this is a reasonable derivation. However, Marcella was the feminine form of common Latin cognomen, and it is in record in the vicinity of Marseille c.800 (Morlet, I:74a). In Spanish the Latin ll was normally palatalized to modern Spanish ll, so its appearance didn't change, but in Portuguese it became simple l. Thus, in Old Spanish the name Marcella would most likely have become Marçella (pronounced roughly `mar-TSEL-ya'), but in some dialects it could have become simple Marçela (`mar-TSEH-la'), of which Marcela would be a possible late-period spelling.

I suspect that Viscamo is an error for Vizcaíno `Biscayan; one from the area around the Bay of Biscay'. According to the EB, the Spanish merchant Sebastián Vizcaíno sailed along the California coast in 1602 and named several places, including San Diego, and it seems likely that he is the `Spanish explorer in 1603' mentioned in the LoI. Hidalgo was a term referring to social standing; its precise significance is argued, but the general sense was (and is) `noble, of noble descent'. It appears as a byname quite early, e.g., (in the Portuguese rather than the Spanish form) Johannes Fidalgo 1220 (Kremer, VI:141). (The Spanish spelling for the common noun is attested at least by 1484 (ibid., 124).) It's not on the Alternate Titles List, it doesn't imply more than basic noble standing, and it's attested as a byname, so there shouldn't be any problem registering it. Marques is an old patronymic from Latin Marcus; Díez Melcón (153) cites Goncalo Marques 1281. Torres appears to be a plural variant of (de la) Torre `(of the) Tower'; the singular form is noted by Díez Melcón (281) in the name Pedro Torre 1185, and WGD notes that the Torres Strait was discovered in 1606 by a Spanish navigator surnamed Torres.

The construction of the name is highly suspect. I've already pointed out that it lacks a given name and that the so-called confirmation name has the wrong form. The term confirmation name is probably wrong in any case: so far no one has presented any evidence for this practice in period. According to Tibón, names like Dolores and Concepción, originally attributes of the Virgin, were used in place of María, which for several centuries was considered too holy for general use; they were used as ordinary given names, not as special confirmation names. The use of four surnames is almost certainly post-period. There are a few period examples of the X y Y type of double surname, though as I recall all of them involve royalty or the very highest nobility; apparently the form was originally adopted in order to display two territorial inheritances, though it later acquired a more specifically genealogical significance. All of the available evidence indicates that use of all four grandparental surnames is a post-period phenomenon. If memory serves, the longest period Spanish name that anyone in the College has so far found has only five elements, three forenames and two surnames, and it's the only one of that length. Most documented period Spanish and Portuguese names have no more than three elements, often <forename> <patronymic> de <place-name>, though of course other patterns are also found. RfS III.2.a (Personal Names) sets four elements as a rule-of-thumb limit on the number of name elements in a period name (except in Arabic, where documented exceptions are rather easy to find), and current Laurel precedent makes this a strict limit for English, French, German, and Italian names.

The only element here that could serve as given name is Marcela, which should be acceptable. Alameda is a fine topographical byname; if people already call her Alameda, I recommend that she make the name Marcela Alameda. The element de los Leones is questionable even as a byname: the (relatively rare) names of this form refer either to hunters (Salvador de las Corzas 1172 `of the roe-deer') or to animal handlers (Rodrigo de los Mulos, probably 13th c.) (Kremer, III:149,151). Lions were not, I suspect, normal articles of commerce, and in Spain it seems unlikely that they were normal objects of the hunt, either. Any of Vizcaíno, Hidalgo, Marques, and Torres could reasonably make another surname, but now we have a problem. In the examples of double surnames that I have seen (apart from the largely post-period X y Y construction), the first surname is always patronymic. If she wants to keep Alameda, she'll probably have to push it further back in the name: Marcela Marques Alameda, for instance, would be fine. A triple surname, being so far unattested so far as I know, would probably require documentation.

The armory was registered under the holding name Julie of Tirnewydd. (04/1997)

Alan Fairfax Aluricson. Augmentation of Arms. Bendy sinister gules and Or, on a canton sable an annulet Or.

Since the unaugmented device was returned, we must return the augmented version as well. Note that this does not match the submitter’s current device. (02/1999)

Alan Fairfax Aluricson. Device change. Bendy sinister gules and Or, a canton sable.

No paperwork was received for this submission. (02/1999)

Alan Fairfax Aluricson. Device change. Bendy sinister Or and gules, for augmentation on a canton sable an annulet Or.

Per the precedent of Bruce as Laurel King of Arms:

Augmentations in Society armory should always be blazoned as such; the bearer has the option of displaying the armory with or without the augmentation, and conflict should be checked against both versions. (Rondallyn of Golgotha, September, 1992, pg. 26)

The base coats conflicts with Eustace FitzJames Bendy sinister embattled Or and gules., with one CD for the embattling. (04/1998)

Alana Cleary. Name

On the June 1996 LoAR cover letter, Alanna was ruled non-acceptable for SCA usage barring period evidence of its use.

The armory was registered under the holding name Lauren Cleary. (12/1998)

Alane of Ellerslie. Badge. (Fieldless) A lacy knot Or.

This conflicts with the badge of the Lacy family, (Tinctureless) A Lacy knot., protected on this LoAR. There is one CD for tincturelessness. (01/1998)

Alane of Ellerslie. Device. Sable, a lacy knot Or.

This conflicts with the badge of the Lacy family, (Tinctureless) A Lacy knot., protected on this LoAR. There is one CD for tincturelessness. (01/1998)

Alaric the Amazed. Name.

As was noted in the 4/94 return of Deirdre the Distracted (Ansteorra), no evidence has been presented to show that fairly abstract past participles like this were used as nicknames in period. Lacking such evidence, we must return the name. (05/1997)

Alaric von Königsburg. Household name for Brotherhood of the Lions of the Cross.

No documentation was provided, and no­one could come up with any, for period confraternities, guilds or knightly orders with names of this styles. Barring such evidence, we are forced to return this name. (07/1997)

Alaric von Thurn. Device. Per chevron throughout invected Or estoilly and sable, in base a hawk displayed wings inverted, head to sinister, argent.

This is being returned for two reasons. First the bird, as colored is not truly white, but rather white marked sable, with so much sable it looks medium grey, not black. The contrast problem is heighten because the field is not colored black, but rather dark grey. The invects on the chevron need to be drawn bigger and bolder. (04/1997)

al-Azar Lucero. Device. Or, on a sun sable a decrescent Or, a bordure sable.

This is being returned for conflict with the Ensign of the Kingdom of Ansteorra Or, a mullet of five greater and five lesser points within a bordure sable. However, even if there hadn't been a conflict, this would be returned for violating RfS VII.7.b., "Reconstruction Requirement - Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon." The blazon in the LoI does not adequately reproduce the emblazon, and we cannot devise a blazon that we believe would adequately reproduce it. The moon must be very carefully placed at a slight angle and along the curve of the sun's disk to recreate the emblazon. "Armorial designs requiring such careful placement or specific charge sizes to 'work' or to avoid contrast problems have been returned in the past as not being period style." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR December 1994.) (08/1998)

al-Barran, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Watch and Ward.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for the Order name. Watch and Ward is a conceptual term, denoting a particular type of feudal service. It cannot be considered in any way as a synonym for a sentinel. Naming patterns for medieval orders used physical objects, not abstractions. (02/1999)

Albrecht von Salzburg. Device. Azure a chevron between three vols argent.

This conflicts with Beorn Collenferth (SCA) Azure, a chevron between a harp, an axe reversed and a sabre-toothed tiger statant argent., and Angela of the Stoney Oak Forest (SCA) Azure, a chevron between two acorns and an oak leaf argent. In each case there is just one CD for changing the type of all of the single group of secondary charges. (01/1998)

Albreda of the Broken Wire. Name

No documentation was presented and none could be found by the College for of the Broken Wire as a byname. Please inform the submitter that if she wants a name that implies she is a harper, Reaney and Wilson's A Dictionary of English Surnames., p. 218, lists a Robert le Harper in 1186, a Reginald le Harper" in 1275, and (under Harp), a Ralf Harpe in 1241. (12/1998)

Albyn Buckthorne. Badge. (Fieldless) A pale within and conjoined to an annulet embattled on the inner edge sable.

This is being returned for unidentifiability. Members of the College had severe problems in trying to decipher what the charge was. (01/1998)

al-durr al-jabal al-mukhfi. Name change from Dur of Hidden Mountain.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for the submitted name. The submitter has been trying to submit variations of this name for a number of years. The most recent incarnation of this name (Dur al Jabal abu Neefa min al-Machfi Jabal Bey al-Ferrangi) was returned in the LoAR of December 1995, p. 17, for multiple reasons, some of which apply to the submission at hand. That return, in relevant part, states:

"here are several problems with the name. ... (3) Durr is `pearls', not `pearl'; the singular is durra. More important, it isn't an ism, though it may occur as part of a laqab (cognomen or epithet). ... (5) No one was able to support machfi, apparently intended to mean `hidden', though Laurel found mikhbaye and mah'ba glossed as `hiding place'. Moreover, we have no documentation for the construction of the phrase al-Machfi Jabal, which does not appear to match that of attested locative bynames....

In short, the name is incorrectly constructed, inadequately documented, and presumptuous (as presumption is defined in the Rules for Submissions); since he permits no changes, each of these problems would by itself be sufficient grounds for return. (LoAR December 1995, p. 17)"

Finally, and of vital importance to this submission, the LoAR stated that "Any future submission along these lines should be accompanied by adequate documentation for all of the elements and for the grammatical constructions used...." (Ibid.) Based on the information in the LoI, this has not been done.

al-Jamal says in his commentary:

"Annemarie Schimmel, Islamic Names, p. 46, cites Shajarat ad-Durr (d. 1250) as a feminine name. (She was the first Sultana of the Bahri Mamluks, who overthrew the last of the Ayyubid rulers in Egypt and established the Mamluk dynasty.)

Jaschke’s English-Arabic Conversational Dictionary

p. 321 — durr = pearls, durra = a pearl

p. 333 — jabal = mountain (jibal = mountains)

no citation for mukhfi

p. 214 — hide = khabba, hiding place = mikhbayi

Elias English-Arabic Dictionary Romanized (which documents a different dialect of Arabic than Jaschke)

p. 152 — pearl = luli’ya

p. 93 — hide = hab’bi (hab’ba); hiding place = mah’ba, mahabi (all with a stressed "h")

Finally, the overall construction does not match Arabic practices in forming geographical bynames (what he apparently is trying for is the Arabic form of "Dur of Hidden Mountain"). The name as constructed, were the individual elements correct (which they are not), would be translated as "hidden mountain pearl", not "pearl of hidden mountain".

The bottom line? The submitter does not have a given name in the submitted form (as noted in the LoI), has not shown the use of durra (pearl; or durr, pearls) as a name element for men, and still has not documented either the name as a whole or the individual elements. This last affects his "alternative forms" as well. Nor has he followed the explicit instructions given by Pelican in the last return regarding "adequate documentation for all of the elements and for the grammatical constructions used". Nor can I find support for the name as a whole or for the individual elements (besides jabal, mountain) in any of my books.

Based on al-Jamal's commentary we are returning this name for lack of documentation. (05/1999)

Aleksina Dominova Bystrycha. Device. Gyronny argent and azure, four annulets interlaced in cross, all within an annulet Or.

This is being returned for violating the long-standing precedent of using two different sizes of the same charge on the field. (03/1998)

Aleksina Dominova Bystrycha. Device. Gyronny azure and argent, four annulets interlaced in cross Or.

This conflicts with Eilis ni Roibeard O'Boirne, (Tinctureless) A quatrefoil knot. There is one CD for the field, but nothing for tincture against tinctureless armory and nothing for the difference in the knots. (12/1996)

Aléna Széllvár. Name.

Hungarian practice is to put the given name after the surname, which practice was not followed here. Without evidence of Hungarian's using the standard practice of given name surname, and since the client will not take changes, the submission will have to be returned.

Furthermore, the documentation on Széllvár comes from Hanks and Hodges, which is not a reliable source. If the submitter wishes to use that surname, better documentation will need to be provided. (08/1996)

Alesia Gillefalyn. Badge. (Fieldless) A lion courant guardant Or holding in its mouth a rose purpure slipped and leaved vert.

This conflicts with Conrad von Hammerbourg, Per chevron rayonny sable and gules, in base a catamount herissony proper., with one CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for position against a fieldless badge, and nothing for the minor change in position. (05/1998)

Alessandra Raffaela di Luciano. Alternate name of Zahara min Shammar.

This is being returned because the byname is improperly constructed. This same construction was returned 8/93 (Numira al Nasifa Bint Abdullah min Dimashq, Atenveldt); at the time Laurel noted that while min Dimashq 'out of Damascus' may be grammatically correct, the normal Arabic idiom would be al-Dimashqi 'the Damascene'; this error was a contributing factor in the return. Assuming that Shammar is a legitimate place-name or tribal name, the masculine byname should be al-Shammari and the feminine, wanted here, al-Shammariyya. The name is probably fine as Zahra al-Shammariyya and may be all right as Zahara al-Shammariyya. However, the prepositional construction with min has no example in the available corpus of Arabic names. Since this change is greater than we feel comfortable making, we are returning the name. (09/1997)

Aletheia Isidora of Philae. Device. Azure, on a pale endorsed argent a lotus affronteé azure.

This conflicts with Muireann á Dùn na Tráighe Céiene Azure, on a pale endorsed argent, three lozenges azure., with one CD for the changes to the tertiaries. (04/1998)

Alexander de Seton of Altavia. Badge. (Fieldless) On a seahorse erect maintaining a lochaber axe azure, a heart gules fimbriated argent.

This is being returned for the fimbriation of the heart. RfS VIII.3. notes that "Voiding and fimbriation may only be used with simple geometric charges placed in the center of the design." While a heart is simple enough to fimbriate as a sole primary charge, as a tertiary it is so small as to lose identifiability when fimbriated. (04/1999)

Alexander Kallikanzaros. Name.

This is being returned for violating RfS VI.2. Names Claiming Powers.

"Names containing elements that allude to powers that the submitter does not possess are considered presumptuous.

Society names may not claim divine descent, superhuman abilities, or other powers that the submitter does not actually possess. Such claims include divine patronymics, like Vulcanson; epithets peculiarly associated with divinities or superhuman beings, such as of the Valkyrie; given names that were never used by humans, like the names of some Giants or Dwarves in Norse mythology; or descriptive epithets like Worldblaster."

According to the submitter's own documentation, "the Callicantzari were originally not demons but men­­men who either voluntarily or under the compulsion of a kind of madness chose or were forced to assume the shape and the character of beasts." A functional equivalent to this would be Alexander the Werewolf. Assuming the shape or character of a beast is not a power (we hope) that the submitter possesses. The armory was registered under the name of Alexander of Darach. (06/1997)

Alexandra de la Pomerai. Device. Or, an apple tree eradicated fructed proper, a bordure azure.

This conflicts with Katerine of Willowmere Or, a willow proper and a base wavy azure.," with a CD for changing the peripheral, but nothing for changing the type of tree (02/1998)

Alexis the Dragonslayer. Name.

This is being returned for non-period construction; no one could demonstration the formation --slayer. Reaney (Origin, 280) has 11th c. English citations for Stichehert "kill hart", Stikestac "kill stag", and Stikehare "kill hare". On p. 283 he adds Prykkelove "prick, kill wolf" 1296 and Hachewolf "hack wolf" 1297. And on p. 288 he has Prikehurt "prick, kill hart" 1208 and Quelhoxe "kill ox" 1288 (from ME quelle "kill"). A late OE Stikewyrm or a 13th c. Prykkeworm, Hacheworm, or Quelworm would follow period models. (11/1996)

Alfred of Greyvale. Device. Sable, on a chevron argent between in chief a sword fesswise grasped at either end by a gauntlet and in base a triple-towered castle Or, three flames gules.

This is being returned for violation our rules on slot machine, with three different types of charges (glove, sword and castle) in the same group. Furthermore, this needs a redraw. The castle as drawn is not a single unit, but a number of discreet parts. (09/1997)

Alfredo Gabriel Halcón. Badge. (Fieldless) A sword Or perched on its quillons two falcons rising respectant wings elevated and addorsed gules.

This conflicts with Dmitrii Volkovich A sword Or. The only CD is the one for fieldlessness. (04/1998)

Alfric von Hallenburg. Device. Per bend sinister vairy gules and Or and sable, an antelope rampant argent.

This is in conflict with Athena Catarina of Windcrest (SCA) Azure, an antelope rampant argent., with only one CD for changes to the field. (07/1997)

Aliena Goodeve. Device. Azure mullety Or, a unicorn rampant argent charged on the shoulder with an increscent gules, a demi-sun issuant from base Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. This needs to have far fewer mullets, and they need to be a lot larger. Additionally, though not cause for return, there should be fewer rays on the sun. (01/1997)

All Saints, College of. Device. Azure, a robed man arms outstretched argent, haloed Or, maintaining in his sinister hand a laurel wreath Or.

This conflicts with Gilrae of Moorburn Azure, a fox-headed woman affronty statant, hands crossed at the waist, vested argent. with no countable differences. (04/1999)

Alric Morgan. Name.

This name is being returned for conflict with Alaric Morgan, the main character in Katherine Kurtz's first Deryni trilogy (Deryni Rising, High Deryni, Deryni Checkmate), and an important, but not main character in the Kelson triology. The armory was register under the name Alric of Flaming Gryphon. (06/1997)

Altavia, Barony of. Name for Orden de la Estrella de Vida.

The order name means "Order of the Star of Life", which does not fit any known period exemplars of order names. (07/1996)

Altavia, Barony of. Name for The Order of the Argent Pearl.

Since September 1994 we have been returned the use of argent as an adjective referring to color. It was last returned in September 1997. Barring period evidence of its use in English as an adjective we must return this as well. (01/1998)

Alycie MacAulay. Device. Sable, on a bend cotised argent, three turtles vert.

This conflicts with Cain Saethydd Sable, on a bend cotised argent, three arrows inverted sable. There is but the one CD for the changes to the tertiaries. (04/1999)

Amanda Murray. Device. Azure, on an open scroll argent a quill pen azure.

This conflicts with Kristoff McLain Cameron (Fieldless) An open scroll argent charged with a paw print azure. There is a CD for the field, but a scroll is not eligible for the application of RFS X.4.j.ii, so there is nothing for the change of type only of the tertiary. (03/1998)

Amicia the Prepared. Name.

No evidence has been presented to show that fairly abstract past participles like this were used as nicknames in period. Lacking such evidence, we must return the name. Jonsjo has Ayredy (always-ready) from 1379, and Reany & Wilson (p.374) supply le Redye (1260) and Rady (1327) with exactly the meaning of the submitted form. (03/1998)

An Tir, Kingdom of. Name for Honor of the Lion's Sword.

RfS III.2.b. requires that "Branch names, names of orders and awards, heraldic titles, and household names must consist of a designator that identifies the type of entity and at least one descriptive element." This name does not meets that requirement, since it has no designator. RfS III.2.b.ii. requires that "Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards.". No evidence was presented in the letter of intent to show that this name follows the patterns of period orders and awards, and none was presented in commentary. (11/1997)

An Tir, Kingdom of. Title for Caldera Herald.

This is being returned for an aural conflict with the Province of Calderium. (05/1997)

An Tir, Kingdom of. Title for Émail Herald.

This is being returned for two reasons. First for lack of documentation for the form of the name. According to the LoI, the word émail:

"In the 10th edition of the Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue française by Dauzat, on page 271 are found derivatives of ‘émail’ as ‘émailler’ dated to the 12th century, and ‘émailleur, -ure’ to the 13th. This is the spelling submitted. Woodward’s A Treatise of Heraldry British and Foreign gives in its glossary the heading "émail", under which it says, "Was used for the small enameled escutcheons [sic] of their master’s arms, worn upon the breast by the ancient heralds."There is also a reference to what sounds like the item in question in the contents of a letter from the 14th or early 15th century, " a pursuivant takes no oath but his lord gives him a name according to his fancy, and a shield of his arms, in gold or silver to wear on his breast"; the letter is quoted in Wagner’s Heraldry and the Heralds, p. 42. And finally, there is precedence in the SCA for naming a herald after an item or regalia, as Blue Mantle Pursuivant in Great Britain, and Black Rod (heraldic title), both registered in 1987. "

However, Blue Mantle does not come from heraldic regalia, but rather from the blue cloak of the Order of the Garter; the office was reputedly created by Henry V to serve the Order. As for Black Rod, it is not a herald's title at all; the full title is Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod and his office is essentially that of doorkeeper to the chapter of the Order of the Garter (and since about 1520 to the House of Lords as well).

Even if émail was an appropriate term for a heraldic title, this would be returned for obtrusive modernity. Everyone who commented on this title from outside of An Tir found it obtrusively modern. Everyone thought of e-mail when reading or hearing the title. (02/1999)

Ana Braganza la Viajera. Device. Azure, a selander argent and on a point pointed ermine in cross four lotus blossoms in profile purpure.

This is being returned for two reasons. First, for documentation on the type of ship no documentation was provided to show that this was a period ship. Second, this drawing was returned November 1996 for a redraw. There were several reasons for the redraw given in the letter of return, including the depiction of the point pointed. The point pointed has not yet redrawn correctly as required in the 11/96 return. (10/1997)

Ana Briganza la Viajera. Name and device. Azure, a selander argent and on a base triangulated ermine four lotus blossoms in profile in cross purpure.

The Portuguese Bragança would have been a fine locative byname, and there is some reason to think that Braganza might be an acceptable and quite possibly period variant. Briganza according to The New Enclclopaedia Britannica, is from Brigantia, the Latin form of the name of a Celtic city. This is evidently closely related to Brigantium, the old Latin name of Bregenz in Austria (WGD) and of Briançon in France (Dauzat & Rostaing, Dictionnaire étymologique des Noms de Lieux de la France), like which it is undoubtedly derived from a Gaulish word related to Old Irish brig `power, force, strength, authority'. Williams, From Latin to Portuguese: Histroical Phonology and Morphology of the Portuguese Language says that the normal Portuguese development of Brigantia (Brigantium) would have been Bregança (Breganço); the first a in the actual form is probably the result of assimilation to the tonic (stressed) vowel, i.e., the second a; the phenomenon is not uncommon. We have no comparable source for the historical development of Spanish, so we can't say whether Briganza is a plausible Spanish reflex of Brigantia, though it might be. If so, Briganza is a reasonable hypothetical Spanish place-name and hence also surname. However, without such a source, since the client will not accept any changes to Briganza, we are forced to return the name.

The device is being returned for a redraw. As drawn it is not on a per chevron field, nor is the charge in base a point pointed. Furthermore, the Lotus's are not arranged in cross, but somewhere between in cross and scattered. Please instruct the submitter not to color in pencil charges that are supposed to be argent. (11/1996)

Anastasia Elgiva Orpett. Device. Purpure, in pale a mullet of four points Or and two lily blossoms crossed in saltire argent.;

This is being returned for a redraw. The flowers are not identifiable as any type of flower. Furthermore, they are not truly in saltire or in pile, or in any other blazonable position. (04/1999)

Anastasia Elizabeth Courteney. Device. Purpure, a winged sea-horse argent.

This conflicts Jocelyn Douglas of Fairfax Purpure, a winged sea unicorn erect, wings addorsed argent, within a bordure Or., and Andrew MacBain the Purple Purpure, a winged sea-unicorn between in fess two rapiers argent., with just one CD in each case for removing the secondary group. While a horse is a CD from a unicorn, the addition of wings and fish tail to each creates an overwhelming similarity with which the remaining details of the horn and beard cannot compete. (02/1998)

Anastasia Ivanova. Name.

This conflicts with Anastasia Ivanova, registered 7/88. (10/1997)

Ancelin Tighearnan de Briquessart. Name and device. Per chevron gules and azure, a chevron between two swords inverted and a wolf's head erased contourny Or.

The name is being returned for mixing Gaelic and non­Gaelic in the same name. Moreover, it's very hard to imagine any period context in which any forms of the three elements would have coexisted. Any two of the three elements could probably be combined, though some pairs work better than others. Woulfe gives for Ó Tighearnáin the late 16th or early 17th Englishings O Ternane and O Tiernan (Woulfe s.n. Ó Tighearnáin), and Ewen (129) has examples showing the style of Anglications in 1295. Given Ewen's examples, Ancelin OTernane or the like would be possible in 13th c. Ireland, but in that setting the French locative seems out of place. A late­period Ansell Tiernan is also possible: there are a few examples of Irish surnames losing the Ó when being Anglicized, and Bardsley s.n. Ancell cites Ansell Bonyam 1545. But an Ansell Tiernan wouldn't be de Briquessart. Finally, we can imagine a de Briquessart in Ireland `going native' and giving his son the Irish name Tighearnán. It's not clear just how the resulting combination would have appeared in any contemporary scribal tradition, but we might register Tiernan de Briquessart. The armory is being returned for a redraw. Before seeing the blazon of the device, a number members of the CoA and the majority of the people at the Laurel meeting thought it was some kind of bird. (06/1997)

Andelcrag, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Salient Hart. (Fieldless) On a hart salient Or, two lightning bolts in cross sable.

This is being returned for conflict and a redraw. This conflicts with Montvale, Shire of, (Fieldless) A stag springing Or charged with an ermine spot sable. There is one difference for fieldlessness, but nothing for change of type only; the cross of lightning bolts is considered one charge.

Even if there had not been a conflict, this would have been returned for a redraw. The stag is not salient, but forcené, a position that we do not allow in SCA heraldry, and the cross of lightning bolts is not truly a cross, but somewhere between a cross and a saltire. (02/1999)

Andelcrag, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Salient Hart. Per chevron sable and argent a hart salient proper.

This is being returned for unidentifiability, with a dark brown deer on black. If the hart were in an heraldic tincture this might technically have acceptable contrast. Brown, however, is not a true heraldic tincture, and we are not inclined to give it any leeway. (02/1997)

Andelcrag, Barony of. Name for Order of the Defenders of Andelcrag.

This conflicts with Defenders of Mons Tonitrus. RfS V.2 deals with conflict of non- personal names. Clause V.2.a clearly says that branch names are not descriptive elements. The remaining clauses clearly imply that names must differ in their descriptive elements in order not to conflict. This therefore conflicts with Defenders of Mons Tonitrus: in terms of descriptive elements, they are identical. (02/1997)

Anders Schwarzdorn. Device. Argent goutty de larmes, a wolf's tooth issuant from chief sable, a chief vert.

This is being returned for a redraw. The wolf's tooth needs to be a lot bigger - at least twice as big. (10/1997)

André Davignon. Name.

This is being returned for an aural conflict with Ambré d'Avignon, as cited on the LoI. The change from André to Ambré is too slight to grant difference. (08/1998)

André de la Mer. Device. Quarterly vert and azure, a seahorse, a bordure Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The seahorse as drawn is not in a blazonable position. The upper (horse) part of the body appears to be the default erect, but the lower (fish) part of the body is essentially naiant. It needs be in a standard heraldic position. (08/1998)

André the Rorqual. Name.

While the LoI documented Rorqual as the French word for whale, no documentation was presented for it being used as a byname. Furthermore according to Dauzat's Dictionnaire Étymologique et Historique du Français, rorqual is first found in 1808 and derives from old Norwegian raudh-hwalr, "red whale." Barring documentation of its period use as a name this must be returned. (08/1998)

Andrés Miguel Rodriguez de la Rosa. Device. Per pale purpure and vert, a winged rabbit rampant maintaining in its sinister paw a rapier argent.

This conflicts with Bartholomew Knowles Vert, a winged coney salient reguardant argent., with the only CD the one for change to the field. (11/1998)

Andries du Fay. Device. Vert, a tree issuant from base and in chief three mullets of six points argent.

This conflicts with Ioseph of Locksley Vert, a tree eradicated argent., with one DC for the addition of the mullets, and nothing for throughoutness of a non-ordinary. (04/1999)

Andro Bruce. Device. Per chevron sable and Or, three crosses bottony fitchy counterchanged.

This is being returned for conflict with Ekaterina Adrianovna Sinilnikovna (SCA), Per chevron sable and Or, two Maltese crosses and a griffin counterchanged. There is a CD for changing the type of each of the three charges, but the change of cross to cross is not substantial enough to invoke X.2, and the charges in each case are part of a single group, so we do not count separate differences for the charges in chief and those in base. (10/1996)

Aneala, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Valiant Swans of Aneala.

This was an appeal of a return by Laurel in November 1996. The original return was because the order name was in the plural and a group name was attached, neither of which had period documentation.

They have provided documentation for the use of a group name in an order name, and for plural usage, but these both come from translations of order names from modern sources. This is not evidence that it was done in period. This is especially relevant in the case of the plural, since every exemplar used knights and no other word in the plural. (04/1999)

Aneala, Barony of. Order name. Order of the Valiant Swans of Aneala.

This is being returned for non-period style. The name has two problems. First, the use of swans versus swan; no one could come up with a period order-name in the plural. Second, the addition of a place name to the order name, which again no could some up with a period example. If one or both of these problems were corrected, the name should be registerable. (11/1996)

Angelica Loreé of Seaforth. Name and device. Per bend sinister azure and sable, a stag's head cabossed Or and a unicorn's couchant reguardant contourny argent, armed and collared Or.

The name is being returned for two reasons. First, no evidence was presented, and none could be found for the use of Angelica as a personal name in period. While the name does appear in Withycombe, Withycombe says that Angelica has been occasionally used in England, France and Germany since the 18th century. That is not evidence that is was used prior to 1600. Loreé again was not documented, although the name Lore is documentable. The form Lore Angelica of Seaforth, which uses Angelica as a Latin epithet, should be registerable, however we felt that was too big of a change to make. The armory is being returned for a redraw. The unicorn as draw is unidentifiable from even a short distance. If the unicorn was not reguardant it would be easier to identify. (07/1997)

Angelique de Beauvais. Device. Per pale sable and azure, a lion rampant shackled and on one rear paw maintaining an arrow Or atop a rock argent.

This conflicts with Bulgaria Gules, a lion rampant crowned Or., Belgium Sable, a lion rampant Or, and the Palatinate of the Rhine Sable, a lion rampant Or crowned gules. In each case there is a CD for the field but nothing for the chain and arrow. Whether or not the rock counts for difference appears to come down to the same distinction we look for between "maintaining" and "sustaining"; whether or not the "maintained" charge, were it separated from the charge maintaining it, be considered a co-primary. ("Either sustaining or supporting will be used when a "held' charge is of comparable size to the beast holding it; maintaining will continue to be used when the held charge is of negligible heraldic difference." [Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR July 1992, p. 6]). The rock in this case is not large enough to be considered sustained and thereby a co-primary, so we are returning this for conflict. (01/1998)

Angelique de la Seine. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation. While it is true, as the LoI states, that Angelique is found Withycombe, it is not dated to our period. Without such documentation the name must be returned. Furthermore, no documentation was presented for the form of the last name. The armory was registered under the holding name Joyce of Crystal Crags. (03/1999)

Angharad ferch Morfran. Device. Argent, in pale three catamounts passant gules.

Unfortunately, this conflicts with the arms used during most of our period of the Principality of North Wales Argent, three lions passant guardant in pale gules. See under Acceptances, Society for Creative Anachronism about this registration. (03/1999)

Angharad Melys. Device. Per bend azure and vert, on a bend argent an acorn per bend vert and azure.

This conflicts with Jenovefa z Jablonne v Podjestedi (SCA) Per bend azure and vert, on a bend argent three apples palewise gules., with one CD for changes to the tertiaries. (07/1997)

Anja Metsälainen. Name.

According to Koira, who is a native Finnish speaker, Anja as a Finnish name is post-period. The normal Finnish form of the name is Anna. The byname does not mean of the forest as the LoI claimed. If the submitter wants help in construction a period Finnish name, Master Pietari, former Principal Herald of Drachenwald, and now Koira Herald, who is a native Finn would be glad to assist her. His e-mail address is huu@iki.fi (12/1998)

Anna de Byxe. Device. Azure, an owl displayed argent and on a chief indented Or three roundels gules.

This is being returned for use of a non-heraldic tincture. While the roundels were blazoned as gules, they are really orange, which we don't use. (07/1998)

Anna Graham. Name.

This conflicts with the already registered Hannah Graham. (03/1999)

Anna Stitcher. Badge. [Fieldless] A sheep statant argent mullety of various tinctures.

This is at least a two-fold extension of known period practice. The panther's variegated spots weren't an arbitrary armorial invention; he appears with them in medieval bestiaries. In this submission not only have they been changed to stars, but also they've been applied to a beast with which they were never associated. Therefore we are returning this for non-period style. (07/1996)

Anna von dem Turm. Badge. (Fieldless) Atop the sinister chief corner of a tower a crow sable.

This conflicts with Freehold Turris Nimborum Barry wavy argent and azure, a tower issuant from base sable., Elaine Ladd Per fess wavy argent and barry wavy azure and argent, in chief a tower sable enflamed proper., and Harold Breakstone Or, a castle triple-towered sable, pennants flotant to sinister vert. In each case there is one CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for the crow. (05/1999)

Anna von dem Turm. Device. Argent, in pall a tower between three crows sable.

This conflicts with the arms of Marco Polo Argent, three roosters sable, beaked and armed gules. If this was drawn with the tower clearly as a primary, it would clear that conflict. (05/1999)

Annabel Kincaid. Device. Per pale purpure and gules, a weaver's knot argent.

This conflicts with Bourchier (Tinctureless) A Bourchier knot. There is not enough visual distinction between having the lower ends crossed (weaver’s) and having them knotted (Bourchier) to be worth a CD. Since the weaver’s knot was not used in mundane heraldry, there is also no period heraldic distinction on which to base a CD. (01/1998)

Anne Aliz de Bâle. Badge. (fieldless) On a cinquefoil conjoined between the petals to five demi fleurs-de-lys vert, five fleurs-de-lys in annulo Or.

This is being returned for unidentifability and non period style. The cinquefoil is not identifiable as one. The outline is confounded by the fleurs-de-lys issuing in the interstices of the foil, and this visual confusion is compounded by placing a fleur-de-lys on each petal. While this is a lovely piece of art, it is not period style. (09/1998)

Anne Aliz de Bâle. Device. Sable, a swan naiant argent and a bordure engrailed, fleury at the points Or.

The bordure uses two different complex lines of division: engrailed and fleury. Such has been disallowed in the past:

[A chief triangular embattled] "With _very_ rare exceptions (e.g. in combination with enarched lines), the use of two or more complex lines on the same charge is confusing, and unattested in period armory. (Wavy raguly? Embattled rayonny? I think not.) In this case, the chief could be either embattled or triangular --- but not both." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR December 1992, p. 20);

We see no reason, barring period evidence to overturn this precedent. (12/1997)

Anne of Framlingham. Device. Lozengy gules and argent, each argent section charged with a key inverted, a chief sable.

Unfortunately, this striking device must be returned for breaking tincture. As emblazoned the sable chief is directly on top of the gules portion of the field, making this color on color. (08/1997)

Anne Renaud. Device. Azure, in pall a moon in her plentitude between three mullets Or.

While blazoned on the LoI as Azure, a moon in her plentitude between three mullets Or., the blazon above better reflects the emblazon, since all of the charges are the same size. Therefore, this conflicts with Finnvarr de Taahe Azure, a mullet of six points environed by six mullets of six points, all Or., reblazoned on this LoAR to better reflect the emblazon as Azure, a mullet of six points within an orle of mullets of six points Or. This is a single group with a single CD for number, nothing for five vs. six points and nothing for changing the type of less than half the group.

As for the cited conflict with Palau, Azure, a bezant., Laurel precedent states that there is no difference between a roundel and a moon. However, RfS X.4.e states that "Types of charges considered to be separate in period, for example a lion and an heraldic tiger, will be considered different. While this matter is not relevant in this case, we are directing Palimpsest to issue a rules letter to discuss our application and possible modification of this rule. (02/1998)

Ansteorra, Kingdom of. Name for Equitatus Ansteorrae.

Unfortunately, in Latin, Equitatus is not merely an equestrian order, but the equestrian order. This is frequently translated into English simply as "the knights". Since this guild is not restricted to members of the chivalry only, it must be returned for presumption. (06/1997)

Ansteorra, Kingdom of. Title for Runicus Herald.

This is being returned for non-period style. We have found five mundane heraldic titles that might be adjectival. Besides the better known 14th century Vaillant or Volant King of Arms, A. Wagner (Heralds of England, pp. 55-7) mentions pursuivants temp. Henry V named Joyeulx and temp. Henry VI named Secret (or Segret), Diligent, and Desirous. However, they do not appear to support the indiscriminate use of adjectives as heraldic titles. First, it appears likely that Vaillant or Volant was an epithet of the man himself; both words were so used (Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Valiant, Volant), and he is called William Vaillant. The titles Diligent and Secret probably refer to traditional virtues of heralds and therefore prefigure the motto of the English College of Arms, Diligent and Secret, which can be traced at least to the time of Henry VIII (Wagner, p. 133). Desirous as a heraldic title probably means `full of eagerness or spirit; eager, ardent, esp. in deeds of arms'; this meaning, though now obsolete, was current in the 14th and 15th centuries. This leaves only Joyeulx, which, even if it have no direct reference to arms, armory, and heralds, is none the less like Vaillant, Diligent, Secret, and Desirous in naming a quality of character or spirit. And like them, it could be a motto and so belong to a known class of heraldic titles.

This is a similiar case to the return of the title Jessant-de-lys Pursuivant (Middle). The adjective runicus appears to have the same problem. Perhaps the kingdom would consider Rune Pursuivant. (07/1996)

Ansteorra, Kingdom of. Title for Syntaxis Pursuivant.

This is being returned for non-period style. Latham’s Revised Medieval Latin Word-List gives syntaxis under "syn/tagma" as meaning a grammar book. It would not surprise me if the meaning given in the LoI referring to the work of the astronomer Ptolemy is also correct. While a book is a fine heraldic charge, we know of no example of a specific book being so used. This plus the fact that Latin heraldic titles are an undocumented practice places this two steps from period practice. (07/1996)

Ansteorra, Kingdom of. Title for Twilight Herald.

This is being returned for non-period style. This name is not in keeping with period practice of naming heralds after heraldic objects, places or surnames. (07/1996)

Antek Ignatovich. Device. Azure, a post with a head crossbeam, a middle crossbeam, and a back foot crossbeam, all within a bordure embattled argent.

This submission does not fit the documented examples of hausmarken, because of the embattled bordure. Nor could anyone in the College come up with an acceptable way to blazon this submission. We are not sure if hausmarken should be registered in the SCA, therefore we are calling for commentary on this issue. See the cover letter for more information. (07/1996)

Antoinette du Vallon. Device. Per pale wavy Or and argent, a cat sejant regardant sable within an orle of cat's pawprints purpure.

The field consists of a complex line of partition (wavy) between two low contrast tinctures (Or and argent) which is largely obscured by the overlying charge of the cat sejant regardant. Per rule VIII.3., this is considered to be unidentifiable, and therefore is returned. (04/1998)

Antonio Bouchard. Device. Per pale sable and argent, a castle within an annulet counterchanged.

This conflicts with Michel d'Avignon Per pale sable and argent, a two-towered castle counterchanged., with one CD for the addition of the annulet. (04/1998)

Antonio Cellini. Device. Per pale purpure and argent, two ferrets rampant addorsed each maintaining a sword, on a chief two Maltese crosses counterchanged.

This is being returned for a redraw. The animals as drawn look halfway between a ferret and a squirrel. Since we register the emblazon, not the blazon, this must be returned for not being clearly one type of animal. (11/1997)

Antonio Miguel Santos de Borja. Device. Azure, a chevron erminois between three owls Or, a bordure erminois.

This is being returned for a redraw. The color of the field is not clearly blue or purple but halfway between. (04/1998)

Aodhagán Mac Mathghamhain. Name.

The patronymic needed to be put into the genitive form which is Mac Mathghamhna. However, since the submitter would take no changes we are forced to return this. (12/1998)

Aodhnait inghean mhic Chárthaigh. Device. Per pale, paly azure and argent, and sable a griffin Or.

This is in conflict with the device of Degary Golafry of Pembroke (SCA), Quarterly sable and gules, a griffin segreant coward bearing in her dexter talon a Celtic cross and in her sinister talon a sword inverted Or. There is only one CD, for the field. Tail position and the carried charges do not count for difference. (12/1996)

Aodhnait inghean mhic Chárthaigh. Device. Sable, a griffin segreant argent.

This conflicts with Brandon d'Arindel (SCA) Sable, a male griffin rampant argent., with one CD for the difference between a standard and a male griffin. (11/1997)

Aoibheall inghean Dhaghain. Device. Vert, a dragon rampant within a bordure embattled Or.

This conflicts with Tristan of Longford, Azure scaly argent, a dragon segreant a bordure embattled Or., with only one CD for the field. (10/1997)

Arabella da Siena. Device. Gules, on a pale between two hippogriffs combattant, each maintaining a glaive argent, three cinquefoils sable.

This conflicts with Katherine Linnet Holford, Gules, on a pale argent, a domestic cat statant regardant back arched between two cinquefoils in pale sable. There is one CD for the addition of the hippogriffs, but there is nothing for changing one third of the type of the tertiary charges on the pale. (01/1997)

Arabella MacLeod. Device. Argent, vetu, a cross of Santiago purpure.

This conflicts with Maelen of Catcott, (SCA) Purpure, on a lozenge argent a forget-me-not proper., since Arabella's could also be also be blazoned as "Purpure, on a lozenge throughout argent a cross of Santiago purpure.", leaving only one CD for change of type of tertiary. (05/1997)

Aramis de Loire. Name.

This is an appeal of a kingdom return of the name for lack of documentation. The submitter explains Aramis as a constructed name from the Hebrew Aram and the French ending -is. This is, in fact, not a period form of name construction, and barring documentation of Aramis as a period name, it must be returned. The armory was registered under the holding name Brandon de Loire. (01/1998)

Ard Ruadh, Shire of. Device. Sable lozengy, on a pile argent a sun gules overall a laurel wreath Or.

While the picture is as above, the blazon on the LoI which matched the blazon on the petition was Argent semy of fusils sable, on a pile sable a sun Or, overall a laurel wreath gules. Since the petition does not match the submitted armory, it must be returned. (06/1998)

Ari Wilhelmsen. Device. Azure, a pall between a rose and two sea-horses combatant a bordure argent.

This conflicts with Justinian Rakovec (SCA), Azure, a pall between three chipmunks rampant all within a bordure argent., with one CD for change of type of the secondaries. (04/1997)

Ariadne Danebod. Name.

This is being returned for using a unique name. Danebod is a late form of an epithet applied to Þyri, wife of the 10th c. king Gorm the Old. The earliest form is Danmarkar bót, with a runic version tanmarkaR but. In younger sources the epithet becomes Danabot, Danebot, etc. In the entire body of literature surveyed in DGP, the byname is applied uniquely to this one person. The literal meaning of the phrase is `Denmark's bettering', `Denmark's cure'; it seems very unlikely that such a byname would have been used of anyone but a very prominent national hero(ine) therefore, its use in the SCA can be viewed as presumptuous and in violation of RfS VI, 4., Other Presumptuous Names. (08/1997)

Ariadne la Noire. Device. Sable, three swans displayed, wings inverted, a bordure Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The swans are not clearly rousant or displayed nor in any other heraldic posture. (04/1999)

Arianrod of Isles. Name.

Arianrhod ferch Don, the personage named in the cited documentation, is mythological; no one has been able to present any evidence that the name has been found in use by actual human beings in period. Without such evidence, the name may not be used in an SCA name. (01/1997)

Arianwen Teague. Name and device. Checky vert and Or, on a chief sable a lion passant regardant contourney between two hearts Or.

This is neither field-primary armory or a simple case (for X.4.j.ii). Therefore it conflicts with Elspeth Turnbull, Argent ermined gules, on a chief sable three cinquefoils Or., Marc Beaucoeur Lozengy bendwise gules and Or, on a chief sable three oak slips fructed Or., and Graham, Duke of Montrose (real-world armory) Or, on a chief sable three escallops Or. In each case there is a CD for the field, but nothing for changing the type only of the tertiaries. (02/1998)

Arik Alton. Household name for Hawk's Haven.

This conflicts with the registered name Shire of Hawk's Haven. (05/1997)

Arinbjorn Ragnarsson. Device. Per fess urdy sable and argent.

This conflicts with the registered badge of Kane Greymane (SCA) Per fess embattled sable, and Or masoned sable. There is a CD for change of 1/2 the tincture, but nothing for line of division. (01/1997)

Arlen O'Connell. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation. The only documentation presented was for variant spellings of the given name as a surname, and no one in the college presented any documentation for this spelling being used as a given name in our period. Without documentation that Arlen was used as a given name by a human being in our period we are forced to return the name. (08/1997)

Armand de la Croix. Device. Gyronny sable and Or a fret counterchanged overall an orle azure.

This is being returned for excessive counterchanging. The fret counterchanged over the gyronny field is virtually unidentifiable. (11/1997)

Armando de la Rama de Mil Ojos. Change of holding name from Armando of One Thousand Eyes.

In 10/95 his submission of Armando de la Rama Caida was returned by the then Laurel, who said "Most of those who commented on the byname, which means `of the fallen branch', found it implausible, and in fact it departs from available models of period Spanish bynames in both form and meaning. . . ." This submission of Armando de la Rama de Mil Ojos, does nothing to correct the problems of the 10/95 return, and in fact introduces another problem, since it translates the name of his group into Spanish. Names of registered extant SCA groups are only automatically registerable in the language in which they are actually registered. (07/1997)

Arminta Ragon. Name.

No evidence was presented to show that Arminta was a period name. The armory was registered under the holding name Sheron Regan. (02/1997)

Arnbiørn Bassi Dansson. Device. Per fess azure and vert, a bear statant erect affronty, sinister paw upraised Or.

While the LoI stated that he has received permission to conflict with the Barony of Adiantum's badge for the Collar and Chain Gules, a two-headed bear statant erect affronty, forelegs raised, heads addorsed Or collared and chained sable., it was not in writing and therefore is not acceptable. Please remember the motto of the CoA, Non scripta non est. If you do not have the permission, in writing, do not send out the conflicting submission. (07/1998)

Aron Nied wied . Device. Argent, four scarpes gules, overall a bear rampant sable.

This is being returned for two reasons. First, for violating the rule of tincture as drawn. As drawn significantly more than 1/2 of the sable (color) bear is on the gules (color) scarpes instead of the argent (metal) field. Second, after much thought we have decided that with that many scarpes on the field, that there is no effective difference between that and a bendy sinister field. It was not unusual for barry or paly fields in period to be drawn with an odd number of traits (which we'd blazon as bars or palets); see, for example, the arms of Mouton (Multon, Moleton) found both as Barry argent and gules. and Argent, three bars gules. (Dictionary of British Arms, Volume 1, pp 59, 88; Foster, p.145) and the arms of von Rosenberg, whose Per fess field has in base either three bends or bendy depending upon the artist's whim (Siebmacher, p. 8; Neubecker and Rentzmann, p. 290). Even when the distinction is worth blazoning, it's worth no difference. Therefore, this conflict with City of Berlin Argent, a bear rampant sable., and Morven of Carrick (SCA) Checky gules and Or, a bear statant erect sable., in each case there is just a single CD for changing the field. (12/1997)

Artemisia, Kingdom of. Device change for Consort's device. Sable, on a pile between two griffins combatant each maintaining an arrow Or, an ancient crown sable within a wreath of roses proper.

This is being returned for not providing enough support for the change. The Administrative Handbook says:

Evidence of Support – Submissions involving the name or arms of an active branch must include evidence of support for the action on the part of a majority of the active members of the branch. In the case of branches with no ruling noble, this support may be demonstrated by a petition of a majority of the populace and officers or by a petition of the seneschal and at least three-quarters of the other local officers. In the case of branches with ruling nobles, such petitions must also include a statement of support from the ruling noble. If a submission would result in the registration or modification of the Branch Name or Branch Arms of a kingdom, principality or equivalent branch, support must be demonstrated by the results of a poll conducted in the relevant official newsletter and certified by the seneschal of the appropriate branch. Branch badge(s), order or award names, and other Branch names (such as names for guilds, Herald's Titles in the case of Kingdom, etc.) do not require support at the Laurel level. Kingdom may require it if they so desire, for their internal procedures.

It has been ruled by Laurel that the polling in the newsletter is required for changes to consort's arms as well. We received no such certification. (12/1998)

Artemisia, Kingdom of. Name for Order of the Griffin.

This conflicts with Griffin Freehold and with Griffin Pursuivant, since the only difference is the addition of a group name, which the rules specifically exclude as a differencing descriptive element. (12/1998)

Artemisia, Kingdom of. Title for Vox Grypis Herald.

This is being returned for non period style. In a similar case, Master Da'ud as Laurel said:

[returning Vox Draconis Pursuivant] The previous version, Dragon's Voice Pursuivant, was returned 3/95 for failure to emulate period models as required by RfS III.2.b.iii; translation into Latin doesn't bring it any closer. It was suggested that it might derive from a motto Vox draconis sum `I am the voice of the dragon', but the period examples noted all comprise the entire motto, and no evidence was presented that Vox draconis sum is a reasonable imitation of a period motto. (Caid, Kingdom of, 10/95 p. 18)

Barring documentation that this follows period exemplar of heraldic titles, it must be returned. (06/1998)

Artemisia, Kingdom of. Title for Wormwood Pursuivant.

This is being returned for non-period style. Period heraldic titles were formed from surnames, place-names, names of heraldic charges orders of chivalry and mottos. Barring evidence that Wormwood is one of the above it must be returned. (06/1998)

Arthur of Anchoridge

We could come up with no sound justification for this form. With the meaning "the cell or retreat of an anchorite", the forms Arthur atte ancre huse, or the like. The OE ancorsetl "hermitage" could possible result in Ankersettle. And, a modern Anchorhouse from the earlier Ankerhouse would also be reasonable. Furthermore, since there exists the river Ander, and an early Anker hrycg could certainly have become a late-period Ankeridge. (09/1996)

Arwen of Caer Baeddan. Device. Argent, an oak tree eradicated and fructed proper between two cats sejant affronty gules.

This conflicts with O'Connor Don (important mundane armory), Argent a tree eradicated vert., with one CD for the addition of the secondaries. (03/1997)

Aryanhwy Prytydes merch Catmael Caermyrdin. Badge. (Fieldless) A stoat passant purpure.

Withdrawn by submitter. (11/1997)

Aryanhwy Prytydes merch Catmael Caermyrdin. Device. Argent estencely sable, in pale three stoats passant, counter­passant, passant purpure.

Withdrawn by submitter. (11/1997)

Asad ibn Zayyan al­Baghdadi. Device. Purpure, a cat couchant guardant within an Arab arch Or.

This is being returned for lack of documentation of the "Arab arch". We know of no such charge as "an Arab arch", nor is the item as emblazoned of a typical or standard middle eastern, Indian, or Arabic style. Indeed, what it most closely resembles is the extremely late period and post­period "onion dome" (à la Taj Mahal), though badly "squashed", over a rounded archway. Therefore, this falls afoul of RfS VII.7.b. ("Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon."), because we can think of no blazon which would adequately reproduce it. This also runs afoul of RfS VII.7.a since it cannot be readily identified from its appearance alone. (08/1997)

Ashford-on-Avon, Canton of. Name and device. Per bend sinister wavy argent and azure, in chief an ash leaf within a laurel wreath vert, in base a swan naiant argent.

The name is being returned for lack of paperwork. We received no forms or petition. Since we do not form holding names for groups, the armory must be returned as well.

Even if the name had been registerable the armory would have had to be returned for lack of petition and because it violates our rule on slot machine by having three different charges in the same group. Furthermore, the laurel wreath needs a redraw, to look more like a laurel wreath, which should be circular in shape. (12/1998)

Ásta Leontesdóttir. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation of the patronymic. (07/1996)

Ástrídr Oddsdóttir. Device. Lozengy ermine and vert, two birds close respectant sable.

Blazoned on the LoI as corbies, as drawn these were not identifiability corbies, or any other type of specific bird. Therefore, they have been reblazoned as birds, which puts this in conflict with the Shire of Vakkerfjell Per pale argent and Or, two swans statant close respectant sable maintaining in their beaks a laurel wreath vert. There is one CD for the field, nothing for the small maintained laurel wreath, and nothing for the difference between the swan and a generic bird. (09/1997)

Ataias Eleutherios. Name and device. Argent, atop a stag lodged proper, a wolf statant ravessant sable.

This is being returned for lack of documentation. Ataias is asserted to be a Greek form of the Scythian name Ateas. However, the documentation for Ataias comes from a Greek coin which bears the name Ataias. However, Greek coinage and coins from lands using the Greeks as models (i.e., using Greek styles and Greek for its inscriptions) generally used the genitive case to denote the ruler or other entity issuing the coinage. The form of the given name on the coin as noted would be a standard genitive form for a first declension Greek noun. This could be a woman’s name or, more likely, a geographic locative (and city states like Athens or Gela did use the name of the city rather than of a ruler on their coinage. Without documentation showing this to be an actual period name we must return it. The armory is being returned for non-reproduciblity. As drawn the wolf is significantly smaller than the deer. But, in every case we could find, the animal preying upon, ravissant or vorant of something was at least the same size as the creature is was attacking, if not significantly larger. (01/1998)

Atalaya la Sanadora. Badge. (Fieldless) A pheon inverted and a pheon conjoined in pale sable surmounted by a rose proper.

The rose in the mini-emblazon is clearly drawn, not between the broadarrows, but debruising them. This sort of "barely overall" emblazon has been grounds for return many times previously. (04/1997)

Atalaya la Sanadora. Household name for Bear Clan.

This is returned for non-period style and violation of RfS III.2.b.iv. RfS III.2.b.iv. requires that "Household names must follow the patterns of period names of organized groups of people. Possible models include Scottish clans Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart). (04/1997)

Atalaya la Sanodora. Badge transfer to Cedric Steinhauser. Sable, a bear salient to sinister Or.

While there was a letter in the packet signed by Atalaya la Sanodora transferring the badge to Cedric Steinhauser, there was nothing showing acceptance by of the badge by Cedric. Barring such documentation, we are forced to return the transfer. (02/1998)

Atlantia, Kingdom of. Heraldic title. Alpen Pursuivant.

According to the LoI, Alpen is the German plural of Alp. Since, however, the Alps have their own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica, and we protect any place that has its own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica, this must be returned for conflict. (04/1998)

Atli Hvítúlfr. Device. Gules, a tricorporate wolf argent.

This is being returned for conflict against Roger FitzLyon (SCA) Tierced in point azure, vert and sable, a tricorporate lion argent. After comparing the two emblazons, we came to the reluctant decision that we could not grant a CD between the two monsters, since Atli's was drawn so lionlike. If he resubmitted with a more wolf like wolf, we would consider granting a CD. (09/1996)

Attemark, Shire of. Device. Per bend sinister vert and checky vert and Or, a laurel wreath Or.

This conflicts with the Shire of Wyndhame Per pale embattled gules and Or, in dexter chief a laurel wreath Or., and with the SCA (Order of the Laurel) (Tinctureless) A laurel wreath. In both cases there is just one CD for the field.

Some members of the college have suggested that this is clear of Wyndhame under the provisions of RfS X.3. ("Two pieces of official Society armory that share required charges may consider their Difference of Primary Charges as if the required charges were not there., and that with no charges to be considered, the two pieces of armory should be judged under the field primary rules. However, RfS X.3 deals with complexity, and not with conflict. Furthermore, on the November 1990 LoAR, Master Da'ud as Laurel said:

Dubh-Thrian, Canton of. Name and device. Per chevron argent and sable, a laurel wreath vert.

"Regarding possible conflict with the arms of the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc., Or, a laurel wreath vert, X.3 indicates that required charges (such as the laurel wreath for groups) are "invisible" only for the purposes of applying X.2 (Difference of Primary Charge). Since the laurel wreath is the primary charge here, no difference can be counted for making it "invisible" for purposes of counting difference."

So, with severe regrets, we are returning this device. (01/1998)

Attila Györi Sandor. Name.

According to the LoI, the name was Hungarian and was intended to mean "Sandor, the little father (possibly young?), from Györ."

According to Nebuly:

According to Hajd, the given name Sandor is the Hungarian form of Alexander. There are dozens of examples of its use in late period, and it is recorded in the submitted spelling in an unmarked patronym as early as 1394. The element Gyri is the modern form of a locative byname meaning "from Gyr". Note that the modern spelling for both the city and the byname differ from the submitted form by not using the Hungarian doubly-accented letter O, which is a post-period innovation. Also, neither the modern nor submitted spelling appears in period (Kzmr). I do find the spelling Gyry recorded in 1592 and into the 17th century, and I note that this is the client's preferred spelling. Certain locative bynames in Hungary are traditionally spelled with -y rather than -i.

The name Gyry Sandor by itself would make a fine 16th century Hungarian name. Unfortunately, the submitter has tacked on an additional byname. Since there is no evidence for double bynames in period Hungary, and since the submitter allows no changes, the name must be returned.

Out of curiosity and a sense of completeness, I researched the element Attila anyway. As a given name, it is not uncommon in Hungary today, but I could find no evidence of its use by Hungarians between 1250 and 1720, the range of dates covered by KzmFr. I have scanned the thousands of names in Kzmr several times now for various projects, and cannot recall seeing it used as a given name; neither is it recorded as a patronym or any other form of byname. In fact, the only instance I have in any period Hungarian source is in the Chronica Hungarorum (Hess) and similar documents, sometimes called the "Gesta". The Chronica is a history of the Hungarians from the creation of Adam through the medieval period, and like other such "histories", it mixes historical fact, myth, and fiction. The name Atila appears there in reference to the man known in English as Attila the Hun. It is clearly used there as his given name, but as I said, I have no evidence that any Hungarian used this name in period. The evidence provided by the client that titles meaning "little father" were used in Russian is irrelevant, since (a) we do not register titles, and more importantly (b) Russian is a Slavic language, with very different naming practices from Hungarian.

Based on this we have no option but to return the name for incorrect construction and lack of documentation.

The submitter would take no changes. Therefore, we cannot create a holding name, and we are forced to return the armory as well, for not having an SCA name to register it to. (11/1998)

Aubrey Murray. Device. Or, a turtle passant vert maintaining in its mouth an arrow inverted proper.

This conflicts with Iason Vorax Or, a turtle rampant vert., and Frederic of Feolildwyn Or, a tortoise passant vert, charged upon the shell with a fret Or. The first gets only one CD for the posture of the turtle and the second gets only one CD for the tertiary; the maintained arrow counts nothing in either case. (03/1998)

Aurelius the Arronious of Bikeleswade. Name change from Irenaeus of Bikeleswade and device. Sable, a legless wyvern embowed Or maintaining with its tail a quill argent.

The name is being returned because of the first nickname, the Arronious. Period nicknames tend to be straightforward and to use common words: Thynnewyt "thin [of] wit, stupid", le Wis "the wise", Badinteheved "bad in the head", le Wilfulle, le Proude "the proud", le Hardy "the courageous", le Sour, le Cursede, le Deuyle "the devil", Blaksoule "black-soul". The learned erroneous simply doesn't belong in this company. Although the adjective in question is not a past participle, we do not consider this case to be significantly different from those of Adam the Unexpected (East, returned 2/96) and Deirdre the Distracted (Ansteorra, returned 4/94), whose bynames were returned partly for being too abstract. Similarly, erroneous is too far from the common tongue to be at all believable as a period byname. The submitter did not permit any changes that would drop the Arronious part, so we have had to return the name.

Submitted as a pithon, it was the consensus of the people attending the Laurel meeting as well as being the opinion of some of the commenters that the monster was closer in fact to a legless wyvern than a python. Therefore, this is being for conflict with Caryl de Trecesson (SCA), Sable, a dragon dormant Or, with one CD for position.

The feather is not a sustained charge, but a maintained charge and therefore does not count for difference. See the cover letter for further discussion of this issue. (10/1996)

Aurich Greim. Name and device. Sable, on a chevron argent, three vols gules.

While Aurich is found in Bahlow's Deutsches Nameslexikon, it is as a place name, not a given name, leaving the submitter with no given name. Since a given name is required, we are returning it for lack of a given name.

The device conflicts with Rafaella d’Allemtego Sable, on a chevron throughout argent an escallop vert. There is only one CD for the cumulative total changes to the tertiaries. (06/22/1999)

Aurore des Flandres. Name change from Aurore de Flandres.

This was an appeal of a change by Laurel from des Flandres to de Flandres. The submitter stated in the appeal:

"Did not know, and am unhappy that, review correction resulted in a name which by current practices seems to combine a singular article with a plural noun."

She presented information from Morlet which she felt supported her case. Unfortunately, the information in Morlet was misunderstood. The submitter states that: "review correction resulted in a name...which seems to combine a singular article with a plural noun." In fact, the registered name Aurore de Flandres contains no article at all, since de is a preposition. Also, Flandres is not plural in the context of the name, but is the proper name of a County. Further documentation from Morlet is mistranslated. It should read: "afterwards evangelist of the Flemish [people]", and is a phrase explaining who was evangelized. While this construction may be grammatically correct in French, it is inappropriate in a personal name without supporting documentation. (03/1998)

Avelyn Mac Uilliam. Device. Vert, on a pale between in chief two increscents Or a willow tree proper.

This conflicts with Morina Magrath Vert, on a pale endorsed Or, a redwood tree proper. There is nothing for the difference between the trees, leaving the only a CD one for type of secondaries, but nothing for the increscents being in chief, since in chief is a meaningless concept for endorses. (06/22/1999)

Avram Ibn Gabirol. Household name for House of the Wandering Dragon.

The Rules for Submission (III.2.b.iv.) require that "Household names must follow the patterns of period names of organized groups of people. Possible models include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart)." Despite what was stated on the LoI, Wandering Dragon, does not follow the pattern of inns such as House of the White Hart. A white hart could be painted on an inn sign and be identifiable as such, a "wandering dragon" could not. Barring documentation of participles of this sort being used for inn names, this must be returned. (03/1998)

Axel the Executioner. Device. Purpure, a sheaf of three double-bitted axes argent.

This conflicts with Sven Gunther Alcan (SCA) Purpure a rose slipped argent overall two double bitted axes in saltire Or. While Sven's blazon uses the term overall", the three charges are in the exact same sort of sheaf" as Axel's axes; they are one primary charge group, not a primary charge group with an overall charge group. There is one CD for changing the tincture of two thirds of the charges in the sheaf to Or, but nothing for changing the type of one third of the charges from an axe to a rose. (09/1997)

Axemoor, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Citizen of Axemoor.

This name does not follow any known pattern of period order names. While there is period precedent for citizens and non-citizens being of different social orders, this is not the sense of "order" which applies to the SCA. We use the word in the sense of chivalric orders. Absent any examples of such orders with names analogous to this, it must be returned.

We also have some concern about this use of "citizen" as a bestowed honor. There is an implication that the members of this order are enfranchised in baronial matters, and those members of the populace not members of this order therefore being disenfranchised. While we don't believe that this is the barony's intent, it would do well to further consider this. (03/1998)

Aylwin Thoraldson. Device. Per chevron azure and sable, in chief a Latinate Celtic cross and in base an increscent and a decrescent argent.

Since no miniature was included on the LoI, this must be returned for violating V.B.2.e of the Administrative Handbook. (05/1998)

Aylwin Thoraldson. Device. Per chevron azure and sable, in chief a Celtic cross and in base in fess a decrescent and increscent argent.

This conflicts with Wilhelm von Schlussel (for Unserheim) Azure, a key fesswise a decrescent and an increscent, one and two argent. There is one CD for the field, but not one for changing one of three charges in a non-standard arrangement. (02/1999)

Azure Mere, Shire of. Name and device. Argent, a hippocampus within a laurel wreath sable, a chief invected purpure.

This was an appeal of a November 1996 return for non­period construction. Places were named from common, everyday words which azure was not. The appeal stated:

The elements of the name are documented from the (complete) OED which cites a reference to 'aserre' in 1450 and 'mere' to 1573 or 'meere' to 1450. We add to this the town of Azerlay cited in 1277 in Ekwall's CODEP (20). However, Ekwall notes the first element may be the OScand personal name Atzer or Azer. Vlad also notes the entry describing the final element under the OE 'leah' as a very common place name element, corresponding to OHG 'loh' "grove". Ergo, this derivation would not preserve the meaning: "Azer's Grove" instead of "Blue Grove". Further, from Ekwall's entry for OE mere: "'lake, mere' is a common place name element OE mere is found in several names of lakes, as BUTTER-, GRAS-, WINDERMERE, but many original names of lakes were transferred to places on the lake. [The second element] -mere has been replaced rarely by -mire, as in ELDMIRE, REDMIRE. This last example specifically supports Laurel's recommendation of Blamere. Finally, one might potentially interpret Azure Mere as a plausable scribal error for Azer Mere. The documented placename of Azerlay combines this OScand element with a similar OE element ("Azer's Wood" vs. "Azer's Lake"), which leaves the construction at least of Azermere perfectly reasonable to us. The extension, by errors in scribal transcription, to Azure Mere or Azuremere also seems reasonable.

Unfortunately, even the most extreme interpretation that a late-period intellectual might reanalyze Azerlay as Azure Leah does not mean that azure would be available in the pool of place name elements. As a counter-example, the significant number of northern place names that reinterpret eggles (church) as eagles does not suggest that "eagles" became available to generate new place names. Regarding the second argument, unless you have evidence of Azerlay appearing in a spelling variant closely resembling Azurelay, it is unconvincing to argue that a hypothetical Azermere -- however plausible -- can justify Azuremere. Therefore, barring evidence that azure was used in English place names, we are forced to return this submission. Since we do not form holding names for groups, we must return the armory as well. (10/1997)

Azure Mere, Shire of. Name.

This is being returned for non-period construction. Places were named using common, everyday words, which azure certainly was not. (The OED doesn't even have a citation for this meaning until the late 15th c.) Moreover, we can find no evidence for French azur in period English place-names, and OE mere "pool" would in any case normally be combined with an OE descriptive element. The closest that anyone could come is Blamere; this would be from ON blár "blue, dark" + marr "marsh, fen", the second element later being replaced - as was not uncommon (Smith, s.v. marr1) - by the native mere. (11/1996)

Baldric of Blackwater. Device. Ermine, a horse passant contourny reguardant sable enflamed proper.

This is being returned for a redraw. The flames are not issuant from the horse, as they should be with a correct enflaming, but rather outlining the horse, hanging in midair. (06/22/1999)

Balian of Boxgrove Hall. Device. Quarterly gules and azure, a cross flory argent.

This conflicts with Stephen de Huyn (Fieldless) A cross of Santiago argent., with the only CD for fieldlessness. (12/1997)

Banbha O'Cearbhail. Name.

This is being returned for lack of a given name. SCA given names must be documented to having been used as the name of a human being in period. According to ó Corráin & Maguire, the name Banba (now Banbha) was originally applied to the plain of Meath and later became another name for Ireland. They note that it was also used as a feminine name in mythology, Banba having been the wife of one of the gods of the Tuatha Dé Danann. The surname given by Woulfe is ó Cearbhaill, not O'Cearbhail, and this is its masculine form, which is inappropriate with the feminine forename. The name, if combined with an appropriate given name would be ní Chearbhaill. (11/1996)

Bastian de la Salle. Device. Per pale embattled argent and vert, a rapier inverted sable.

This conflicts with Thaddeus the Brown, (SCA) Gyronny Or and vert, a dagger inverted sable., with one CD for the field and nothing for type of blade. (09/1997)

Bearrach Aelwyn the Wolfhead. Device change. Per bend sinister bendy sinister argent and vert and argent, in sinister base a brown wolf's head, erased and affronty, proper, gorged of a coronet Or, maintaining in its mouth a garden rose gules, slipped and leaved vert.

Unfortunately, the wolf's head is not drawn as in the original submission, but rather in trian aspect. If it is resubmitted with a correctly drawn wolf's head, we see no reason not to register this. (03/1998)

Beatrice Sforza. Name.

The surname Sforza is one of those names such as Hohenstaufen which are so closely associated with a single sovereign royal family as to be presumptuous in their use. Indeed, in times past it was one of those that were used as an exemplar for that category of restricted names. (The name of the dynasty was derived from the nickname of its founder and in period was associated closely with the immediate family of the sovereign Dukes of Milan.) The use of the Sforza surname is tantamount to a claim to being from the immediate family of the sovereign Dukes of Milan and is not allowed under RFS VI.1 The armory was registered under the holding name Beatrice of Tir Ysgithr. (02/1998)

Beaune de la Sorse. Device change. Barry indented and paly sable and Or.

This is being returned for non-reproducibility. The design only works due to the alignment of the indentations with the traits of the paly. This requires the heraldic artist to know that a tesselated design is intended. While there are examples of such fields in modern English heraldry, this is not such a productive pattern in period heraldry that it should be emulated in the SCA, and indeed designs dependant upon an exact and unblazonable alignment of elements has often been cause for return. (02/1997)

Bebinn ingen Brain. Device. Purpure, a moon in its complement a bordure Or.

This conflicts with Ciaran of Beresruth, Barry indented of eight argent and vert, a bezant within a bordure Or. There is only one CD for the change of field. (07/1998)

Bedwyr Bannog. Device. Paly gules and argent, on a bend argent three mullets sable.

The bend has no contrast with half of the field, with an argent bend on a paly gules and argent field. (02/1997)

Béfind Fholtchaem. Device. Argent, a natural tiger bendwise passant contourny azure.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn the tiger is not clearly bendwise or palewise inverted, but something in between. If it is palewise inverted, it would be returned for non period style, but we would register it bendwise. (08/1998)

Beircheart de Duglass. Name and device. Azure, on a bend argent three hearts palewise gules.

This name is being returned for mixing Gaelic and non- Gaelic spellings . This needs to have either an Anglicized form of the forename or a Gaelic form of the surname. Whatever the actual origin of the saint's name, Berihart is a reasonable Anglicized of the submitted form, and Berihart de Duglass should be registerable. Ignoring a modern accent, Dubhghlas is the form given by Dwelly for the surname; Beircheart Dubhghlas might be the modern Scots Gaelic form of his name. Berihart de Duglass is closer to what he submitted in both sound and appearance. Given the different possibilities, we are returning this to allow him to choose. The armory is being returned for conflict with Andrea de Champs de Batailles, (SCA) Azure, on a bend argent a unicorn's head palewise couped sable between two cinquefoils purpure, and Pasgen ap Rhys (SCA) , Azure on a bend argent a dragon passant azure armed and scaled Or, and in canton an emerald proper. Although it is not immediately obvious from the convoluted blazon of Pasgen's device, all of his charges are on the bend. (12/1996)

Ben Riec, Shire of. Name.

The group wants their name to mean smoking mountain, and were more concerned about the meaning of the name than anything else. The name as submitted did not mean that, nor was it properly constructed, so it is being returned for further work. For a Gaelic name the most obvious possibility is that suggested by Maclennan's gloss beinn-theine for English volcano; the literal sense of the compound is `fire-mountain'. For another, CDIL s.v. teine gives an early compound teineshliab glossed `fiery mountain'; teineshliabh would be the modern spelling. Probably Beinntheine and Teineshliabh would both work. (01/1997)

Bengta Rolfsdotter. Device. Azure, on a mullet of four points within an orle of Wake knots argent a Viking longship sable.

This is being return for a redraw. As drawn the knots are not Wake knots, but rather Celtic interlace, which we do not do. The tails of the knots need to come out fesswise, not palewise, and the knots should not be solid, but rather the field should show through. (12/1996)

Bennett Weissenstein. Device. Per fess sable and checky argent and sable, in chief three towers argent.

This conflicts with David of Catlewhyte (SCA) Per chevron gules and sable, three castles argent. Bennett's towers cannot be two and one due to the field, so there is nothing for arrangement. This leaves only the one CD for the field. (11/1997)

Beorn of the Northern Sea. Household name and badge for House Argent Lyre. (Fieldless) On an acorn sable a lyre argent.

The household name for Jonathan Thorne's House of the Argent Horse was returned September 94 for the following reason:

"Argent" is not a common English element; as an adjective referring to a color, its use is confined almost entirely to heraldry. English, unlike German, has no tradition of house names based on armory; the authentic usage would be White Horse.

Given this reason for return (the household was subsequently registered as Maison du Cheval d'Argent), House Argent Lyre is also unacceptable. The badge is being returned for conflict with the badge of Traidenis Vilkas of Winter Oak (Fieldless) On an acorn sable, a wolf's head cabossed argent., with one CD for fieldlessness and nothing for change of type only on the tertiary. Even if there had not been a conflict we would have had to return this for a redraw. As drawn it is not identifiability an acorn. (09/1997)

Bernadou du Lac. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation. Dauzat cites Bernadou as a modern French surname only, and Morlet also cites it as a last name. Barring documentation, Bernadou is not registerable as a given name. While the given name Bernard is certainly registerable, we felt that was too big of a change to make. Barring conflict, we see no reason why Bernard du Lac, would not be registerable. See the cover letter for further discussion of issues raised by this submission. (02/1998)

Bhairavi Palanimathi. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation of the byname. The given name is acceptable, but no documentation was presented for the byname or for the combination of the byname and the given name. (11/1998)

Bisons Run, Shire of. Release of name.

While Laurel applauds the releasing of names and armory of defunct groups, there is no evidence that the proper process for the release of an item belonging to a defunct branch has been followed in this case. The Administrative Handbook, p3, Protected Items A., notes that "In the case of defunct Society branches, release may be granted by joint consent of the Crown and Kingdom Seneschal after appropriate notice in the newsletter of the kingdom in which the branch was located." There is no evidence that the process outlined in the Administrative Handbook has been followed. Therefore, this release is returned for lack of evidence that the procedures in the Administrative Handbook have been followed. (07/1996)

Björn Gerhardsön. Device. Per chevron inverted azure and sable, a chevron inverted argent

This is being returned for conflict Danahild nic Choluim (SCA) Per chevron inverted azure and sable, a chevron inverted between a dove volant and three harps argent," and Amber Blackwood (SCA) "Per chevron inverted azure and sable, a chevron inverted between an arrow fesswise and three decrescents argent. In both cases there is but one CD, for the addition of the secondaries.

There appears to be some confusion about the concept of complete difference of charge. In cases where there would be no chance of confusing the two primary charges, and the submitted armory is simple, even though there is only one technical CD, we call the two submissions clear. For instance, "Gules, a fess Or", versus "Gules, a lion rampant Or." Technically, there is but one CD, for the different in type. However, since the fess and the lion are substantially different, and were considered so in period, we give complete different in charge, and would call them clear of each other. (08/1996)

Bjorn of the Woode Pyle. Name change from Bjorn Pile of the Wode.

While the submitter documents the terms Woode Pyle as a period term, there is no documentation that it was used in a name. Since there is no reason to think that name were formed from places of this sort, barring documentation this will have to be returned. (07/1998)

Bjorn Pile of the Wode. Device. Vert, a bear dormant Or atop a fascine fesswise argent, a bordure dovetailed Or.

As this is not simple armory by the standards of RFS X.2 (there are three different types of charge on the field), it is in conflict with Morgan of Lorraine Vert, in pale a mullet of eight points Or and a sword proper, a bordure dovetailed Or. There is only a CD for the (admittedly substantial) difference in the primary charges.

Even if there had not been a conflict we would have returned this for a redraw, as the primary charges as drawn were not recognizable. (05/1998)

Bjorn Strongarm of Illiton. Device change. Sable, a spiderweb, overall a lightning bolt bendwise sinister Or.

This conflicts with the Order of Arachen's Web Sable a spiderweb argent., with one CD for the addition of the overall charge. Additionally, this has a drawing problem as the web is not clearly couped or throughout. Note: we do not give any countable difference for couping any charges except ordinaries. (11/1997)

Blackmoor Keep, Shire of. Badge. Per pale sable and argent, a tower, a bordure embattled counterchanged.

This conflicts with Michel d'Avignon Per pale sable and argent, a two-towered castle counterchanged. There is one CD for the bordure, but nothing for castle vs. tower. (06/1998)

Blackstone Mountain, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Anvil and the Rose.

The name is being returned for conflict with the Order of the Rose (SCA peerage order). RfS VI.4 Other Presumptuous Names states:

Some names not otherwise forbidden by these rules are nevertheless too evocative of widely known and revered protected items to be registered.

Such items include the peerage orders of the Society and such well­known items outside the Society as the Order of the Garter. The House of the Rose and Laurel does not conflict with the Order of the Rose or the Order of the Laurel, but it is too evocative of both to be registered. Similarly, the Award of the Blue Garter is too evocative of the Order of the Garter, whose badge is a blue garter.

The rules specifically say the Order of the Rose and the Laurel is too evocative of both names to be registered. (07/1997)

Bläß von Bremen. Device. Quarterly Or and vert, between in bend three roses barbed and seeded proper, two horses courant contourny argent.

No paperwork was received for this device. (04/1998)

Bläß von Bremen. Household name for House Whitrose.

Per VI. 4. Other Presumptuous Names - Some names not otherwise forbidden by these rules are nevertheless too evocative of widely known and revered protected items to be registered.

Such items include the peerage orders of the Society and such well-known items outside the Society as the Order of the Garter. The House of the Rose and Laurel does not conflict with the Order of the Rose or the Order of the Laurel, but it is too evocative of both to be registered. Similarly, the Award of the Blue Garter is too evocative of the Order of the Garter, whose badge is a blue garter.

This is too close to the Society Peerage order, Order of the Rose, to be registered. (04/1998)

Bleddyn ap Llywelyn. Device. Sable, a wolf's head couped between three decrescents a bordure argent.

This conflicts with Conrad of Northfield Sable, a wolf’s head erased within a bordure argent., with once CD for the addition of the decrescents. (01/1997)

Bodvarr Askasmidr. Device. Or, a pall gules, overall a longship affronty sail furled sable.

This is being returned for being unrecognizable. A longship affrony is unidentifiable. (02/1997)

Bodvarr skipasmidr. Badge. (Fieldless) A drakkar, sails furled sable.

This conflicts with Aran of Old, Earl of Argent, a lymphad sable and Lorne of Old, the Lord of Or, a lymphad sable. In both cases the only difference is the automatic CD for fieldlessness.

Note: this was pended on the April 1998 LoAR (09/1998)

Bogdan din Bra ov. Name.

The name is being returned for lack of documentation for the use of din. While documentation was presented in the LoI for Bogdan as a period Romanian given name and Brasov as period Romanian place, nothing was shown for din. While we might assumed that din was Romanian for from, no evidence to support that assumption was presented in the LoI, and no one in the college presented any supporting evidence. Barring such evidence, the name must be returned.

The armory was registered under the holding name Bogdan of Würm Wald. (01/1999)

Bogdanko Podkova. Device. Argent, a scorpion sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. It is not drawn as a solid object, but rather as a number of disconnected parts. Furthermore, a scorpion has eight legs, not six. If drawn correctly this should be clear of Raymond Crus Hummer (SCA), Argent, a lobster displayed gules. (09/1997)

Bran MacFadin. Device. Per fess gules and azure, a fess argent between four mullets in fess and a massacre Or.

This conflict with the flag of Luxembourg and the flag of the Netherlands Per fess gules and azure, a fess argent. There is only one CD, for the addition of the secondary charges. (01/1997)

Bran MacTrean-Mor. Badge. Lozengy vert and argent, on a sun Or a wolf's head cabossed sable.

This conflicts with Kourost Bernard of the East Woods (SCA), Sable, a sun eclipsed Or., Stefan of Seawood (SCA), Azure, upon a sun Or, an eagle displayed sable., Aodhan Ite an Fhithich (SCA), Plummety sable and argent, on a sun of eight rays Or, a feather bendwise sinister sable., Gillian Elphinstone (SCA), (Fieldless) On a sun Or, a shamrock sable., and Seth the Seeker (SCA), Gules, on a compass star throughout Or a unicorn's head couped at the shoulders sable armed and crined gules., with one CD in each case for change to the field. (07/1997)

Bran MacTrean­Mor. Name.

The form of the byname is documented only from the genealogy of Finn MacCumaill who is generally accepted now to be an aspect of the Celtic God Vindos. Therefore, it is a unique name, and not usable in the SCA. The armory was registered under the holding name Bran of Silver Keep. (07/1997)

Bran Súlderc. Device. Argent, a raven's head erased sable orbed gules.

This conflicts with Holtmar of Wyrhtenatum Barry of eight and per pale Or and gules, an eagleÆs head erased sable. There is a CD for the field, but nothing between two raptorÆs heads. (03/1998)

Bran Torc Dubh Mac Brude. Name and device. Argent, a boar statant sable.

The name is being returned for incorrect structure. While Brude is found in Black's Surnames of Scotland, there is some doubt about it. However, we would have normally given the submitter the benefit of the doubt, and allowed him to use it. However, even if we permit the use of Brude as a name element, we would have to put it into the genitive. Since he allows no changes, we are forced to return the name. Furthermore, while Torc Dubh does mean Black Boar as the submitter states, no documentation was presented for descriptive names of that sort being used in Gaelic names.

The armory conflicts with Dubhghall macEbhearair Argent, a boar sejant sable armed and langued Or. There is only one CD for the change of posture of the boar. (01/1999)

Branwen ferch Emrys. Badge. (Fieldless) A cross fleury gules.

This conflicts with the badge for the Order of Santiago (Fieldless) A cross of Santiago gules., and the badge for the order of Calatrava (Fieldless) A cross of Calatrava gules. In both cases the only difference is the fieldless CD. (11/1998)

Brennan Halfhand. Device. Argent, an eagle stooping and on a bordure vert four oak leaves in cross argent.

This eagle is twisted into a posture which is neither striking (which should have the body angled upwards with the head and feet reaching down) nor stooping (diving downwards), but somewhere in between (literally: it appears to be just pulling out of its dive and starting to rotate its feet to grab the prey, but hasn't completed the motion.) This blurs the distinction between two things considered a CD apart. The specific posture of this bird cannot adequately be described by any standard blazonry term. (05/1998)

Brian Aaron Cameron. Device. Per bend sinister rayonny vert and ermine, in dexter chief a sheaf of arrows inverted argent.

This conflicts with Rannulf of Arrow's Keep Azure vetu, a sheaf of three arrows inverted argent. There is a CD for the change of field, but nothing for position since it is a forced moved since argent arrows cannot overlie ermine. (05/1999)

Brian Brock. Device. Azure, a hand couped sustaining a sheaf of three arrows fesswise reversed within a bordure embattled argent.

This conflicts with the Order of the Gauntlet of Caid Azure, a dexter gauntlet sustaining by the blade a sword fesswise, a bordure embattled argent. We give no difference between a hand and a gauntlet, leaving only one CD for the difference in the sustained charges. (05/1999)

Brian MacFergus. Device. Sable, in fess a compass star Or between two hammers in chevron argent, a bordure embattled Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The embattling on the bordure is so scant as to be barely there. While not in and of itself grounds for return, please ask the submitter when redrawing to please center the compass star and the hammers. (03/1999)

Briana Fallon. Device. Argent, a rose proper, a schnecke issuant from sinister azure.

This question was raised as to whether a schnecke was a charge or a field division. Just as you can have a field gyronny, while a gyron is a charge, you can have a field divided schneckenweise, or a schnecke as a charge. Therefore, this conflicts with Judith the Rose Argent, a damask rose slipped and leaved proper., with one CD for the addition of the schnecke. Note: while blazoned as a damask rose proper, it is in fact gules, and has been reblazoned as such on this month's letter of correction. (10/1998)

Brienus Holebroc. Device. Argent, a pale wavy azure overall a bridge sable.

This conflicts with Jessa of Avondale (SCA), Argent, three pallets wavy azure, overall a bridge throughout sable masoned argent. There is a CD for the number of ordinaries, but a bridge, like a tower, can correctly be drawn masoned without that fact being blazoned, so there is no CD for Jessa's masoning, and there is none for the difference between a bridge and a bridge throughout. (08/1997)

Brigid ingen Loingsigh. Device. Argent, a melusine proper crined vert between three mullets azure.

This is being returned for breaking the rule of contrast. A melusine proper cannot be placed on argent as human flesh was sometimes depicted as argent in period. (06/1998)

Bronwyn Morgan o Aberystwyth. Device change. Lozengy sable and argent, on a bend Or a fleam between two sheaves of arrows all palewise sable.

This is technically in conflict with David of Moorland (SCA), Vert, on a bend Or three Moor's heads couped sable., with only a CD for the field and nothing for change of type only of the tertiaries. The LoI argued that it should be clear of David of Moorland because the sheaves of arrows should be considered groups of seven charges. Unfortunately, visually there are three charges on the bend, not seven, and these two submissions are in conflict. (04/1997)

Bruinneach nic Thighearnain. Device. Per bend sinister gules and sable, a Latin cross flory argent.

This is being returned for conflict against the badge of Stephen de Huyn [Fieldless] A cross of Santiago argent., registered on this letter. There is one CD for change in field, but nothing for the difference between a cross of Santiago and a Latin cross flory.

Since both submissions were from the same month, we followed the strictures from the Board which meant that we had to determine the membership status of the two submitters, since if one was a member and one was not, the member would get priority. As it turned out, both submitters were current members of the SCA. Therefore, the date of the letter of intent became the determining factor. Since the Caid letter was dated before the Western letter, Stephen's submission was registered and Bruinneach's was returned. (09/1996)

Bryn ab Urien Ysgolhaig. Name.

While Bryn is found in Gruffudd's Welsh Personal Names, it is not dated to period as a given name. Absent documentation that this is a period name this must be returned. (03/1999)

Bryn-a-Môr, Canton of. Name and device. Per fess wavy Or and barry wavy azure and Or, in chief three arrows inverted palewise surmounted by a bow fesswise and in base a laurel wreath vert.

This name is being returned for conflicting with the college of Bryn Mawr which is important enough to have its own entry in The Encyclopedia Britannica. Since we do not form holding names for groups, the device must be returned as well. (08/1998)

Bubba Godgodsson. Name.

This is being returned for an incorrect construction. Godgodsson simply isn't an Anglo­Saxon patronymic. The OE patronymic from Godgod would be Godgodes sunu. A very late Old English form would be Godgodes sune or Godgodes sone. Rarely the elements are run together: Tengvik (156) has Algar Godingessone 1066. Indeed, on the same page there is Algar Godebrannesson 1066, which could justify Godgodesson (though the form is quite uncharacteristic and clearly verges on Middle English). Also we have some doubts as to whether a name Godgod actually existed. Reduplication of this sort is almost unheard of in Germanic naming, and it seems likelier that this is simply a scribal error, an instance of dittography, as when one inadvertently writes `on the the table'. However, since the submitted form is not registerable, and the submitter would not allow any changes, we are forced to return the name. (07/1997)

Byran Ciúinchlaidh. Device. Azure, on a saltire argent, a unicorn's head couped wavy gules, a bordure argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The bordure is way to small. Additionally, the drawing of the drawing of the unicorn's head should be corrected; heads should be either couped or erased. (08/1996)

Cadell Blaidd Du. Device. Purpure, a mullet of four points throughout ermine between four mullets of four points argent.

This is being returned for violating the long-standing precedent of using two different sizes of the same charge on the field. (03/1998)

Caedmon of Jorvik. Device. Per pale indented gules and azure, a gryphon rampant Or between two swords argent, a bordure Or.

This is being returned for violating RfS VII.3 Armorial Indentifability, by having the gryphon overlie the indented line of division, when both halves of the field are of the same tincture class. (02/1999)

Caelainn nic Kendrick of Clan MacNaughton. Device. Per bend Or and sable, in bend sinister two callalilies stems issuant from the line of division counter-changed.

This is being returned for lack of name. There is no record of this name being registered. Since all SCA submissions are registered to an SCA name, this must be returned. (04/1997)

Caerthe, Barony of. Badge. Per bend Or and vert, an aspen leaf and a goblet counterchanged.

This is being returned for lack of form. (09/1996)

Caia Snowden. Device. Azure vêtu ployé ermine, a crescent argent.

This conflicts with Morgaine Aelfdryda ferch Cadfael Or, on a pile inverted vert a crescent argent., since Morgaine's could also be blazoned as Per chevron ...., giving only one CD for changes to the field. (03/1998)

Caid Kingdom of. Badge for the Order of Chiron. Azure, a sagittary passant argent.

This conflicts with Sumer Redmaene (SCA) Purpure, a centauress argent crined gules hooved and nippled Or with a wreath of nasturturms proper in her hair., with only one CD for the difference in the field. (04/1997)

Cailin Canace Pryde of Glen More. Name and device. Per saltire vert and Or, two maiden's heads couped and helmeted Or and two oak trees proper.

This name has a number of serious problems, beginning with the forename. In the case of Cailin Math, mentioned in the letter of intent, it was documented as a variant of masculine Cailean; Black s.n. Colin dates it to 1467 as a Gaelic spelling. Even if the lady is willing to use a man's name, this Gaelic spelling can't be combined with the very obviously non-Gaelic remainder of the name. She might consider Colina 1250 (Reaney & Wilson s.n. Collin). Colina Pryde would be eminently registerable.

Canace is very likely only a literary name in our period. It's found in Greek mythology (in a tale told by Ovid) as the name of a daughter of Aiolos (Æolus). The tale was known to Chaucer, but it is not known why he transferred the name to the daughter of a Mongol khan (The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, F. N. Robinson, ed., 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1961, p.718, n.29ff). Given the rarity of double given names even at the end of our period, and given that there's no evidence that Canace was anything but the name of a character in a romance, the combination would violate the rule of two weirdnesses. The changes necessary to fix the name are greater than we feel comfortable making, so we are returning this name. Since the submitter will not take a holding name, we are forced to return the armory as well. (09/1997)

Caínnear an Ruad. Name and device. Gules, on a pale Or between in chief two flames proper, a dragon’s head couped gules, a bordure sable.

The name is being returned for incorrect construction. Gaelic doesn't use an in names. The correct construction should be Caínnear Ruadh or Caínnear Ruad. Since the submitter does not accept changes, the name must be returned.

The armory is being returned for breaking the rule of contrast, (color on color) with a black bordure on a red field. (06/1998)

Cainnear Rúad. Device. Gules, on a pale Or between in chief two flames proper, a dragon's head couped gules.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn the flames are gules, fimbriated Or, which is disallowed. We suggest making the flames entirely Or. (02/1999)

Caíntigern Ainsley. Name change from Gwenhwyvar Ainsley.

This is being returned for combining a fully Gaelic name with an English name. The issue was raised as to whether since the name Ainsley was already registered to her, it was now grandfathered to her. This is a misunderstanding of the Grandfather Clause. The Grandfather Clause does not allow the unrestricted use of an element already registered to someone; see the extensive discussion in the 12/95 return of Roxanne Blackfeather (East). For instance, the various people who have registered armory containing a lightning flash argent on a colored field cannot use the Grandfather Clause to justify registering the badge Or a lightning flash bendwise argent; that would require breaking a rule not broken in the registered armory. This lady's registered name, Gwenhwyvar Ainsley, does not break the prohibition against combining the incompatible Gaelic and English orthographies, so it does not give her the right to break that rule under the Grandfather Clause.

The Gaelic masculine name Ceanntighern is pronounced almost identically (to the English ear) and was frequently Englished Kentigern in 16th c. Scotland (Black, s.n. Kentigern); Kentigern Ainsley would be a very good 16th c. Scottish name, albeit masculine. Peadar Morgan, s.n. Caointeorn (a modern Scots Gaelic spelling of the feminine name), gives Kentigerna as the Englishing; we don t know whether the feminine name is actually still in use, but we see no problem with registering Kentigerna Ainsley as at least a reasonable hypothetical 16th c. feminine Scottish name. (10/1996)

Caintigern of Ainsley. Device change. Vert, semy of bells Or, a cat sejant gardant argent spotted of various tinctures.

The use of multi colored spots appear to be unique to the heraldic panther in period. Just as we do no longer allow the use of unicorn horns on random animals, neither do we allow the use of variously tinctured spots. (03/1998)

Caíntigern of Ainsley. Name change from Gwenhwyvar Ainsley.

This combines Gaelic and English orthography in the same name. An argument was made that the lingua angelica rule should apply to topographic bynames. If "Ainsley" is a reasonable place name in English, the result is as registerable as, say "Caítigern of Dublin", would be. Unfortunately, the lingua angelica rule does not work that way. The relevant passage in the rules comes at the end of RfS III.1.a (Linguistic Consistency): `In the case of place names and other name elements frequently used in English in their original form, an English article or preposition may be used. For example, of Aachen might be used instead of the purely German von Aachen.' This submission does not meet that standard. The letter of intent asked the college for information on a last name that sounds like "Ainsley" that she could use as a byname. Unfortunately, as far as we can tell no one has come up with anything. We repeat the plea in the LoI, if anyone has any ideas, if they would please send it to either Crescent or myself, that would be helpful. As was said in the previous return, Kentigerna Ainsley is a registerable Anglicized spelling of the name. (08/1997)

Caitilín Ó Sèaghdha. Name and device. Per chevron gules and argent, two roses and a hydra counterchanged.

The name is incorrectly constructed in that the accents are going the wrong way and the patronymic needs to be feminized. The correct form of this name would be Caitilín ingheah uí Sheaghdha. However, it conflicts with the already registered Caitlin ni Sheaghdha.

The device conflicts with Gwendolyn Dylwen Llywelyn Per chevron throughout gules and argent, two swans close respectant and a dragon passant counterchanged., and Jonathan Harbour Per chevron gules and argent, two roses slipped and leaved and a tower counterchanged. In both cases there is not substantial difference in all the primary charges.

Additionally the roses were not correctly drawn. They appear closest to the banned rosebud. (12/1998)

Caitlin Angharad FitzHenry. Badge. (Fieldless) A pheon gules.

On the East Kingdom 10/96 Caitlin Angharad FitzHenry submitted (Fieldless) A pheon gules. Caitlin's badge was pended for a possible conflict with the English Royal badge A pheon. After consulting with the college on this issue, and reading the commentary, we have decided to protect the English badge. (08/1997)

Caitlin Davidson. Device. Per saltire vert and sable, a saltire argent, overall a rose argent barbed vert.

This is being returned for unidentifability. The argent rose overlapping the argent saltire makes the saltire unidentifiable. Making either the rose or the saltire Or would take care of this problem. (02/1999)

Caitrin of Appin. Name.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. No name submission forms were received. (11/1997)

Caitríona inghean Ghiolla Phádraig. Device. Argent, a fret couped, on a chief azure a hound courant argent.

As drawn this is not clearly per fess, or field a chief, but rather something halfway between. Therefore, this must be returned for a redraw. (04/1998)

Caitriona ni Shuileabhain Mhor. Device. Vert, a stag trippant and on a chief dovetailed Or, three Celtic crosses purpure.

This is being returned for a redraw. While we sympathize with the West Kingdom's feelings on just instructing the submitter to draw it correctly in the future, the full sized emblazon was so badly done that we feel we must return this. (04/1997)

Caitríona nighean Fhearghuis. Name

Unfortunately this conflicts with the already registered Catriona Fergusson. The rules say under V.1.a:

"Difference of Name Phrases - Two name phrases are considered significantly different if they differ significantly in sound and appearance. Name phrases that are not significantly different are said to be equivalent.

Variant spellings of the same word or name, no matter how radical, are not considered significantly different unless there is also a significant difference in pronunciation. Low German Flaschenträger could be spelled vlaschendreyger in 1430, but the pronunciation was essentially the same, so vlaschendreyger and Flaschenträger are equivalent. Such variant spellings may be registered where appropriate but do not make the name different. Examples and further restrictions for different types of name phrase are given below. [Emphasis mine].

However, section ii.a goes on to say:

"Bynames of Relationship ­ Two bynames of relationship are significantly different if the natures of the relationships or the objects of the relationships are significantly different.

Smythwyf is significantly different from Smithson because the nature of the relationship is significantly changed; it is significantly different from Tomwyf because the object of the relationship has been changed (from Smith to Tom). Mac Thorcuill `son of Thorcull' is equivalent to Nic Thorcuill `daughter of Thorcull', and Richards is equivalent to Richard and to Richardson; in each case the sound is insufficiently different. Hobson is significantly different from Robertson, however, because Hob and Robert differ significantly in sound and appearance and are not being used in given names.

Therefore, since the nature of the relationship and the names are not significantly different, this name must be returned. The armory was registered under the holding name of Caitríona of Dreiburgen. (06/1997)

Callum Lamond. Device. Per chevron azure and argent, two irises slipped and leaved and a cross potent, a bordure embattled counterchanged argent and gules.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn it is not clear what kind of flower it is, except that it is clearly not an iris. (03/1999)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Calon Lily. Purpure, a fleur-de-lys a bordure Or.

This is being returned for conflict with Laurencia du Fond (SCA) Purpure, a fleur-de-lys and a bordure wavy Or. There is one CD, for the difference is the line of division on the bordure. (10/1996)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Falcon's Heart. [Fieldless] A falcon close, maintaining a cross of Calatrava Or.

This is being returned for multiple conflicts with Anne Gaverel d Avesor (SCA), Sable, a peregrine falcon close belled and jessed Or, orbed gules, maintaining in dexter foot a fountain, Sabgia Gunnhild Hunang (SCA), Gules, a Celtic hawk statant close reguardant Or, and John of Ravenwolf (SCA), Sable, a raven speaking Or, beaked and membered argent. In each case there is but one CD, for the field (or lack thereof). (10/1996)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Badge. Per pale argent and purpure, two cranes in their vigilance counterchanged.

This is being returned for conflict with Arline of Rycroft (SCA) Per pale argent and purpure, two owls close respecting each other counterchanged. There is a CD for the difference in type between owls and cranes, but not substantial difference between the types of birds as required by RfS X.2. (10/1996)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Badge. Purpure, on a pale Or, three hawk's lure purpure.

This is being returned for conflict with Selena d Ambra (SCA), Purpure, on a pale Or a feather azure. There is one CD for changes to the tertiaries. (10/1996)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Name and badge for Order of the Bretwalda. Azure fretty Or, a sword proper.

The name is being returned for several reasons. It is in violation of RfS III.2.b.ii. Names of Order and Awards requires that "Names of order and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards." There is no evidence for a name such as Order of the Warlord. Furthermore, the name is presumptuous. Bretwalda does not mean "warlord", The meaning of the term is "ruler of the Britons" or "ruler of Britain", so it is a fairly exact Old English parallel to the Roman dux Brittaniarum and Bede's Brettonum dux. The term was applied to various kings who held (or were supposed to have held) authority over other, lesser kings.

The device is being returned for conflict with Eadric Hararand (SCA ), Azure, fretty Or, a hare salient argent. The fret is the primary charge here, so the only change is the type of the secondary. (10/1996)

Calontir, Kingdom of. Name for Keeper of the Flame of Calontir.

This is being returned for non-period-style. No one in the College could find a period exemplar for a name in this type. (10/1996)

Camille de Saint Michel. Device. Vert, a doe lodged and a chief rayonny Or.

This is being returned for conflict with Outlands, Kingdom of. Badge for the Order of the Promise of the Outlands. Vert, a fawn lodged guardant within a bordure embattled Or. RfS X.4.e. points out that "the edge partition line of a charge is part of its type, the change from "a pale wavy" to "a pale embattled" is one clear difference. Changing from "a pale wavy" to "a fess embattled" is also one change of type, not a change of type plus a change of edge partition." Thus, we have only 1 CD for the change from bordure embattled to chief rayonny. (07/1996)

Caoilfhionn inghean Chaomhánaigh. Device. Vert, on a fess argent a hammered dulcimer gules.

This conflicts with Johanna Dudley (SCA), Vert, on a fess argent two saltorels throughout, each surmounted with a Celtic cross, all sable. There is only one CD, for the changes to the tertiary charges. (01/1997)

Carillion, Barony of. Badge. (Fieldless) A bell Or.

This conflicts with the badge for The Crier of An Tir, as cited in the LoI (Fieldless) A handbell Or. We give no difference between a handbell and the church bell submitted here. (03/1999)

Carol Jane Ravenridge. Device. Lozengy argent and vert, a fess sable.

This conflicts with Botswana Bleu celeste, a fess sable fimbriated argent., and Estonia Per fess azure and argent, a fess sable. In each case there is just one CD for the field. (03/1998)

Carolus Richard de Bois. Device. Sable, a bend sinister between four dolphins naiant argent.

This is technically in conflict with Bruno de Bresti (SCA), Sable, a bend sinister cotissed between a bear paw fesswise contourney and a bear paw fesswise argent. Since we consider cotises to be secondaries, there is only CD for type of secondaries. (07/1996)

Caron Caleb. Device. Per pall inverted gules, azure and Or, two increscents Or and another azure.

This is being returned for a redraw. As draw it is not clearly Per pall inverted gules, azure and Or.... or Per pale gules and azure, two increscent and on a point pointed..., but rather something halfway inbetween. Since one of the purposes of heraldry is identification, it must be drawn clearly one way or the other. (06/1998)

Carreg y Blaidd, Canton of. Name.

This is being returned for lack of a petition. Names and devices for official SCA groups must show evidence of support from the group. (01/1998)

Cassandra of the Western Green. Badge. Argent, a sprig of honeysuckle bendwise gules, slipped and leaved, within a wreath vert, ribboned argent.

This was blazoned on the LoI as a wreath vert, ribboned argent. Were this in fact a wreath or torse we would consider registering it based on its being found in the arms of Ringenbert in the Zurich Wappenrolle. As drawn, however, the field is entirely within the wreath. As an eccentric bordure this is an improbable extrapolation of a unique and eccentric charge, placing it beyond the limits of registrability. (04/1998)

Castelleone, Shire of. Name and device. Azure, a winged lion sejant Or collared azure between three suns in splendor on a chief Or two Laurel wreaths vert.

This is being returned for conflict with the kingdom of Castile­Leon. Vincent, Mary, and R. A. Stradling, Cultural Atlas of Spain and Portugal, NY, NY, Facts on File, 1994, page 46, caption: "This particular manuscript was made by a scribe called Facundus in 1047 for King Fernando I and Queen Sancha of Castile­Leon..." Most of Spain, outside of Aragon, Catalunã, Navarre, Galicia, and Granada, was known by that name; it is still a recognized province of the kingdom, along with Castile La Mancha (pg. 202 of the same book). Since we do not form holding names for groups, the device is being returned as well. (09/1997)

Catalina d'Oro. Change of name from Catalina d'Orieux.

Lacking period evidence for unmarked patronymics in Italian, this should be di Doro or just plain Oro ­ but as the submitter allows no changes this must be returned. (09/1997)

Catalina Giacomusica. Name and device. Argent, a winged cat sejant sable and a bordure rayonny purpure.

The name is being returned for incorrect construction. The byname was glossed as being a constructive surname from elements Giacomo and Musica. However, Giacomazzi and Giacomuzzi are not compounds; they are elaborations of Giacomi. This type of construction needs documentation.

The armory is being returned for a redraw. The wings on the cat, while not clearly any specific kind of wings, are closest to butterfly wings. We have not allowed butterfly wings (except on butterflies) since 1983. (05/1999)

Catelin atte Redfethere. Device. Per bend sinister sable and argent, three swords in bend sinister bendwise sinister proper and three swords in bend sinister bendwise sinister inverted gules hilted sable, between a phoenix Or and a feather bendwise sinister gules.

This is being returned for violating our ban on slot-machine heraldry (three or more different charges in the same charge group). The swords lie as if they were on a bend sinister, and if this were the case the phoenix and the feather would be secondary charges. There is, however, in fact no bend sinister, making it difficult to interpret how the charge groupings lie. They can all be taken as one big primary group of three different types, or the swords can be taken as the primary group with the phoenix and feather as secondaries. However, this submission is so far from period style because of the ambiguity of how the charges are arranged. Therefore this is being returned for slot machine and non-period style. (01/1998)

Catelin Cowan. Device. Or, a heart gules surmounted and pierced by a needle bendwise sable.

This is being returned for two reasons. Although as required by the rules the needle has good contrast with the field, it lies mostly on the heart, with which it does not have good contrast. In addition, it isn't accurately described by the blazon, since the needle pierces the heart twice, and no one could come up with a way to describe this heraldicly. (02/1997)

Caterina Ruzzini. Badge. Gules, three Catharine wheels Or.

This conflicts with the badge of Katherine Roel, added to our protected list this month, who was better known by the name she bore during her first marriage, Katharine Swynford.

This was pended from the January 1998 LoAR. (05/1998)

Caterine Barré de Venoix. Device. Barry azure and Or, a Catherine's wheel gules.

This conflicts with Iathus of Scara (SCA) Ermine, a cog wheel gules., with just one CD for the field. On the October 1995 LoAR (Fieldless) A Catherine's wheel gules. was returned for conflict against Iathus. (01/1998)

Catherine Delacroix. Badge. (Fieldless) Four ankhs conjoined in cross Or.

This conflicts with Launcelot de Westwood Azure, a cross botonny fitchy Or., with one for fieldlessness, but nothing for type since the fitching of the cross is worth nothing and this cross is about halfway between a cross-crosslet and a cross bottony, which itself is actually just a fossilized difference in blazon for poorly drawn examples of the cross crosslet. If an ankhs was used in period armory we might have ruled differently, but since it is not a period charge, it loses the benefit of the doubt. (05/1998)

Catherine Elisabeth Stewart. Device. Sable, a portcullis issuant from chief argent, in base two cats sejant addorsed forepaw raised Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The animals in base are not clearly cats or any other animal. (08/1998)

Catherine of Gordonhall. Badge. Purpure, a bat-winged calico cat sejant guardant contourny proper, winged Or.

Calico cats come in a variety of different patterns and color combinations, so there is no way to accurately reproduce this emblazon. (02/1997)

Cathleen McCollom. Device. Per pale sable and gules, a pall inverted bretessed argent.

This conflicts with the Barony of Twin Moons Azure, a pall inverted bretessed argent. There is only one CD for the change of the field. (01/1999)

Cathlin Sommerfield. Badge. (Fieldless) A pomegranate sable slipped, leaved, and seeded Or.

As drawn this conflicts with Allaine de Beamont of Glastonbury (Fieldless) A pomegranate slipped and leaved Or., since in Cathlin's depiction of the pomegranate, the slipping and leaving is so significant, it is more than one half Or, so there is no difference for tincture. (09/1998)

Catlin O'Connor. Device. Argent chaussé ployé azure, an iris purpure bearded Or slipped and leaved vert.

This conflicts with Azure, on a pile ploye argent, a hummingbird rising, wings elevated and addorsed vert (Eleanora Valentina Beota, 5/87). Both pieces of armory can be regarded as charged piles, leaving one CD for the difference in the tertiaries. (04/1998)

Catrin Skynith of Mam Cymru. Device. Sable, a unicorn's head erased to sinister, a chief embattled argent.

This conflicts with Lindret of Bryn Myrddin (SCA) Quarterly azure and gules, a unicorn's head couped to sinister and a chief dovetailed argent., with one CD for changes to the field, and with Kathryn Fitzroy of Bath (SCA) Sable, a unicorn’s head couped reversed argent, entwined about the alicorne a serpent, head to sinister, gules., with one CD for the addition of the chief, but nothing for the serpent which is effectively a maintained charge. (12/1997)

Catrina of Cawdor. Name.

This conflicts with the already registered Catherine of Cawdor. The given names are too close to each other to register them both.

The armory was registered under the holding name Catrina of the Outlands. (11/1998)

Catriona Stiubhard. Device. Per pale embowed counterembowed argent and sable, two natural dolphins naiant in annulo counterchanged.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn the embowing-counterembowing is barely noticeable. It needs to be far more pronounced. (10/1998)

Caverns Gate, Shire of. Name.

This name does not follow period English naming practices. Smith's English Place-Name Elements has no entry for either cave or cavern; apparently they were not used in English place-naming (until modern times, at any rate). Moreover, gate is not normally modified by words describing what lies on the far side of the gate, and the possessive is unusual as well. Ekwall notes North and South Cave in Yorkshire (Cava c.1120, Suthkave 1246), which he thinks may be from OE caf `quick, prompt, nimble', perhaps an older name of the stream now called Mires Beck on which they lie. In Yorkshire the place-name element -gate is often from ON gata `a way, path, road, etc.' rather than from OE geat `a gate, a way through a wall or ditch, a pass in the hills, a deep ravine', and it is often combined with the name of a place to which the road led. Cavegate is a perfectly reasonable name for a road leading to these places. (02/1997)

Caversgate, Shire of. Badge Sable, a gate within and conjoined to a stone archway Or.

Since we do not form holding names for groups, this must be returned. However, even if the group name had been registered, this would have to be returned for conflict with William of Hoghton (SCA) Sable, two towers joined by a bridge Or., and Arenvald Kief af Kiersted (SCA) Sable, a Thor's hammer pendant from the lintel of a dolmen Or. In both cases there is a CD for type of architecture, but only a CD. This is in accordance with standing precedent that in many cases, "architecture is architecture":

[Returning Azure, a Doric colonnaded portico within a laurel wreath argent.] "Conflict with ... Azure, a house argent, and a number of others, Azure, a (temple, church, etc.) argent. In each case there is only once CD for the addition of the laurel wreath. As several commenters said if we do not give a CD between even radically different types of ships, we should not do so among various types of buildings. Further, the type of [the] 'house' is completely unspecified. As we do not grant a CD between a generic bird and any other specific bird, we cannot see granting difference between a generic house (building) and any other type of house (building). "(Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR April 1994). (12/1997)

Caversgate, Shire of. Name and device. Sable, a gate within and conjoined to a stone archway all within a laurel wreath Or.

This is being returned for lack of a petition. Submissions for a group name and/or group arms must be accompanied by a petition showing support for the submission. (12/1997)

Ceannselaigh ni Laoghaire. Name.

No evidence was presented and none could be found for Ceannselaigh as a given name. Without such evidence, the name must be returned, since every registered SCA name must contain a given name. (02/1998)

Ceara ingen an Fear-fearainn. Name.

According to the LoI the byname was intended to be Irish meaning "daughter of the landholder/landed farmer. However, while there are some Gaelic bynames formed from occupations, there are very few, and none are of this type. Barring documentation that occupational bynames were formed from occupations of this type, this must be returned. (10/1998)

Cecil Dupont. Name.

This is being returned for administrative reasons. We received no paperwork for this submission. (04/1999)

Cecil the Silent. Device. Sable semy of swords inverted, a quill pen bendwise argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn we could not tell if the charges were swords, daggers, crosses or a counter­ermine field. While Laurel cannot commit to registration, it is likely that if this were redrawn with 8 to 10 swords, which were significantly bigger then this would be registerable. (07/1997)

Cecily de Kenton. Device. Per bend sinister crusily flory counter-crusily flory azure and Or.

This device has two problems, either of which, in and of itself, is grounds for return. First, this is an invented field division, based on the model of flory-counterflory. Unfortunately we have been able to find but a single example of flory-counterflory being used in period armory. A line of division based on an exemplar that was used but a single time in period armory, is too far from period practice to be registered in the SCA.

Secondly, this submission is being returned for unidentifiability. The line of division is unidentifiable from any distance. (05/1998)

Cecily of Whitehaven. Device. Per fess wavy argent and barry wavy azure and argent, in chief three wyverns statant gules.

This is being returned for a redraw. This sort of wavy ordinary, with the waves opposed instead of parallel (``wavy bretessed'' instead of ``wavy-counter-wavy''), was returned on the LoAR of Dec 91 as a non-period depiction., and a number of times since then. (03/1998)

Cedric Steinhauser. Badge transfer from Atalaya la Sanodora. Sable, a bear salient to sinister Or.

While there was a letter in the packet signed by Atalaya la Sanodora transferring the badge to Cedric Steinhauser, there was nothing showing acceptance by of the badge by Cedric. Barring such documentation, we are forced to return the transfer. (02/1998)

Celeste Cathan. Alternate name of Judwiga Czarny Yagello ze Smokza Jamy.

There are several problems with the name as submitted. Yagello ze Smokza Jamy is not what was registered on the 2/96 LoAR; the penultimate word should be Smocza. (The difference is extremely significant to the pronunciation.) But this is also fairly minor; the real problems come with the main part of the name.

The LoI says that Judwiga is a variant of Jadwiga but offers no evidence for it. That Czarny "black" can be a surname is no surprise; what it is in Czarny Niemierza is completely unclear. Taszyckiego shows that Niemierza is a man's forename, so Czarny Niemierza may just be "Black Niemierza". This hypothesis is strengthened by information in Taszyckiego's articles on several names containing Czarna or Czarny. S.n. Czarna Matysowa there are citations for both Czarna Matissowa 1442 and Sworcz Mathissowey (gen.) 1450; in the latter, Sworcz is a variant spelling of German schwarz "black". S.n. Czarna Hanuszkowa there are citations (in oblique cases) for Anne Czarna Hanuszkowa 1485 and Anne, relicte olim Czarni Hanussek 'Anna, relict of the former Czarny Hanuschek 1486; s.n. Czarny Hanuszek we find the name in the nominative case: Anna, relicta olim Czarny Hanussek 1489. S.n. Czarny Stanislaw we find Katherina, uxor Stanislai dicti Czarni Stanislaw "Katherina, wife of Stanislaw called Black Stanislaw" 1454-56. S.n. Czarny, Petrus Czarni 1483 is also in record as Petr[us] Nigro "Black Peter". S.n. Czarna Janowa we find Generosa Heduigis olim Czarna Janowa "Noble Hedwig then Czarna Janowa" 1492. In all of these cases it appears that the woman has been given a byname combining her husband's forename and his epithet czarny "black". There is one person noted (s.nn. Czarna, Czarna Jordanowa) who seems to be known only as Czarna 1483 or as Czarna Iordanowa 1483; here the original byname may possibly be functioning as a forename, but we still have no evidence for the double forename.

There seem to be two possibilities for incorporating Czarna in this name, but both require that the name be modified a bit. We do now have evidence for the use of masculine Czarny as a proposed epithet, so it would be just one relatively small step beyond the evidence to allow Czarna Jadwiga "Black Hedwig". (I believe that when the name was first submitted, the lady was willing to consider this possibility.) Alternatively, one might try to modify Czarna Yagello to follow the documented pattern of such feminine bynames as Czarna Hanuszkowa and Czarna Matissowa. This would require showing that Yagello can be interpreted as a masculine forename, and it would further require making out of it a feminine adjectival byname, probably in -owa. We have not found Jage{l/}{l/}owa (to give the name its standard modern spelling). Moreover, Jagie{l/}{l/}o is best known as a family name and is not native Polish to begin with; nevertheless Taszyckiego shows quite a few different surnames derived from it and seems to indicate that it was a forename, so Yagellowa may well be a possible form. If so, Czarna Yagellowa would appear to be a possible byname for the wife or widow of "Black Yagello".

While the submitter did permit changes, given that there were several options open to the submitter, we felt that it would be better to return the name and let her choose what she wanted. (11/1996)

Celeste Dougherty. Device. Per bend sinister vert and azure, a goat rampant argent, maintaining in its forehooves a lyre Or.

This conflicts with Etaoin of Lough Gara (SCA) Lozengy Or and azure, a sheep salient maintaining a drop spindle, threaded of its own wool, argent., with but one CD for the field. Please instruct the submitter if she resubmits with a lyre to draw a more standard one, or present documentation that the one she used here is a period lyre. (08/1997)

Celric McVain. Name.

This name combines OE given name with an Anglicized version of a Gaelic name surname. The combination of the disparity in time and location of these two names make the name too unlikely to be registered. The armory was registered under the holding name Celric of Marinus. (03/1997)

Ceridwen of Esterfen. Device. Argent, on a bend gules a cat sejant affronty palewise argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. In a departure from the norm, the bend is far too wide. (09/1997)

Chateau de Normandy, Shire of. Name and device. Per fess purpure and sable, two wingless seawyverns erect Or maintaining between them a laurel wreath argent.

This is being returned for several reasons. First, this combines two designators, Shire and Chateau. Barring documentation of such a combination, it must be returned. Second, if we drop the word Chateau this conflicts with Normandy, which is important enough to protect. Finally, the construction itself doesn't work. A name of Chateau/Castle was virtually always combined with a personal name not a place name. Since we do not form holding names for groups, the armory must be returned as well. (04/1998)

Chen Yung Ho. Household name for House Finis Terrae

Submitted as House Terrae Finis, we have put the household name in the more typical word order. However, even as it was originally submitted, it conflicts with Finisterre, the western tip of Brittany, the western most part of France. (01/1998)

Chiara Genevieve d'Anjou. Name.

While a French/Italian name is registerable, no documentation was presented to show that Chiara was a given name used by humans in our period, nor could anyone in the College provide any. Without such documentation, we have no choice, but to return the name. (04/1997)

Chrétienne Angèle de Courtenay. Household name and badge for Domus Solaris. Per fess argent and sable, a sun eclipsed of the field counterchanged and in base three mullets of eight points argent.

The name is being returned for conflict with the Solar Herald of Atenveldt. Both the designator Domus and the designator Herald are transparent, and the name of an SCA group does not count for different, leaving Solar versus Solaris, which is a conflict. The armory is being returned for violating the "sword and dagger rule". The "mullets of eight points" are drawn, and should be blazoned, as compass stars. And while suns and compass stars are blazonably different charges, the difference here is insignificant. "There's ...no difference between suns and multi-pointed mullets --- which includes compass stars." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR June 1993, p. 18) As a consequence, this falls afoul of the ban on "different but similar" charges on the field precedents. ([In chief a patriarchal cross and in base three Latin crosses] "The consensus among the commenters was fairly strong that this violates the ban on using two variants of a single charge type in a single group of charges (the `sword/dagger' rule)." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR July 1994, p. 10) "If two charges are artistically distinct, but heraldically identical, they should not be used in the same armory. The reason for this is the raison d'etre of heraldry: instant identification. When the eye first sees a design such as, say, Sable, two lions and a Bengal tiger Or, it will be fooled for a moment into seeing three lions, or three tigers. There'll be a moment of confusion until the eye sorts out the almost-but-not-quite-identical charges ...and that confusion is exactly what we try to avoid. The charges, be it noted, need not be in a single group for confusion to arise. Sable, a sword between three daggers argent will suffer the same lack of ready identifiability, despite the sword being primary and the daggers being secondary. Nor need the charges necessarily be `artistic variants' of one another, although that is the most common application of the rule: any two charges that are visually indistinct may run afoul of this policy (for instance, Sable, in pale a horseshoe and a torc Or). In general, if there's a CD of difference between the charges, the `sword-dagger' ruling won't apply; less than that, and one takes one's chances. (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, Cover Letter with the September 1993 LoAR, p. 5) (04/1997)

Chriemhilt von Regensburg. Device. Per fess wavy argent and sable, a mushroom counterchanged gules and argent a bordure compony vert and Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn the mushroom is counterchanged over the line of division in such a way to make the wavy line unidentifiable. (08/1997)

Christall Gordon. Household name for Aggregation of Kith.

This is being returned for non period style. Just because, as the LoI states, the "component pieces appear to be period" does not mean that Aggregation of Kith follow "the patterns of period names of organized groups of people", as required by the Rules for Submissions, III.2.b.iv. It is true that the LoI documents the words as having been used in period, but not in the matter specified in RFS III.2.b.iv.

The LoI notes the Society of Friends, dated to 1648, which is within our grey area, so suggests that therefore Aggregation of Kith is registerable. However, names from the grey area are permissible for use when there is a strong likelihood that they could have first been used prior to 1600, but were not recorded until afterwards (though prior to 1650). In the case of the Society of Friends it is well know when they came into existence, so it is not a period model. (03/1999)

Christiana Ann Steen. Device. Quarterly azure and counterermine, a tyger rampant reguardant Or.

This conflicts with Gareth of Moore (SCA) Ermine, a tyger rampant Or langued, orbed and armed gules grasping in both forepaws a sword in scabbard inverted vert hilted belted and chaped gules. There is one CD for the fields, but nothing for the maintained sword or for turning the head on the tyger. (12/1997)

Christiana de Avochelie. Device. Argent, a stone sable and on a bordure azure six crosses fleury argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. While a rock, which is a period charge, is unidentifiable, as drawn this one was. Putting in some shading or details would help the situation. (12/1998)

Christiana Rowena Yonge. Device. Argent, on a chief indented vert, three suns Or.

Blazoned as Argent, three piles palewise on a chief vert three suns in glory in chief Or, everyone attending the Laurel meeting, upon seeing the emblazon, saw it as Per fess indented vert and argent, in chief three suns Or. Therefore, this is in conflict with Eowyn Rebekah of Windhaven, Per chevron sable and chevronelly Or and gules, in chief three suns Or. There is only one CD, for the change to the field. (03/1997)

Christina de Avochelie. Household name for Domus Amicorum.

This is being returned for non-period style. No documentation was presented to show that this follows the pattern of period household names. Possible models include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart). (05/1999)

Christine O'Neill of Cork. Badge. (Fieldless) A plate within a leather looped belt, buckled and knotted gules.

This is being returned for unidentifiability. This blazon will not reliably produce this picture. This is really a looped belt gules with the interior region argent. The use of a red belt is not a problem in and of itself as squire is not a rank, and the red belt is not reserved. (01/1998)

Christlarra Fayreclought. Name.

Christlarra was formed by changing the ending of the name Christler to a feminine form. Since Christler is a surname, it is not useable as a given name in the SCA. (02/1997)

Christoff Eldridge. Device. Per saltire Or and vert, a fox passant contourny maintaining a sword argent and a bordure counterchanged.

This is being returned for a redraw. The fox as drawn was not clearly black or white; the opinion of the meeting was just about divided half and half. Also, while not a cause for return, it would be better if the sword were in a standard heraldic position, eg, held straight up. (12/1996)

Christopher of York. Device. Counter­ermine, a Bengal tiger head caboshed "orange" marked sable, a bordure ermine.

This is being returned for not using a standard heraldic tincture. While blazoned on the LoI as a Bengal head proper, the head was not Or, but orange. On the 3/97 cover letter, it was rules that we would no longer register Bengal tiger's proper, e.g. orange. Therefore, we are forced to return this submission. (08/1997)

Christopher Thomas. Badge. (Fieldless) A muffin cap purpure.

This is being returned for lack of documentation. We can find no indication that a "muffin cap" has ever been registered before in the SCA. As a consequence, this would be the defining instance of the charge. Previous Laurel Sovereigns of Arms have held new charges to the same standard of documentation and have return them for lacking it, c.f. a winch (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR 9/92, p. 42), a Mongol helm (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR 12/92, p. 15), a zalktis (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR 1/93, p. 28) and a Viking tent arch (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR 5/94, p17). (08/1997)

Chrysagon Grey. Name and device. Argent, a unicorn rampant, on a chief sable three decrescents argent.

The given name was not documented in that spelling; it was documented only as Chrysogon (female) and Grisigion (male). Withycombe says that the forename suddenly appeared in England in the 16th c. She gives six forms of the name, two with initial Chr and four with initial Gr. In addition Bardsley, s.n. Jenner, has Gresagon 1598. This strongly suggests that the normal pronunciation was with initial G, the Ch in some spellings being etymological rather than phonetic. (The name is from Greek khrysógonos, usually rendered Chrysogonos.) This suspicion is further strengthened by the fact that the same person c.1550 appears both as Grisigon and as Chrysogon; the first presumably shows the actual pronunciation, while the second exhibits the writer's knowledge of the source of the name. For this reason the difference in pronunciation between the etymologically correct o and the unstressed neutral vowel spelled a, e, and i in the more or less phonetic versions seems to irrelevant: the o probably isn't intended to represent the sound in the first place, any more than the gh in English knight is now intended to represent any sound. We would accept Grisagon or Grysagon as a possible spelling of the vernacular pronunciation, but the few Ch spellings that we have all show a knowledge of the Greek original and are presumably learned spellings. In such a spelling it seems moderately unlikely that the writer would get the accented vowel of the Greek name wrong, and we are loath to accept Chrysagon without better evidence than we have. Chrysogon would obviously be fine, of course. Since the submitter will not accept any changes, and will not accept a holding name, we are forced to return the name and the device. (02/1997)

Ciannan Airith. Device. Vert, a chevron between three tygers passant Or.

While the LoI states that the name was submitted in April 1998, we have no record of this name, and this would have to be returned for lack of a name. Furthermore, this conflicts with Penelope of the Quill, Vert, a chevron between two hawk's bells and a quill pen Or. There is only one CD, for the change to the type of the secondary charges. (12/1998)

Ciar Teaghlaich Tuaigh Reul. Change of name from Ceridwen of Connachta and change of device. Argent a winged and antlered brown hare rampant proper.

The submitter wanted Ceridwen of House Staraxe in Gaelic. The byname is incorrectly formed. The relevant entry on p. 976 of Dwelly is for tuagh `hatchet, axe', of which tuaigh is the genitive singular; tuaighe `farm bull' is irrelevant. Reul `star' has a variant reult that is probably older, judging by the discussion in the CDIL s.v. rétla; both appear in a variety of compounds. A similar compound `star-axe' would presumably take the form reultthuagh. (And if the compound is thought of as `axe of the star', it should be tuagh na réilt.) Teaghlaich is actually the genitive singular of teaghlach `line, family, house'. This is an appropriate word for `house' in the sense of `lineage', but in period usage it would be followed by the name of the progenitor of the line in the genitive case. Teaghlach Dhonnchadha, for example, would be the `line of Donnchadh'. Gaelic lineages, clans, kin, etc. were always named after a person. However, even if Teaghlach Reultthuaigh were a well-formed lineage name, there is no evidence of such a name being used as a byname. We are returning the device for improper use of brown. While you can have a brown rabbit, since rabbits are found to be brown in nature, no evidence has been presented for winged rabbits in any color, let alone brown. (02/1997)

Ciarán Blackrune. Name.

This name has two problems. First, it combines Gaelic and English orthography in the same name which we do not permit. More importantly, while the LoI documented the use of Black as a place-name element, no evidence was presented, and none could be found for rune used with any color name elements. Barring such documentation, the name must be returned. (01/1999)

Ciaran Mac Darragh. Household name for Wolf Keep.

While this name is technically clear of House of Wolf's Keep, every one who commented on it felt that it was too close, and the two names would be confused. Therefore we are returning this for violating RfS V. "Names may not be too similar to the names of others, as is required by General Principle 3a of these rules. Names need to be distinguished from each other both in their written form and when heard in announcements. " (12/1998)

Ciarán mac Gabhann. Device. Sable, a cross crosslet fitchy argent.

This conflicts with Steffan yr Ysgolhaig Sable, a cross crosslet fitchy azure, fimbriated argent, with just one CD for the tincture of the cross, and with the badge for Sigenoth the Blissful Per pale sable and vert, a Latin cross bottony argent, and the badge for Sigenoth's household Maison de la Croix Blanche, Quarterly sable and vert, a cross bottony argent, both registered January, 1998. By long standing precedent, there is not difference between a cross botonny and a cross crosslet, leaving but one CD in each case for the difference in the field. (06/1998)

Ciaran MacDarragh. Badge. Sable estencelly, on the trunk of an oak tree eradicated argent a wolf couchant reguardant sable.

This is being returned because with the wolf on the trunk of the oak tree, the wolf becomes unidentifiable and the tree trunk must be distorted so much that it makes the tree look highly unusual. The submitter could consider having a wolf surmount the trunk of the tree. This motif is quite common in some areas of Europe during our period and underused in the SCA. (01/1999)

Cicely Garland. Device. Vert, a musical note Or within a garland of daisies proper.

This is being returned for lack of documentation of the musical note. According to the PicDic, 2nd ed., # 520, "A musical note is a written symbol, indicating pitch and duration to the performer. It is commonly represented as a lozenge or an ovoid roundel with a vertical stem at one end." "The 'musical note' here is not a period form, but a modern (post-period) one. This one neither matches the semiminim note in the Pictorial Dictionary (a lozenge shape with a vertical line from the sinister corner; this version has been superseded by newer research) nor the form the newer research has shown (a lozenge shape with a vertical line from the top corner). As with the various forms of pens, in SCA heraldry the period form is the one that should be used. (See RfS VII.3., 'Artifacts that were known in the period and domain of the Society may be registered in armory, provided they are depicted in their period forms. A pen, for instance, must be depicted as a quill pen or other period form, not a fountain pen. A wheel must be depicted as a wagon wheel, not a rubber tire from an automobile.')" (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR April 1996, p. 19) (03/1998)

Clement of Morocco. Device. Sable, a demi-sun issuant from chief Or charged with a rose proper.

This was an appeal of a kingdom return for conflict with Stafngrimr of Agaricus Sable, on a demi-sun issuant from base Or, a phoenix issuant from base gules. The submitter feels that in addition to getting a CD for changing the position from base to chief, he should get a CD for change of type of the tertiary. However, a demi-sun is too complex for voiding and so change of type of tertiary is not sufficient to get a CD. In addition, this is not a demi-sun, though we would probably not give any difference for it versus a demi-sun so the conflict still stands.

Since it is not a demi-sun, but appears to be a chief embowed to base and indented, this presents another fatal flaw. Precedent [December 1992 LOAR, p.20] bans the use of two different complex lines on the same charge with 'very rare exceptions'. In addition, if considered as a chief instead of a demi-sun, this conflicts with Amanda Morgan Sable, on a chief indented Or, in canton a decrescent sable. There is a CD for the tertiaries, but nothing between the two peripheral charges. (06/1998)

Cluanaidh de Craeg Dhubh. Appeal of Laurel and Kingdom level name changes.

This was an appeal of grammatical changes made at Kingdom and Laurel. The appeal ran as follows:

Item 1: Clunaidh This was changed at Kingdom level to Clunaich.

Even if one was to change it to the documented Irish form found on p. 468 of Patrick Wolfe's Irish Names & Surnames it would have been Clunaigh being that phonetically the gh and the dh endings in this case would both have the long y (ee) phoneticalization. See pp. XLII-XLVI table of the values of Irish letters, ibid., p. 84 sec.4 Aspiration of An Comunn Gaidhealach Gaidhlig Bheo (vol one unit 1-8), and pp. 1-4 of Teach Yourself Gaelic by Roderick Mackinnon (all attached). In that both consonants are aspirated due to the slender vowel (i) it is in contact with. It would seem to fit that there is no difference in usage save one is Irish and the other Scottish Gaelic. I proposed that the given name Clunaich be reinstated to the client's original Clunaidh on these grounds.

Item 2: Creag Dhubh This was changed at Laurel level to Creagdhubh.

It was stated that the "Normanization of the locative was due to the preposition de' in the LOAR. We believe that this was done in error due to the following.

Minor grammatical changes in our opinion ( mine and the client's) would not include changing language structure from one culture to the other whilst not complying with either grammatical structure. When it was "joined" the pronunciation would have changed as from Creag Dhubh (craig ov) to Creagdubh (craigdoov) being that the d following a broad vowel, but not in contact, would not be aspirated (in Scots Gael). A Norman would have spelled it as he heard it Craigof (or Craigough). Either case was not used.

The locative Creag Dhubh ( craig ov ) is mentioned as a site near Bannochburn and also in Islay. Although De in most forms in period Scottish names was a normanized form, "de" as the preposition "of" was and still is used now in Scots Gaelic. See pp. 222,315 of Teach Yourself Gaelic by Roderick Mackinnon ( attached). Therefore the premise that the name had to be Normanized is invalid. I proposed that the Byname Creagdhubh be reinstated to the client's original Creag Dhubh on this ground.

In explanation of our decision, we can do no better than to quote Fause Lozenge:

Item 1 shows that the appellant doesn't understand the difference between the nominative case, used in a forename, and the genitive case, used in a patronymic. It is immaterial whether final gh and dh have the same pronunciation (which in the modern language, at least, they do); the given name is Cluanach, as Woulfe clearly says, and the ch has a sound completely different from that of dh or gh. (And in any case Scots Gaelic doesn't freely substitute dh for gh in such genitives, though it may have -aich where Irish would use -aigh.) Registering Cluanaidh as a given name would be roughly equivalent to registering Brian'z as a given name; in this analogy Cluanaigh would correspond to Brian's.

Item 2 depends partly on the mistaken notion that the dubh was aspirated in the original submission; it apparently was not, and the change made by Laurel therefore did not in fact entail any change in the pronunciation. Moreover, Room, s.n. Craigdoo, notes a place in Donegal whose Irish and English names are respectively Creag Dubh and Craigdoo. Although creag is feminine, and Gaelic adjectives are normally aspirated when qualifying a noun in the nominative case, it's clear both from the Irish and from the phonetic English version that in this case it didn't happen and that a phonetic transcription by Anglo-Normans might well have kept the d. (To be fair, (Darton, 93) gives Creag Dhubh for a couple of places in Scotland; evidently both forms are possible.) Much of the discussion is also based on modern Gaelic pronunciation. In fact the initial dh of dhubh was a much stronger sound in Norman times than it is today: between the 11th and 13th c. it was changing from the sound of th in then to the voiced version of ch in German ach, a sound that we might represent by the digraph gh (Thurneysen, 77).

There is indeed a Gaelic preposition de meaning `of', but so far no one has shown that it was used to form locative surnames. The only exceptions that we've seen so far are Hibernicized versions of Norman surnames with the French preposition de, like de Béalatún for Anglo-French de Beletune (Woulfe, s.n. de Béalatún), and a very few names similarly formed from Irish place-names. (Woulfe describes de Gallbhaile, from the village of An Gallbhaile, as `one of the small group of surnames formed after the Norman fashion from Irish place-names'.) As I noted in my original commentary, two examples are particularly instructive: de Corbhaile and de Dromgúl. The first is formed in the Norman fashion from Corvalley, itself an Englishing of Irish Cor an Bhealaigh `bend of the road', and the second is from Anglo-Norman de Drumgole `of Druimgabhail'. These examples show that even in the rare cases in which Irish locative surnames were formed in this fashion from originally Irish place-names, they were generally formed from Anglo-French versions of those names and not directly. I suspect that the Anglo-Norman intermediate form would have been something like de Creggdow; I really don't know enough to be comfortable trying to guess what this would have become after being re-Hibernicized, but de Creagdubh actually seems about as reasonable as anything.

The only non-adjectival locatives that I've seen whose structure is unmistakable are early examples with the place-name in the genitive and no preposition; in this case the result would I think be Cluanach Creige Duibhe.

In summary, Clunaidh is absolutely impossible. The locative de Creag Dhubh as a purely Gaelic locative is also impossible, since de would aspirate the noun to Chreag; moreover, I've found no evidence for its use in bynames apart from the imitations of Anglo-Norman practice. The registered form of the byname is at least a somewhat plausible guess at what such an imitation would look like for the place-name in question. Therefore I cannot support any part of the appeal, though I would register Cluanach Creige Duibhe as a purely Irish form.

Based on Fause Louzege's reasoning, we are returning the appeal. (07/1996)

Colin Campbell. Name.

This conflicts with Sir Colin Campbell of Crimean War and Sepoy Mutiny (among others) fame. The armory was registered under the holding name Colin of Shattered Crystal. (02/1998)

Colin Tyndall de ffrayser. Device. Gules, a phoenix within a double tressure Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The tressure is far too thin, too thin for an instruction to the submitter to redraw the tressure. A possible conflict was called with Bogdan Borodets (SCA), Gules, a Russian firebird displayed Or, crested and its six tail-feathers each charged with a heart, all azure. Since this was returned for a redraw, that issue was not addressed. (09/1996)

Colin Tyndall de ffrayser. Badge. (Fieldless) A dragon segreant sable crowned Or, maintaining a pennoncelle per pale sable and gules charged with a cinquefoil Or.

This conflicts with the badge of Eric of Dragonslaire A dragon salient sable breathing flames gules. There is no difference for the posture, nor for the insignificant flames nor the maintained banner, leaving only the one CD for the absent field. Furthermore, charged banners are checked for conflict against already registered armory. The banner conflicts with the badge of Caid for the Legion of Courtesy (Fieldless) A rose Or barbed and seeded vert. (05/1999)

Colin Tyndall de ffrayser. Badge. Per pale sable and gules, a cinquefoil Or.

This conflicts with a badge of Caid (Fieldless) A rose Or barbed and seeded vert. with one CD for fieldlessness. (05/1999)

Collette Ewartburgh. Device. Or, in pale three estoiles azure two and one and a sheep statant sable, all between flaunches indented vert.

This is being returned for breaking the rule of tincture. While the sheep were blazoned on the LoI as sable, as colored they were a medium grey that could just as easily be blazoned argent. Since we register the pictures not the words, this must be returned for insufficient contrast. If they were colored a true sable, that problem would be eliminated. (09/1997)

Collette Ewartburgh. Device. Or, three estoiles, two and one, azure and a lamb statant sable, between flaunches indented vert.

This is being returned for a redraw. The indented flaunches need to have the indents drawn larger and with fewer of them. When drawing complex lines of division, the "bumpity" parts should be drawn big and bold. (09/1996)

Colorado, State of. Arms. Per fess: gules, a range of mountains sable capped argent; and Or, a pickaxe and hammer crossed in saltire proper.

No evidence was presented for these being the state's arms versus their seal. (05/1999)

Conal Ó hAirt. Device. Gyronny arrondi of six argent and gules, a winged wolf sable maintaining a sword inverted proper.

This is being returned for breaking the rule of tincture by having the primarily argent sword mostly on an argent gyron. While maintained charges can have low contrast, they must have some contrast. (12/1998)

Conal ó hAirt. Device. Gyronny arrondi of six argent and gules, in dexter chief a hart sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. As Master Bruce as Laurel said in his 3/93 cover letter "Parker, p.301, states that gyronny of six should be symmetric around the horizontal axis, not the vertical axis; and this is borne out by such period examples as I've been able to uncover." (09/1996)

Conall Ruádh mag Fhionnain. Device. Argent, a snake erect contourny gules and in dexter chief a martlet sable.

This is being returned for conflict against Robert de la Tor-Fraisse (SCA) Argent, a sea-serpent haurient reguardant gules. There is one CD for the addition of the martlet. (09/1996)

Conall Ruadh Mag Fhionnain. Device. Per pale argent and azure, two serpents glissant respectant, conjoined at the snout and belly, counterchanged gules and Or.

This is being returned for violating RfS VII.7.b by being in an unblazonable position. The submitted blazon does not accurately reproduce this emblazon, and no one in the college was able to come up with an acceptable blazon that could. (05/1998)

Conan Hawkwood. Device. Gules, two hawks rising wings elevated and addorsed, and on a point pointed argent a Latin cross sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn, it is halfway between a per chevron field division, and field, a point pointed. Note: if was considered "Per chevron gules and argent. . ." it would be in conflict with George of Mousehole (SCA) Per chevron gules and argent, two old men's heads affronty, couped at the shoulders argent, and a Cornish chough rising, wings addorsed proper., with 1 CD for changing the type of the primary charge group. X.2 (Complete difference of charge does not apply) since RfS X.2 requires "the type of every primary charge is substantially changed", and there is not complete difference of charge between a hawk and a Cornish chough. (08/1997)

Connal MacTier. Badge. (Fieldless) A daisy proper.

This is in conflict with badge of the Emperor of Japan Dark, a sixteen-petalled chrysanthemum light, and Wander Riordan (SCA), (Fieldless) A gillyflower argent., with only one CD, in each case, for fieldlessness. (03/1997)

Connar Mac Lean. Name.

Returned for conflict with Conor MacLean and Connor MacLean (two separate SCA registrations). The device was registered under the holding name Connor of Drei Eichen. (10/1996)

Connor Alexander Maxwell. Device. Argent, a compass star within and conjoined to an annulet between two dragons salient respectant, wings close, azure.

This is being returned for a redraw. As the dragons are drawn they are not really salient, in fact they are not in any real defined heraldic position. Furthermore, with their wings downs down like this and being so cramped in the sides of the shield, the dragons are more difficult to recognize as dragons than they should be. (02/1998)

Connor Graham. Device. Per chevron gules and vert, in chief an increscent, a roundel, and a decrescent conjoined in fess argent, and in base a stag's head cabossed Or.

This is being returned for several reasons. First, this breaks our rule on slot machine with three different types charges (a crescent, a roundel and a stag's head) in the same group. Secondly, it is being returned for unidentifiability because of the drawing of the stag's head. Because it has no internal details, it is quite difficult to make out what it is. Third, the conjoining of the increscent, roundel and decrescent are distinctly non period. While we will reluctantly register the arrangement of an increscent, roundel and decrescent if they aren't conjoined, the conjoining makes them unidentifiable as well as non­period. (09/1997)

Connor MacLiam. Name.

This is being returned for not being a period form. There is no real evidence for Liam as a period name. He might consider an English form of Mac Uilliam (e.g., M'Eleam, M'Quillim), Mag Uillic (e.g., M'Gilleg), Mac Uilcín (e.g., M'Cwlkine), Mac Uileagóid (e.g., M'Killegode), Mac Uilliméid (e.g., M'Ullemet, M'Collimet), or Mag Uilcín (e.g., M'Gillkine); the first is from William, the next seems to be from an Irish diminutive Uillecc, and the rest are from the English diminutives Wilkin, Wilecot, Willemet, and Wilkin again. (All are from Woulfe, and the forms are late 16th or early 17th c.). The device was registered under the holding name Connor of Sunderoak. (12/1996)

Connor Makinzie. Name.

This conflicts with Connor MacKenzie, registered 10/98. (04/1999)

Connor Michael Maoll Donas. Name.

There are several problems with this name. The first is the fact that the Gaelic­speaking cultures do not seem to have used double given names. Another is the mixture of Gaelic and non­Gaelic orthographic systems: Connor is an English form of Conchobhar, and Ó Corráin & Maguire give the Irish borrowing of Michael as Míchél (early) and Mícheál (late), while the byname is clearly intended to be Gaelic. A less obvious problem is that the byname is improperly constructed. We have not seen any evidence that would lead us to think that a construction such as Mac Donas or Maoll Donas would have been used as a byname in period. The Maoll X names are confined to use with given names (presumably of saints) or words for other positive religious figures (e.g., God). And while there is a subset of given names formed from Mac+<abstract concept> the construction of these is not well enough understood to project hypothetical additions. While the form Connor Michael, is registerable, it is too far from what was submitted to register it without the submitter's approval. (07/1997)

Conrad Abelord. Badge. (Fieldless) A cross formy sable

This conflicts with Dorothea of Caer Myrddin Argent, a cross patty sable., with one CD for fieldlessness, and with the protected badge of the Teutonic Order: (Fieldless) A Latin cross formy sable fimbriated argent., with nothing for the fimbriation, so again the only CD is for fieldlessness. (01/1999)

Constanzia Maria Morales Enzina d'Zamora. Name and device. Gules, a cross clechy and on a chief argent three crescents sable.

Arana de Love, pg. 160, under Constancia, lists Constanza as the daughter of Alfonzo VIII of Castile. While we have not seen the spelling variation Constanzia, but the pronunciation is about the same as the documented Constancia, and Talan's index to Melcón lists both Garzia/Garcia and Sancio/Sanzio/ Sanxo, so we are willing to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt.

Morales seems to be a place name; the Catalogo lists it both as a surname and as a place name (a Simon Perez was a native of Morales). The surname usually includes de (i.e., Catalina de Morales, #606) but sometimes is written without it (i.e., Beatriz Morales, #4298). Talan's index only lists Enzina as a given name; I could not find the name in either Melcón or the Catalogo (although the latter does list Encinas as a place name).

The Catalogo lists Zamora as a place name. The use of d' is incorrect; the form would be de Zamora.

The primary problem with the name is the form: <given name> <given name> <locative> <given name> <locative>. A quick survey of the first 4000 names (A­C) in the sixth volume of the Catalogo (dating around 1580), shows of those names, 5 had possibly four elements, and none had five. Of those five names, two (María Alvarez de Sotomayor de Quiroga and Pedro Gonzalez de Baeza de los Hermanos) are probably actually of the form <given name> <patronymic> <compound locative>. One other (Diego de Peralta Cabeza de Vaca) is probably of the form <given name> <locative> <compound locative> as Cabeza de Vaca is independently listed as a place name (in volume IV). The other two use the modern y formation: Diego García de Montalvo y Colindra and Miguel Jeronimo de Mendoza y Arquillada.

As for the name, if she wants a late period name, Constanza María Morales y de Zamora probably is the closest form to her name that matches documented forms. For a late period name we would not expect to see the variants Maria and Constanzia. For an earlier period name, the best would probably be either Constanz(i)a de Morales or Constanz(i)a de Zamora.

However since she will not take any changes, we are forced to return the name. Since she will not accept a holding name, we are forced to return the device as well. (10/1997)

Coombe Phoenix, Shire of. Name and device. Sable, a phoenix within a laurel wreath, in chief three trees Or.

This is being returned for non-period construction. The use of coombe in otherwise-English place names is acceptable, since it is found in such names as Combwich, Combwell, Comhampton, Compton, Combrook, and presumably Coombe Hill, assuming that this isn't a reanalysis of some other element; all of which refer to the second element as being situated in a coombe. The use of coombe with an ownership element (indicating either the family owning it, or a nearby town it is associated with) can have the element follow or precede, as in: Combe Raleigh, Combe Hay, Combe Royal -- all of which have the owner following; or Abbas Combe, English Combe (from a personal name, not the adjective "English", according to Ekwall), Castle Combe -- with the owner preceding. We presume that the Coombe Fishacre in Devonshire is associated with the town of Fishacre, also in that shire (see Reaney & Wilson's entry for Fishacre). Combeinteignhead, as Ekwall notes, is simply identifying the location of this particular coombe (in Tenhide).

There are actually very few examples where an ordinary adjective or noun is used to modify coombe -- Ekwall's North Coombe and South Coombe fall in this category, and perhaps Castle Coombe, depending on how one interprets it. But these all have the modifier first and the modifiers are quite ordinary topography-related terms. Based on these patterns, Coombe Phoenix would be plausible as a period English placename only if Phoenix were either a period English family name, the name of an existing town, village, or structure, or a period English topographic term. The evidence that medieval English people were familiar with the legendary phoenix is not relevant unless one can demonstrate a pattern that they named places after legendary monsters. There are cultures where such a pattern might be demonstrated -- Germany seems to be fairly prone to such things -- but not for England. The example of Compton Scorpion is not an example of this, but rather an example of the habit of re-interpreting unfamiliar archaic name elements. Ekwall shows period citations of this place name as Compton Scorfen 1279, Compton Scorefen 1316. (Unfortunately Speed's 1611 atlas fails to provide an end-of-period example, unless the location is identical with his Fenny Compton.) The name has nothing to do with scorpions and very much to do with boggy ground. Therefore, barring evidence that Phoenix was used in English place-names, or at least that mythological animals were used, it cannot be used in English in SCA group names. (03/1998)

Cordell Drumroe. Badge. Purpure, on a lozenge concave throughout between four ermine spots tails to center, in saltire Or, an owl affronty gules charged with an ermine spot Or.

While blazoned on the LoI as Or vêtu ploye purpure, four ermine spots ends to center in saltire Or, an owl gules charged with an ermine spot Or., it is really as blazoned above. Therefore, this is being returned four layers (field, lozenge, owl and ermine spot). It cannot be as it was blazoned, as we do not charge vêtu, chapé or chaussé. The use of single ermine spots in various orientations precludes blazoning this as any type of fur. (03/1998)

Cormac an Tosk. Name.

The LoI states that Tosk is the Gaelic word for tusk. No documentation was found to support that spelling. Dwelly gives tosg. 'tusk' but this is almost certainly a borrowing from English, and is probably modern. The early Irish for "tooth" is fíacail. However, we thought that this was too big a change to make without the submitter's consent. The device was registered under the holding name Cormac of Peregrine Springs. (10/1996)

Cormac Longstrider. Device. Gyronny azure and argent, an open book argent bound sable.

An argent book on an gyronny azure and argent field does not have sufficient contrast with the field. The effective fimbriation of the book by the sable binding is not sufficient to solve this problem. (10/1998)

Cormac O’Gadhra. Device. Vert, three drinking horns palewise and on a chief argent, a lion passant gules.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn this is neither field a chief, nor per fess. (05/1998)

Cormac Tobin. Name and device. Vert, a winged dexter foot contourny bendwise, a bordure embattled argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn it is not in any recognizable heraldic position. A normal foot has the sole horizontal; the overall angle of this one is closer to bendwise, but the angle of the toes and ankle is entirely wrong for that posture. This falls afoul of RfS VII.7.b. (Reconstruction Requirement): "Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon. Any element used in Society armory must be describable in standard heraldic terms so that a competent heraldic artist can reproduce the armory solely from the blazon. Elements that cannot be described in such a way that the depiction of the armory will remain consistent may not be used...." (02/1999)

Corwin de Harfleur. Badge. Azure, five annulets interlaced in saltire argent.

This conflicts with Bowen (important non­SCA badge) (Tinctureless) a Bowen knot., with one CD for the change to the field. (07/1997)

Corwyn de Wemyss. Device change. Per pale vert and azure, a dragon passant contourny Or.

Conflict with Steffan of Dragon's Lair (SCA) Per pale embattled azure and Or masoned sable, in chief a dragon passant to sinister Or. By current precedent there is on CD for changes to the field. (06/28/1996)

Cosmo Craven the Elder. Device. Per fess sable and gules, a skeletal hand fesswise argent and a mallet inverted Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn the hand is halfway between a hand and a cubit arm, blurring the distinction between them. It must be clearly one or the other. (03/1999)

Coste Nord, Canton of. Name and device. Azure, two narwhales haurient embowed respectant, horns in saltire, in base a laurel wreath, a chief wavy argent.

This is conflict with Côtes-du-Nord, the name for one of the regions in the NW of France. It has its own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica, and is thereby important enough to protect. Since we do not form holding names for groups. we must return the device as well. (01/1997)

Cragston-on-the-Water, Canton of. Badge. (Fieldless) A trout naiant Or impaled upon a spear sable.

Since we returned the group name, we are forced to return the badge as well. (08/1997)

Cragston­on­the­Water, Canton of. Name and device. Or, on a fess wavy cotised between three laurel wreaths azure a trout naiant Or.

Unfortunately, while a reasonable attempt was made to justify this spelling, it is not a correct construction. We quote Fause Losenge on the problem:;

Smith, English Place­Name Elements, s.v. tún has a long discussion of the kinds of first elements with which it is combined. Most are incompatible with the s. One category that offers at least some hope is personal names, either OE or ON. I was unable to find any OE names that would plausibly produce anything close to Cragston. Fellows Jensen discusses the ON names Krákr and Krókr, both originally bynames. The latter actually produced English place­names of the desired type, e.g., Crocestone in Domesday Book, now Croxton in Lincolnshire (and so recorded in 1196), and Crokesby c.1280 in Yorkwhire West Riding. Kráki occurs only in a Domesday Book byname for Grimbold Crac, but from this we may infer a hypothetical Cracestone, later Craxton. Another possibility is post­Conquest personal names. Smith gives several examples; in some cases a forename was used (e.g., Bryanston, from Brian de Insula 1232; Gerston, from Girardus, the tenant in 1086), while in others it was a byname (e.g., Flamston, from Walter Flambard 1202). But in all cases the tenant's name shows definite French influence. It's doubtful whether someone like Henry Crag 1204 (Reaney & Wilson s.n. Crag) could plausibly have given his byname to any place as its tenant.

Other possible sources of first elements are older Celtic place­names and older English place­names. The latter is unlikely, since cragge doesn't seem to appear until ME times. In other words, it's unlikely to have been an earlier place­name, since it apparently isn't old enough. The first possibility is actually realized in the modern place­name Creighton, which contains Welsh craig, Old Welsh *creic `a rock, a cliff'. According to Ekwall, this was Cracton 1242. Other place­names derived from this source also show [k] rather than [g], and I see no way to get the s.

Finally, nearby topographical features, especially fords, sometimes figure as first element in ­tun names. It's not clear whether crag(ge) is early enough for such a construction to be plausible, but even with the benefit of the doubt it won't produce Cragston: in all of the cited examples, the feature appears in the nominative singular. In principle one could get Crag(ge)ton, though it would be normal for this to undergo assimilation and become either Crak(e)ton or Cragdon.

To sum up, I don't see a plausible derivation of Cragston. Craxton is easy and is phonetically closer than any other reasonable variant. There are also arguments for Cragdon. In addition to the one just given, it could be a compound of ME cragge and doun `a hill, an expanse of open hill country'. Other plausible forms are further yet from Cragston.

I found (s.n. Fryston) that Water Fryston was recorded as Fryston juxta aquam `Fryston by the water' in 1428. The well­known Weston super Mare was so recorded in 1349. Weston upon Avon was Weston super Abonam 1291; Weston under Lizard (near Lizard Hill) was Weston under Lusyerd 14th c.; and Weston Underwood was Weston Underwode 1301. Kingston upon Hull was Kyngeston super Hul 1299. Allerton Bywater appears so as early as 1257, and Thorpe by Water was Thorpbythewatir 1459.

It appears that in medieval records, even quite late ones, the Latin prepositions are most common, though we do have here some examples of under. Smith s.v. on says that upon is a modern English replacement for on, which often interchanges with Latin super. It appears, then, that on is fine, though I have so far not found a period instance of this particular English preposition. Smith s.v. wæter indicate that as an affix this idea is commonly rendered in period documents by the Latin juxta aquam. His examples indicate that the most common modern expression of it is the prefix Water, as in Water Fryston and Water Fulford (Waterfulforth 1285). It is also expressed by the phrase by (the) water, represented by Allerton Bywater and Rhorpe by Water; these (with Water Fulford) are the only places for which I've found period forms containing an English Water affix. Finally, assuming that modern affixes of this type are for the most part at most minor modifications of period ones, it is reassuring to find him mentioning Bourton on the Water in Gloucestershire.

From this it appears that on the Water should be entirely acceptable; by the Water has the virtue of having (apart from minor orthographical differences) an actual period exemplar; juxta aquam might be the most common documentary form; and a prefixed Water might be most representative of vernacular usage, if we judge by the distribution of modern forms. There seems to be no support for the hyphens, however; they should be dropped. Craxton (or Cragdon) on the Water would be fine. (So would Craxton Bywater, Craxton by the Water, Watercraxton, etc.)

Since we do not form holding names for groups, we are forced to return the armory as well. (08/1997)

Craig of the White Cliffs. Household Name for Dover Keep

Dover has its own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica, which is included in Appendix E of the Administrative Handbook, and thereby is protected. (07/1996)

Créd MacLeod. Name.

This name combines Gaelic and English orthography in the same name, which is against our rules. There is no clear English form of the given, and we cannot make the byname Gaelic, since the submitter allows no changes to the byname, so we have no choice but to return this. (11/1998)

Cristeane Regan MacNab. Device. Per chevron checky sable and argent and gules, in base a unicorn rampant argent collared and fettered of a broken chain Or.

This conflicts with Janusch der Wasserman Azure maily Or, a unicorn salient argent., registered January, 1998. There is a CD for the field, but Cristeane's unicorn's placement is forced by the field, and therefore gives no difference. (05/1998)

Cristobal Alvarez. Device. Per bend sinister argent and sable, in chief a heart fracted gules and in base three daggers inverted Or.

This conflicts with Elden the True Per bend sinister argent and sable, a Latin cross clechy gules and three swords inverted Or. There is a CD for the change in type from cross to heart. We give no difference between swords and daggers. (08/1998)

Cristopharus filius Phillippi. Device. Quarterly gules and bendy sinister vert and Or, on a lozenge azure fimbriated argent a chalice Or.

This is being returned for breaking the rule of contrast. While the lozenge is blazoned as fimbriated, the fimbriation of the lozenge is so narrow to be almost invisible. Since it is not clear, we are forced to returned this for color-on-color. (12/1997)

Crystal Crags, Shire of. Device. Vert, a three-peaked mountain couped within a laurel wreath argent and in chief two mullets Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. These are not a three peaked mountain couped, nor any heraldic charge. While not grounds for return, the mullets should be bigger. (03/1998)

Crystal Crags, Shire of. Device. Vert, in base a mountain of three peaks with a laurel wreath overall counterchanged and in chief two mullets of five points Or.

This is being returned for lack of petition of support. However, even if there had been a petition we would have had to return this for the laurel wreath counterchanged over the mountain. The only time we permit a charge to be counterchanged over another is when they are both ordinaries. (12/1998)

Crystyna Hyrundo. Badge. (Fieldless) A drinking horn fesswise reversed sable, garnished and strung Or.

It is not possible to come up with a blazon that would accurately reproduce this picture. The number of different blazons offered by the College is indicative of this problem. Therefore this violates VII.7.b. Reconstruction Requirement ­ Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon. (03/1997)

Cu Dub Mac Artuir. Household name for Militargesellschaft des Schwartzen Schwertes Aus Borland.

The household name means is `Military Fellowship of the Black Sword from Borland. Barring some evidence of a period model for a name such as this, and none of the commenter could provide one, this must be returned for non-period style. (07/1996)

Cynric y Tarianlas ap Moran ap Cadog. Name and device. Vert, a sword inverted Or on a chief argent three hurts.

This combines Old English, Welsh and Irish in the same name which, barring evidence of such combinations in period, is too unlikely to be registered. According to the LoI, the submitter really wants the given name Camrik. Fause Losenge offers this suggestion:

If he doesn't mind changing the rest of the name completely, I can offer a more or less reasonable justification for a Continental Germanic Camric. Morlet (I:102) has a handful of dithematic names with prototheme Gam­, probably a shortened form of Gamal­ or Gaman­, both of which occasionally appear with initial C or K. The deuterotheme ­ricus is of course common, though it isn't attested with any of these protothemes; Gamric is as reasonable as any unattested form with a rare prototheme, and Camric is clearly within the range of variation.

The device conflicts with Tómas Youngerson (SCA), Vert, a sword inverted or, on a chief wavy argent three golpes., there is a CD for changing the line of division of the chief but nothing for changing only the tincture of the tertiary charges. (08/1997)

Cyranleah of Ravenscroft. Name.

The name Crynaleah is a place name, not a given name, and is therefore not acceptable as a given name. Cyranleah, barring scribal error, is in fact most easily interpreted as `Cyra's leah', i.e., `Cyra's wood or clearing'. We know of no OE prototheme particularly close to Cyr- or Cyran-, and -leah is not an OE deuterotheme. The best we can offer for the prototheme is Cyne-; for the deuterotheme there are -lac, which would make the name masculine, -leofu and -lufu, which would make it feminine, and -laf, almost unique in OE in being used for both sexes. There is also a masculine deuterotheme -heah, as in Cyneheah. The device was registered under the name Lisa of Ravenscroft. (01/1997)

Daibhidh MacRaibert. Name and device. Per pale sable and gules, in pale two natural dolphins that in chief naiant contourny argent that in base naiant inverted Or and two swords in chevron inverted argent.

The name is being returned for incorrect construction. While the LoI says: "Daibhidh MacRaibert: this is the form that was suggested by Laurel in the return of the original name submission, David de Robertson", this is incorrect. The form suggested in the LoI was Daibhidh MacRaibeirt. Since no documentation was presented for the variant form, and the submitter would not take any changes, this must be returned.

The armory is being returned for a redraw. The dolphins are not in annulo, but with one naiant and one inverted. We do not allow inverted animate charges in SCA heraldry except when in recognized orientation, such as in annulo. (02/1999)

Dálkr Hálftroll Snjolfsson. Badge. Or, a horse's skull gules between flaunches sable.

This is a resubmission of the same badge which was returned November 1997 for a redraw because the horse's skull was unidentifiable. Unfortunately, it was the overwhelming conclusion of both the college and the people attending the roadshow where this was discussed that this is still unidentifiable, carefully drawn as it is. This compels us to the conclusion that the horse’s skull does not have such clearly distinguishing features as to make it acceptably identifiable for heraldic use. The human skull used in Society and mundane heraldry is a clearly defined charge as immediately identifiable as a bend or a sword. (Consider how instantly children who have never taken an anatomy course identify it at Halloween!) The Society has extended definitions of skulls to certain beasts where there are secondary characteristics that clearly identify the type of head whence the skull derived. For instance, the ram’s skull is identified by its distinctive horns, as are the elk’s skull, the bull’s skull, the deer’s skull, etc. The few exceptions to that rule occurred almost twenty years ago, before standards for identifiability were so clearly defined. Even so, the major exception, the wolf’s skull registered to Vargskol Halfblood passed in the confusion of the great Heraldicon of 1979, the source of many of the most solecistic items we see in the Armorial today. In judging this, we have to ask what features uniquely identify a horse’s head from any other head and ask how clearly those transfer when the soft tissue is removed. Unfortunately, almost all of the features, except the length of the upper jaw, disappear entirely when head becomes skull. Therefore, the skull is not identifiable. (05/1998)

Dálkr Hálftroll Snjolfsson. Device resubmission. Sable, a horse's skull affronty Or, flaunches argent estencely gules.

This is a resubmission of the same device which was returned November 1997 for a redraw because the horse's skull was unidentifiable. Unfortunately, it was the overwhelming conclusion of both the college and the people attending the roadshow where this was discussed that this is still unidentifiable, carefully drawn as it is. This compels us to the conclusion that the horse’s skull does not have such clearly distinguishing features as to make it acceptably identifiable for heraldic use. The human skull used in Society and mundane heraldry is a clearly defined charge as immediately identifiable as a bend or a sword. (Consider how instantly children who have never taken an anatomy course identify it at Halloween!) The Society has extended definitions of skulls to certain beasts where there are secondary characteristics that clearly identify the type of head whence the skull derived. For instance, the ram’s skull is identified by its distinctive horns, as are the elk’s skull, the bull’s skull, the deer’s skull, etc. The few exceptions to that rule occurred almost twenty years ago, before standards for identifiability were so clearly defined. Even so, the major exception, the wolf’s skull registered to Vargskol Halfblood passed in the confusion of the great Heraldicon of 1979, the source of many of the most solecistic items we see in the Armorial today. In judging this, we have to ask what features uniquely identify a horse’s head from any other head and ask how clearly those transfer when the soft tissue is removed. Unfortunately, almost all of the features, except the length of the upper jaw, disappear entirely when head becomes skull. Therefore, the skull is not identifiable. (05/1998)

Dálkr Hálftroll Snjolfsson. Device. Sable, a horse skull affronty Or, flaunches argent estencely gules.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn, the horse's skull is virtually unidentifiable. (11/1997)

Damhnait Uniacke. Name.

This name combine English and Gaelic orthography in the same name which has been against our rules for the last three years.

The armory was registered under the holding name Damhnait of the Cleftlands. (04/1998)

Damietta di Carnevale. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for the given name. The LoI tried to construct Damietta as an Italian variant of the French name Damia. While they did show examples of the formation of Italian names ending -etta from names ending -ia, no evidence was shown that Damia was a given name in Italy. This is relevant since Damietta is in fact a well-known geographic name, used both for a branch of the Nile and for an ancient town on that branch almost a hundred miles north of Cairo. Therefore, barring documentation of Damia as a period given name in Italy, we are forced to return this name. (05/1998)

Damyana Luisa Jacinta Abril. Device. Vert, a cow rampant argent pied sable.

This was an appeal of a kingdom return for conflict with Willow de Wisp Vert, a bull passant argent, pied gules, armed and unguled sable, horns tipped argent. The submitter feels that we should give a CD for change of tincture of half the charge, by the pied on the cow.

However, pied is not a heraldic charge division nor is it a recognized field treatment. It is certainly not reproducible in any consistent way (as required by RFS VII.7.b for armorial elements.) While we may allow it as an artistic detail, we do not give any difference for it. This is a conflict with Willow de Wisp Vert, a bull passant argent, pied gules, armed and unguled sable, horns tipped argent, as cited in the LOI. (06/1998)

Daniel of Glamis. Device. Purpure, on an escallop inverted argent a candle sable.

This is in conflict with Jerome L'Ami Du Chat (SCA) Sable, on an escallop inverted argent a domestic cat rampant sable., with one CD for changes to the field, and nothing for change of type only of the tertiary. (04/1997)

Daniel Theoson of Mightrinwood. Transfer and acceptance of the registered device of Theo of Mightrinwood. Purpure, a sun of eight wavy rays sable, fimbriated Or.

Daniel is the legal son of Theo of Mightrinwood, who died in the last year. He used his position as executor of the estate to register his name. Normally we would not have registered it without a written statement of permission, since it violates our rules on presumption. However, since he is Theo's son and executor of the estate we permitted it. But, granting him the armory is a different case.

We already have a mechanism whereby armory can be inherited through the use of a heraldic will. But, in this case no heraldic will was submitted to the College of Arms. And, inheriting armory is different from presumption.

In the case of presumption, if Count Theo has a other children, they too could use his name in a similar fashion to the way Daniel has, but only one could use the undifferenced arms.

Furthermore, no proof was given, outside of a statement in the LoI, that Daniel is Theo's only heir, and executor of the estate. Given such documentation, we would consider transferring the armory to him. Absence such documentation, we would be willing to register armory to Daniel that was one CD away from Theo's. (04/1999)

Dargon Aarwald. Name.

This is being returned because Dargon can only be documented as a surname in period. (09/1996)

Daria of Stormhaven. Device. Argent, a fess embowed between three lightning bolts in pile and a cloud purpure.

This is being returned for administrative reasons. No mini-emblazon was included on the LoI. (10/1998)

Daria of Stormhaven. Device. Argent, a fess embowed to base between three lightning bolts in pile and a cloud purpure.

This is being returned for breaking our rule of two weirdnessess. The first is the fess embowed to base. While fesses were embowed in period armory, they were always embowed to chief, representing the curvature of the shield. The second is the use of the lightening bolts. While the lightning bolts were used in period armory, they were only used as part of a thunderbolt, and not as independent elements on their own. (04/1999)

Darius of Jaxartes. Device. Per pale sable and argent, a pale counter-compony sable and argent fimbriated, in sinister chief a bull's head cabossed gules.

As drawn, the bull's head is identical to the trademarked emblem of the Chicago Bulls (a NBA Basketball team), including using the exact shade of red that they use, as best we can tell. This creates two problems. First, is the use of a trademarked symbol. In a recent survey of trademarked symbols known throughout the world, the emblem of the Chicago Bull was in the top five. Second, because of the use of this emblem, to many people, this submissions is obtrusively modern. If the bull's head was redrawn is a more standard heraldic manner, and not like this copywritten emblem, this problem would be solved. (12/1997)

Darius of Jaxartes. Household name for Bengalisher Brüderschaft.

The LoI documented the term Bengali to the 19th century. Unless documentation can be produced showing the term was used prior to 1650 (our grey area), it cannot be used. (12/1997)

Darragh MacKenzie. Name.

The LoI attempted to document Darragh as a back formation from MacDabhdara. However, MacDabhdara comes for Mac Duib Dara, and is not a given name in and of itself. The armory was registered under the holding name Debra MacKenzie. (03/1999)

Davey Gray of Kirkcudbright. Name and device. Per bend sinister Or and erminois, a bend sinister and in dexter chief a natural dolphin gules.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork; no paperwork was included in the packet. Please inform the submitter that the given name Davey is not period, but the forms Davy and Davie are acceptable. (05/1997)

David Cade. Device. Or, on a bend sinister vert, a rose argent.

This conflicts with Sylvana Dagfinsdottir Vert, on a bend sinister vert fimbriated Or three dogwood blossoms proper., with one CD for the field, but nothing for the difference between roses and dogwood blossoms. (10/1998)

David de Brailes. Name.

This is returned for lack of paperwork. (09/1998)

David de Lindsay. Name.

This conflicts with David Lindsay (aka David Lindsay of the Mount) who was the best known national" Scots poet from the time he flourished (first half 16th c.) to the time of Robert Burns. He was also a long-term courtier of James V, and as Lyon King of Arms, compiled a rather large and historically important Roll of Arms. He has his own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica, and therefore is important enough to protect. (12/1998)

David de Robertson. Name.

To quote the LoAR of 9/93, which deals with this issue of a submitter’s S.C.A. name vs. the mundane name,"This submission raised the question of how much difference is needed between the SCA and mundane names. In the LoAR of November 1992, I returned us to our previous standard of non-identity: `The minimum change (the one regarded as a loophole by liberals and conservatives alike) is probably the addition or deletion of a single syllable (e.g. John Smith to John the Smith).' [LoAR of April 1985]. Any changes smaller than a single syllable may not be sufficient; they must be argued case by case." David de Robertson should thus be clear of his mundane use name David Robertson, or his stated full mundane name David Lee Robertson.

Unfortunately, the de does not make sense before a patronym like Robertson. (David of son of Robert?) Removing the de would make the name close to a presumed use name" of David Robertson. As per the LoAR of 1/92 p.19 we check for conflict against all reasonable permutations of the legal name: It may not be the name she commonly uses, but it is legally available to her to be used at any time, and is therefore (one of her) legal name(s)." Dropping a middle name is a very standard permutation of a legal name to form a legal use name. Thus, we must conclude that even though his mundane name is David Lee Robertson, he would have David Robertson as a legal name as well, and thus the S.C.A. name David Robertson would conflict.

The proposed Daibhidh de MacRaibeirt also suffers from a grammatically nonfunctional de. The de will have to be removed here, as well. Daibhidh MacRaibeirt should be clear of any of the mundane use names, as we have had a significant sound change in the byname.

Another possibility would be to use Roberton which is a locative surname. Black cites Steven de Roberton from 1296, John de Robertun from 1390, Stephen de Roberton from 1408, John de Robertoun from 1440. David de Roberton would be a registerable form.

Since we do not wish to choose for the submitter which option to take, we are returning this so he can choose. (05/1998)

David Dr islav. Household name and badge for Warrior Haven. Or, ermined gules, a winged manticore sejant, wings addorsed and inverted, sable.

The name is being returned for nonperiod style. Possible models for household names include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart). This does not follow any period exemplars, and barring documentation must be returned. The device conflicts with Philippa Grey Lozengy argent and purpure, a griffin sejant, dexter foreleg raised, wings elevated and addorsed, sable. While normally we would give a difference between the two monsters, the addition of the nonstandard wings makes them too visually similar to grant any difference. (07/1998)

David O Kellahan. Badge. (Fieldless) A dolmen argent.

This conflicts with the badge of Cadwalladyr Stone of Stonecroft (SCA) Vert, a dolmen of three uprights capped by two lintels argent. (11/1997)

David O Kellahan. Badge. (Fieldless) A dolmen per pale vert and sable.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. (11/1998)

David O Kellahan. Device. Per pale sable and vert, a dolmen argent.

This conflicts with the badge of Cadwalladyr Stone of Stonecroft (SCA) Vert, a dolmen of three uprights capped by two lintels argent. (11/1997)

David of Moffat. Device change. Vert, a cross crosslet argent quarter pierced gules and on a chief engrailed argent three hunting horns vert stringed gules.

This is being returned because of Protected Items I of the Administrative Handbook. This states "no item will be registered to a submitter if it is identical to an item used by the submitter legally or in common use outside the Society." What the submitter has submitted is virtually identical to his mundane arms.

This was returned by Master Da'ud as Laurel on the July 1995 LoAR for being heraldicly identical to the submitter's mundane arms. Since the submitter has provided no documentation that there is a heraldic difference between what he has registered to him with the Lyon King of Arms and this submission, Laurel has no choice but to return this.

We advise the submitter to wait until the new handbook is approved and issued before resubmitting or appealing this decision. (09/1996)

David Rosensoldat. Name.

According to the letter of intent, Rosensoldat means Soldier of the Rose, in German. However, no documentation was presented, and none could be found for bynames formed in this fashion. Barring such documentation the name will have to be returned. (11/1997)

Deborah von Falkenhorst. Device. Sable semy-de-lys, an eagle Or.

This is being returned for conflict with Arnulf Adler, (SCA) Sable, an eagle displayed Or, perched upon a sword fesswise proper all within an orle of fleurs-de-lys Or. The sword is not significant enough to provide a CD. Furthermore, the difference between a semy-de-lys versus an orle of fleur-de-lys does not, at least in this case, seem sufficient to provide a CD. (07/1996)

Deirdre de la Fleur. Badge. (Fieldless) A gillyflower quarterly gules and azure.

This is being returned for conflict against the Emperor of Japan (Important mundane armory), Dark, a sixteen-petalled chrysanthemum light. After comparing the picture submitted and the picture in Laurel's books on Japanese mon, we felt that we could not grant a difference. (09/1996)

Deirdre Mac Morcat. Name.

This is being returned for incorrect construction. It s not clear that there was a personal name that was a diminutive of catt "cat", and if there was, it wasn't constructed by adding an adjective meaning "little"; rather, it was formed by adding a standard diminutive suffix. The underlying Irish, in modern spelling, would be Deirdre inghean Chait Mh&0acuteir Deirdre daughter of Big Catt . At an earlier date more compatible with the only available instance of Catt this would have been Derdriu ingen Chait M&0acuteir. (09/1996)

Delaware, State of. Arms. Per fess Or and argent, a fess wavy azure between a garb bendwise, an ear of maize bendwise sinister slipped, and an ox statant proper.

No evidence was presented for these being the state's arms versus their seal. (05/1999)

Dëordaeg av Dunnon. Name.

This name is being returned for non­period style. It combines an unattested Old English forename of unknown gender, complete with modern editorial diacritic marking, a modern Norwegian preposition, and an atypical 13th c. spelling of a Scottish place­name. Assuming that he wants to keep the sound, we can offer a couple of suggestions. There is an OE patronymic form Dunning (Reaney & Wilson s.n.) which would make an acceptable byname: Deordæg Dunning. If he's set on a locative byname, we can't keep the sound quite as close, but something based on the OE personal name Dunna (mentioned by Ekwall in connection with a number of place­names in Dun­) might do, e.g., Deordæg of (or on, or æt) Dunnanham 'Dunna's ham' (08/1997)

Deredere the Naughty. Device. Per bend sinister gules and sable, a padlock debruised by a key bendwise, wards in base, argent

This is being returned for unidentifiability of the charges. With the argent charge overlying an argent charge, the only way you can tell which is what is because the padlock and the key are outlined in black. (11/1997)

Derek Drake Brennan. Name and device. Sable, a chevron Or surmounted by a lion rampant argent, in chief two flames Or, each charged with a hand gules.

This name does not follows models: he needs to lose a surname. As an English surname Brennan is from Brenhand `burn hand', probably in reference to a judicial punishment. Bardsley s.n. Brennan gives an incorrect etymology, but he has Brennand 1379; We are willing to believe that by 1600 this could have lost its final ­d. The forename is a 15th c. borrowing from the Low Countries; the available period forms have i or y in the second syllable, e.g., Deryk. Deryk Drake would be excellent, and Deryk Brennan would certainly be registerable. But there seems to be no way to accommodate all three elements in a single period name. We felt that dropping that decision as to which element to drop should be made by the submitter, and not Laurel. The armory suffers from two problems. The flames charged with a red hand falls afoul of our ban on a hand of glory. Furthermore, while blazoned as sable, the field is not black, but pencil gray, which has been grounds for return in the past. Please make sure that any resubmission fixes that problem. (07/1997)

Derek MacLeod. Device. Gules, on a triangle inverted rayonny Or, a sword azure.

This is being returned for conflict with Emelina Sharparowe Gules on a nesselblatt Or, a seeblatt sable. There is a CD for the changes (type and tincture) of the tertiary. But there is nothing for the change from triangle inverted rayonny to nesselblatt. This is also being returned for unidentifability. Without a blazon there is no way to identify this as a triangle inverted rayonny. (08/1998)

Derfel Mallory. Device. Per fess wavy Or and azure, a lymphad and a sea-unicorn counterchanged.

This is being returned for a redraw. The "sea-unicorn" lacks the beard and cloven hoofs of a unicorn. This is, instead, a unicornate sea-horse, which is not allowed, since it blurs the line between a horse and a unicorn. (10/1998)

Désirée Aurelia Chiarastella. Device. Vert, two scimitars in chevron inverted addorsed on a chief triangular argent a seahorse vert.

This is being returned for a redraw. This is not a chief triangular, per chevron inverted, chapé, or a pile, but rather something partway between all of them. (03/1997)

Despina din Bra ov. Name.

The name is being returned for lack of documentation for the use of din. While documentation was presented in the LoI for Despina as a period Romanian given name and Brasov as period Romanian place, nothing was shown for din. While we might assumed that din was Romanian for from, no evidence to support that assumption was presented in the LoI, and no one in the college presented any supporting evidence. Barring such evidence, the name must be returned. (01/1999)

Dévora Risée de Apors. Badge. Vert, a bee Or.

This conflicts with Ivan Matfeevich Rezansky Vert, a bee proper winged between three octofoils Or., Melissa o Winged Hills, Vert, a bee between four bees in cross, tails to center, all Or., and the badge of Andre Lessard, (Fieldless) A legless bee displayed barry sable and Or. The first two get only one CD for removing the additional charges; the third gets only one CD for the field. (10/1998)

Diarmuid mac Nessa. Device. Azure, a boar statant and a bordure rayonny argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The rayons on the bordure are far too small and too close together, producing the classic "pinking shears" rayonny, which has been grounds for return for the last ten years. (04/1999)

Diego Miguel Munoz de Castilla. Name and device. Argent, on a bend sable three escallops palewise argent.

No paperwork was received on this submission, so this must be returned. (02/1997)

Dilan mac in tsaeir. Household name for Ballaí Bána.

The name is being returned for nonperiod style. Possible models for household names include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart). This does not follow any period exemplars, and barring documentation must be returned. (07/1998)

Domingo Diego Diaz de la Vega e Martin. Name.

This is an appeal of a Laurel return of October 1995 for the use of three bynames. The submitter maintains that only two bynames are used here, citing Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar, Roderick, son of James of Bivar, where the extended byname (son of James of Bivar) is a single element to distinguish this particular James from others. He claims as a result, one of his two bynames is Diaz de la Vega, and the other is Martin.

However, the argument from Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar is incorrect. The name of El Cid did use the patronymic Diaz, but the de Bivar is a separate geographic byname. He could be and was referred to a Rodrigo Diaz or Rodrigo de Bivar. Domingo Diego de la Vega e Martin would be an unusual, but not too unlikely, late period name. Domingo Diaz de la Vega would be a fine name from the 12th or 13th century on, as would Domingo Martín de la Vega. But, barring evidence Domingo Diego Diaz de la Vega e Martin, is not registerable. (02/1998)

Donald Harefoot. Badge. (Fieldless) A raven volant sable maintaining a goblet fesswise reversed Or.

The goblet is not big enough to count for difference, and therefore this conflicts with Carl of Sutherland (SCA) Per fess argent and azure, a raven volant sable, maintaining in its talons an escallop Or., with no difference given for the maintained charges and Miscell of Lyonesse (SCA) Per saltire argent and vert, a duck volant sable., with no difference for type of bird when they are in identical postures. (03/1997)

Donato Pulcinella. Badge. Sable, a crossbow and on a chief Or a chain sable.

This is being returned for administrative reasons. No mini emblazon was included on the LoI. (04/1999)

Dorathea Osborne. Device. Or, a gillyflower gules slipped and leaved vert.

This conflicts with The Emperor of Japan Dark, a sixteen petaled chrysanthemum, light. In September, 1996 Laurel returned A gillyflower quarterly gules and azure., for conflict with the Emperor of Japan, therefore by precedent there is not a CD between the two flowers. Also by precedent there is not a CD for slipping the flower. (05/1998)

Dougal MacPherson. Name.

This conflicts with the registered name of Dugald MacPherson. The differences in the given name are directly parallel to those between Mary and Marie, which are held to be equivalent and not significantly different.

The armory was registered under the holding name Dougal of Atenveldt. (08/1998)

Dougal of Icolmkill. Device. Per fess Or and argent, an roundel sable between two dogs statant in annulo gules.

This is being returned for a redraw. The dogs are not really in annulo, and that if they are not in annulo they violate our ban on inverting animate charges. (04/1999)

Drachenfeld, Canton of. Device. Or, two wyverns combattant vert, in base a tower gules within a laurel wreath vert.

The name of the group was returned on November 1996 LoAR. Since we do not create holding names for groups, this must be returned for lack of an SCA name. Even if there was an SCA name to register this to, this would be returned for violating VIII.1.a ("slot machine") by having three different charges (wyvern, tower and laurel wreath) in the same group). (01/1997)

Drachenfeld, Canton of. Name.

Two possible conflicts were considered, Drachenwald and Drachenfels. In the case of Drachenwald, Schwartzdrachen took the time and trouble to talk to his Crown and get permission to conflict. We wish to formally thank him for doing so. In the case of Drachenfels, it was felt that there was an aural conflict between the two names. Since Drachenfels is listed in Encyclopedia Britannica, this is a conflict. (11/1996)

Draco Rivenoak. Device. Per bend gules and Or, a bend wavy pean between two dragons involved in annulo counterchanged.

This is being returned for a redraw. The wavy was slight enough to be almost nonexistent. The dragons also need to be redraw so they are clearly in annulo, and look like dragons, not embryonic ones as they do now. (03/1999)

Draga Drevo. Device. Vert, a hurst of three trees blasted argent and on a bordure argent a semy of alternating leaves and the letter s fesswise vert.

This is being returned for a redraw. The charge on the bordure is not really blazonable. It is not clearly a vine or a semy of ivy leaves. (05/1998)

Dragons Crossing, College of. Name and device. Or, a dragon rampant within a laurel wreath sable.

No evidence was presented in the LoI for the word dragon being used in English place name, and no one could find any evidence. Barring such evidence, we must return the name. Since we do not form holding names for groups, the armory must be returned as well. (10/1997)

Dragon's Laire, Barony of. Household name for Corps Elite du Cheval.

This is being returned for incorrect construction. Commentary was mixed on what would be the correct form, though it appears that the form Corps d'élite de Cavalerie would be correct. We felt that this was too big a change to make without the submitter's permission, so we have returned the name. (09/1996)

Draigen Kinvara. Name.

This is being returned for being a mixed Gaelic-English name. According to Room, Kinvara is the English form of Cinn Mhara `head of the sea'; it's a reasonably phonetic transcription. A similarly phonetic transcription of a late-period pronunciation of Draigen might be something like Dreyne. Dreyne Kinvara would be the English version. An early Irish form might be something like Draigen Cheinn Mara, though there is little evidence for non-adjectival Gaelic locatives. (01/1997)

Dubhghall mac Éibhearáird. Badge. (Fieldless) A cock close argent armed and langued sable maintaining a key Or.

This conflicts with Brian of Boisfort (SCA) Azure chapé invected or, a rooster argent., with one CD for the field, and nothing for the maintained key. For a charge to be considered a sustained charge, and therefore count for difference, it must be of comparable size to the beast holding it. (10/1997)

Duccio Alighieri. Device. Per pale vert and gules, a cubit arm Or maintaining a quill pen and brush in saltire argent, a bordure embattled Or.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. No emblazon sheets were included. (10/1998)

Dulcia Sabine. Name and device. Per bend azure and argent, a bear sejant erect and a bow and arrow in saltire counterchanged.

This is being returned for slot machine. It uses three different charges in one charge group. (09/1996)

Duncan Arthur Ross the Black. Device. Or, on a pile sable a claymore inverted Or.

This conflicts with Roger von Allenstein (SCA), Gules, on a pile sable fimbriated argent the sword of Damocles pendant Or., with one CD for the color of the field, but nothing for the fimbriation, and nothing for type between two swords. (07/1997)

Duncan Dalziell. Device. Sable, on a saltire argent, a triskelion of spirals between four crescents, points inward, azure.

This is in conflict with Diann of the Golden Chalice (SCA), Sable on a saltire argent a chalice Or enflamed sable., Anne de la Tour Lointaine (SCA), Sable, on a saltire argent, five shamrocks vert., and Edwin of Svart Elder (SCA), Sable, on a saltire argent two swords Or, hilted and enflamed sable., with, in each case, just one CD for difference in the tertiaries. (02/1997)

Duncan de Moravia. Household name for House of the Speared Serpent.

The name is being returned for non­period style. Household names follow several possible models including Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart). This does not follow any of the possible models. (03/1997)

Duncan Greifenklau. Device. Per bend azure and gules, an eagle's foot argent.

This is being returned for conflict with the badge of Damianus Petrolino (SCA), [Fieldless] A dragon's jamb erased inverted clutching a roundel argent. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but that is it. Both emblazon showed approximately the same amount of claw and leg, and they looked quite similar in type. (10/1996)

Duncan MacKenny. Name.

No documentation was presented in the LoI for MacKenny, and in fact the spelling MacKenny seems to be a post-period spelling. The forms M'Kinnie (1609) and M'Kenye (1513) are both dated to within our period, and the form MacKinnie is a justifiable version. However, depending on which name is chosen, and how it is pronounced, there could be an aural conflict with Duncan MacKinnon, registered 3/96. Therefore, we are returning this to the submitter to decide which form he wishes. (05/1997)

Duncan MacLean of Duart. Name.

This was originally returned October 1991 in the form Duncan MacLean for conflicting with the character Duncan MacLean in the Deryni series by Katherine Kurtz. In an attempt to clear that conflict, a place name has been added. Unfortunately, that now puts the name in violation of our rules on pretention. Master Bruce, as Laurel, covered the issue of pretention in the form of "X of Y" in Scottish names.

"We will continue to prohibit the use of a Scots clan name with the seat or territory of that clan (e.g. Cameron of Lochiel), or a surname with the phrase of that Ilk (or its functional equivalent, e.g. Macintosh of Macintosh). That usage, with or without the given name, is the title of the actual chief of the clan or his immediate kin; its use in the SCA represents a direct infringement on actual nobility, and also appears to be a claim to rank, either of which is grounds for return. But by and large, the use of a Scots surname with a Scots placename is acceptable for SCA use." (LoAR March 1993, p. 8) Based on that precedent, [MacLeod of Duirinish] is registrable. LoAR 1/94, p.8.

Adam & Innes, Clans, Septs and Regiments of the Scottish Highlands, shows that Duart is the castle and seat of the chief of the MacLeans. As such this name is presumptuous. We have added the name of his local group to form a holding name which is not presumptuous and does not conflict.

The armory was registered under the holding name Duncan MacLean of Atenveldt. (01/1999)

Duncan Nobeard. Name.

This is being returned for non period style. The submitted documentation does not support the form No-X where X is a physical attribute, and no commenter could provide any. (09/1996)

Duncan Walensis of Selkirk. Badge. (Fieldless) On a tree proper a wolf's head couped close argent.

This conflicts with Nygell Tallis (Fieldless) On a tree couped proper a winged boar segreant argent. There is one CD for the fieldlessness, but nothing for the type only of tertiary charge on complex charge such as a tree. (03/1999)

Duncan Walensis of Selkirk. Device. Per chevron throughout argent and sable, two wolves combattant sable and a stag's head cabossed argent, attired Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. While there is clearly something on the head of the stag, it does not look like antlers, or anything ever seen on a deer. (03/1999)

Dunstan of Manchester. Device. Ermine, a panther rampant gules incensed azure, on a chief gules a sword reversed proper.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn the monster is not clearly a panther, a Continental panther or a tyger, but something that shares the characteristics of all three. Since we register the picture not the words, this must be redrawn to be clearly one thing or another. (11/1997)

Dyddanwy Canwr. Name.

This is being returned for lack of a documentable given name. While the LoI tried to construct Dyddanwy from Harpy's articles on constructing Welsh names, you cannot just randomly take one from column A and one from column B and come up with a valid Welsh given name. (05/1998)

Dzinovia Dubrovna. Device. Argent, an oak tree vert trunked sable, on a chief vert a decrescent argent between two triskelions arrondi.

This conflicts with Roswitha Goldfink (SCA) Argent, a willow tree proper, on a chief vert three roses Or., with once CD for the changes to the tertiaries, and nothing for change of type to the tree. (08/1997)

Eadan Munro. Name.

This is being returned for mixing English and Gaelic in the same name which is against our rules. Since changes were disallowed the name must be returned. (09/1998)

Eadan nic Dhomhnaill. Device. Per fess indented argent and azure, three thistles proper and a bear statant argent.

This is technically in conflict with Malcolm of Strathaven Argent, five thistles three and two, slipped and leaved vert. There is one CD for the field. However, there is nothing for changing the type of one charge in a group of four or more, nor is there a CD for number between four and five charges in a group. Nor is there anything for tincture between thistles proper, with their red flowers, and ones that are all vert. (06/1998)

Ealasaid nan Oighean. Badge. Azure, a wing wielding a sword fesswise argent.

This is being returned for conflict with Ealdormere (fieldless) A wing terminating in a hand argent maintaining a sword fesswise reversed Or. The only difference is the tincture of the sword, which is much less than half of the visual mass of the object, and with Dante Aligheri (important non-SCA arms) Azure, a sinister wing argent. (12/1996)

Ealdormere, Kingdom of. Arms for the Prince. Gules, a trillium within a laurel wreath and surmounted by a crown argent, overall a label of three points Or

Since Master Baldwin of Erebor was Laurel, we do not allow arms for a prince to have a laurel wreath; laurel wreaths are reserved to official SCA branches only. (06/22/1999)

Ealdormere, Kingdom of. Badge for the king. (Fieldless) A wolf's head argent crowned Or.

This conflicts with Wulfstan of Lucerne Per chevron argent and sable, in base a wolf's head erased argent., Talanque Sable, a horned wolf's head erased argent., and William of Houghton Sable a grey wolf's head erased proper. In each case there is just the one CD for fieldlessness, with nothing for the maintained crown, and against Wulfstan nothing for location against a fieldless badge. (06/22/1999)

Ealusaid inghean Fathaigh a Glascu. Name.

The byname needs to be lenited to Fhathaigh. Since she will not take any changes, we are forced to return the name. (12/1998)

Eckhardt zu Westfilde. Badge. Per fess gules and argent, an eagle facing to sinister argent and a compass star azure, and a chief embattled argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The chief is too small and resembles a very thin label. (09/1996)

Edmund de Port. Name.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. (01/1998)

Edmund Langland. Device. Per pale vert and paly­bendy Or and gules, overall a maunche argent.

This conflicts with Barony of Fettberg Per fess argent ermined gules and gules in base a maunch argent. There is one CD for the change to the field, but since the placement of the Fettberg maunch is forced by the field tincture, there is nothing for the change of position on the field. (11/1997)

Edmund of Rhuddlan. Device. Or, a reremouse displayed, head to sinister, sable and a chief embattled gules.

This conflicts with Batman, Or, a reremouse sable., which is a registered trademark of DC Comics. (10/1998)

Edward Drake von Nordstrom. Household Name for Flammenhaus and badge. (Fieldless) A castle argent, enflamed Or.

The name is being returned for conflict with the Order of the Flames of Starkhafn. The group designator does not count for difference, nor does haus and Order. Therefore the only difference between them that counts is the difference between Flammen and Flames. There is a similar problem between the household name and Flame Pursuivant of Caid and the Barony of the Flame. Interestingly enough, this is a period German formation as according to Bahlow's Deutsches Namen-Lexicon in 1500, there was a haus name of zur Flamme, which translates as at (the sign of) the flame. Brechenmacher's Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen has, dated to 1469, Flammenhof, which would be equivalent to court of the flame.

The armory conflicts with Anne of the White Tower Sable, a tower argent, Stanford of Sheffield Per fess and per pale dovetailed argent and azure, in sinister chief a tower argent, and Dugall Ailean mac-'ic Lathurna Paly Or and azure, in dexter chief a tower argent. Each gets one CD for the field, but nothing for castle vs. tower or for position vs. a fieldless badge. (06/1998)

Edward Glass. Device. Or, a robin displayed proper perched atop eyeglasses sable lensed argent, a bordure azure.

This is being returned for a redraw. While blazoned as displayed, from the head position it is clear that it is not displayed, and no one could come up with an appropriate blazon. Furthermore, the armory had a complexity count of nine which is greater than our rule of thumb. (07/1997)

Edward MacMillan. Device. Or, a unicorn purpure and a lion sable combattant.

This conflicts with Thorin Njalsson Or, a lion rampant guardant sable maintaining a claymore proper., Buchanan of that ilk Or, a lion rampant sable., and Flanders Or, a lion rampant sable. Each gets just one CD for adding the unicorn. (02/1998)

Edward of Lyonsmoor. Badge. (Fieldless) A lions head erased Or.

This conflicts with Alphia Biraz-pars (SCA) Sable, a natural leopard’s head couped Or marked sable. There is one CD for the field but nothing for lion’s head versus leopard’s head or couped versus erased and nothing for the markings on the natural leopard’s head. (01/1998)

Edward Reinherz. Device. Per chevron rayonny sable and Or two roses Or and a rose gules slipped and leaved vert.

This is being returned for violating what is known as "the sword and dagger rule", using two variants of the same charge in the same group. Making all the roses slipped and leaved, or none of them slipped and leaved would correct this problem. (02/1997)

Edward the Unshaven. Name.

This is being returned for incorrect construction. The byname uses a past participle verb, an extremely rare practice in period and has been banned several times in the past. Period bynames referring to the lack of a beard include Berdles, and Scauwel. (03/1998)

Egelina Nic Gille Fhaloain. Device. Argent, a chevron inverted vert, in base three thistles slipped and leaved proper.

This is being returned for a redraw. A chevron inverted does not issue from the upper corners of the shield, but from the sides. (03/1999)

Eibhlín ní Chaoimh. Device. Per pale azure and Or, two wyverns erect respectant, conjoined at the breast, counterchanged, on a chief argent three fleurs-de-lys azure.

As drawn the "wyverns," which lack legs, blur the line between wyverns and pithons. There was no consensus at the Laurel meeting as whether these were wyverns or pithons. Therefore this is being returned for a redraw, to be draw clearly as one or the other. (08/1996)

Eibhlin Nighean Mhic Neill. Device. Argent, a hedgehog passant to sinister sable within five cinquefoils in orle gules.

While blazoned on the LoI as above, the charges are all the same size, and therefore one charge group. Unfortunately, that puts the submission into conflict with Judith the Rose Argent, a damask rose slipped and leaved proper. Since we give no difference between a cinquefoil and a rose, there is one CD, for change in number. If this was redrawn with the hedgehog clearly a primary, it would clear this conflict. (03/1998)

Einarr atgørvimaðr. Device. Argent, a bear rampant sable, on a chief enmanché argent and purpure, three Thor's hammers counterchanged.

The only documentation presented for a chief enmanché was found in Eugene Zieber's Heraldry of America, and the usage there is out of period. The term enmanché can be found in other heraldic sources, but not for a chief that looks anything like what was submitted.

Barring documentation that a chief divided in this fashion was done in period, this must be returned. (01/1999)

Einarr Thorgrimsson. Device. Quarterly vert and sable, in bend a wolf rampant contourny and a falcon argent.

This is being returned for breaking RfS XI.3., which states that "Armory that appears to marshall independent arms is considered presumptuous." The rule goes on to note that such marshalled fields "may be used with identical charges over the entire field, or with complex lines of partition or charges overall that were not used for marshalling in period heraldry." Additionally, "Charged sections must all contain charges of the same type to avoid the appearance of being different from each other." A wolf and a falcon are not of the same type, and so this has the appearance of marshalling 1. Vert a wolf rampant contourny argent, 2&3. Sable; and 4. Vert a falcon argent. (08/1998)

Eir Dun, Shire of. Name and device. Vert, a phoenix rising from a castle within a laurel wreath Or and a bordure argent.

The LoI glossed the name as meaning fort or castle resurrection. That was incorrect. Dun actually means "a heap" and from there also a hill or mound or a fortress particularly one on a hill. The word Eir means to rise, mount or ascend, thus this name means "to climb the hill". The word for resurrection is Aiseirigh.

However, even if this had been correctly constructed, no documentation was presented, and none could be found by the college, for Gaelic place names having that abstract a name.

Since the name was returned, the device also has to be returned since we do not form holding names for group. However, even if the name had been registered we would have to return the device. The laurel wreath is emblazoned as ‘lying as on a bordure’, which has been disallowed for some time now. Please let them know that laurel wreaths are nearly circular in shape, and cannot follow the line of a bordure or orle. (12/1998)

Eirika Kettlingr Ragnarsdóttir. Name.

This is being returned for incorrect construction, since it combines the male name Eirika with the feminine byname Ragnarsdóttir. Eirika is found in Lind's Norsk-Islandska Dopnamn, but it is there as a variant spelling of Eirik, and not as a feminine name. No documentation could be found in any source for Eirika as a feminine name prior to the 19th century.

While it is true that Old Norse sometimes forms female names from male names by adding an a, Eirik is not in the class of names for which this happens. (02/1999)

Eiríkr Thórisson. Device. Paly azure and argent, a double bitted ax bendwise Or.

This conflicts with Thomas of the Brass Axe (SCA) Purpure, an axe bendwise Or., with the only CD for the difference in the fields. (10/1997)

Eiríkr Tryggvason. Badge. [Fieldless] On a mullet of seven points sable a decrescent gules fimbriated argent.

This is being returned for several reasons. First, this design is essentially "(Fieldless) A mullet of seven points sable charged with a decrescent argent charged with a decrescent gules.", which means it uses a quaternary charge, which is disallowed by RfS VIII.1.c.ii (Layer Limit). Fieldlessness has always been held to "count" as one of the layers (see, for example, the return of Carlo della Casa "(Fieldless) On a sun Or eclipsed quarterly vert and azure, a fleur-de- lys Or" 9/95), and we have been treating fimbriation as "an X charged with another" since Bruce's tenure. Additionally the fimbriation is probably also a problem. According to RfS VIII.3 "Voiding and fimbriation may only be used with simple geometric charges placed in the center of the design." This does not apply to tertiary charges. Lastly, this conflicts with the tinctureless badge of Astra Christiana Benedict: "On a mullet a cross crosslet." There is no CD for type only, nor for type + tincture since Astra's badge is tinctureless. There is nothing for type of mullet: on the LoAR of 6/90 p. 3 Laurel wrote "No difference can be granted for the difference between standard mullets and mullets of seven points." This leaves only the one CD for the field. (10/1996)

Ekaterina ha Varanga. Device. Per chevron throughout Or and vert, two sixfoils and a candle sconced counterchanged.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. We received only one copy of forms. (04/1998)

Ekaterina Volkova. Badge. (Fieldless) A lemming sejant erect Or maintaining a goblet sable.

This conflicts with William Colquitt Vert, a rat rampant, tail sufflexed, Or. There is a CD for fieldlessness, but nothing between a lemming and a rat. (03/1999)

El he bint Mazdak. Change from holding name of Norma of Settmour Swamp.

This name combines an undated given name (which means Goddess, and is quite likely only modern) , the Arabic patronymic particle, and a pre­Islamic Persian name for the byname (which itself may be a unique name). Any one of these problems is conceivably grounds for return; the combination certainly is. (07/1997)

Elaina de Sinistre. Badge. Azure, on a plate an apple gules, slipped and leaved proper.

This is being returned for conflict with Rhithyn yr Gwlad yr Hav (SCA), Azure, a plate charged with a cauldron and a domestic cat in its curiosity sable, with only one CD for the change in the tertiaries.

Even if there had been no conflict, this would have had to be returned since we received no forms for this submission. (08/1996)

Elayna Lilley. Device. Per bend sinister gules and vairy Or and gules, in dexter chief a fleur-de-lis Or.

This is in conflict with the royal badge of France, A fleur-de-lis Or. There is a CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for placement against a fieldless badge. (01/1997)

Eldred Bloodaxe. Badge. Per pale sable and vert, a double-bitted axe Or.

This is being returned for conflict with Sean Ruabarua MacGillaphaidraic (SCA), Vert, an axe Or, bearded gules. The gules is only a small part of the blade. Therefore, there is only one CD, for the field. Sean's device has been reblazoned in the accompanying errata letter to better reflect the insignificance of the bearding. (07/1996)

Eleanor de Valence. Device. Per chevron inverted argent and Or, a pall sable and overall a rose gules seeded Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn it is not per chevron inverted. It is closest to per pall argent, Or and Or, which is not acceptable. (12/1998)

Eleanor de Warren. Name.

This is an aural conflict with Eleanor de Wardon. The armory was registered under the holding name Eleanor of the Inner Sea. (05/1998)

Eleanor Hazleberie. Badge. (Fieldless) On a tower azure an eagle's head erased argent.

This conflicts with Muirghein ni Ghrainne On a tower azure a hawk displayed argent. There is one CD for fieldless. There is a change to the type of the tertiary charge, but since a tower is not a "simple" charge for purposes of X.4.j.ii., a second CD is not available. (03/1999)

Eleanor of Shrewsbury. Device. Azure, a double-bitted axe argent.

This conflicts with the Barony of Citadel of the Southern Pass Azure, a double bitted axe argent between two piles inverted Or., with one difference for the addition of the piles. Geoffrey of Clan Fergus Azure, an axe, head to sinister argent and a gore sinister Or. We give no difference between double and single-bitted axes, so there is only one CD for the gore. This also conflicts with Timmeke Haakonson of Nordheim Per fess gules and sable, a double-bitted axe argent., with one CD for the field. (02/1999)

Eleanor of Shrewsbury. Device. Gules, an open book argent bound proper, a chief rayonny argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The chief is not clearly rayonny, nor any other line defined line of division. (03/1998)

Eleanora Jane of Canterbury. Device. Per chevron purpure and Or, estoiles in demi­orle Or and a unicorn rampant contourny sable.

This is being returned for non­period style. There is no period arrangement of charges in demi­orle. (07/1997)

Elena de Vexin. Badge. (Fieldless) On a mullet of eight points Or a fleur­de­lys purpure.

This conflicts with Tatiana of the Swans (SCA) Azure, on a sun Or, a mullet of four points purpure charged with a swan naiant argent., with one CD for removing the field, nothing for variant forms of sun, nothing for type only of tertiary on the complex charges and nothing for the quaternary charge. (08/1997)

Elena Novgoradskaya. Device. Per bend sinister wavy Or and gules, a closed book fesswise and mullet of eight points counterchanged.

This is being returned for a redraw. The line of division is not a proper per bend wavy, but closer to per bend with one wave. Additionally the book needs to be redrawn. As it is depicted, it is in trian aspect. (10/1997)

Elene of Lochcarron. Device. Per fess Or and vert, two crows displayed heads respectant sable and an Atlantic salmon haurient proper.

This is being returned for several reasons. First, as emblazoned, the salmon is a dark grey, which means that this submission breaks the rule of tincture, but putting color on color. Second, there is no widely understood default for an Atlantic salmon proper, so this violates our use of proper. Finally, as emblazoned, the submission is not clearly per fess, or field a chief, but somewhere halfway between, which blurs the distinction between the two. (08/1997)

Eleonora Salutati. Device. Per pale azure and argent, two peacocks close respectant, tails to base, counterchanged maintaining between them a bezant.

This conflicts with Mathilde Meyer Per pale azure and argent, two geese respectant enraged counterchanged., and Ceri of Carmarthen Per pale azure and argent, two martlets respectant counterchanged. In each case there is a CD between the birds but not complete difference of charge, and nothing for the addition of the maintained bezant. (09/1998)

Eleri of Caerleon. Device. Argent, a winged mermaid proper crined sable, winged and tailed azure, head to dexter, maintaining in dexter hand a bow sable and in sinister hand an arrow argent.

This is being returned for insufficient contrast. I quote the return in a similar case from the LoAR of 9/92.

Simona Zon d'Asolo. Device. Argent, a melusine proper, crined gules, tails supported by two arms issuant from the flanks proper, the melusine maintaining in her upraised hands two crescents, in base a crescent gules.

The arms have insufficient contrast on the argent field. Human flesh "proper" was sometimes emblazoned as argent in period tomes; and in any case, carnation (pink) cannot be seen against white. (Technically, a melusine proper is considered neutral, and acceptable on argent; in practice, its contrast with an argent field is borderline. But the arms definitely violate Rule VIII.2.b.i.) 9/92 (12/1996)

Eliahu ben Itzhak. Augmentation of Device. Or, on a mullet of six points sable a griffin segreant contourny Or, as an argumentation on a chief embowed argent a pale gules, overall a dragon passant vert, in chief a coronet Or.

The basic question raised by this submission is can an augmentation break the rule of tincture? While there is period evidence of the arms of the Empire (Or, an eagle displayed sable) being used as an augmentation (and the proposed augmentation here is the arms of the Middle Kingdom, minus the laurel wreath), only one example of period use of an augmentation breaking the rule of tincture was found. Barring documentation of large numbers of period augmentations that break the rule of tincture, we are unwilling to register this practice. However, if a canton or a chief of a color was placed on the field, a charged escutcheon of Argent a pale gules, overall a dragon passant vert, in chief a coronet Or. would be registerable. (08/1997)

Eliane d'Avignon. Device. Purpure, in pile two needles, on a chief triangular Or, a violet purpure slipped and leaved vert.

This is being returned for a redraw. While blazoned on the LoI as Purpure... a chief triangular Or. what was drawn was really Per pall Or, purpure and purpure, which we do not allow. (01/1999)

Elina Einarsdottir. Device. Counterermine, a unicorn couchant argent gorged with a garland of daisies proper, on a base azure, three plates in chevron.

This is being returned for violating the rule of tincture by having an azure base on a counterermine field. Counterermine is considered a color, not a metal or neutral, since it is primarily sable. (05/1999)

Elisabeth Borden. Device. Azure, two candles burning at both ends in saltire between four tau crosses argent.

This is being returned because while the LoI stated the given name is registered, it is not registered, and every submission is registered to an SCA name. Furthermore, no funds have been received for a name submission. Note: this name is not registerable because it conflicts with Lizzie/Lizbeth Borden of Massachusetts, who was accused (but acquitted) of killing her mother and father with an axe. (05/1998)

Elisabeth Johanna von der Flossenburg. Name.

Flossennburg is a castle in Oberpfalz that once belonged to the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and was destroyed in the Thirty Years' War. At the foot of the castle is a town by the name of Flossenbürg. The submitter wanted the der in the name to show that she was from the castle, and not the town.

However, to the best of our knowledge, medieval German did not distinguish in that manner, so barring documentation to that effect, the der must go. Since she forbids dropping the der we have no choice but to return the name. (11/1998)

Elisheva bat Simon Halevi. Household name for House Thunder.

This conflicts with Thunder Pursuivant, Kingdom of Meridies. RfS.V.2.b.i, Change of Elements, states that '...names do not conflict if each of them contains a descriptive element significantly different from every descriptive element of the other. .......House, Herald and College of, being designators, are not descriptive elements.' (06/1998)

Elizabella Marchant. Device. Per chevron ployé azure and argent, two roses argent and a Lacy knot purpure.

While blazoned in the above manner on the LoI, with the outer edges of the line of division meeting the sides of the shield above the fess line, this is Argent, chapé ployé azure..." However, that means that the chapé is charged, which is not allowed. (05/1998)

Elizabeth Elenore Lovell. Device. Purpure, a bend engrailed between six hummingbirds rising contourny argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The hummingbirds were not identifiable. (07/1996)

Elizabeth Reed. Device. Per pale argent and Or, a decrescent and an increscent entwined in fess azure, between four leaves in cross vert.

According to the LoI, the motif of the decrescent and increscent entwined comes from a 16th or 17th century German Wappenbuch, as found in Fox-Davies The Art of Heraldry. The plate were it is found is Plate CVII (following p. 312 in my Bloomsbury Books 1986 edition). That plate is labeled "Armorial Paintings of the XVI. and XVII. Centuries". The arms are those of Schaff, from Wappenbuch 2 in the Adelsarchiv in Vienna. The arms in that source are "not annotated, but a date of patent is recorded on the arms of Herkomber" (illustrated on the same plate). The date of that patent is "25/6 1641". Effectively, then the arms of the exemplar are undated, and we can only say that they may - or may not - be period. At this point, we have only A.C. Fox-Davies' word for it that the examples included on that plate are from both the 16th and 17th Centuries. The only real date we have is post-period. That is an awfully weak basis on which to determine whether this motif is a period one. Siebmacher's Wappenbuch von 1605 has the arms of Schaf as Gules, a ram passant contourny argent., clearly an entirely different coat. A careful review of the emblazons throughout the book found no examples of crescents interlaced, though there were several coats of arms consisting of (Field), in fess an increscent and a decrescent [tincture] (Hörlingsberg, Interse, Feirtag, Hander, Zirchau, Fulbach, and Commerer. Additionally, Zily bore Azure, in fess an increscent moon and a decrescent moon Or.). This is not sufficient to register this motif. (11/1998)

Elizabeth Stafford. Device. Purpure, a seal sejant and on a chief Or three harps purpure.

This is being returned for a redraw. The primary charge is not clearly a seal, or any other charge. (05/1998)

Elizabeth Stuart. Name.

Conflicts with Elizabeth Stuart the daughter of James Stuart, King of England (James I) and King of Scotland (James VI), through whom the House of Hanover claimed the English throne. She was Princess of England, Electress Palatine of Hanover, and Queen of Bohemia. She has her own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica and therefore is important enough to protect. (06/1998)

Elizabetta Sforza. Name and device. Azure, a bend sinister between a cross patonce and a falcon rising Or.

The surname Sforza is one of those names such as Hohenstaufen which are so closely associated with a single sovereign royal family as to be presumptuous in their use. Indeed, in times past it was one of those that were used as an exemplar for that category of restricted names. (The name of the dynasty was derived from the nickname of its founder and in period was associated closely with the immediate family of the sovereign Dukes of Milan.) The use of the Sforza surname is tantamount to a claim to being from the immediate family of the sovereign Dukes of Milan and is not allowed under RFS VI.1. The device conflicts with Blair Dubois, (SCA) Azure, a bend sinister between a cat sejant guardant and a dove close Or., with only one CD for changes of type of the secondaries. The badge was registered under the holding name Elizabetta of Artemisia (07/1997)

Elsa de Lyon. Device. Azure, a lion's jambe erased clasped by a shackle with a broken chain argent.

This conflicts with Fearghus O'Shannon (Fieldless) A tiger's jambe couped argent marked sable. There is a CD for the field, but the sable markings are not enough to provide a second CD. No difference is granted for a lion's jambe vs. a tiger's jambe, nor is a difference granted for couped vs. erased, nor for the addition of the shackle. Laurel is at a loss to understand why this was sent out of kingdom, since this is identical to the previous submission which was returned for the same conflict. (10/1998)

Elsby MacKristinn. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for the first name. The LoI stated that Elsby is a female human character in a fairy tale from the Isle of Man. However, without any documentation that the story is a period story, it is not an acceptable source. Lacking documentation that Elsby is a period name, this must be returned. (03/1998)

Elspeth Fitzwilliam. Device. Azure, four demi-fleurs-de-lys argent issuant from the edge and conjoined in saltire.

This motif is certainly registerable. The Art of Heraldry by A. Fox-Davies (New York: Arno Press, 1976), plate LXXIII, figure 8 is of a manuscript dating back at least to the 16th century. The actual arms have the lilies in cross, not in saltire, but, aside from the tincture change, that is only one (not unreasonable) change from the documented form. The (Victorian) blazon given on pg. 407 for these arms is Gules, four lilies argent, issuing from the edge of the shield and conjoined at the center, forming a cross. Unfortunately, this submission conflicts with the badge of Scotland (important non-SCA flag) Azure, a saltire argent. What is shown is clearly a saltire by complex line, in keeping with Fox-Davies description of the cross-like arrangement as a cross. This also conflicts with Alienor Beatrice Lucrezia (SCA) Azure, four fleurs-de-lys in cross bases to center argent., with one CD for arrangement, but nothing for the difference between the demi fleurs-de-lys and the complete fleurs-de-lys as drawn. (12/1997)

Elspeth MacLean. Name.

This conflicts with the already registered Elspeth nic Léighinn. (04/1999)

Elspeth Necaedan. Device. Or, a Celtic cross gules within an orle of ivy leaves vert issuant from a bordure azure.

This is not an "orle of ... leaves" but rather a new, undocumented complex line of division, akin to a bordure fleury or a bordure trefly. And while it is possible, though not likely, that a "bordure ivy-leafy" might be considered but an extension of period practice, making the leafy parts of the line of division a different tincture from the bordure is too removed from period practice to be registered without documentation. (12/1997)

Elwisia Mouche de Voujeaucourt. Device. Argent, a pall vert between a dexter wing and a sinister wing sable, a chief triangular checky sable and argent.

This device engendered a lot of discussion. While blazoned as above on the LoI, it was not a properly drawn chief triangular. As drawn, it is really Per pall checky sable and argent, argent and argent, a pall vert between a dexter wing and a sinister wing sable, which is not period style. (10/1996)

Embla the Bone Trader. Name.

The only documentation provided for Embla was as a mythological name. No one in the College could provide any better documentation. Additionally, no documentation was provided and no one could provide any, for Bone Trader as a period occupational byname. Therefore we are forced to return this name. The Old Norse for bone' is bein; we suggest that Bein­ would be a possible ON preposed byname that she could at least interpret as having the desired meaning. With an acceptable give name, the form Bein­Old Norse given name should be registerable. (08/1997)

Emelyn Pacok. Device change. Purpure, a peacock pavanated to base argent.

This conflicts with Order of the Argent Peacock of the Barony of One Thousand Eyes) (Fieldless) A peacock pavanated to base contourny argent. There is one CD for the field. (02/1998)

Emma Katherine of Wakefield. Device. Argent, a bend cotissed vert.

This conflicts with Aidan Morgana Evans Argent a bend between a flame and a lymphad under sail vert., with one CD for the change of secondaries. Cotisses are considered secondaries. (10/1998)

Emrys Dragon. Device. Gyronny Or and purpure, a dragon segreant argent.

This conflicts with Brychan Tammas Gyronny Or and azure, a dragon segreant argent., and Moira Kellahan Per pale azure and purpure, a wyvern erect argent., with one CD for change of field. (02/1998)

Enoch Sutherland. Device. Argent, two bendlets cotised azure between two martlets gules.

In the return of Nethaniel Strathearn 8/91, Azure, two chevronels cotised Or, in base a tyger passant argent. Master Da'ud as Laurel wrote:

"Several commenters questioned whether there was any documentation for cotising multiple ordinaries. Without such documentation we are hesitant to introduce yet another post-Period practice into SCA Heraldry."

Since no documentation has been produced for cotising multiple ordinaries, we see no reason to overturn this precedent. (12/1998)

Eoan Ó Séaghdha. Device. Per saltire vert and purpure, a ram's head affronty argent.

This conflicts with Carl of Caermarthin Azure masoned argent, a ram's head cabossed argent., and with Morgan Argante Elandris of Cantref Gwaelon, Sable, ram's skull cabossed argent. In both cases there is one CD for difference in the fields. (01/1999)

Eochaid of Tesedale. Name.

This is being returned for mixing English and Gaelic orthography in the same name, which has been disallowed for at least the last four years. (01/1998)

Eoghan Mac an Bhaird. Device. Vert, on a bend sinister argent, between two open books Or, a quill pen vert

This conflicts with Elisa of Thescorre Vert, on a bend sinister argent between two open books Or a rapier sable. There is just one CD, for the changes of type and tincture of the tertiary charge. (03/1999)

Eoin Mac Cana. Device. Per fess sable and lozengy argent and azure, in chief a compass star elongated in fess argent.

This conflicts with Ansteorra, Kingdom of (Seal for the Chronicler) (Tinctureless) A mullet of five greater and five lesser points distilling gouttes. There is a CD for tincturelessness, but nothing for the gouttes, and nothing for the position of the compass star against a tinctureless badge. (10/1998)

Eoin the Modest. Device. Azure, a sealion dormant Or.

This conflicts with Barony of Allyshia, Azure, a sea­lion erect to sinister Or., with only one CD for change to position of the sealion, since the change in orientation is subsumed by the change in position. (10/1997)

Ered Sul, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Mountain Heart.

This is being returned for lack of documentation. The mere fact that "mountain" was used as an modifier in period in some cases does not automatically make "mountain X" a reasonable period phrase in all cases. The parallel to the Order of the Golden Fleece is strained at best, since "golden fleece" is a well-established concept from mythology, while "mountain heart" has neither an established meaning nor any obvious candidate for one in or out of period. (03/1998)

Ered Sul, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Mountain Shield.

This is being returned for lack of documentation. The mere fact that "mountain" was used as an modifier in period in some cases does not automatically make "mountain X" a reasonable period phrase in all cases. The parallel to the Order of the Golden Fleece is strained at best, since "golden fleece" is a well-established concept from mythology, while "mountain shield" has neither an established meaning nor any obvious candidate for one in or out of period. (03/1998)

Ered Sul, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Mountain Star.

This is being returned for lack of documentation. The mere fact that "mountain" was used as an modifier in period in some cases does not automatically make "mountain X" a reasonable period phrase in all cases. The parallel to the Order of the Golden Fleece is strained at best, since "golden fleece" is a well-established concept from mythology, while "mountain star" has neither an established meaning nor any obvious candidate for one in or out of period. (03/1998)

Eric Edwardson. Device. Purpure, two unicorns combattant, a bordure Or.

This is being returned for a redraw and a recolor. The beasts need to be drawn more recognizably as unicorns, with lion's tails and equine hooves. Furthermore they need to be colored a true heraldic Or, and not orange. (10/1997)

Eric Wolfson. Device. Paly of four argent and gules, a rustre sable.

Unfortunately for this lovely device, there is ample precedent for piercing being considered the equivalent of a tertiary charge. As such, this conflicts with Edward of Effingham Argent the kanjii "mae" in gyosho script within a rustre sable. The kanjii is considered a quaternary charge and as such does not count for difference. Therefore, there is one CD for the field, but nothing for the change of tincture of the tertiary roundel. (04/1998)

Erich Eadweard Kerr. Device. Per pale wavy sable and vert, a sun in splendor Or.

This is being returned for multiple conflicts including Sara of the Rushes Gules, an estoile of four straight and four rayonny voided rays Or., Wendryn Townsend Azure, a sun in glory Or., Wiliam Allan Barry of six gules and argent, a sun in his glory Or., Macedonia Gules, a sun Or., Kingdom of Atenveldt Per pale argent and azure, a sun in his splendour., Wolfgang de Rotus Quarterly sable and argent, a sun in splendour., Paul of Sunriver Azure, a compass star Or., Rolf the Relentless Pean, a compass-star fitchy of eight Or., and Kingdom of Ansteorra (Tinctureless) A mullet of five greater and five lesser points distilling gouttes. In each case there is one CD for the difference in field.

Even if there had not been any conflicts this would be returned for violating RfS VIII.3., which states in relevant part that: "For instance, a complex line of partition could be difficult to recognize between two parts of the field that do not have good contrast if most of the line is also covered by charges." Here, well over half the complex line of partition between the two low-contrast portions of the field is entirely covered by the charge. (08/1998)

Erich Rotbart. Device. Lozengy bendwise azure and argent, a swan naiant wings elevated and addorsed sable.

This is in conflict with arms of the Principality of Cynagua, Quarterly argent and Or, a swan rousant, wings elevated and addorsed sable, maintaining in its dexter foot a laurel wreath vert. The main difference between a swan naiant and rousant is the leg position, which is not sufficient in this case. While not a cause for the return, the lozenges should be drawn smaller. (01/1997)

Erich von Drachenholz. Badge. Sable, on a tower argent masoned sable a dragon coward gules, a bordure argent.

This is being returned for conflict with William FitzBubba, Sable, a chess-rook within a bordure argent. There is one CD for the addition of the dragon, but nothing for the difference between a tower and a chess-rook. (10/1996)

Erich von Drachenholz. Device. Per chevron argent and sable, in chief two dragons segreant coward addorsed gules, in base a tower argent masoned sable.

This is being returned for conflict with Thomas Blackkeep (SCA), Per chevron throughout argent and sable, two pairs of triangles conjoined in pale at the points gules and a tower argent. This is nothing for the throughoutness of the field and one CD for change of type of half of the charges in the primary charge group. (10/1996)

Erich Wanderer. Name.

This conflicts with the already registered Eric the Wanderer. Neither the very small difference in the given names nor the addition of an article are enough to generate difference.

The armory was registered under the holding name Erich of Ered Sul. (06/1998)

Eridana Ambra Dragotta. Badge. (Fieldless) On a compass star quarterly Or and argent a roundel tincturelessness.

Fieldless badges must be pierced of the field, and not be untinctured.

The 'piercing' of the cross here is essentially an attempt to use a tinctureless (or rather, omni-tinctured) tertiary charge. Such have been disallowed for some time. 'It is not possible to eclipse something `of the field' on a fieldless badge.' (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR February 1991, p. 18) It is true that we have registered fieldless badges consisting of a charge which has been pierced, but in these cases the piercing was part of the definition of the charge (e.g., a mascle, a rustre) and can hardly be considered as being in the same category as a 'cross pierced of an (omni-tinctured) mullet'." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR January 1996, p. 27) (04/1998)

Erika Rothals. Device. Gules, on a beer mug Or, two Roman letters "X" in fess sable and a bordure Or.

This is being returned for conflict with Daniel de Tankard (SCA), Gules a tankard of beer Or, headed argent. It was the consensus of everyone at the meeting that the X were not enough to count for difference; that they appeared to be merely internal detailing. (12/1996)

Erin Amazonia the Tall. Name.

Submitted as Erin Amazonia the Tall, it is too far from period practice to be registered in the submitted form. Erin is the submitter's legal name, and while registerable under the legal name allowance, is not a period name. The documentation for Amazonia comes from Uppity Women of Ancient Times by Vicki Leon, which while amusing to read, is not noted for its scholarship, and therefore is not a reliable source. The name as submitted combines a modern name (registerable under the legal name allowance) a possible Roman given name and an English descriptive. We would have dropped Amazonia in order to register the rest of the name, but the submitter would not take major changes, and dropping Amazonia would be a major change. Therefore, we are returning it.

The armory was registered under the holding name Erin of Atenveldt. (06/22/1999)

Esclarmonde de Collioure. Device. Azure, three crescents interlaced in pall inverted and on a chief Or three quatrefoils gules.

We are returning this for violating VIII.4.b.: Modern Insignia ­ Overt allusions to modern insignia, trademarks, or common designs may not be registered.

Such references, including parodies, may be considered obtrusive. Examples include using a bend within a bordure gules to parody the international "No Entry" sign, variations on the geometric Peace sign, and so forth.

This is too close to the biohazard symbol to be registered. (08/1997)

Esmeralda Blackadder. Household name for House Blackadder and badge. (Fieldless) An adder erect tail nowed sable.

The name is being returned for being conflicting with the television show Blackadder. Laurel, who does not watch TV, has heard of the series Blackadder. If we protect the names of famous fictional characters in literature and television, we also protect the names of television shows.

The armory conflicts with Robert of Woodsende Or, vetu ployé, a serpent nowed sable. The only difference is the one for fieldlessness. (12/1998)

Esmerelda de Andalucia. Name.

This is being returned for conflict with Esmeralda la Andaluza. The armory has been registered under the holding name Esmerelda of Dun Or. (08/1996)

Esperanza Razzolini d'Asolo. Badge for Honorine Maria Steenhouwer. Sable, a trimount throughout Or each mount charged with a fleur-de-lys florency sable.

This is being returned for violation of RfS VII.7.a., which requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." A trimount is equivalent to a base enarched to chief, and by being throughout, it is unrecognizable. It was mentioned, without any evidence being provided, that trimounts in this form are seen in Italian armory. If period evidence is provided that this was, indeed done, we would happily revisit this issue. (05/1997)

Etain Eame. Badge. (Fieldless) A maunch azure.

This is being returned for conflict with Elspeth Yseult Fitzalden (SCA), Gyronny Or and argent, issuant from a maunch azure, a falconer's gauntlet sable grasping a lure gules. The gauntlet and lure combination are not significant enough to count for difference. (02/1997)

Eudoxia d'Antioche. Device. Azure, a calopus rampant argent, armed and horned gules.

According to Dennys' The Heraldic Imagination, the Calopus or Catwolf appears in the early 16th c. and is described as having a wolf-like body, feet and tail and a cat-like face with two serrated horns." This depiction does not match the beast on the emblazon; that is more like a lion with a lupine tail and a pair of goat's horns. As such, we cannot give any difference between this and a lion and this conflicts with Charles Redmane (SCA) Erminois, a lion rampant argent, maned gules., and with the Mowbray Dukes of Norfolk (real world armory) Gules, a lion rampant argent., with one CD for the field in both cases. Furthermore, if a difference is to be allowed, a great deal of the difference would be for the horns. With the gules horns against the blue field, there would not be sufficient contrast to provide difference. (09/1997)

Euphemia Acropolites. Device. Per bend sinister vert and sable, an owl maintaining a branch Or.

This conflicts with Lorraine von Eulennest (SCA), Per saltire vert and purpure, a great horned owl affronty Or., with one CD for the change to the field. (07/1997)

Euriant Alessandra Deri. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for both Euriant and Deri. The LoI glossed Euriant as appearing in the 15th-century Romance of Gerard de Nevers. However no evidence was presented to show that it was used as a name of a human being or that it was a given name. No documentation of any sort was presented for Deri and none could be found. Barring documentation for both names, we are returning this. (01/1999)

Eva MacCarthy. Device. Gules, a goblet Or and in chief a mullet of eight points argent, a bordure indented Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The indented bordure is drawn with the indents far too small and too closely together; the classic "pinking shears". (11/1997)

Evangelia de Martin. Device. Azure, a chevron throughout wavy in base three mullets and a crescent in cross argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The wavy must be drawn bigger and bolder. The mullets and the crescent need to be drawn the same size. (11/1996)

Everard de Selborne. Badge. (Fieldless) An astrolabe argent.

Per the precedent of June 1992 which states:

"Drawn correctly as an astrolabe, this conflicts with...[a roundel, with] nothing for the internal diapering of the primary (similar to the conflict between a moon in her plenitude and a plate.)" (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR June 1992, p. 15),

this conflicts with Erryk Blackwolf Per bend sinister sable and gules, a plate., and Edwin Bersark Gules, a roundel so drawn as to represent a round shield battered in long and honourable service, argent., with the only CD in each case the one for fieldlessness. (03/1998)

Evyenios Athanasiou. Name and device. Gules, a Coptic cross throughout Or between four natural dolphins in annulo argent a bordure Or.

Evyenios was stated in the letter of intent to be "a phonetic transcription of the name from the Greek not a transliteration". Given that there was a very strong tradition of how one rendered Greek words into the Roman alphabet in period, it is not reasonable to register something that does not fall within that tradition. Even today, Greek gamma is rendered in ordinary use as "g", in spite of the pronunciation. In a medieval context the likeliest possibilities would seem to be writing the name in Greek, which we would normally represent by a transliteration, or Latinizing it to Eugenius filius Athanasii or the like. This is a larger change than we feel comfortable making without the submitter's approval, so we are returning the name. The armory is being returned for several reasons. While it was blazoned on the letter of intent as having a gules field, the field was an unidentifiable color somewhere between purple and brown. Furthermore, the bordure and the cross were far too thin; the bordure returnably so. Note: while we have no objection to the use of color printers, as was done in this case, if the printer cannot produce identifiable colors, it should not be used. (06/1997)

Fafnir Walther. Name.

No documentation was presented to show that Fafnir was used by humans in period, and Lind, from where the name was documented, marks it as mythological. The armory was registered under holding name Jeffrey Walther. (01/1997)

Faoiltighearna inghean mhic Ghuaire. Badge (Fieldless) On a flame proper, a delf argent.

This is being returned for breaking the rule of tincture. While the flame was blazoned on the LoI as proper, it was mostly Or. That put a white charge on a yellow one, which breaks the rule of contrast.

When resubmitting please consider Reginleif the Unruly Sable, on a flame gules fimbriated Or a rough-legged draught horse forcene argent., and Grimn the Hele-Bourne Sable, upon a flame gules fimbriated Or, a skull argent. Each gets a CD for the field; each gets nothing for the type only of the tertiary, since a flame is not a suitable charge for RFS X.4.j.ii. "In simple cases substantially changing the type of all of a group of identical charges placed entirely on other charges is one clear difference." Therefore, making the flame red will result in conflict. (08/1998)

Faoiltighearna MacEanruig. Device. Azure, on a plate a wolf’s face sable, a bordure rayonny argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The "rayonny" is not rayonny, or clearly any other line of division. (05/1999)

Fearann na Críche, Shire of. Device. Per chevron inverted azure and vert, three oak branches conjoined in pall, in chief a laurel wreath argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The three branches conjoined in pall are not clearly three branches, or anything else, though most commenters felt it was closest to an oak tree. (01/1999)

Fearghas an Cu. Device. Vert, a wolfhound's head erased contourny Or.

This is being returned for conflict with Wulfgar der Krieger (SCA) Gyronny of six palewise sable and argent, a wolf's head erased contourny Or. There is one CD for the difference in the fields. (12/1996)

Fearghus Slànaighear. Badge. (Fieldless) A mazer argent.

This conflicts with Kathleen Erin-go-burne-the-Bragh (Vert, a chalice argent containing flames Or). as cited on the LoI. There is certainly one CD for fieldlessness, but the flames are not large enough to be count for difference. (09/1998)

Feargus MacLachlainn. Device. Per chevron azure and gules, on a chevron Or three thistles slipped and leaved proper.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn this is not clearly per chevron or a point pointed, but rather something halfway in between. (04/1998)

Feliciano Grimaldi. Household name for The Company of the Righteous Bastard.

This is being returned for non period style. It is not constructed in the manner that period names for companies were constructed. Furthermore, as with the return of the Artemisian Tank Corps (returned Feb 91), though the parts of the name may be period, the name as a whole is decidedly modern (05/1999)

Felis de la Roca. Device. Azure, on a lozenge Or a tower azure.

This conflicts with Jervaise de Guienne, Azure on a lozenge throughout Or, a mascle azure. There is one CD for the change of the tertiary charge. (06/22/1999)

Felix Gruenstrasse. Device. Per chevron throughout Or and vert, two falcons close respectant sable and four billets in pale Or.

This is being returned for several reasons. This violates VIII.4.a. Pictorial Design, with a highway stretching to the horizon, and VIII.4.b. Modern Insignia, with the center line being a common modern design). Removing the billets would fix both problems. (04/1997)

Felix Selwyn. Device. Quarterly gules and argent, a bagwyn sable.

This conflicts with Brión mag Fhloinn Argent, a stag rampant sable., as cited in the LoI. The LoI argued that there should be a CD between a deer and a bagwyn because they were considered different charges in period. However, the bagwyn is visually a deer with an odd tail.

The question then is how distinct was the bagwyn considered in period? Its having a distinct name is prima facie evidence for its being distinct, but otherwise the evidence is not encouraging. It apparently had no existence outside of heraldry, as compared with the antelope which is found in bestiaries. The word is not found in the OED (first edition). As a charge it is a very late invention, with its first attested appearance being from c. 1539. (By way of comparison, the antelope is found in English heraldry from the reign of Henry IV.) Finally, it seems to only occur in the heraldry of one family, albeit a prominent one. Denys points out that the putative bagwyn as the supporter of the 17th century Lords Hunsdon is actually a yale.

Based on this, we feel that the bagwyn is an insignificant variant of a stag which happens to have its own name, and there is no countable difference between it and a deer (or stag). (11/1998)

Fergus O'Kelly. Badge. [Fieldless] A sun pean.

This conflicts with the badge of the chronicler of Ansteorra: (Fieldless) A mullet of five greater and five lesser points distilling gouttes. There is one CD for tincturelessness but nothing between a sun and this mullet, and nothing for the teeny goutes. (09/1997)

Finnr Grimulfsson. Device. Argent, two arms embowed fesswise manacled, chain sundered, hands grasped sable, a stump proper atop a mount vert.

As colored the arms are not sable, but gold which breaks the rule of tincture, by having a metal on a metal. (04/1998)

Fionn MacMorna. Name.

According to the LoI, the documentation for the byname comes from, Fionn MacCumhaill, Celtic Myth in English Literature, by James MacKillop, p 19, which says Cumhal is killed at the battle of Cnucha (modern: Castleknock western County Dublin) by Goll mac Morna of Connacht." However a book on Celtic Myth is not evidence that a name was used by human beings during our period. Barring such documentation, the name would have to be returned.

Morna is also an Anglicized form of the female Irish name Muirne. However, considering the byname as an Anglicized metronomic introduces other problems. First, since Fionn is a Gaelic name, the byname would have to be put into Gaelic. However, to the best of our knowledge, Gaelic did not use metronomics, so an all Gaelic form of the name as a metronomic would not be registerable.

Barring further documentation, we have no choice but to return the name. (11/1997)

Fionnbharr Liath Seabhac Seilge. Name.

The name is incorrectly constructed. He has given himself two independent bynames: he's grey (liath), and he's a hunting hawk, that being the literal meaning of seabhac seilge. Seabhac `hawk' would be a fine byname; it may even be attested. Liath `grey-haired' is certainly attested. Seabhac seilge is not formed like any actual Irish or Scots Gaelic byname, and the use of two non-patronymic, non-locative bynames in a period Gaelic name, has not been demonstrated. There are period models for an Seabhac `the Hawk', and an Seabhac Liath `the Grey Hawk' is probably registerable, but the combination of all three byname elements is not believable. (01/1997)

Fionnbharr Seabhac. Device. Argent, a falcon stooping and on a chief vert a rapier reversed proper.

This is returned for lack of paperwork. (09/1998)

Fionualla ní Chába. Name.

This is being returned for the use of an out of period given name. Fionualla is a modern, post-reform spelling of Fionnghuala (see O'Corrain & Maguire p.103). The submitted spelling would not have been used before the 20th century. Strictly speaking ní Chába is not a feminine equivalent of Mac Cába -- it would be the equivalent of ó Cába which is unattested. If Mac Cába was actually being used as a hereditary family surname by Gaelic-speaking people, this is a case where the feminine equivalent would be inghean mhic Chába (modernly shortened to nic Chába). (05/1998)

Firmin Sewell. Badge. Azure, a seal sejant reguardant Or, in chief three mullets of four points argent.

This conflicts with Diana Thjodhild of the Silver Whale's Tooth Azure, a bull seal sejant Or, maintaining in its dexter flipper a narwhal tusk argent. There is no difference for head position, nothing for the maintained tusk, and only one CD for the addition of the mullets. (10/1998)

Foxwood, Canton of. Device. Argent, a fox's mask gules within a laurel wreath vert, a bordure embattled azure.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn the fox's mask is only partially within the laurel wreath. It needs to be either entirely within it, or entirely out of it. While not in and of itself grounds for return, please instruct the group on how to properly draw a laurel wreath. To be considered a proper laurel wreath, it should be drawn nearly circular. (01/1999)

Francesca Da Trani. Badge. Sable, a lion's head cabossed Or transfixed by a pomegranate gules, slipped and leaved vert.

This is being returned for style. It is two steps removed from any attested period practice. The charge is essentially a lion’s head jessant-de-pomegranate. This is unattested, but not by itself cause for return. In considering the submission of Eudoxia d’Antioche with an owl’s head jessant-de-lys in March 1996 Laurel wrote "There was ... some concern that we here we are getting too far from period practice. (Period practice being leopard's head jessant-de-lys; one step from period practice being other beast's heads; and two steps from period practice being other types of heads, including birds' heads.) Given that we have in recent years a number of different types of heads (including humanoid) jessant of items other than a fleur-de-lys (including a complex cross), Laurel does not feel that this submission is so far from SCA practice as warrant a return on that ground." The second problem is that the pomegranate here is entirely on the lion’s head, not overlapping as does a true jessant treatment. This makes the submission two steps removed from period practice, which is cause for return. (04/1999)

Francesca de Foggia. Device. Lozengy argent and azure, a fleur-de-lys gules.

This conflicts with the arms of the City of Florence Argent a fleur-de-lys gules., with one CD for the change of the field. (05/1999)

Francesco Gaetano Greco de Foresta Orientale. Badge. Per chevron gules and vert, a San Damiano cross argent.

This is being returned for several reasons.

First, no documentation was presented for this being a period cross. Absent such documentation the charge is not registerable. Second, this is being returned for unidentifability. This is a San Damiano crucifix with the body removed. However, once the body is taken off the cross, it becomes difficult to identify. Guesses as to what the charge was included a syringe and a jackhammer. Finally, this conflicts with Switzerland Gules, a cross couped argent., with a CD for the field, but nothing for the difference in the crosses. (06/22/1999)

Francesco Greco. Badge. Per fess enarched gules and vert, a San Dominio crucifix argent.

This is being returned for violating VII.7.a., armorial identifiability. While evidence was produced that crucifixes were used in period, they had the figure of Jesus in a different tincture than that of the underlying cross. With the entire crucifix in one tincture, it blurs into one amorphous mass. Making the underlying cross one tincture and Jesus another should take care of this problem. (01/1997)

Francine de Ruen. Device. Argent, on a fess between four ermine spots sable, three and one, a lion passant guardant brandishing a sword argent.

After much thought we have decided that this is in conflict with the arms of Randall of Hightower (SCA), Ermine, on a fess gules a lion passant guardant Or. There is one CD for the difference in tincture between the two fesses. The second CD must come from the difference in field. Technically, there are two CD's between ermine and argent charged with four ermine spots. However, ermine can be drawn with only a few spots. Furthermore, if the spots were drawn large and in the form three, two and one, and a fess was put over the field, you could get a drawing that looked like this. In fact, Randall's device only has six ermine spots on it. (09/1996)

Francois Xavier MacUlric. Name.

This name combines a French given name, a French adaptation of a Basque locative surname and an English version of a quasi-Gaelic hereditary patronymic. Furthermore, this name uses two surnames. We found the entire combination too improbable to be registered. The device was registered under the name Francois of Thor's Mountain. (01/1997)

Freyia av Bergen. Name and device. Per fess vert and azure, a cauldron and a domestic cat in its curiosity within a bordure indented argent.

According to the LoI "[Lind's Norsk-Islandsk Personnamen col.283] has a reasonable entry for Freyia." This is not correct. While it is true that Freyia is found in Lind, the references are all to the Goddess, and not to a human being. Barring documentation that the given name was used by humans in our period as a given name, this name must be returned.

The armory is being returned for non-period style. It is unbalanced with the primary cauldron and the secondary cat. Furthermore, it is not even drawn as was the one registration of a cat in its curiousity, August 1978. Since "a cat in its curiousity" is not period style it will no longer be registered after the October 1998 Laurel meeting. (06/1998)

Freyja the Cunning. Name.

There is no documentation for the name Freya/Freyja being used for anyone but the Goddess in our period. SCA given names must be given names used by Human beings in our period. The byname is also problematic: on the 5/94 LoAR the name Eirik the Wandering was returned because `[n]o one was able to document an authentic English byname formed from the present participle of a word'. Cunning, earlier cunnand, is in origin the present participle of can `to know'. This is a borderline case, since it seems to have acquired independent status as an adjective fairly early, but it at least needs to be mentioned. (By the way, the LoI slightly misleads in appearing to date cunning to 1382; the actual citation is for kunnynge.) If she wants an attested English byname, she might try Slei, Slegh, Sley, le Slege, Sly, etc. These citations, all from the 13th c., are in Reaney & Wilson s.n. Slay and represent the modern English sly, from ON sloegr `sly, cunning, crafty'. Of course, if she returns with an ON forename, the ON byname would be even better. Its feminine forms would be sloeg and, with the definite article, in sloega. There are other possibilities if she prefers another shade of meaning, e.g., gör `skilled, accomplished' (or in göra `the accomplished'). Another possibility, this one etymologically related to cunning, is kunnandi `cunning, knowing, learned' (or in kunnandi). Freygerðr in sloega (in göra, in kunnandi) would be a perfectly acceptable ON feminine name. (05/1997)

Fritz der Klewer. Device. Quarterly Or and sable, in bend two wolves rampant respectant and in bend sinister two Maltese crosses, a bordure all counterchanged.

This is being returned for violating RfS XI.3.a. (appearance of marshalling) which states:

"Such fields may be used with identical charges over the entire field, or with complex lines of partition or charges overall that were not used for marshalling in period heraldry."

It has been held previously that a counterchanged bordure is not such a "charge overall". (02/1999)

Frosted Hills, Shire of. Badge. (Fieldless) A sturgeon naiant argent.

This conflicts with Anton de Winton Per chevron azure and Or scaly sable, in chief a herring naiant embowed argent. There is one CD for the field, but nothing for position on the field for a fieldless badge. There is no difference for the embowing: as per the LoAR of 7/92 p.21: Prior rulings notwithstanding, there is no difference between naiant and naiant embowed": the naiant posture often includes a slight embowment." (03/1999)

Fyren-Ar, Shire of. Name and device. Argent, a copper brazier proper enflamed Or and vert within a laurel wreath sable, a bordure quartered and per saltire gules and sable.

The name is being returned for lack of documentation. While the LoI glosses Fyren-Ar as meaning Burning Ore in Anglo-Saxon, nothing was presented to show that the name followed the pattern of period place-names.

The armory is being returned for a number of reasons. First, since there is no name, it must be returned since SCA armory is registered only to an SCA name, and there is no name to register this, and we do not form holding names for groups. However, even if the name had been registerable, the armory would have been returned for the following reasons: "The [copper charges proper], whose default tincture must be heraldically Or, are metal on metal because of their position [against argent and Or primary charge], to the extent that they were unidentifiable at any distance." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 27 September 1986, p. 14) The "copper" brazier is metal on metal. The bordure can be more succinctly blazoned as gyronny gules and sable. However, this blazon makes it even more apparent that it falls afoul of RfS VIII.2.b.iii., which states specifically that: "Elements evenly divided into two parts, per saltire, or quarterly may use any two tinctures or furs." This is not divided per saltire or quarterly, but gyronny or per saltire and quarterly. It thus may not consist of two metals or, as here, two colors. (01/1999)

Gabbriella Mocenigo. Device. Sable, on a pile nebuly argent a moon in her plenitude sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn it is not truly nebuly, but closer to nebuly engrailed, which is not a period line of division, and breaks our precedent on using two different lines of division in the same line. Please inform the submitter that this is in conflict with Alexandre Bernadou Sable, on a pile wavy argent three fleurs-de-lys gules., registered this month. We give no difference between wavy and nebuly, so there is only the CD for changing the tertiaries. (11/1998)

Gabrán Mac Mhuirich. Name.

This was pended on the June 1996 LoAR because it was a Pennsic submission where the Pennsic worksheet gave permission to make changes and the forms did not. The name as submitted on the forms was not registerable, though the name on the worksheet was. This was pended to allow the East Kingdom to contact the submitter and find out what he wanted done. Since no one in the East has gotten back to us, we are forced to return it. (08/1997)

Gabriel Mousebane. Name.

This is being returned for non period style. According to the LoI, Mousebane is the Anglicization of the hypothetical Norse epithet meaning "mouse leg". However, no examples of "-leg" epithets showing this pattern were presented. Furthermore, on the LoAR of August 1997 Laurel said "

Bynames of the form X-bane don't seem to have been used in our period, though it's just possible that the ON cognate bani was so used. In ON one could construct ufsbani, meaning either 'wolf's killer' or 'Ulf's killer', but this doesn't justify Wolfbane."

Barring evidence that names of this sort were used in period, this must be returned. (01/1998)

Galen of Elvegast. Change of device. Per saltire azure and Or, a saltire cotised counterchanged.

This is being returned per RFS VIII.3 for excessive counterchanging. (10/1996)

Gareth Wrensfield. Name.

OE grammar makes the s very unlikely. Smith's, English Placename Elements includes names of birds among the first elements often found modifying OE feld (whence modern field), some examples being Cranfield (from cran `crane'), Dukingfield (from ducena, genitive plural of duce `duck'), Larkfield (from lawerce `lark'), Snitterfield (from snitena, genitive plural of snite `snipe'), and Swallowfield (from swalwe `swallow'). In other words, we find feld preceded either by the nominative singular or by the genitive plural. The analogous constructions with wrenna are wrenna feld `wren field' and wrennena feld `wrens' field'. If Wrenna existed as a personal name (presumably derived from a byname `wren' - see Ekwall s.n. Wreningham), it would have been declined like the appellative, whose genitive singular is wrennan, so that `Wrenna's field' would have been Wrennanfeld. Other possible OE sources of Wren also form the genitive singular in -an and the genitive plural in -ena and would therefore fail to produce the s of Wrensfield. The inflexional n in forms like wrennan and wrennena frequently disappears over time in place-names, and the regular development of any of these OE names would be to modern Wrenfield, which even at the end of our period would most likely be Wrenfeld or Wrenfeild; even then field seems still to have been a fairly rare spelling, although field should be registerable. However, since the submitter would not take any changes, we are forced to return the name. The armory was registered under the holding name Gareth of Lochmere. (03/1997)

Garmon Woodworth. Badge. (Fieldless) A caltrap azure.

This is being returned for visual conflict with the badge of Tomman Dallas Sare, (SCA) Checky argent and sable, a mullet of four points azure., and the badge of Eleanor Leonard (SCA) [tinctureless] A mullet of four points distilling a goute. Both of these visually conflict with the caltrap. X.4.e says "Types of charges considered to be separate in period, for example a lion and an heraldic tyger, will be considered different. A charge not used in period armory will be considered different in type if its shape in normal depiction is significantly different change of type". Since a mullet of four points is not a period charge, and since the normal depiction of a caltrap is not significantly different from a mullet of four points, these two charges conflict. (06/1997)

Garreth Emeric. Device. Argent, two chevronels and two chevronels inverted interlaced sable, flaunches counterchanged.

This is being returned because of the charges surmounting the flaunches. We have not allowed charges to surmount flaunches for the past sixteen years. (09/1998)

Garth of the Forest. Device. Sable, a weasel rampant reguardant holding a bow and arrow, in chief a moon in her complement argent within a bordure ermine.

This is being returned for a redraw. The animal is not a weasel, nor any animal that anyone at the Laurel meeting could recognize. (02/1997)

Gaston LeMieux. Device. Sable, a dragon's head contourny issuant from base argent within a bordure urdy Or ermined azure.

The bordure is not in fact urdy, but rather is a cross between urdy and dovetailed. This is neither period nor blazonable, and of this must be returned for style. (03/1998)

Gaston Yvain De Dinan. Device. Paly sable and argent, on a bend Or a wolf's head ululant bendwise erased gules between two Maltese crosses palewise sable.

This is technically in conflict with David of Moorland (SCA) Vert, on a bend Or three Moor's heads couped sable. There is a CD for the field. Gaston's device is not a simple case, so there cannot be a CD for changing the types, and changing the tincture of the middle of three charges is insufficient to generate the second difference. (01/1998)

Gavin Blackthorn. Name.

This name conflicts with Gawain Blackthorne. As the documentation notes, the two given names are merely variant forms and they do not differ significantly enough in sound to carry them clear. The armory was registered under the holding name Gavin of Windkeep. (02/1998)

Gavin MacGregor of Perth. Device. Per saltire gules and sable, a thistle Or.

This conflicts with (Fieldless) A blue thistle sable, slipped and leaved Or (Kingdom of Ansteorra, 8/81). The slipping and leaving is the major part of a thistle, by which standard changing the blossom tincture alone is not be worth a CD. (03/1998)

Gawaine Tristram of Blackmoore. Device. Quarterly argent and azure, a wyvern erect to sinister gules.

This conflicts with the registered badge of Graidhne ni Ruaidh (Fieldless) A dragon rampant to sinister gules maintaining a straight trumpet Or. There is no type difference for wyvern to dragon and nothing for the maintained charge. (03/1999)

Geaspar O'Murchadha. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for the given name. The only documentation presented was from The Book of Irish Names, which is not a reliable source. (03/1999)

Genevieve Chastisse de Vaucresson. Device. Vair en pointe, on a bend between two garden lilies Or a peacock close proper.

This is being returned for a redraw. The flower is not recognizably any known type of period flower. (09/1996)

Geneviève sens solatz. Device. Or, a heart fracted gules and a bordure embattled sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. While we see no need to ban hearts fracted, we do feel that the fracting should be done in a standard heraldic manner. (09/1996)

Genoveva Ulmenstein. Device. Or, two elm trees proper and on a point pointed azure a roundel argent charged with a lizard in a nonblazonable position sable billety Or.

This is being returned for several reasons. First, it violates our rules on complexity, with a count of 11. Secondly, the lizard is in a non-blazonable position. Finally, while blazoned on the LoI as Per chevron, it is really Field, a point pointed, making this five layers. (03/1998)

Geoffrey de la Brugge. Device. Sable, a chevron between two fleurs­de­lys and a unicorn rampant argent.

This conflicts with the badge of Zenobia Blake (SCA) Sable, a chevron between three broadarrows inverted argent. There is only one CD, for change of type of the secondary charges (06/1997)

Geoffrey de Wygan. Device. Per fess azure and argent, two suns in splendor Or and a castle vert.

This conflicts with the ensign of the Kingdom of Atenveldt Per fess azure and argent, in canton a sun in his splendor Or. (see elsewhere in this LoAR for the reblazon). The addition of charges to a group is worth just a single CD. Neither is there a CD for position, since the sun on the Atenveldt ensign is in exactly the same position on the field as one of the suns on this submission. (01/1998)

Geoffrey Fenton Hawks. Device. Per fess wavy Or and barry wavy azure and Or, overall a hawk contourny striking sable.

Thus is being returned for conflict with Sebastian Johann Stroh (device 5/83), Argent, vetu ploye gules a hawk striking to sinister sable. There is only one CD for the field. (07/1996)

Geoffrey FitzDavid. Device. Or, a chevron gules, in base three chevronels sable.

This is being returned for using two different sizes of the same charge on the field. (05/1997)

Geoffrey FitzDavid. Device. Per chevron gules and Or, in base two chevronels sable.

This conflicts with Odo Fitzhugh Vert, two chevronels sable fimbriated argent. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for the fimbriation of the chevronels. Their move to base is dictated by the tinctures of the field, and precedent grants no CD for change in position on the field when that change is "forced" by the tinctures involved. "There is a CD for the field. Wyndhame’s wreath could not be in the center of the shield, so by the standing interpretation of RfS X.4.g. Arrangement Changes the move of the wreath is forced and not eligible for a second CD." (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR May 1997, p. 9) Here, neither of the chevrons could be entirely on or immediately adjoining to the red portion of the field, so the move to base is forced. (02/1999)

Geoffrey Glassceld. Name.

A compound of Gaelic and Welsh glas with OE sceld is unlikely to say the least. It's also against the rules unless evidence for period use of such bilingual compound bynames can be produced. Modern blue is borrowed from French bleu, but it was apparently borrowed by the 13th c.; Blewsheld is a reasonable 13th c. spelling. (If he really wants glas, Welsh ysgwyd las is `blue shield' and is analogous to the ysgwyd hir `long shield' mentioned by Harpy in her Compleat Anachronist pamphlet.) (05/1997)

Geoffroi D'Aubernon. Device. Quarterly vert and sable, a harp argent.

This conflicts with Fionnbharr Starfyr of the Isles (SCA) (Fieldless) A harp argent., with only one CD for fieldlessness. (11/1997)

Gerald Tarrant, the Hunter. Name.

The client allows no changes whatsoever so this is being returned for the out-of-period use of the comma in the name. Additionally, this is being returned for conflict with Gerald Tarrant, the main character in the "Coldfire trilogy", a series of novels by C.S. Friedman, who is known throughout the books as Gerald Tarrant, the Hunter. (01/1997)

Gerard le Bon d'Orleans. Device. Per fess wavy purpure and Or, three bezants one and two and a dolphin naiant counterchanged.

This conflicts with Selene Colfox Per fess rayonny sable and Or in pale three bezants one and two and a fox statant guardant to sinister sable marked argent. There is one CD for the field. Since only 1/4 of the charge group has changed (granted, in type, tincture and posture, but still only 1/4 of the charge group), no other CD can be obtained. (02/1999)

Gerard le Bon. Device. Per fess wavy purpure and Or, in chief three roundels, one and two, in base a dolphin counterchanged.

This is being returned for a redraw. While blazoned on the LoI as Per fess wavy... the emblazon is halfway between that and Or, a dolphin naiant and on a chief... . Since one of the purposes of heraldry is identification, it must be drawn clearly one way or the other. Note: while the name on the LoI was Gerard le Bon d'Orleans, the registered form of the name is Gerard le Bon. (06/1998)

Gerbrich Syth dochter. Name.

A very good job was done in documenting the Frisian name. However, the element Syth needs to be put in the genitive case, per the following exemplars: Marie Wouters 1460 (Marie, daughter of Wouter), Bele Henrix Scillinx dochter 1389, Lijsch Menne dochter (1511). In each instance the patronym takes the genitive case. The name Syth is an i-stem feminine name, and should take an '-e' in the genitive, to make Sythe. However, the submitter does not allow changes, so we have returned the name.

The armory was registered under the holding name Gerbrich of Polderslot. (10/1998)

Gerhard Helmbrecht. Name.

This conflicts with Gerhardt Helmbrecht, which was registered July 1983. (09/1997)

Gerhardt Drachenmacher. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation of the byname. No documentation was presented and none could be found to justify it. (04/1999)

Gershon ben Avraham. Household name for House Sinister.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for the household name. Possible models for household names include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart). However, no evidence was presented to show that Sinister followed any of these exemplars. Barring such documentation, the name must be returned. (10/1998)

Gethyn Tal mab Cadwugaun. Name and device. Or, a sun gules, a bordure sable.

The name is being returned for lack of a given name. Gethyn is not a given name, but rather only a byname. If the client wishes a correctly formed Welsh name, he should contact the Harpy Herald. Her e-mail address is hrjones@socrates.berkeley.edu.

This conflicts with the Ensign of the Kingdom of Ansteorra, Or, a mullet of five greater and five lesser points within a bordure sable., with one CD for change of tincture of the sun/mullet. Phillip Stuart of Silverhill Per saltire azure and argent, a sun in glory gules fimbriated Or within a bordure sable., with one Cd for changes in the field, and nothing for the fimbriation. And, Elizabeth Amy Godwin Or, a compass star gules and a gore sinister sable., with one CD for changing the type of peripheral ordinary from a gore to a bordure. (01/1999)

Gethyn Tal mab Cadwygaun. Badge. Vert, semy-de-lys Or, a tower argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The semy does not look like fleur-de-lys or any other type of heraldic charge. (04/1999)

Giacomo Datina da Venezia. Device. Barry wavy Or and gules, a rapier azure.

This is being returned for conflict with Laurence of the Crystal Sword (SCA), Per chevron ployee argent and sable, a crystal sword azure, hilted Or, pommeled of a ruby proper. There is only one CD for the field. (07/1996)

Giles Librarius. Device. Per bend sinister azure and vert, a quill pen bendwise sinister argent and a chess bishop Or.

This is being returned for using a non­period chess bishop. The Aurum Pursuivant of Caid, who can be reached c/o The Crescent Principal Herald: Eirikr Mjoksiglandi Sigurdson (Mark Wroth); 1915 Danube Way, Upland, CA, has found several period forms, contact her for further details. (07/1997)

Ginevra de’ Rossi. Device. Azure, on a fess wavy between three escallops inverted argent a dolphin naiant between two barrulets wavy vert.

This is being returned for two reasons. First, as drawn the wavy is not sufficiently pronounced to be a proper wavy. Second, it would be extremely difficult to visually distinguish this armory from the noted similar theoretical armory Azure on a fess wavy cotised between three scallops inverted argent a dolphin naiant vert." The space between the cotises" and the fess" is very small and blue and green are similar enough that we doubt the difference will be perceived. As a general rule, heraldic practices which blur the distinctions between standard heraldic practices are not registered (in this case, the standard practices are cotising vs. tertiary charges). Therefore, we will not allow this type of depiction. Additionally, barring period evidence of using two distinct charge groups as tertiaries on a single underlying primary charge will be considered a weirdness. (12/1997)

Giovanni Rocco. Badge. Azure, three bendlets Or, overall a tower argent.

This conflicts with Anne of the White Tower Sable, a tower argent., as cited on the LoI. It was not unusual for barry or paly fields in period to be drawn with an odd number of traits (which we'd blazon as bars or palets); see, for example, the arms of Mouton (Multon, Moleton) found both as Barry argent and gules and Argent, three bars gules (;;;DBA, pp 59, 88; Foster, p. 145). The same thing is found in the arms of von Rosenberg, whose Per fess field has in base either three bends or bendy depending upon the artist's whim (Siebmacher, p. 8; Neubecker and Rentzmann, p. 290). Even when the distinction is worth blazoning, it's worth no difference. (05/1998)

Giovannino di Vidor. Device. Argent, three piles inverted conjoined in point purpure, on the center pile a double bitted axe inverted argent.

No forms were received, so this is being returned for lack of paperwork. However, when resubmitting, please instruct the submitter on how to properly drawn piles inverted and conjoined. Based on how the miniature was drawn we would have to reblazon it as Gyronny of seven from center chief argent and purpure, a double-bitted axe inverted argent. Unfortunately, such a blazon would not be period style.

Therefore, we would have had to returned it for non-period style. Furthermore, that conflicts with Anne Gray Per chevron inverted azure and argent, in chief a double-bitted axe inverted argent, with one CD for the difference in the fields. (06/1998)

Giuliana Audaci. Device. Pily bendy wavy sable and argent.

This was previously returned in November 1995 for visual conflict with Conrad Hebenstorm: Azure, issuant from sinister base four piles wavy in point argent. The submitter appealed this return for a variety of reasons. The text of the return read as follows:

While there is clearly a CD for the tincture change from azure to sable, the overall orientation of the argent "piles" in both leads to a very strong visual similarity. While we believe it would pass Stealth Herald's "Big Lug"(tm) test on the basis of the tincture change, the two really are too close visually.

The submitter's herald raised the following points:

1) The herald thought (a) the device failed the "big lug test" and (b) that it was unfair for Laurel to have a designated "big lug."

2) The herald thought that "There are no rules that specifically restrict two visually similar but clearly differenced (CD'd) devices from being registered."

3) The herald argues that since this device was previously returned for mundane conflict (as it was internally, for conflict with de la Warde: Barry wavy sable and argent, and Plater Bendy wavy of six sable and argent under the pre-Modest Proposal rules then pertaining), then Conrad Hebenstorm's device should have been returned for similar conflicts with blue and white field only armory therefore she should be given the benefit of the doubt and allowed to conflict with him.

The first point results from a misunderstanding of the return: there is no "big lug". The second is also an misunderstanding of the rules; Rule X.5 allows this. The third point is also not relevant; the CoA has never been bound by its past mistakes, except in the case of grandfathered items.

The problem here is that the blazon for Conrad's device is not very accurate. They really don't issue from sinister base, but rather from most of the sinister side. Reading the commentary on Conrad's submission, it is clear that there was a lot of discussion on the proper way to blazon the submission, and there was no clear consensus in the college.

In any case, it was the consensus of everyone who attended the Laurel meeting, none of whom attended the original meeting where this was returned, that these two items were in conflict with each other, with only one effective difference, for the tincture of the field. (11/1996)

Godfrey Baldwin Maul. Badge. (Fieldless) A sword per pale Or and vert sustained by two griffins combattant, that to dexter vert and that to sinister Or.

This is being returned because the sword is divided palewise. A sword is too narrow a charge to be divided per pale. (12/1998)

Godric the Gallant. Device. Per chevron sable and azure, a pall inverted argent between a mullet within a decrescent and a mullet within an increscent Or and a unicorn's head couped to sinister argent.

This is being returned for violating our rule on "Slot machine". The rules for submission, Rule VIII.1.a., disallow three or more dissimilar charges in a single charge group. While precedents treat all crescent variants as a single charge type for purposes of this rule, this does not eliminate the problem created by having a crescent variant, a mullet, and a unicorn head in a single charge group when all three charge types are of roughly equivalent visual weight. (04/1998)

Godwin Olafson. Device. Vert, a tower Or masoned vert.

Since "... masoning is an artistic detail worth no difference." and "We might grant the addition of masoning as worth a CD, for any charge except a stonework edifice." Bruce of Draconarius (Zacharia of Westlake) Aug 92, p. 31, this is being returned for multiple conflicts including: Eleazar ha Levi (SCA), Vert, a tower Or and a ford proper., with one CD for the peripheral ford; Kaitlin Caslean an Bharraigh (SCA), Vert, a tower Or and in chief an Irish harp argent., with one CD for the harp; Robert Greenheart (SCA), Vert, on a tower Or, a heart in chief vert., with CD for the tertiary; Castile (Important non-SCA arms), Gules a castle triple-towered Or., with one CD for the change in the field; Brusten de Bearsul (SCA), Per fess embattled azure and vert, a tower Or., with one CD for the change in the field; and with Ellen of Neglamer (SCA), Sable, a conical roofed tower Or, ajouree in the upper sinister part., with one CD for the changes to the field. (06/1997)

Gorandookht Mamigonian. Device change. Gules, two lions statant guardant respectant, both gorged of the same leash, and a pomegranate slipped and leaved Or.

This conflicts with Aquitaine Gules, a lion passant gardant Or. There is only one CD for changing the number of primary charges. The difference in type of less than one half of the charges is not worth a CD, nor is the addition of the leash. (05/1998)

Gormlaith Una O'Doyle. Device. Gyronny vert and argent, a stag's head erased contourny azure.

This is being returned for non­identifiability. The identifying features of the blue head have very poor contrast with the green portions of the field. Making the field gyronny argent and vert would take care of the problem. (03/1997)

Gotfridus von Schwaben. Device. Vert, on a bend sinister wavy between two deer rampant Or three horses rampant palewise sable.

No paperwork was received for the device submission. (07/1998)

Gotvik, Shire of. Device. Azure, a dolphin urinant and in canton a laurel wreath argent.

This is being returned for conflict with the badge of the Order of the Dolphin of Caid, Azure, a dolphin embowed uriant to sinister argent. The only difference between urinant and urinant to sinister is the head position, which we do not count for difference. Thus there is only one CD, for addition of the Laurel wreath. (09/1996)

Gra Valr Grittisson. Device. Per pale vert and gules, a hammer inverted Or.

This conflicts with Elgar of Stonehaven Sable chaussé ployé lozengy argent and gules, a Thor's hammer Or., registered 11/97. There is one CD for the field but nothing for two hammers in identical positions. (02/1998)

Grainne inghean Dhonnchadha. Device. Barry wavy azure and argent, on a pile vert a tree uprooted Or.

This conflicts with Oralea Giddian Barry wavy of eight argent and azure, upon a pile vert a sea-unicorn passant, tail elevated above its head, argent, armed and finned Or. Reversing the tinctures of the barry field is not a CD (and neither is the number of stripes), so the only CD is for the tertiary. (03/1998)

Gráinne inghean uí Uaithne. Household name for Domus Digitabulum Impar.

The name was intended to be Latin and mean "House of the Pairless Glove. However, this is not a period household name, and the Latin is not formed correctly. While an appositive nominative could occur, using the medieval style the attributive would be placed in the genitive. The vocabulary used does not mean quite what the submitters think. While digitabulum is a classical Latin word, it refers to a specific type of hand covering: a particular variety of gardening glove used in olive cultivation. It is as inappropriate to use this word for the intended meaning (unless the ladies are all olive-cultivators) as it would be to use cestus, the word for a boxing glove. The more general term is manucium. While par is cognate with pair, impar does not have quite the meaning that the phrase "unmatched gloves" would suggest. It does mean "unequal to", "uneven", event "unjust" but the nearest meaning to the one sought would be "dissimilar" which puts a rather different spin on the phrase. Barring evidence that household names were formed in this fashion, even if this is put into correct Latin it will have to be returned. (04/1998)

Granite Mountain, Shire of. Device. Per fess indented vert and sable, a laurel wreath Or.

This is being returned for several reasons. It needs to be redrawn. As drawn this does not look like a per fess division but rather like field, a chief. However, that is not registerable since it would have a vert chief on a sable field, as well as having the laurel wreath lie on both the field and the chief, which is not allowed. Another problem is that if this is a per fess field, this has a charge overlying a complex line of division, when the field is divided into two pieces of the same tincture class. This greatly reduces recognizability. Finally, this is technically in conflict with the Shire of Wyndhame, Per pale embattled gules and Or, in dexter chief a laurel wreath Or. There is a CD for the field. Wyndhame’s wreath could not be in the center of the shield, so by the standing interpretation of RfS X.4.g. Arrangement Changes the move of the wreath is forced and not eligible for a second CD. (05/1997)

Granite Mountain, Shire of. Name.

This is being returned for lack of a petition of support. Submissions for a group name or device must include evidence of support. (12/1996)

Gregoire le Gris. Device. Or, an eel embowed counterembowed azure.

This conflicts with Rosemounde of Mercia Or, a two-headed serpent erect wavy gules. There is a CD for the tincture of the primary, but nothing for position and nothing for type. Please inform the submitter that if they resubmit this charge, that they need to draw the eel in a standard heraldic posture. (06/1998)

Gregor Dow McGregor. Device. Sable, on a pale between two roses slipped and leaved argent a rapier sable.

This conflicts with a badge for Meridies' Order of the Sable Sword, Sable, on a pale between two escutcheons argent a sword sable., with one CD for change of type of the secondaries. (12/1997)

Gregor Verdammten. Name.

The LoI glossed Verdammten as the damned. The usual way to say the damned singular is Verdammt. die Verdammten translates as the damned(plural) in its Biblical meaning. Since this is not correctly constructed, and the submitter allows no changes, this must be returned.

Even if this had been grammatically correct, barring documentation that such names were used in period, we would have had to return it.

The armory was registered under the holding name Gregor of nan Crioch Tuatha. (11/1998)

Gregor Vörös. Device. Sable, a Grecian sphynx couchant Or, on a bordure argent, three crescents sable.

The sphynx as drawn seems halfway between that of an Egyptian and a Grecian sphynx, and blurs the line between them. This is therefore being returned for a redraw as one or the other. (08/1996)

Gregory Tobias Barre. Device. Gules, a cross potent Or between four crosses couped argent.

This is being returned for conflict with Jerusalem (important mundane armory) Argent, a cross potent between four plain crosslets Or. The Cross of Jerusalem is a defined single charge, though it consists of discrete elements in the same way that an ermine spot does. There is one CD for the field, but there is nothing for changing the tincture of less that half the group. (07/1996)

Grellon Gunn. Name.

This is being returned because Grellon is a byname, not a given name. Dauzat says that it's a southern diminutive of Grel, which arises from three different roots. One is a dialect form of gril 'cricket'. Another is the adjective grêle, Old French graile 'slender' (literally 'gracile'). The third is a feminine noun grêle 'pock, sty'; the sense is that of grêlé 'pockmarked'. Obviously none of these is a forename in origin. We couldn't find anything particularly close in a forename so we can make no suggestions for an alternative. The armory was registered under the name Twila Gunn. (08/1997)

Grenki Fenisson. Name.

No documentation could be produced for Grenki. The closest that could be found was Grinkel. However, it is unlikely that it would have been combined with Fenisson.

As for his fall-back of Grannkall, there are other problems. First, it appears to be a typo for Gran(n)kell, the form given by Lind. Secondly, it's not at all clear that it has any place in a late-period Scottish name. It would go fine with Finnason or Finnuson, the ON patronymics from Finni and (feminine) Finna, both of which forenames are in Lind. The forms Grankell Finnason (or Finnuson) appear to be registerable. (01/1997)

Grim Finch. Badge. [Fieldless] A finch volant azure.

This is being returned for conflict with the badge of Elizabeth Stafford Parr Pembroke (SCA), Barry argent and sable, a martlet volant azure. There is one CD for Fieldlessness, but nothing for the difference between a finch and a martlett. (07/1996)

Grímr Hálfdanarson. Name and device. Per fess argent and sable, two decrescents and a compass star counterchanged.

While blazoned as per fess, as drawn it is really Sable, a compass star and on a chief argent two decrescents sable. It therefore conflicts with Daryl of Avalon (SCA), Sable, a sun and on a chief argent three pheons sable: there is a CD for the changes in the tertiary charges, but there is nothing for the different between a sun and a compass star. A redraw that clearly showed this as a Per fess field division would remove the conflict. (08/1997)

Grimulf Thyrmodh. Device. Per chevron argent and sable, a wolf salient and in base a lightning bolt palewise counterchanged.

This is once again being returned for a redraw. This was returned 7/96 for a redraw because the line of division made the submission somewhere between per chevron and a point pointed. Please instruct the submitter on how to properly draw a per chevron field. While blazoned on the LoI as courant, the wolf is closer to salient and has been reblazoned as such. If the submitter truly wants a courant wolf, it will have to be redrawn in a standard courant form. We want to remind everyone that Fox­Davies was a Victorian author, and a lot of his heraldic work does not reflect medieval practice. (07/1997)

Grimulf Thyrmodh. Device. Per fess argent and sable, a wolf courant and a lightning bolt palewise counterchanged.

While blazoned on the LOI as "Per fess. . . ", the emblazon was midway between per chevron and a point pointed. Therefore, this is being returned for a redraw. (07/1996)

Grimulf Thyrmodh. Household name for Brotherhood of the Black Unicorn.

The name the Household of the Black Unicorn would be registerable based on period inn signs such as Blue Boar, Gray Horse, White Bull, White Hart, White Horse, etc. However, no documentation was presented, and none could be found for knightly order, guild companies, or period confraternities that followed this model. Since the submitter would take no changes, this name had to be returned. (07/1997)

Gruffydd ap Cynan. Name and device. Sable, two serpents interwined and respecting each other argent and Or, an orle of gouts of flames proper.

The name conflicts with Gruffudd ap Cynan, one of the better-known medieval Welsh kings (largely due to the survival of a biography of him, written shortly after his death -- the only known secular biography in Medieval Welsh). The armory is being returned for a redraw. These are not proper flames, but rather flames Or charges with a flames gules. (03/1998)

Gruffydd ap Gwineth. Name.

By existing precedent, this name conflicts with Gruffudd, King of Gwynedd to 1137. We give no difference between of and ap. The precedents say:

this[<name> de Navarre] "We have historically registered ' 'name' of 'Kingdom' ' so long as the given name was not identical to that of one of the rulers of 'Kingdom'. The only exception Laurel remembers offhand to this is the name Hohenstaufen which name was only used by the ruling family." (LoAR, Da'ud ibn Auda, 5/91 p.2).

and:

"Submitted as <name> Griffith of Gwynedd, we have dropped the problematic locative. As submitted the name appears to be a claim of descent from Gruffudd, King of Gwynedd to 1137. Rule V.5 disallows any such claim." (LoAR, Da'ud ibn Auda, 7/91 p.15).

The armory was registered under the name Gruffydd of Rivenoak. (12/1997)

Gudrun Hildardóttir. Device. Vert, a linden tree eradicated between three crosses formy Or.

This conflicts with Robert Abeille, Vert, a tree eradicated between three bees Or. There is only one CD, for change of type of secondaries. (10/1998)

Guenhwyvar MacEwen. Device. Azure, issuant from a trimount couped vert a demi ferret, in chief two mullets argent.

This was submitted based on an 11/93 Laurel precedent permitting vert trimounts on azure fields. However, a trimount couped is sufficiently different from a regular trimount that it is not automatically included under that precedent. Furthermore, this submission contains a demi­animal issuant from the mount, which is relatively infrequent, bringing this submission even farther from the allowed format. Barring evidence of this motive being used throughout Europe, we must return this submission. (10/1997)

Guillaume de Vaison. Device. Azure a bend wavy between two towers argent.

This conflicts with Edwin atte Bridge, registered July, 1998, Azure, on a bend wavy between two towers argent, three portcullises palewise sable., with one CD for the addition of the tertiaries. (11/1998)

Guinevere d'Avignon. Device. Purpure, chapé argent, a Latin cross bottony argent.

This conflicts with Sigenoth the Blissful Per pale sable and vert, a Latin cross bottony argent. There is only a CD for the field. (11/1998)

Gunnora Hallakarva. Device. Per fess gules and azure, a catamount passant and a kestrel sustaining a garb Or.

As drawn the garb is too large to be considered a maintained charge, which makes it a sustained charge. However, that makes this submission "slot machine", which three different charges (catamount, kestrel, and garb) in the same group, which violates our rules. Therefore, this must be returned. If the garb was drawn smaller it would take care of this problem. (02/1998)

Gunter Aldrich vom Schwartzwald. Device. Per saltire sable and gules, four caltraps argent.

This is being returned for conflict with the badge of Peredur ap Tristan (SCA), Sable, four caltrops in cross, points elongated to center argent. There is one CD for the field, but nothing for orientation of the caltraps, which are virtually symetrical. (07/1996)

Gunter Aldrich vom Schwartzwald. Device. Per saltire sable and gules, four caltrops within a bordure argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The charges are not recognizably caltrops, or anything else. (09/1997)

Gunther Friedrich von Bodenheim. Device. Lozengy azure and argent, a lion’s head cabossed gules.

This conflicts with Khaalid al-Jaraad, Lozengy erminois and pean, a Bengal tiger’s head cabossed gules., as cited in the LoI. RfS X.IV.e states A charge not used in period armory will be considered different in type if its shape in normal depiction is significantly different. This means a lion would not be clearly different from a puma." The shape of a tiger is as much like a lion as the shape of a puma, hence (if the Bengal tiger isn't used in period heraldry) no difference is given. (02/1999)

Günther Klör von Gurk. Name.

The only documentation for Gurk was as the name of a river, and no documentation was presented for using von with a river name. Since the submitter would not take a major change, we were forced to return the name and create a holding name.

The armory was registered under the holding name Günther Klör of the Citadel of the Southern Pass. (04/1999)

Gunther the Just. Device. Gules, a double-bitted axe inverted and balanced on its haft a set of scales Or.

This conflicts with Elena Anatolievna Pavlova (SCA) (Fieldless) A standing balance Or., with one CD for the field. (01/1998)

Guy of Osprey. Badge. (Fieldless) Three harts courant conjoined in annulo argent.

The "conjoining" of the harts is very odd and not at all what can be expected without seeing the emblazon. There is no good blazon which would reproduce the emblazon. (03/1998)

Guy Wicker. Device. Or, a fireball gules marked Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The flames need to be done solidly gules. (04/1998)

Gwalchmai ap Llywellyn Llanfyllin. Device. Argent, a bend sinister wreathed sable and gules.

This is being returned for running afoul of our contrast requirements. We require that charges which are "wreathed" to have good contrast between their parts. "A wreathed ordinary must be of two tinctures with good contrast." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR September 1992, p. 43) "The basis for the limitation on wreathing of two tinctures of the same category is the reduction of identifiability that ensues." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR August 1988, p. 17). (07/1998)

Gwendolen McIver. Device. Per bend sinister azure and argent, in chief three pallets Or and in base a thistle slipped and leaved proper.

While blazoned as being a divided field with three pallets issuant from the line of division, this could as easily be blazoned as Per bend sinister paly azure and Or and argent, in base a thistle slipped and leaved proper. It was not unusual for barry or paly fields in period to be drawn with an odd number of traits (which we'd blazon as bars or palets); see, for example, the arms of Mouton (Multon, Moleton) found both as Barry argent and gules. and Argent, three bars gules. (Dictionary of British Arms, Volume 1, pp 59, 88; Foster, p.145) and the arms of von Rosenberg, whose Per fess field has in base either three bends or bendy depending upon the artist's whim (Siebmacher, p. 8; Neubecker and Rentzmann, p. 290). Even when the distinction is worth blazoning, it's worth no difference. Therefore, this conflicts with Scotland (Fieldless) A thistle proper. There is one CD for the field, but nothing for position versus a fieldless badge. (02/1998)

Gwendolene Melver. Device. Per bend sinister azure and argent, three pallets issuant from the line of division Or and a crocus purpure slipped and leaved vert.

This is being returned for unidentifability of the crocus. There were many guesses at the Laurel meeting as to what the charge was, none of them being a crocus. The overall design would be improved by making the first half paly instead of having pallets issuing from the line of division. (12/1996)

Gwenfron Bran. Device. Counter-potent Or and azure, a bird close sable breasted argent.

Blazoned on the LoI as an osprey, as drawn it is not clearly any species of bird, so we have reblazoned it as a generic bird. Unfortunately, generic birds conflict with all birds, so this conflicts with Serlo of Litchfield Gyronny gules and Or, a vulture close sable., and Eleanor of Pica Vert, a magpie (pica pica) close proper grasping in its dexter talon a feather argent., with the only CD being the one for the difference in the field. (04/1998)

Gwenhwyvar of Abergavenny. Device. Vert, a stag at gaze Or and a base embowed sable.

This is being returned for violating RfS VIIII.2.a, which deals with the rules of tincture, by having a color charge on a color field. (05/1998)

Gwilliam Rhydderich of Essex. Device. Argent, on a Latin cross sable a dagger inverted argent hilted, quilloned and pommeled gules, a bordure per pale gules and sable.

This is being returned for violating our rules on tincture. The dagger is over half gules, making it color on color. (02/1999)

Gwyddno ap Gruffudd Myrddin. Name.

The submitter asked for a review on the use of the name Myrddin, which had been previously ruled unacceptable for SCA usage, and provided information that was hoped would result in the overturn of this ruling. I can do no better than to quote some of Harpy's (copious) commentary on the name.

"As with just about everything with Arthurian associations, you can find books out there that will claim just about anything. Frankly, I'm very skeptical about any book with John (or Caitlin) Matthews as an author -- their work is highly speculative. Geoffrey Ashe is considerably more respected, but his actual reference in the cited work is to Geoffrey of Monmouth's knowledge of "traditions of a more or less historical bard named Myrddin". This is a considerable step away from Ashe claiming that there actually was a historic bard by that name, as opposed to a story about a supposedly historic bard by that name. I have not found evidence of any period use of the name for any individual other than the highly suspicious poet/prophet. In short, the submitter's evidence, while presented in perfectly good faith, is nothing new and does not affect the conclusion that Myrddin was not an actual Welsh given name in ordinary use in period."

The armory was registered under the name Gwyddno of Tempio. (12/1996)

Haakon Bjornsson. Badge. (Fieldless) A bear rampant argent maintaining a sword proper and a trefoil inverted vert distilling a goutte d’sang.

This conflicts with Lachlan Bradoc Per pale gules and vert, a bear rampant guardant argent., and Alyson of Islay Per bend Or and vert, a koala rampant guardant maintaining a branch of eucalyptus proper. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for head position or the maintained charges. (02/1998)

Haki Longswimmer. Name.

The byname obviously requires the lingua anglica allowance. This may be used provided that one of two conditions is met. The byname may be an English translation of a documented period byname in the source language, here ON, so long as the translation is chosen so as not to be obtrusively modern; or it may be a fairly generic period English byname in a period form. (See the discussion of the name Arianna othe Windisle (An Tir) in the 2/96 LoAR.) Longswimmer meets neither of those criteria: it's not a normal ME form of byname, and it's not a translation of a known ON byname. The attested byname skjótandi `shooter, archer' is a present participle corresponding to English shooting; an ON byname modelled on this one would be langsvimmandi, literally `long-swimming'. Haki Langsvimmandi, however, is probably reasonable enough. (02/1997)

Hakon Gordon. Device. Per pale sable and Or, a reremouse displayed head to dexter, tail elongated to base between three points pointed counterchanged.

"Although all three 'points' are mentioned in heraldic tracts, in practice only the base one appears to have been used; and even in the tracts, the dexter and sinister points are described as abatements of honor, to be used separately, and not in conjunction." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR April 1992, p. 19).

Furthermore, the combination of the points, the reremouse, and the counterchanging, make this into "op art" and not heraldry. (03/1998)

Haldis Hakonsdottir au Hrafnafirdi. Device. Per chevron sable and gules, a lion-dragon rampant reguardant queue forchy maintaining a standard Or charged within a compass star gules.

This is in conflict with Richard of the Silverdawn (SCA), Gyronny gules and ermine, a lion dragon erect Or., and Emma the Lost (SCA), Per fess wavy ermine and azure, a sealion Or maintaining a trident sable. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for the changes to the head and tail. Even if there were no conflict this would have to be returned for violating our rules on arms of pretense, because of the charged standard. In some period rolls of arms, arms are displayed on standards. (04/1997)

Hamall the Quiet. Device. Or, a bendlet enarched azure between two ravens rising bendwise contourny wings elevated and addorsed and another bendwise wings elevated and addorsed sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. We don't register single diminutives of ordinaries, and this is far too narrow to be a bend. The ravens also need to be redrawn, since they were not in any recognizable heraldic position. (09/1997)

Hamish Robertson. Name.

Black 's Surnames of Scotland (p. 719 under Seumas) says "Seumas. The Gaelic spelling of James. Often incorrectly Englished Hamish, which is the English pronunciation of the vocative form (G. Sheumais)." Withycombe's The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names (p. 144 under Hamish) says, "an attempt to render phonetically Sheumais, the vocative of Seumas, the Gaelic form of James (q.v.). Scott has a Hamish MacTavish, but the present vogue of the name seems to be due to the novels of William Black (1841-98), very popular in their day." Presumably Withycombe is referring to the author Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) in this reference. No evidence has been found to show that Hamish is anything but a post-period form. In-period renderings of Hamish are Seumas in Gaelic and James in English.

The armory was registered under the holding name Michael Robertson. (05/1999)

Hans Van Hoorn. Device. Per fess gules and azure, a fess Or between a bakerÆs peel argent charged with three roundels gules and a shipÆs wheel argent.

The ship's wheel is apparently not a period charge. Barring documentation to the contrary this must be returned. (03/1998)

Hartmann von Augsburg. Device. Argent, semy of grenades sable enflamed gules, on a pale sable a man armed cap-a-pie argent maintaining in both hands a sword inverted sable.

This is being returned violating RfS VIII1.c.ii Layer Limit since it has four layers, the field, the pale, the man and the sword. (04/1997)

Hassan al-Rashid. Name.

This is a direct conflict with the already registered Hassan al-Rashid. (04/1998)

Hawken of the Greenbriar. Reblazon of device. Per bend sinister sable and purpure, a bend sinister gules fimbriated between a tower and an eagle argent.

This is being because the charge in base is not an eagle, since it is missing the distinctive tuft. Therefore, we cannot reblazon the bird as an eagle. Furthermore, this is not a reblazon, but rather a device change, and if this is resubmitted with a correctly drawn eagle, it will need to be paid for. (05/1999)

Heggr Skapti. Device. Azure, in pale a winged lion rampant and a drakkar Or, sails paly argent and gules.

This is being returned for conflict with Aron Rose of Nairn (SCA), Azure, a winged lion rampant, between its forepaws a rose Or. There is a CD for the addition of the ship, but not for the (effectively) maintained charge. (08/1996)

Helena Råtta. Device. Per pale vert and azure, a rat sejant erect its forepaws resting on an egg fesswise Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The rat is halfway between sejant and sejant erect. (03/1999)

Helmut von Württemberg. Device. Vert scaly sable, a trident and on a chief argent three doves stooping wings elevated and addorsed azure.

This is being returned for two reasons. First, while emblazoned as above, the field was blazoned on the LoI as Vert. We do not do scaly of two tinctures of the same tincture class. That violates the rule of tincture. Second, the birds need to be drawn in a recognizable heraldic position. They are not clearly volant or stooping, but halfway between. (11/1998)

Helmut von Württemburg. Device. Quarterly azure and gules, a pair of scales Or between in bend two trident heads and in bend sinister two doves close maintaining in their beaks an olive branch argent.

This violates our rules on slot machine, with three different types of charges in the same charge group. While the scales were blazoned as overall, they were the same size as the other charges, making this one charge group. Additionally, this conflicts with Rees of Northwoods (SCA) Quarterly azure and gules, four arrowheads inverted argent. There is a CD for changing the type of the single group of charges, but nothing for four vs. five, nothing for the tincture of one of five charges, and with three charge types on this submission RFS X.2 does not apply. (12/1997)

Helmut zu Jülich. Household name for Haus Jülich.

This was an appeal of a kingdom return for conflict with the princely Haus Jülich. The submitter has provided documentation showing that Jülich is a town in Germany first mentioned in 356 C.E. While Jülich is also a town, that is not relevant in terms of conflict. Existence of other uses of Jülich does not clear conflict. The existence of York does not mean that we would register House York. Therefore this must be returned. (07/1998)

Helvig Ulfsdotter. Device. Azure, a duck statant wings elevated and on a chief argent three roses proper.

This is in conflict with Lynette Jaclyn Davéjean (SCA), Azure, a dove, and on a chief argent two roses proper. There is only one Cd, for the change from duck to dove, and nothing for the number only of the tertiary charges. This is also in conflict with Mairghread Sgoilear, Azure, a falcon rising, wings addorsed and inverted and on a chief argent three roses azure. Again, there is only one CD for change of bird, and nothing for the color of the tertiaries. (01/1997)

Henri de León. Name

This conflicts with Henry the Lion, leader of the Guelphs in the time of Frederick Barbarossa who spent time in exile in England during the reign of Henry II of England and married Henry's daughter Matilda. Old French used lion and leon almost equally for "lion" (see the exemplars for the various lion listings in Brault's Early Blazon). Henry is definitely important enough to protect as he played a leading part in imperial politics and appears in most of our standard historical reference materials. The period French/Norman form of the name would be Henri le Leon which differs from the submitted form by only one letter in a secondary grammatical element. The armory was registered under the holding name Henri of Carolingia. (07/1997)

Henri La Grave. Device. Azure, a comet bendwise between six estoiles argent.

This technically conflicts with Genevra of Estolat (SCA) Azure estoilly, a sun argent. There is no CD for the change from six to many, and while there is a CD between a comet and a sun the difference is not substantial. (01/1998)

Henry of Longhouse. Badge. (Fieldless) A hardy sable.

While there are many things that will fit in the hardy hole of an anvil, and thus might be called "hardies", not one of them would have a stake shaped like this. This shape of stake, due to the concave outline, would not hold the upper surface of the hardy stable. This appears to be a simple square anvil together with the stake needed to fix it firmly in a stump. The submitter has shown that it is a period artifact, but has failed to give us any indication that such artifact was called a hardy or that this is its "standard or typical form". Without documentation to prove, at the very least, that the submitted shape was known as a hardy in period, we are forced to return this submission. (07/1997)

Henry of Longhouse. Badge. Azure, three cups inverted two and one, each cup distilling a roundel argent, in chief a baton fesswise Or.

This is being returned for being unblazonable. The only thing that can be distilled are gouttes. However, given the size of the roundels compared to the cups and baton, there is no way to blazon this that would accurately reproduce this picture. Furthermore, if the roundels were drawn to be of equivalent size to the cups and baton, this would have to be returned for slot machine, for having three different charges types in the same group. (09/1997)

Henry of Tipperary. Device. Or, a bend per bend sable and gules, between a mascle knot azure and a mascle knot vert.

Mascle knots are an SCA invention which have been banned since the LoAR of March 1996. (01/1997)

Hernando Herodes Montenegro de Mondragon. Badge. (Fieldless) A wyvern displayed argent, maintaining in both talons a delf Or within and conjoined to an annulet sable.

This conflicts with Artus Falconiere (SCA) Quarterly pean and purpure, a wyvern displayed argent. (02/1997)

Hernando Herodes Montenegro de Mondragon. Badge. (Fieldless) Three grappling irons of four flukes in pall, conjoined at the ring, argent.

This is being returned for being intrusively modern. It is too close to the modern biohazard symbol. The resemblance is made stronger by the fact that the regulations for the biohazard symbol, included in the documentation state: "Required labels and signs shall include the international biohazard symbol and the word "biohazard." Label color must be predominantly orange or orange-red with lettering and symbol in a contrasting color." Therefore, the most commonly used color for the symbol is white. (01/1998)

Highland Foorde, Shire of. Badge. (Fieldless) A compass star quarterly argent and Or.

Conflict with Ansteorra, Kingdom of: Kingdom Chronicler (SCA) A mullet of five greater and five lesser points distilling gouttes. There is only the fieldless CD, as we cannot grant one between many-pointed mullets. (06/28/1996)

Highland Foorde, Shire of. Badge. Azure, a compass star within a bordure wavy argent.

This is being returned for conflict with Elgil Mirdil of Dor-Mallos (SCA) , Gules, a mullet of seven points within a bordure nebuly argent., Elsbeth Caerwent (SCA), Azure, a compass star elongated to base argent, a bordure wavy argent semy of forget-me- nots azure, slipped and leaved vert., and the trademark of the Maersk trucking company: Bleu- celeste a mullet of seven points argent. (12/1996)

Hroðwyn Eardstapa. Device. Paly indented sable and argent, on a chief gules a compass star argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The "indented" line of division is of the "pinking shears" kind, which has been returned many times before. There need to be far fewer indentations which are far bolder. While not per se grounds for return, the chief should not be that big. (03/1998)

Hrolf Stormhawk. Device. Vair, on a bend indented Or three wolf heads erased vert.

This is being returned for a redraw. There are far too many indentations on the bend. It needs to be redrawn with between three and seven indentations on a side. The heads also need to be redrawn; they are not erased and cannot not be so blazoned. The heraldic erased represents ME arace 'to pull out by the roots', which is cognate with arraché, the corresponding French blazon term. (08/1997)

Hrorek Wolfson. Device. Quarterly lozengy argent and sable counterchanged.

This conflicts with Bavaria Lozengy bendwise argent and azure., Monaco Lozengy argent and gules., and the Dukes of Teck Lozengy bendwise (or bendwise sinister) sable and Or. The counterchanging does not make any difference to what sort of field it is in this case. We give no CD for partition between any of the lozengy or paly-bendy variants, only between them and checky; thus the only CD is for tincture of half the field.

Even if there had been no conflict this would have been returned for violating RfS VIII.3 for excessive counterchanging, and for violating RfS VIII.4 on op-art. (12/1998)

Hrothgar Fairhair. Device. Gyronny sable and Or, on a chief argent, three ravens speaking sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. The gyronny should centered on the region under the chief. (03/1997)

Hugh Montaigu du Col. Name and device. Azure, three bendlets enhanced Or, in base a cross-crosslet argent.

This device, blazoned Per bend bendy azure and Or and azure, in base a cross crosslet argent. was registered to him under the name Hugh Montagud September, 1996. (04/1999)

Hugh Wallace. Device. Azure, two ladles crossed in saltire Or.

This is visually in conflict with Gandharva Candra Azure, two sitars in saltire affronty Or. As drawn the sitars look quite similar to the ladles. (08/1998)

Iago ap Heilin. Device. Barry wavy argent and azure, a sea otter flotant supine proper.

This is being returned for non period style. The posture flotant supine is not heraldic. It is no more acceptable than mortant. (09/1997)

Iago Benitez. Badge. (Fieldless) A popinjay gules.

This is being returned for being visually in conflict with Karena del Falco (SCA), Argent, a falcon close gules. While there are technically two CD's between the two pieces of armory, one for fieldlessness and for the type, it was the feeling of the majority of the members of the College commenting on this submission and the majority of the people at the road show meeting, that there was no visual difference between the two submissions. (03/1997)

Iain Dubhghall MacGriogair. Name.

This is being returned for using double given names in Gaelic. To date no documentation has been presented for its use in Gaelic, and barring such documentation we cannot register such names. Since the submitter will only take minor change we cannot just delete Dubhghall in order to register the name. (07/1998)

Iain McConnor McCrimmon of Lymavady. Device. Sable, an escarbuncle, a bordure Or.

This conflicts with Ginevra die Hohe (SCA) Sable, three escarbuncles and a bordure Or., with only one CD for the change of number of primaries. (11/1997)

Iain of Rannach. Device. Per chevron sable and argent two mullets Or and a Celtic cross gules.

This is being returned for conflict with the badge of Wulfred von Templehof (SCA), Per chevron sable and argent, a sun in splendor Or, a mullet between the horns of a decrescent argent, and a wingless wyvern passant reguardant gules, breathing flames Or. Current precedent says this is one group of charges. Since there is not substantial difference between a mullet/sun, so we cannot invoke complete difference of charge. Since the change of tincture is to the object in sinister chief, we cannot invoke the 1/3=1/2 rule for three objects. There is one difference for changing the cross to a dragon, (or equivalently for changing 2/3rd's of the charges of the group (in base and in sinister chief)) but that's the only one. (08/1996)

Ian Campbell of Glenlyon. Name.

Glenlyon is one of the seats of the Campbells. Current precedent states: "The Society considers the use of a clan name (Guinne, Gunn) with the seat of the clan (Kilernan) to be presumptuous; the only examples we've found of such usage are by clan chiefs and their immediate families." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR January 1993, p. 24) Therefore, this name is presumptuous. We have registered this name under the holding name Ian Campbell of Saint Swithin's Bog. (09/1996)

Ian of Nightsgate. Badge. Argent, a sun between five swords interlaced in annulo sable.

This conflicts with Friedrich von Rabenstein Argent, a sun, in chief a sword fesswise sable. There is on CD for number of swords, but since the sword in chief in Ian's badge is fesswise, there is nothing for arrangement.

Furthermore, the LoI argued that this design is grandfathered to the submitter since his registered arms are Argent, a sun between a fret of four swords sable. However, these submissions do not use the same motif, and his arms do not conflict with Friedrich since the none of the swords in his arms are fesswise in chief.

Note: we give no difference between fesswise and fesswise reversed for swords when they are interlaced in annulo just as we don't consider what direction legs are going when they are in triquetra. (12/1998)

Ibert Nothstein. Device. Argent, on a sun sable a mullet of eight points Or, on a chief azure two arrows inverted in saltire Or.

This is being returned for violating our "sword and dagger" rule, by having two charges, the sun and the mullet of eight points, with which we give no heraldic difference in the same design. (10/1997)

Ieuan ab y Ddraig goch. Device. Per bend sinister sable and gules, in dexter chief an escarbuncle of nine points Or charged with a torteau.

This is being returned for a couple of reasons. First, this conflicts with the badge of Martyn ap Cadwalladr the Bold (SCA), On a sun Or a cross crosslet fitchy gules. There is one CD for the field, but against a fieldless badge there can be none for location on the field, and the underlying charge is too complex for RfS X.4.j.ii to apply. More importantly, even if there was no a conflict this would have to be returned for violating RfS VII.7.a., which requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." The college could not tell what this charge was; guesses ranged from nine dragon's jambes Or issuant from a torteau, to a sun Or eclipsed gules. (05/1997)

Ieuan Cynibre. Name and badge. (Fieldless) On a mullet of eight points argent a decrescent vert.

The 8th century Cynibre doesn't really work with Ieuan. The only form for the given name that we can firmly suggest would be the Latin Iohannes, which appears in text from that period in Wales (e.g. the Book of Llan Dav). By the time a form like Ieuan evolves (or at least shows up in the documents), the "b" of Cynibre was long since being pronounced differently, as shown in the later forms in Johnston (Kenefer, Kinefar 1222, Kynefare 1282). The smallest reasonable change would be to pick one of the 13th century forms from Johnston. The device conflicts with Thomasina Mac Gregor of Tay, Azure, on a mullet of six points throughout argent, a Scottish thistle proper., with one CD for fieldlessness. (02/1997)

Ileana Vodraska. Device. Azure, a Latin cross pointed argent on a chief vert three increscents Or.

Blazoned on the LoI as Per chief embattled vert and azure, three increscents Or a finch cross argent., there is no such division as per chief in SCA blazonry. A division (i.e. per pale, per saltire, per bend, etc.) is intended to divide a field into equal parts. A chief is only one third of the field and is therefore considered a sub-ordinary which is considered to be a charge on the field. Therefore, this is Azure, a Latin cross pointed argent, on a chief vert three increscents Or. Unfortunately, this means that the device violates our requirements on good contrast and must be returned for colour on colour. (09/1997)

Ilse Broussard. Device. Per pale azure and sable, in pall a rapier fesswise between three increscents argent.

This conflicts with Gwenhwyvar Telynores Purpure, in pall a harp between three increscents argent., with one CD for changes to the field, and nothing for changing one of a group of four. (01/1999)

Ingelri Kelvin. Name and device. Quarterly sable and argent, a cross crosslet fitchy between four fleur-de-lys counterchanged.

The name is being returned for lack of documentation. While the submitter provides copies from The Medieval Knight which said Ingelri was a name found on a Viking era sword, no documentation could be found for Ingelri in any other source. Since there is no way to know if the book was accurate, and or if the name was in the correct format, barring documentation we are forced to return the name.

Since the submitter will not take a holding name we are forced to return the armory as well. (08/1998)

Ioanna Rudrig. Device. Or, three willow branches conjoined inverted proper.

This conflcits with Jessica of the Willows (SCA) Or, a weeping willow tree eradicated (Salix babylonica) proper, in chief an escallop purpure., and Katerine of Willowmere (SCA) Or, a willow proper and a base wavy azure. In both cases there is one CD for the addition of the secondary. However, in the case of a weeping willow tree, the trunk carries relatively little weight and does not provide the required additional difference. (01/1998)

Irene die Elsässerin. Badge. (Fieldless) A churchbell Or.

This conflicts with the badge registered to An Tir for The Crier (Fieldless) A handbell Or., with the only CD for fieldlessness. (10/1997)

Irina Dmitrova. Name.

This conflicts with Irina Dmitrievna which was registered July 1996. (01/1997)

Isa Estreys. Device. Azure ermined argent, a four bird-winged wyvern, head to sinister, displayed argent.

This conflicts with Artus Falconieri’s Quarterly pean and purpure a wyvern displayed argent, with one CD for the field. While adding wings to a charge is usually significant, adding a second set of wings to an already winged charge is not of comparable visual weight, and is insufficient to produce a countable difference. This also runs afoul of our rule of two weirdnesses, by having a four-winged wyvern and a bird-winged wyvern. (04/1999)

Isabeau d'Anjou. Name.

This is being returned for conflict with Isabelle d'Anjou, who was Queen of Jerusalem and noted in the Encyclopedia Britannica. The device was registered under the holding name of Isabeau of Golden Rivers. (11/1996)

Isabeau de l’Isle. Device. Argent fleury, a salamander statant erect contourny enflamed maintaining a lance sable.

This is being returned for unidentifiability. As drawn it is not clear what the animal is; guesses at the Laurel meeting was rat or weasel. No one could tell it was a salamander. If the flames were drawn connected to the salamander, and were a different tincture from the fleur-de-lys, and the salamander was drawn more identifiably, this problem would be taken care.

Note: while emblazoned as above, it was blazoned on the LoI as an Or field. (11/1998)

Isabeau de Savigny. Device. Azure, a hippogriff segreant to sinister Or and a crescent in dexter chief and a decrescent in sinister chief argent, a double tressure fleury Or.

The armory has two problems, each of which is grounds for return. First, the double tressure flory counter-flory (or just plain flory) is banned from use in the SCA, as it was an augmentation granted by the kings of Scotland. Second the style of making the tressure fleury, with all the fleurs-de-lys palewise is unattested. (12/1998)

Isabeau Noellet d'Avignon. Device. Argent, a wyvern rampant vert and a chief fleury-counter fleury purpure.

This is being returned for conflict with Minimoto Akataro (SCA) Argent, a dragon rampant vert holding in the dexter forepaw a latin cross trefly Or. And with the device of Erik of Flamewood (SCA) Argent, a wyvern erect vert maintaining an oak leaf and a fireball gules. In each case there is only one CD, for addition of the chief. (09/1996)

Isabel d'Anjou Detruie-Noms. Name.

This name was supposed to mean Isabel d'Anjou, mangler or destroyer of names. However, no evidence was supplied that such an epithet was period, and her own documentation states

The lady in question seeks to establish a name that will express the notion of mangler of names and to have the name expressed in terms of the French language. It is a matter of certainty that no such name can be historically documented, and we therefore do not seek such documentation.

Barring evidence that such an epithet is period, we are forced to return the name. We could not drop the epithet, and register the name as Isabel d'Anjou, because that would then conflict with Isabelle of Anjou, who was Queen of Jerusalem. (12/1996)

Isabel d'Avignon. Device. Per bend wavy azure and counter-ermine, a sun proper and a decrescent argent.

This is being returned for unidentifiability. From any distance, the wavy line separating the azure and counter­ermine cannot be seen. This submission was ruled on at the roadshow meeting at the 1997 Known World Heraldic Symposium, and the people sitting in the second row could not tell what the line of division was. This return is in line with current CoA precedent. In the January 1993 return of Elspeth of Oxfordshire, Master Bruce as Laurel said:

"[Per chevron embattled azure mullety of six points Or, and sable, in base a <charge> argent] The low contrast between azure and sable renders the embattled line indistinguishable from any distance. As with the recent case of Per pale embattled purpure and sable (LoAR of Aug 92, p.25), I must return this for lack of identifiability, per Rule VIII.3. (06/1997)

Isabella d'Hiver. Device. Azure, a unicorn s head couped argent.

This conflicts with Verena Marre (SCA), Azure, a unicorn’s head couped argent armed and crined Or between two bars wavy ermine, with one CD for the addition of the bars, and Saerlaith nic Uilliam O'Ceallaigh (SCA), Per bend paly argent and azure and azure, in dexter base a unicorn's head couped argent., with one CD for the change in the field. The submitted blazon had the unicorn gorged of a collar gules. While we grant a CD for gorging of a beast's head, when it is a sole primary, as drawn the collar is so small that it is not worth blazoning, and therefore cannot count for difference. (02/1997)

Isabella Julietta Diego y Vega. Device. Per fess urdy purpure and sable, a maunch ermine with a hand proper holding a Latin cross, and a sun in its splendor Or.

There is insufficient contrast between purpure and sable to use a complex line of division such as urdy to separate them. It becomes unidentifiable. (01/1999)

Isabella Sharman. Device. Azure, a sexfoil, a chief invected argent.

This conflicts with Catrin ferch Dafydd (SCA) Azure, a rose slipped and leaved within a bordure dovetailed argent., with one CD for changing the chief to a bordure. (11/1997)

Isabetta Issoncourt. Name.

While the LoI asserted that Isabetta is a plausible construction from Elisabetta, nothing was provided to show why that was a plausible construction, and no one in the College was able to provide the necessary information. Barring a pattern of such usage, or actual documentation for that form, the name must be returned. (09/1998)

Ivan of Zemgale. Device. Gules, on a pale argent a lion rampant to sinister purpure.

This conflicts with Canada, Gules, on a pale argent a maple leaf gules, with Katherine Linnet Holford, Gules, on a pale argent a domestic cat statant reguardant, back arched, between two cinquefoils in pale, sable, and with Peru, Gules, on a pale argent an escutcheon of PERU (Per fess, per pale azure and argent and gules, a vicuna statant contourny Or, a cinchona tree couped proper, and a cornucopia Or) within a laurel wreath and ensigned by another vert. In each case, there is only one CD for the multiple changes to the tertiary charge(s). (05/1999)

Ivan the Illustrated. Badge. [Fieldless] Two lightning bolts in saltire gules, overall a grey horse rampant proper.

This is being returned for two reasons. First, this violates our ban on overall charges in fieldless badges, with too much of the lightening bolt obscured by the horse.

More importantly, grey tends to blur the line between argent and sable. Of the people attending the Laurel meeting, roughly half of them saw this horse as black and the other half as white. Barring period evidence of grey being used for horses in armory, this submission will have to be returned. (07/1996)

Ivar Snaebjorn. Name.

Old Norse does not use unmarked patronymics, so the proper ON name formed from these elements would be varr SnÆbjarnarson. The Old Norse nickname for ice bear (polar bear) is hvítabjörn, not snaebjorn. Since the submitter refuses to take changes, we have no choice but to return the name. (12/1996)

Ivor Dragon. Device. Per pall inverted rayonny gules, Or, and sable, a crescent Or, a crescent gules, and a dragon sejant affronty Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn the dragon is not in an identifiable heraldic position and the rayonny needs to be more regular and symmetric than this. (04/1998)

Jacob Maximilian of the Black Forest. Badge. Per fess counter­ermine and gules, in base two pallets Or overall a double­headed eagle wings displayed inverted argent.

While blazoned on the LoI as above, this could just as easily been blazoned as Per fess counter­ermine and gules paly Or, a double­headed eagle displayed argent. In the return of Aidan Aileran O'Comhraidhe (badge, 11/93) Baron Bruce as Laurel said:

It was not unusual for barry or paly fields to in period to be drawn with an odd number of traits (which we'd blazon as bars or palets); see, for example, the arms of Mouton (Multon, Moleton) found both as Barry argent and gules and Argent, three bars gules (DBA, pp 59, 88; Foster, p. 145). The distinction is even less noticeable when covering only a portion of the shield, as here; see, for example, the arms of von Rosenberg, whose Per fess field has in base either three bends or bendy depending upon the artist's whim (Siebmacher, p. 8; Neubecker and Rentzmann, p. 290). Even when the distinction is worth blazoning, it's worth no difference.

Therefore, this conflicts with Poland (Important non­SCA armory) Gules, an eagle displayed argent, crowned Or., with one CD for the field. (08/1997)

Jacopa Della Bella. Device. Vert, on bend sinister engrailed argent, a strawberry proper.

This conflicts with Owen ap Morgan (SCA) Vert, on a bend sinister engrailed argent, three oak leaves vert. Changes to a single group of tertiaries cannot yield more than one CD. (01/1998)

Jacquelin of Normandy. Badge. Purpure, in pale a quill pen fesswise Or and a sword inverted proper.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn there is no blazon that would reproduce the emblazon. If blazoned as above, the relative position of the charges is not reproduced, and if blazoned with the quill pen in chief, the fact that these were co-primaries would not be evident. (10/1998)

Jacqueline Aurielle de Limousin. Name.

No documentation for the name Aurielle could be found; only the forms Aureille, a southern variant of oreille "ear", or Aurelle, a place-name. The latter will sound more like Aurielle. As for Limousin, the idiomatic expression in modern French is le Limousin, so the byname should be du Limousin "of the Limousin." Since the submitter would not allow changes, we are forced to return the name. (09/1996)

Jacques Louis de Normandie. Device. Per saltire sable and azure, a Latin cross formy argent.

This conflicts with Seth Williamson of Exeter (SCA) Lozengy purpure and Or, a cross formy fitchy argent., with the only CD coming from the change to the field and nothing for the difference between a cross and a cross fitchy. (10/1997)

Jacques-a-toute-Fiare. Name.

According to the LoI -a-tout-Fiare, means Jack of all trades. However, the preposition in the idiom is faire not fiare. More importantly, no evidence was provided for this sort of idiomatic phase being used as a byname in period French. Without such evidence we cannot register the name. Finally, the hyphens need to go away, at least between the given name and the epithetic phrase. (01/1998)

Jael Esson. Device. Vert, on a mullet of eight points argent a paw print sable, a bordure argent.

This conflicts with Ailonwy of Darkblade Vert on an estoile of four greater and four lesser rays argent, a dagger inverted sable, all within a bordure argent. with at best one CD for change of type of primary charge and Cynedd ap Gwen Sable, a sun eclipsed within a bordure argent., with one CD for change of tincture of the field. (10/1998)

James de Lyon of Glen Lyon. Device. Sable, a double-headed lion rampant queue­fourchy argent, maintaining a sword inverted proper.

This conflicts with Oliver Cromwell (important mundane armory) Sable, a lion rampant argent., with no countable differences between the two pieces of armory. (03/1997)

James Jacob Talbot. Device. Argent, two talbots sejant reguardant respectant gules.

This conflicts with Sigrun Magnusdottir Argent, a red fox sejant to sinister reguardant proper. We give no difference between a dog and a fox, so there is only one CD for the addition of the second dog. (06/22/1999)

James Maccorquodill. Device. Argent, issuant from a torse nowed five times Or and gules, a demi-stag gules.

This is being returned for lack of mini-emblazon on the LoI, and no paperwork for the armory. (02/1999)

James Oakencask the Just. Name

No documentation was presented for Oakencask. Since the Oxford English Dictionary first dates the term cask to the middle of the 16th century, and there are period descriptive names for barrelmakers, such as Tunn/Tunnewrytte, we find Oakencask highly unlikely. We would have dropped Oakencask in order to register the rest of the name, but the submitter would not take major changes, and dropping Oakencask would be a major change. Therefore, we are returning it.

The armory was registered under the holding name James of Atenveldt. (06/22/1999)

James the Obscure. Name.

No paperwork was received for this submission so it must be returned. (05/1999)

James Wyvern. Name.

No documentation was presented that Wyvern was a period surname. Since the earliest dated citation for it as a word is 1610, and not spelt in this fashion, we do not feel that this is a reasonable name. (11/1996)

Jan van Hees. Device. Per chevron Or and gules, two oak trees proper and a tower Or.

This is being returned for lack of name. There is no record of this name being registered. Since all SCA submissions are registered to an SCA name, this must be returned. (04/1997)

Jane Katherine Beaumont of Cottingham. Device change. Azure, a fess embattled Or between three Latin crosses formy and a rose argent within a bordure Or.

This was submtted as a blazon appeal. According to the LoI "Her device was registered in 1/96 as 'Azure, a fess embattled Or between three crosses formy and rose argent within a bordure Or.' However, the crosses are supposed to be Latin crosses formy, but Laurel and the CoA felt the length of the lower arms were not enough to be considered Latin. Careful measurement of the original forms shows there IS a longer arm on the crosses. I have included new forms which make the difference clearer yet." The original forms do not show a Latin cross. We register the picture, not the words. If careful measurement is needed to show that a cross is Latin, then it is not a Latin cross. If a Latin cross is desired by the submitter, then it is a device change, and new forms and fees must be submitted. Since no fees were paid for this, it will have to be returned. (05/1997)

Jared Alexandre Blaydeaus. Badge. (Fieldless) A raven striking maintaining a spur-rowel sable.

This conflicts with the Shire of Ravenshore, as cited in the LoI, Per fess argent and azure, a raven rising wings addorsed sable maintaining a scallop Or. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for the difference in the maintained charges. (12/1998)

Jasper Murtagh. Device. Chevronelly inverted argent and gules, a dragon sejant erect maintaining a sword palewise purpure.

This conflicts with Giesele Hildegaard of the Mystic Dragon Argent, a lion-tailed, fire-breathing sea dragon erect purpure., with one CD for the difference in field. Even if there was no conflict, this would have had to have been returned for the use of hot pink for purple. (03/1998)

Jean le Confus. Device. Purpure, a duck close contourny a bordure engrailed Or.

This is being returned for conflict with John Aquila of Eaglesdown (SCA), Purpure, an eagle close to sinister Or. There is only one CD, for the bordure. There is nothing for type of primary charges.

In particular I note that in the LoAR of 9/92 Laurel wrote, in the context of comparing an eagle close vs. a dove close, "Prior Laurel precedent has granted no difference for bird type, when the birds are in identical postures. In this case, when the eagle isn't displayed, it loses most of the traits that let it be identified as an eagle." (11/1996)

Jean-Michel d'Aix en Provence. Device. Per pale vert and sable, two griffins rampant each sustaining a sword and a griffin rampant sustaining a harp Or.

This is being returned for violating our rules on slot machine with three different charges in the same group (the griffins, the sword and the harp). The held charges are large enough to be sustained and count for difference. However, since they are sustained, they become part of the charge group. (04/1999)

Jessica Marten. Device. Per pale argent and sable, a reremouse displayed gules.

This conflicts with Rinaldo of Blackhaven (SCA), Gyronny azure and argent, a bat displayed maintaining a fasces gules, wearing a barrel helm sable., with one CD for the change to the field. (07/1997)

Jocelyn ni Morgunn. Name.

This is being returned for construction problems. Jocelyn is a distinctly English form and it does not seem to have migrated to Ireland so there is no Irish form parallel to it. Morgunn is Welsh and takes ferch not ni. Since she will not take major changes we are forced to return this, but the most logical and registerable form for this name would be Jocelyn Morgan. (04/1999)

Johann Deri. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for the byname Deri. No documentation was provided and none could be found for it being used in period. (02/1999)

Johann von Salzbrunnen am der Weg. Name.

This is being returned for incorrect construction. First, am is a contraction of an dem and therefore already contains the definite article. The second definite article, der, is superfluous. (It also has the wrong form. After the preposition the noun, which is masculine, is in the dative case; the masculine dative singular form of the definite article is dem, not der.) Johann von Salzbrunnen am Weg would make him from a place named Salzbrunnen am Weg `saline spring by the road'. The LoI indicates, however, that he actually intended the byname to be topographical rather than toponymic. If he really wants to be `John at the saline spring by the road', he should correct the byname to zum Salzbrunnen am Weg. (09/1996)

Johanna MacAnna. Device. Vert, in chevron two double-pointed knitting needles argent, in chief three annulets interlaced one and two Or.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. (11/1998)

Johanna von Welf. Name.

This is being returned for violating RfS VI.1 ­ Presumptuous Names. Welf is the Middle High German form of the name more familiar to English­speakers as Guelph. This is, as noted in the OED and many historical sources, the name associated with the princely family who were the primary opponents of the Hohenstaufens for control of the Holy Roman Empire and the ancestors of inter alia the current British royal family. Therefore this name violates RFS VI.1 on presumptuous names just as much as Hohenstaufen which is specifically mentioned as an exemplar in the current edition of the RFS. The use of Welf as a surname is presumptuous with any name. (07/1997)

Johannes Braunhausen. Device. Azure, a bow, on a bordure Or six intertwined garden roses gules, slipped and leaved vert.

As drawn, the intertwined roses look like a wreath of roses, which are reserved to former consorts of a kingdom and arms of a consort. Barring documentation that this submitter is entitled to use a wreath of roses we must return this submission. (04/1998)

Johannes von Helmstedt. Device. Azure, a winged lion statant erect contourny, maintaining in its forepaws an open scroll palewise, a bordure Or.

This conflicts with Cinhil MacAran Per fess rayonny azure and gules, a winged lion rampant to sinister within a bordure Or. There is just one CD for the field. (06/1998)

John Black. Name.

This conflicts with John Blacas Blacas is a form of the Old English word that became Black. Reaney & Wilson's Dictionary of British Surnames (p. 46 under Black) list se blaca dated to 964, Blac to 1086, leblac to 1130, and le Blacke to 1275. (05/1999)

John Blackwood. Name and device. Per fess argent and sable, in pale a cross formy and a lymphad sails furled contourny counterchanged.

The name is being returned for conflict with the registered name John of Blackwood. We are returning the device because the cross is not blazonable. It is not a cross formy and no one at the Laurel meeting could come up with a term to describe it. (10/1996)

John de Irwyne. Device. Gules estencely, a doubly-arched bridge argent and a ford proper.

This is being returned for violating the rules of tincture. The field is gules, which is a color, and the ford is colored starting with azure, making the start of the ford color against a color field. Reversing the tinctures so the ford starts with argent instead of azure will correct this problem. While not a cause for return, please ask the submitter to drawn the estencels smaller. (04/1997)

John le Browne. Name.

This conflicts with four different John Browns found in the Encyclopedia Britannica. under their own entry, who are therefore important enough to protect.

The armory was registered under the holding name John of Hró gerisfjör. (05/1999)

John O Gara. Household badge. Argent, on a pile inverted throughout vert between two trees proper, a sword and a boar s head erased close argent.

This could also be blazoned as "Per chevron throughout argent and vert, in chief two trees proper and in base in pale a sword and a boar's head argent." Blazoned that way, it would be slot machine. The badge also has the problem that the boar's head is somewhere between couped and erased. When the submitter resubmits, please instruct him to draw as clearly one or the other. (09/1996)

John O’Gara. Household name for Free Company of the Brotherhood of the Sword and badge. (Fieldless) Six swords, points to center Or.

The name has two problems. We do not, under most circumstances, use more than one designator. This has two, Brotherhood and (Free) Company. That alone would be grounds for return. We could not drop one of the designators and register it in that form, as it would then be in conflict with The Order of the Sword, The Brethren of the Sword, Knights of the Sword, and Circle of Swords.

The armory is being returned for breaking our rules on fieldless style. Fieldless armory cannot have charges that are not touching. The swords in this submission are not conjoined or touching, but rather each one is floating off in space by itself. (02/1998)

John O'Bryan. Name and device. Quarterly Or and gules, an eagle displayed argent between four crescents counterchanged.

Withdrawn by the submissions herald. (02/1999)

John of Blackmore. Device. Azure, a Celtic cross Or charged with a rose gules.

This is being returned for unidentifiability. In the case of Kenneth die Katze, (Fieldless) Within a Celtic cross gules, a rose sable., the barbs of the rose overlaid the annulet. In this case, the rose does not appear to be either on the cross or overall, but somewhere in between. At any distance it blends in and looks like a wheel in the middle of the cross. We have grave doubts about the suitability of charging a Celtic cross in with fashion. (11/1997)

John Paul Devereaux. Device. Azure, in fess a mullet gules fimbriated between two double-bitted axes palewise Or.

This conflicts with Morgan Bloodaxe Azure, a triangle of three battleaxes fretted Or. There is a CD for arrangement, but nothing for changing the type or tincture of one out of three charges in either of these arrangements. (04/1998)

John Rodrick of Clan Neil. Device. Gules, two chevronels between two Celtic crosses and a lion passant argent.

This conflicts with Brenda Lynne of Clan Neil (SCA), Gules, two chevronels between three thistles argent., whose arms were registered earlier in this letter. While we assume that they are related based on their SCA name and mundane names and addresses, we need a written permission to conflict. Please also let them know that if they are a married couple this heraldry doesn't display the relationship they probably have in mind. (07/1997)

John Wolf. Device. Azure, a wolf rampant maintaining a mullet argent.

This conflicts with Robert Strongbow (SCA) Vert, a wolf rampant argent grasping in its erect sinister forepaw a bow gules held fesswise and in its dexter forepaw a sheaf of three clothyard shafts Or armed and flighted argent., with one CD for the tincture of the field but nothing for the maintained charges. Robina Wyeclif (SCA) Azure, a wolf rampant argent maintaining a spear Or flying to sinister a pennoncelle gules fimbriated all within a bordure Or., with one CD for the addition of the bordure but none for the maintained charges. And Jonathan Crusadene Whitewolfe (SCA) Gules ermined argent, a wolf rampant argent., with one CD for the difference in the fields. (12/1997)

Jon Tristram. Device. Purpure, on a vol argent, a trumpet palewise gules, and in chief a sheaf of arrows inverted Or.

This is being returned for a redraw as the trumpet is so small that it disappears on the vol when viewed from any distance. (03/1997)

Jonathan Harbour. Device. Per chevron gules and argent two roses argent slipped and leaved vert and a tower gules.

This is being returned for breaking the rules of tincture. The slipping and leaving are vert, a color, on a color field. Making them entirely argent would eliminate this problem. (04/1998)

Jonathan Thorne. Name.

This conflicts with Jonathan Thorne, registered September 1994. (07/1998)

Jorunn Krukmakerska. Device. Per bend sinister gules and sable, a tree and in base three bars wavy argent.

This conflicts with Erik of Oakstream (SCA) Purpure, a tree eradicated and in base three bars wavy argent. There is only one CD for the changes to the field. (01/1997)

Josef the Unkempt. Device. Azure, on a pale argent a raven contourny sable.

This conflicts with Cormacc na Connacht Azure, on a pale argent a sword inverted gules., Barony of Illiton Azure, on a pale argent a mermaid erect affronty proper scaled Or crined vert maintaining in her right hand a trident bendwise sinister and in her left and upraised hand a grey tower proper and in base a laurel wreath vert, and Guatemala Azure, on a pale argent a wreath vert surmounted by two rifles bayonets fixed surmounted in base by two sabres in saltire proper all surmounted by an open scroll palewise argent charged with the words LIBRETAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 Or and perched thereon a quetzal bird vert bellied gules. In each case there is just a single CD for changes to the tertiaries. (07/1998)

Joseph Bearshoulders of Ashwell. Device. Sable, Saint Michael proper, armored Or, wings displayed argent, holding above his head a sword enflamed proper.

This conflicts with Megara di Alessandra (SCA), Sable, a Fury rampant affrontee, sinister hand lowered, proper vested argent, winged Or, maintaining in the dexter hand a torch bendwise sinister enflamed proper. There is one CD for changing the color of the charge, but nothing for type between one winged humanoid to another. (04/1997)

Josephine of Devon. Name.

The kingdom was unable to provide documentation for Josephine as a period name, nor could any member of the College of Arms. The device was registered under the holding name Jan of Devon. (10/1996)

Josephine Ysabelle de Laval. Name and device. Argent, a hedgehog sejant proper, a bordure gules.

According to Withycombe "The Empress Josephine, who is responsible for the modern vogue of the name, was actually named Marie Josèphe Rose, Josephine being a pet-name." Barring documentation that Josephine is a period given name, it cannot not used. Since the submitter refuses any changes we cannot remove the out-of-period element and register the rest of the name. For the same reason we cannot form a holding name, so the armory must be returned as well. (04/1998)

Jourdain de Marcenais. Device. Per fess azure and gules, a pall inverted Or between three roundels enchancré Or.

"No evidence was presented that a roundel enchancré is a period charge. Therefore, barring period evidence of its usage, after the July 1997 Laurel meeting we will no longer register it." (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1997, p. 2). Since this is after the July Laurel meeting we are returning this. (09/1997)

Jozef der Gelehrter. Name and device. Vert, a bend sinister invected argent between a dragon rampant to sinister Or and a pine tree eradicated argent.

Based on Morlet's Noms des personnes, II, p. 66, the more likely period form for the given name would be Josep. The modern German term for a learned man or scholar is Gelehrte as well as Schüler. However, based on the evidence of Socin's (Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch, p. 492, the occupational surname for a scholar would be Schüler. Therefore Josep Schüler is the period form of the name. However, we feel that that is more than a "minor change" so we are returning it to the submitter.

The device is being returned for a redraw. All the charges are far too small, and the line of division is drawn with many more invections than necessary. On an ordinary in this orientation, there should be between 5 and 9 bumps on each side. There are 22 visible here. (08/1998)

Jubal Bieber. Device. Checky sable and argent, a Celtic cross throughout gules.

This conflicts with Henry of Coldharbour Argent, a cross of Coldharbour gules. A cross of Coldharbour is an SCA invention considered to be identical to a Celtic cross throughout. Therefore, there is only one CD for the field. (12/1998)

Judah ben Issachar. Device. Quarterly sable and checky argent and purpure, a decrescent, between and conjoined to its horns a sun Or.

This conflicts with the badge of Christopher Edward Hawkins Sable a decrescent Or. There is a CD for the field, but because of itÆs size and placement, the sun carries the same visual weight as maintained charges. Since we don't grant any difference for maintained charges, the sun provides no difference since it has the same visual weight as them. (08/1998)

Judith zu Ahe. Device. Vert, on a bend Or three hearts palewise gules.

This conflicts with David of Moorland Vert, on a bend Or, three boar's heads couped sable., with one CD for multiple changes to the tertiaries. (10/1998)

Julianna of Dunbar. Badge. [Fieldless] A rose proper issuant from a comital coronet Or.

This is being returned for style. The only mundane use of this arrangement would be as a crest. Numerous mundane examples of a crest issuing from a coronet sans torse are found in von Volborth’s The Art of Heraldry: pp. 84, 88, & 92 for 15th century examples, 98, 99, &101 for 16th century, plus various post-period examples. On the LoAR of 3/93 p. 26 Laurel ruled "The College does not register crests ¼ This submission is a crest by virtue of its being set atop a torse." This case is similar and therefore is returned. (07/1996)

Julien de Montfort. Badge. (Fieldless) A leonine sagittary passant argent.

This conflicts with Sumer Redmaene Purpure, a centauress argent, crined gules, hooved and nippled Or, with a wreath of nasturtiums proper in her hair. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for the difference between the two types of sagittaries, nothing for the gender difference, and nothing for the crining. (04/1999)

Juneborg, Shire of. Name.

This is being returned for lack of a petition. The paperwork for the name of any official SCA group and the device for any official SCA group must include written support for the proposed submission. (01/1998)

Kale' Laskarina Sarantene. Device. Vert, two chevronels braced between three mullets of six points, the bottom point wavy, in chief a crescent Or.

According to the submitter, the unusual mullet is found on the arms of Cachia, though she gives no documentation for this, nor for that having been used in period. According to al-Jamal "Looking at the arms of Cachia in An Illustrated Collection of Coats of Arms of Maltese Families by Charles A. Gauci, p. 34, the "comets" on this submission are not the comets on those arms. The charges there consist of a mullet of six points, with a "ray" issuing from behind the quite clearly drawn and visible bottommost point of each of the mullets."

We currently give a CD between a mullet and an estoile. This blurs the line between the two of them. Barring documentation that a charge as submitted was used in period, this must be returned. (02/1999)

Kalen Forgehall. Name and device. Azure, a dog salient contourny his paws resting upon a helm argent.

According to the letter of intent, Kalen is a proposed Anglicization of Cáelan, which is found as a male given name in O'Corrain and Maguire, pg. 40. Forgehall is a constructed place name, probably meaning "Blacksmith's Hall." However, the Anglicization of Cáelán is extremely unlikely. The value of áe is uncertain; originally it may have been something like the diphthong represented by i in the English word mine, but by ME times it was apparently well on its way to the range of sounds represented by ao in modern Gaelic (Irish or Scots). (The modern spelling of the name is Caolán.) This sound, depending on dialect, varies from (roughly) the vowel of mate to (roughly) that of meet to German ü and ö and even to something rather like the Russian jery. The first of these could be represented by a in modern English, but none of them is at all likely to have been so represented in our period. By far the most common representation of this sound in the late 16th or early 17th c. Anglicization given by Woulfe is ea; we have not found a or anything that would plausibly have represented the `ah' sound associated with this spelling. Irish á, on the other hand, is generally represented by a in the Anglicization. (Note that a and aoi sound somewhat different from á and ao, so that Anglicization of the former are not evidence for the latter.) We might believe Kealan or Keylan, and perhaps Kelan; Kalen appears to be a modern English spelling of a modern, careless (mis)pronunciation of the Irish name.

Forgehall is not a particularly believable construction, at least on the basis of the justification given in the LoI. The meaning of forge in the byname del Forge is `smithy'; use of the term to refer to the apparatus rather than the to the smith's workshop seems to be a bit later. Thus, hall is redundant. Moreover, Smith, English Place­Name Elements, gives the meaning of the place­name element hall as `a hall, a large residence, a manor house, a place for legal and other public business' and in later dialect `a farm­house'; plainly this is not an element likely to be modified by forge. However, there was also an OE halh `a nook, a corner of land, a water­meadow', which in ME became inter alia hale and hal. It's probably not too far­fetched to imagine such a plot of ground coming to be known for a smithy situated on it, and on this basis we could probably justify Forgehal(e). (Forgehall is then a possible modern spelling.) Unfortunately, it is still thoroughly unbelievable with an Irish forename, even one that's been Anglicized. If he's a smith from a line of smiths, we suggest Kealan M'Agowne, a reasonable late­period Anglicization of Caolán mac an Ghobhann; the patronymic is `son of the smith'.

The armory is being returned for a redraw. The dog as drawn here appears to be cartoonish and in a non­period style. It has humanoid, chubby legs, large droopy­lidded eyes and a small pointed snout. The dog is not quite in a standard heraldic posture either; rather than a true salient, rampant or statant erect. Therefore, this drawing as a whole violates VIII.4.d. ­ overly modern depiction.

Note: even if this submission had been registerable, we still would have had to return it as no name forms were received. (08/1997)

Kalila Janan al-Nasrin. Name and device. Azure, a bend sinister rayonny on the upper edge between a tiger salient contourny and a cross couped Or.

"Kalila" is not a reasonable feminization of the masculine "Khalil"; "k" and "kh" are different letters in Arabic, with different sounds. ("kh" is similar to the German "ch" in "ach" or the Scottish "ch" in "loch".) As "Khalila" it would be unremarkable. "Janan" "is found in ... The Complete Book of Muslim and Parsi Names". Please remember that "Muslim" does not necessarily mean "Arabic". There may also be a problem with Muslim names books published in India. Muslim scholars in India have noted before that Indians, not speaking or understanding Arabic, often misuse "names" created from Arabic. "al-Nasrin" does not mean someone from Nasrin; it means the place itself. A man from Nasrin would be "al-Nasrini"; a woman from Nasrin would be "al-Nasriniyya". However, I cannot find a place called Nasrin. Finally, the name is not constructed in accordance with Arabic naming practices, in period or since. Assuming supporting documentation for Nasrin can be found, "Khalila al- Nasriniyya" would be appropriately constructed. If Janan is a feminine name, "Janan al-Nasriniyya" would be, as well. But Arabic (and Islam, for that matter) seems not to have formed names by stringing two personal names and a locative together.

The device is being returned for a redraw. The "tiger" seems to blur the lines between lions, tigers, and tygers. (07/1996)

Kamitatsu (no) Toshimoto. Name appeal.

The submitter appeals the return by Laurel in 9/95 of his name Kamitatsu Toshimoto, which was returned because Kamitasu was "not an attested and does not seem to follow any of the period Japanese surname patterns discussed by Solveig Throndardottir in Name Construction in Mediæval Japan." He claims that Kamitatsu would be a viable constructed Japanese name.

Unfortunately, he does not provide any evidence other than assertion that Kamitatsu follows Japanese name construction. Lady Solveig Thorondardottir, who Laurel contacted in reference to this name, is also unable to provide support for this construction. Therefore, this will have to be returned. Laurel suggests that the submitter contact Lady Solveig, who would be glad to help him construct a correct Japanese name. (08/1996)

Kamle Kropotove. Device. Ermine, a brown bull of Saint Luke passant guardant proper winged, armed and unguled sable, haloed gules.

While we register brown beasts proper if the animal is found naturally brown, such as a brown rabbit, or a brown hound, this is not a beast, but rather a monster, because of the wings and halo. Since monsters do not have proper coloration, they cannot be brown. Note: while blazoned on the LoI as an ox, the monster was clearly a bull, and not an ox. (05/1998)

Karana Yabokchi. Device. Azure, a hummingbird rising argent.

This is being returned for conflict with Francesca of Bright Angel (SCA), Azure, a dove displayed head elevated argent. There is one CD for position, but nothing for type. (09/1996)

Karhu Ketunpoika. Name.

Karhu is not a given name, and therefore cannot be used as a given name. The armory was registered under holding name Shawn Ketunpoika. (02/1997)

Karl der Jäger. Name.

This conflicts with the already registered Karl Jager. The armory was registered under the holding name Karl of the East. (07/1997)

Karl Helweg. Badge. (Fieldless) A sea-sagittary erect reguardant Or.

This submission has several problems. First, the monster is not in a blazonable position. If we consider it the position effectively erect, it conflicts with Colin of Duntamknackan (SCA) (Tinctureless) A merman, bow in dexter and arrow in sinister hand, tail raised to sinister., and with Vincent of Winterpeak (SCA) Per pale vert and sable, a mermaid erect embowed drawing a bow Or. If we consider the position effectively to sinister it conflict with Mikhail Reubenovic Kopaczewski (SCA) (Fieldless) A mermaid sinister facing Or., with one CD for fieldlessness, and nothing for the addition of the two legs. While it is true that we give a difference for addition/removal of wings, wings are large and occupy as much space as it least half the charge. (05/1997)

Karl Teransson av Drakkar. Name and device. Per bend sinister azure and gules, an owl close affronty Or, perched upon a branch sable.

No documentation was presented, and none could be found, for using Drakkar as a place name. Barring such documentation, it cannot be used. Since the submitter allows no changes the name must be returned.

The device conflicts with Lorraine von Eulennest Per saltire vert and purpure, a great horned owl affronty Or. There’s one CD for the field but nothing for the small grasped branch. This also conflicts with the badge of Adelicia of Gilwell (Fieldless) An owl Or. There is a CD for the field, but again nothing for the small held branch. There is no difference between an owl close and an owl affronty by the LoAR of 8/92 p.26. (12/1998)

Karl von Brandenburg. Device. Per chevron azure and sable, a chevron between three anvils and a gauntlet issuant from dexter sustaining a smith's hammer argent.

This is being returned for violating the "slot machine" rule, by having a single group on the field (around the chevron) consisting of three types of charge: gauntlet, hammer and anvil(s). (04/1998)

Karl von der Ostwache. Badge. (Fieldless) A castle sable with a central tower argent, issuant therefrom a beacon argent enflamed gules.

While blazoned on the LoI as (Fieldless) Issuant from a wall couped sable a tower, issuant therefrom a beacon argent enflamed gules., it could as easily be blazoned as above. As such, it conflicts with Harold of Breakstone (SCA) Or, a castle triple towered sable, pennants flotant to sinister vert., with one CD for the field, and nothing for changing the tincture of the tower and beacon which is substantially less than one half of the charge. (09/1997)

Karna Persdotter. Device. Vert, three square weaver's tablets set bendwise, a bordure Or.

This conflicts with Marcel d’Armand Vert, two lozenges in bend within a bordure Or. The holes, which are scarcely visible in the full sized emblazon, and the slightly rounded corners of the bendwise tablets are not sufficient to distinguish them from lozenges (the PicDic also suggests that the tablets were not used in period armory, precluding any CD based on period heraldic distinction), so the only effective difference is adding the third lozenge shape in sinister chief. (02/1998)

Kassandra Eymann. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for Eymann. The LoI said

"Eymann - German - my grandmother's maiden name - many medieval German merchants took their names from the wares they sold. Ey or Ei = Egg Mann = man."

Brechenmacher's Etmologisches Wörterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen shows Aierman dated 1360 and Eygermenger dated 1357, meaning egg man and egg seller respectively. However, neither form is documentation for Eymann. Barring documentation that this form was used prior to 1600, it must be returned.

The armory was registered under the holding name Kassandra of Loch Salann. (02/1999)

Kassandra Gatto Ammiratore. Name.

According to the LoI "Gatto Ammiratore is , we hope, Italian for Cat lover/admirer." Unfortunately, the LoI was wrong. It is not clear that the name would mean anything, but if it did, it would mean An admirer who was a cat. Furthermore, the LoI did not provide any documentation for a name of that form being used as a period byname. Therefore, we are returning this for incorrect construction and lack of documentation. (06/22/1999)

Kata Rauðbók. Device. Sable, on a saltire cotissed argent, a closed book gules.

This conflicts with Ilissa the Nightwatcher (SCA) Sable, on a saltire cotised argent, in bend sinister three wolves courant to base sable., with just one CD for the changes to the tertiaries. (08/1997)

Katarzyna Wilk. Name.

The given name is fine, but the byname is in the masculine form, not the feminine. The S ownik (VI: 105) provides many examples of Wilk as a man’s name but not as a woman’s. Moreover, we have a rather close period name "Katherina dicta Wylkowa" under the feminine patronymic Wilkowa (Ibid, VI: 107) indicating that a woman called ‘Catherine the Wolf" would have used the patronymic Wilkowa. Since Polish requires names to agree in gender with the bearer, and the submitter does not take changes, we must return this name.

The armory was registered under the holding name Katarzyna of Attemark. (11/1998)

Katerina Dmitrieva. Device. Gules, a bend sable fimbriated, in sinister chief a bear passant Or.

This conflicts with Trinidad and Tobago, Gules, a bend sable fimbriated argent. There is a CD for the addition of the secondary bear, but none for changing the tincture of the fimbriation. (11/1998)

Katerina filia Jehan de Londres. Device. Per pale azure and vert, a angel argent, in chief three fleurs-de-lys orange.

This is being returned for use of orange, which is not a heraldic tincture. Orange is not the same as Or. (10/1998)

Katherina vom Kattewegel. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for Kattewegel. While the LoI represented it as a constructed toponym, no documentation or exemplars were presented for wegel, and none were found by anyone in the College. Lacking such documentation, the name must be returned. (03/1998)

Katherine Aylwyn de Chaliers. Badge. (Fieldless) A Catherine's wheel Or.

This conflicts with Laszlo Rozsa as cited on the LoI, Per fess azure and gules, a wheel Or., with one CD for the field, and nothing for the difference between a wheel and a Catherine's wheel. (03/1999)

Katherine de Lindsay. Name and device. Per pale dovetailed sable and purpure, a unicorn contourny guardant and a thistle argent.

The name conflicts with Kathryn of Lindsey. Neither the spelling changes nor the change in preposition count for difference.

The armory is being returned for having a complex line of division between sable and purpure. Such a line, even when not obscured, is difficult to identify on low-contrast fields . Furthermore the unicorn needs to be redrawn so the horn and beard, the two most important identifying marks of a unicorn, can be seen. (12/1998)

Katherine Maunsel. Device. Argent, in dexter chief a rose azure enflamed proper and a sinister gore azure.

This conflicts with Rebecca of Lancaster (SCA), Argent, a rose azure barbed and seeded proper, a sinister gore azure. (04/1997)

Katherine Rose Oliver. Device. Per chevron ployé argent and vert, two ivy leaves and an owl close counterchanged.

This conflicts with Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn Per chevron argent and vert, in base a falcon close argent. We give no difference for the ployé, or between two raptors in the same position. This leaves only one CD, for the addition of the ivy leaves. (04/1999)

Katherine the Manx of Nyne Tails. Name.

Under Manx, the OED had the following to say. It's a post-period form of the adjective found as Maniske (i.e., Man-ish) in the late 16th c. (This is the earliest available citation.) As a noun it is plural; the earliest form given in the OED is Manks, though even this is first cited from 1688: Randle Holme referred to the Manks or Manings. Ignoring for the moment the question of what forms are period, it's still clear that the Manx is very unlikely: depending on whether Manx is understood as the adjective or the noun, the name is analogous either to Katherine the Danish or to Katherine the Danes, neither of which makes good sense. The 1688 quotation suggests that one of the Manks might have been a Mank or Maning, but such an inference is at best shaky. First, 1688 is well past even the Grey Area. Secondly, we can find no evidence that the singular form Mank was used at all; the earliest singular form that we can find is Manksman 1702. (We have found no other reference to anything like Maning; it could even have been Holme's nonce construction.) In short, it's not clear what an inhabitant of the Isle of Man would have been called in period, though Mank(e)sman would undoubtedly at least have been understood in the 16th c.; if we restrict ourselves to attested elements, the only possible construction is Katherine Maniske, which is analogous to Katherine English.

The locative byname doesn't really make a lot of sense. Its form makes Nyne Tails a place-name, but I find it very hard to imagine even a hamlet named for nine little plots of ground sticking out of larger, more regular fields, especially when there seems to be no evidence for tail as an English or Scottish place-name element. Perhaps an individual farm might have come to be so known, because it included a field with nine tails, say, but that's more than a little speculative, if only because nine seems an implausibly large number; if we accept such a possibility, we certainly ought to give the rest of the name as period a flavor as possible. The most common topographical prepositions in OE were on and æt; in later English usage both could become simply a or a'. Granting (a) that Nynetails is a plausible farm name and (b) that farm names are a legitimate class of period locatives, Katherine Maniske a' Nynetails would seem to be possible as a late-period name. We felt, however, that this was too big a change to make without the submitter's consent. The armory was registered under the holding name Katherine of Tir Ysgithr. (05/1997)

Kathern Thomas Gyelle Spence. Device change. Per chevron pointed with a Linden leaf sable and vert.

The submitter has provided examples from Siedmacher’s 1605 Wappenbuch of armory that could be blazoned Per chevron ployé pointed with a linden leaf argent and gules., and Per bend Or and sable with trefoils counterposed and issuant from the center of the line., thereby showing period evidence for this motif. However, all exemplars provided used difference tincture classes for each half of the field.

This design motif is essentially a divided field with leaves as counterchanged charges. Therefore, this submission violates the Rule of Tincture. Barring period evidence of this motif using two tinctures from the same class, it can only be used in the SCA with tinctures from the different classes. (10/1998)

Kathleen MacDeargan. Badge. (Fieldless) A winged cat salient argent.

This conflicts with Alienore di Paravano Per saltire gules and sable a winged lion rampant wings elevated and addorsed argent. There's one CD for the field, but nothing between a winged cat and a winged lion, and nothing for salient to rampant. It's also in conflict with William Alexander MacAvoy Per chevron gules and azure a natural winged tiger segreant argent striped sable., for the same reason. (11/1998)

Kathleen MacDeargan. Device. Per fess embattled azure and sable masoned argent, a domestic cat sejant affronté argent.

This is being returned for having an overlying charge across a low contrast field with a complex line of division. Additionally, the cat in the picture is overly naturalistic looking since it is a scanned photo of a cat, and not a drawing. When resubmitting, please draw a heraldic cat. (10/1997)

Kathleen Rose. Device. Sable, a chevron rayonny between two suns in splendor and an Egyptian sphinx couchant Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. There are far too many rayons in the rayonny. (11/1998)

Kathryn Bearward of Wolfenden. Badge. Per pale gules and vert, a sheaf of arrows Or.

This conflicts with Michael of York Gules, a sheaf of three arrows bound by a serpent coiled to sinister guardant Or. The serpent is not large or prominent enough to count for difference, leaving only one CD for the change in the field. (11/1998)

Kathryn de Lyon. Name

This conflicts with Catherine de Lyon, registered January, 1998

The armory was registered under the holding name Kathryn of Saint Swithin's Bog. (10/1998)

Kathryne Larke of Blackwater. Device. Per chevron sable and purpure, a chevron argent, in base a swallow volant to sinister Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The bird is not clearly volant to sinister or volant bendwise sinister, but something halfway between. (07/1998)

Katlin von Kappel and Theoland Grimulf. Badge. (Fieldless) On a heart per pales gules and sable, a wyvern displayed Or.

This conflicts with Dragon’s Laire, Barony of Per pale Gules and Sable a two headed dragon displayed Or grasping in dexter forepaw a laurel wreath Vert and in sinister forepaw a moneybag Gules. Since a heart is a recognized form of heraldic display, Katlin’s badge is effectively a shield with a charge that has no CD’s from Dragon’s Laire’s shield with a similar monster. There is nothing for the difference between two versus one head, nor for the maintained laurel wreath or money bag. (01/1998)

Katrine of Roscommon. Device. Vert, three cats sejant and on a point pointed argent, an open scroll vert.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn, this blurs the line between a point pointed and a per chevron division, being clearly neither one nor the other. (10/1997)

Kat'ryna Neblaga Volchkova. Device. Per chevron azure and argent, three annulets counterchanged.

This technically conflicts with Kazimir Petrovich Pomeshanov Per chevron throughout azure and argent, two rapiers inverted and a slow match counterchanged., 6/91). The slow match is in its standard coiled form which is not substantially different from an annulet, leaving just a single CD for the type of the charges. (08/1998)

Keara Calder. Household name for House Argus and badge. Gules, a bicorporate lion Or between three crosses formy fitched at the foot argent.

The household name is being returned for conflict with Argos, which has its own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica, and is thereby important enough to protect. The badge is being returned for a redraw. The crosses are not formy and are not fitchy, but some kind of hybrid between the two. (01/1997)

Keja Tselebnika. Device. Azure, a gurges, overall an owl displayed argent.

This is being returned for violating the rule of contrast, which creates in this case a major problem with identifiability. The contrast here is quite poor. Whether one sees the gurges as a charge (the standard, and correct interpretation) or as a field division, this is an argent charge on a half-argent background. (11/1997)

Kenelm MacKenna. Name.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. (11/1998)

Kenneth die Katz. Badge. (Fieldless) Within a Celtic cross gules, a rose sable.

This is being returned for violating our ban of color on color. The rose is not within the cross, it is on the cross. A charge on a charge must contrast with the charge it lies upon. Please warn the submitter when redesigning his badge to be aware of Kay Gwenhwyfar of Locksley (SCA), Or, centered upon a Celtic cross patty gules a rose barbed and seeded argent. (11/1996)

Ker Megan of Taransay. Device. Azure mullety, a winged lion passant Or.

This is being returned because as colored neither Laurel, nor any of the approximately 20 Ansteorrans at the Laurel road show could determine if the field was azure or purpure. (01/1999)

Keresztély Ilona. Device. Argent, a cross triparted and fretted fleury vert.

This is being returned for a redraw. The cross does not have a proper fleury (it looks more leafy) and while the cross is parted, each piece of the arms needs to have some substance. This is drawn as thin­line heraldry. (09/1997)

Kerold Hoegaarden. Device. Vert chapé argent, a butterfly Or.

This conflicts with Aryana Silknfyre (SCA), Gules, chapé ployé argent, a butterfly Or., and with Gunnar Mulcha of Odin's Seat (SCA), Counter-ermine, a butterfly Or., with, in both cases, one CD for the change to the field. (02/1997)

Kerri Stirling of Mayfaire. Name and device. Quarterly gules and sable, four fleurs-de-lys in cross, points outward, argent.

No documentation was presented, and none could be found for Mayfaire as a period place. Without such documentation the name cannot be registered. We would have dropped it in order to register the rest of the name, but the submitter did not allow major changes, and dropping an element such as Mayfaire is a major change. Therefore, we are returning it.

The armory conflicts with Alienor Beatrice Lucrezia Azure, four fleurs-de-lys in cross bases to center argent. There is only the one CD for the field. (06/22/1999)

Kiara O Slevin of the White Hands. Name and device. Vert, a natural dolphin haurient embowed, a chief wavy argent.

The name is being returned for incorrect construction. The byname is completely out of place: you would not find a late-period Englishing of an Irish name combined with a bad translation of a medieval French literary epithet?! The French versions of the romance precede the English ones, and The Arthurian Encyclopedia, s.n. Isolde of the White Hands, seems to indicate that the name is a translation of Iseut (or Yseut) aux Blanches Mains, a French form consonant with such attested period examples as Aales aux Grosses treices 1292 Alice with the large braids (Lebel, 68). When such bynames were actually still in use, the natural English translation would have been withe Whithand (Wytehand, etc., or possibly in the plural, with handes, hands, honden, etc.). Before long the preposition and article would have fallen by the wayside, as in the extant examples noted in the LoI. At no time would of the White Hands have been even a modern spelling of a plausible ME version of the French byname. The submitter forbade dropping any elements in order to register the name, so we are forced to return this.

The device is being returned for conflict with Lassarina Kieren (SCA), Vert, a dolphin haurient and in chief a mullet of eight points argent. Based on Master Bruce's research, which indicated that the amount of embowing appeared to be an artistic variant in period, we are granting no difference between a haurient and haruient embowed. (09/1996)

Kiera nic an Bhaird. Badge. [Fieldless] A borage flower azure, barbed vert, seeded argent.

This is being returned for conflict with Alys of the Midnight Rose (SCA), Or, a rose slipped and leaved azure. There is no heraldic difference between a borage flower and a rose, leaving just one CD for the field. (11/1996)

Kiera nic an Bhaird. Household name for Cruadalach damh and badge. (Fieldless) A borage flower purpure, barbed vert, seeded argent.

The household name is being is being returned for several reasons. First, for violating RfS III.2.b. which requires that "household names must consist of a designator that identifies the type of entity and at least one descriptive element." There is no designator. Secondly, it is incorrectly constructed. The words need to be switched to follow correct Gaelic word order. Furthermore, the name does not really mean "courageous hart". The primary meaning of cruadalach is "dangerous, grievous" and the period meaning (as given in the Dictionary of the Irish Language) is "harsh, cruel, severe". The word, at least in the modern language, can be interpreted as "courageous, hardy" but this would not be the primary understanding. A word that appears to have much closer connotations to what is intended is meisnemail (DIL) or misneachail (Dwelly). They are both adjectival formations from misneach (courage). Finally, even if the name was correctly constructed, it does not fit the pattern of Scots Gaelic entity that we know of, nor does it fit any of the exemplars in the rules.

One possibility that they might consider is that a grammatically correct phrase meaning "courageous stag" could be Damh Misneachail -- but that, in itself, seems unlikely as a household name. Since damh appears as a root in given names (e.g. masculine Damhán), one historically plausible solution would be for them to invent an eponymous ancestor for a clan: e.g., Clann Damháin <courageous>.

The badge conflicts with Alyanore of Vinca (SCA) Argent, a periwinkle (vinca minor) proper. A periwinkle proper is very close in color both to purple and to blue; there is not a CD between it and either purpure or azure. (11/1997)

Killian Bryce. Device. Argent, a lizard rampant and on a chief embattled vert, three estoilles argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The animal drawn is a dinosaur, not a lizard. (02/1997)

Killian MacKenzie. Device. Argent, on a bend sinister between a sprig of forget-me-nots slipped and leaved and a wolf couchant azure, a feather argent.

This conflicts with a badge for the Barony of Atenveldt Argent on a bend sinister between two clarions azure, a quill pen argent. There is only one CD for the difference of type of secondaries. (02/1998)

Kinga MacKinnon. Name.

This is being returned for two reasons. First no period exemplars were presented and none could be found for Kinga as a period abbreviated form of Kunegunda. Secondly, no documentation was presented, and none could be found for regular contact between Hungary and Scotland.

The armory was registered under the holding name Victoria MacKinnon. (08/1998)

Kinoshita Yasuke. Device. Sable, four tops in cross tips to center within and handles conjoined to a bordure argent.

This is being returned for lack of documentation on the tops. Without documentation that this depiction is of a period artifact or a charge used in period European armory, this must be returned. (03/1999)

Kirsten Thorsteinsdottir. Device. Per chevron azure and argent, two compass stars argent and a lion's head erased gules.

This conflicts with Alrikr af Stjarnaheimi (SCA) Per chevron throughout azure and argent, two compass stars and a pithon embowed counterchanged., with just one CD for the changes to the single charge in base (as specified by the precedent in the LOAR cover letter of 9/6/90 which first created the possibility of such CDs.) (08/1997)

Klaus Hartel von Ulm. Device. Pily bendy sinister gules and argent, in sinister chief a mullet of eight points argent.

This is being returned for conflict against the badge of the Chronicler of the Kingdom of Ansteorra: (Tinctureless) A mullet of five greater and five lesser points distilling gouttes. There is a CD for fieldlessness/tinctureless, but nothing for the difference between two mullets of eight points or more, nothing for the gouttes, and nothing for position or tincture against a fieldless/tinctureless badge. (09/1996)

Klaus von Nachtwald. Name change from Hans Hager Eyecrown.

No real documentation was presented and none could be found for Nachtwald as a period byname. Barring such documentation we are forced to return this name. (02/1998)

Kobayakawa Ariake. Device. Per saltire gules and Or, in pale two crocodiles passant contourney argent each gorged of a county coronet, and in fess two crosses formy fitched at the foot sable.

The device is being returned for a redraw. The crosses are not formy and are not fitchy, but some kind of hybrid between the two. (01/1997)

Kofryna the Goatherd. Name and device. Gules, a cow contourny and in chief a decrescent argent, a bordure Or mullety azure.

The name is being returned for lack of documentation. While the LoI states that the submitter consulted with a native speaker of Lithuanian who told her that "Kofryna" is the English equivalent of "Katherine", no documentation was presented for that, nor was any presented that it was a period equivalent, and no one in the College could find any. The armory is being returned for a redraw, as it was not clear, even on the large emblazon, whether the animal was a cow as blazon, or a goat, what the submitter apparently wanted. (05/1997)

Kojin the Wayfarer. Badge. Gules, on a sun argent a tankard sable, a bordure wavy argent.

This conflicts with Elgil Mirdil of Dor-Mallos (SCA), Gules a mullet of seven points within a bordure nebuly argent., with one CD for the addition of the tertiary, and with Maura Brighid of Darkwoods (SCA), Gules, on a sun argent an eradicated tree sable.,and Conroy der Rotte (SCA) Gules on a sun argent a falcon's leg couped a­la quise proper., with one CD for the addition of the bordure. (03/1997)

Kojin the Wayfarer. Name and device. Gules, on a sun argent a tankard sable, a chief wavy argent.

No evidence was presented that Kojin was a given name of a human being in period, nor could any be found by the College. The armory conflicts with Maura Brighid of Darkwoods (SCA), Gules, on a sun argent an eradicated tree sable., and Conroy der Rotte (SCA) Gules on a sun argent a falcon's leg couped a­la quise proper., with one CD for the addition of the chief. (03/1997)

Kolfinna Fitzsimon. Device. Sable, three peonies in bend Or, slipped vert, between two bendlets argent

This is being returned for a redraw. The flowers are drawn in trian aspect. They need to be either a full top or full side view. Additionally, these are not heraldic slips or leaves. As drawn it detracts from their identifiability as flowers. (10/1996)

Kolfinna Fraser. Device. Per bend vert and sable, an equal-armed Celtic cross formy argent.

There is no record of the name having been registered or even submitted. Since no name forms or money were received for the name, we must return the device. (12/1997)

Kolfinna Fraser. Device. Per bend vert and sable, an equal-armed Celtic cross formy argent.

This conflicts with Gormflait Suiban ni Cuallachta Gyronny Or and azure, a Celtic cross argent, fimbriated sable. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for the fimbriation or the details of the crosses. (02/1998)

Konstantin Pavlovich Izyaslav. Device. Sable, on a pile argent ten lozenges sable.

This is being returned for conflict with Morgan MacNeil of Clan Fergus (SCA badge), Sable, on a pile argent a sword inverted gules, the hilt between three crescents, one and two, azure. There is only one CD for multiple changes to the tertiaries. (07/1996)

Kou no Ryuukyuuro Toshikage. Name.

According to the LoI, Ryuukyuuro is found in Compleat Anachronist #66. Copies of the page with the name were not included, and none of the commenters was able to find it there. Therefore, we have no choice but to return this for lack of documentation. (10/1996)

Kovach Bol'shoi. Device. Or, a tree eradicated proper between in two dragons combattant, that to dexter sable and that to sinister gules.

Withdrawn by submitter. (05/1998)

Krelis de Vroomanszen Van Terschelling. Name.

The overall construction of this name is fine. However, each element in this name has problems.

The LoI notes that Krelis is documented from the Olive Tree Genealogy Homepage; this is to be found at www.rootsweb.com/~ote/, and the particular page in question is "Dutch Patronymics of the 1600s", located at www.rootsweb.com/~ote/dtchnam.htm. This is a genealogical site, and discusses only post-1600 practice; it cannot be considered reliable. No one in the College was able to find any evidence that Krelis was used in our period. The name Cornelis can easily be documented, however. Winkler (p.8) lists one Cornelis Vriens in the latter 15th century.

If Vrooman can be found in an appropriate sense, the byname should be constructed as Vroomanssoen (note spelling change and absence of aanlopen; see Winkler, p.21 for examples). However, no one has found it used in any names, and Verdam gives vroom as meaning "profit, benefit"; this is at odds with the client's "wise".

The island currently known as Terschelling was apparently known as Wuxalia until at least the early 11th century, and possibly much later (Knzel, p.409). Blaeu's Atlas (pp.64-65) has Der Schelling in 1662; Schilder has this spelling on a 1604 map, as well as der Schellinck in 1606 (vol. IV, p.149). The modern name of the island is thus a later contraction of this phrase. We could find no byname constructed as van der Schelling, though this might be reasonable. The appropriate byname appears to be Schellinger, according to Huizinga.

Taken together, the evidence suggests the best period form for the name is Cornelis Schellinger, though Cornelis van der Schelling might be justifiable. The first byname must be dropped unless additional evidence for it can be found.

This is too much of a change for us to feel comfortable in making it, so we are returning this for the submitter to decide. (11/1998)

Kriegen von Welf. Name.

This is being returned for two reasons. First, for violating RfS VI.1 ­ Presumptuous Names. Welf is the Middle High German form of the name more familiar to English­speakers as Guelph. This is, as noted in the OED and many historical sources, the name associated with the princely family who were the primary opponents of the Hohenstaufens for control of the Holy Roman Empire and the ancestors of inter alia the current British royal family. Therefore this name violates RFS VI.1 on presumptuous names just as much as Hohenstaufen which is specifically mentioned as an exemplar in the current edition of the RFS. The use of Welf as a surname is presumptuous with any name. Secondly, the name Kriegen is a byname not a given name. The citation of Krieg from Socin is of a byname, not a given name (Henricus dictus Krieg ... 1290), as are all the other spelling variants of the name listed there. The Bahlow listings for Krage and Kreher are for surnames. The Bahlow examples of Krischan and Krispien are Latin­origin names and not relevant to potential modifications to German roots. Kriegen is the German verb meaning "to fight, make war". There are a number of period bynames derived from this root that he could use ­­ Brechenmacher notes the headings Krieg, Krieger, Kriegelein, Kriegler, Kriegmann, Kriegsheim(er), Kriegsmann. But it isn't a given name and we could find no documentable German given name similar to it. (07/1997)

Kudrun Þe Pilgrim. Device. Azure, a peregrine falcon maintaining in its dexter talon an open book argent.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. No device form was included in the packet. (05/1998)

Kurdun þe Pilegrim. Device. Gules, atop a quadruple mount couped, a peregrine falcon rising, wings inverted and addorsed, maintaining in its dexter talon an open book argent.

This conflicts with Jehan de la Marche Gules, a crow rising, pierced by an arrow, both argent. There is one CD for the addition of the mount.

Even if there had been no conflict we would have been forced to return this for presumption. The quadruple mount overwhelmingly resembles a crown, [and the submitter is not entitled to display one on her arms.] (Laurel had been inclined to allow the charge, but at the Laurel meeting where it was viewed, my staff, who had not seen the LoI, immediately started looking for evidence of her entitlement to use a crown, since they all thought it was one until the blazon was read. This served to change our mind.). The submitter is correct in stating that it is a period charge. However, that is not relevant in matters of presumption. (05/1999)

Kusunoki Yoshimoto. Device. Argent, three barrulets wavy azure and in chief a roundel sable.

This conflicts with Johann Lorinson Per chevron embattled argent and gules, in chief a gunstone., because Argent, three bars wavy azure is equivalent to a field Barry wavy argent and azure. It was not unusual for barry or paly fields in period to be drawn with an odd number of traits (which we'd blazon as bars or palets); see, for example, the arms of Mouton (Multon, Moleton) found both as Barry argent and gules and Argent, three bars gules (Dictionary of British Armory, pp 59, 88; Foster, p. 145). The same thing is found in the arms of von Rosenberg, whose Per fess field has in base either three bends or bendy depending upon the artist's whim (Siebmacher, p. 8; Neubecker and Rentzmann, p. 290). Even when the distinction is worth blazoning, it's worth no difference. Therefore, there is just one CD for difference in the fields. (08/1998)

Kyneburh Boithuile. Badge. (Fieldless) A dog courant argent charged on the shoulder with a quatrefoil azure.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn the dogs legs are halfway between courant and statant, blurring the line between them. Since we give a CD between the two positions, it must be clearly one or the other. (09/1998)

Labhaiose inghean uí Raghailligh. Device. Or, an inkpot sable between three hummingbirds purpure.

No documentation was presented to show that the inkpot as drawn was a period item and no one could produce any such evidence. Barring such evidence, we have no option but to return this submission. (12/1997)

Laetitia of Blackthorn. Device. Sable, a bend sinister gules fimbriated Or.

This is being returned for multiple conflicts with: Elaine of Wogen Cavern, Sable, a bend sinister gules fimbriated Or, between a mullet and a pegasus rampant to sinister Or. There is only the one CD for the subtraction of the secondaries. The badge of Hermann Otto Koehlermann (SCA), Sable, a bend sinister Or, with only one CD for addition of the tertiary bend. (Or change of color.) And the device of Bryan Hay (SCA), Sable on a bend sinister gules fimbriated Or, three seagulls close to sinister palewise argent, orbed and winged sable, beaked Or, with one point for addition of (tertiary/quaternary) charges. (07/1996)

Laighe na Gréine, Port of. Device. Per pale Or and azure, a tower argent within a laurel wreath counterchanged.

The group name was returned on the September LoAR and without a registered name the device must be returned. We do not form holding names for groups. (11/1997)

Laighe na Gréine, Port of. Name and device. Per pale Or and azure, a tower argent within a laurel wreath counterchanged.

According to the LoI the name is intended to mean "port of the setting sun" in Irish Gaelic. Unfortunately, no evidence was provided in the LoI and no one in the college could provide any, for Scots or Irish place names being formed in this particular abstract pattern, apart from mythic references to the Sunset Lands, which are a distinctly supernatural locale. Barring such evidence, the name must be returned. Without a name we must return the device since we do not form holding names for groups. Even if the name had been registerable, we would have had to return the device for lack of paperwork. (09/1997)

Lance of Lancaster. Device. Or, a python erect affronty wings displayed, on a bordure invected vert three lion heads Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The bordure is a very odd shape, not following the general contours of the shield in the corners, in order to make sufficient room for the lion’s heads to be identifiable, which produces three "bulges" in the bordure where the lion heads are. (03/1999)

Larissa Montgomery. Device. Argent, a rose purpure leaved vert seeded Or, on a chief per chevron sable two bees Or.

This is being returned for administrative reasons; no mini-emblazon was included in the LoI. Even if one had been included, this would have to be returned for a redraw as the device was unblazonable. The `chief per chevron' was in fact a very high, very shallow per chevron line of division, visually a sort of chief swallowtailed. (04/1997)

LarsEllen Laurearsi MacAvoy. Name and device. Pily bendy sable and argent, a pair of scissors gules.

The given name, with the capital "E" in the middle of the word and the mixture of elements make this name unacceptable, even under the mundane name allowance bringing this up to the "Moon Unit" range. No period documentation was provided for Laurearsi; with the closest documentable form being Laureata which means literally "one who has been laureled" and is a claim to membership in the Order of the Laurel. The armory is being returned for a redraw; the scissors do not match the ones in the PicDic, nor do they match any period scissors that Laurel is aware of. Since there is no documentation that these are period, the armory must be returned for a redraw or documentation of this form. (07/1997)

Lasairfhíona ní Chon Chonnacht. Device. Gyronny argent and vert, on a goblet within a orle Or a rosebud gules slipped vert.

Rosebuds have been banned since November 1994. (07/1996)

Leagsaidh ninghean Sheumais. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation of the first name as a period given name. Found in Peadar Morgan, he states "A female diminutive of Alasdair, influenced by Lexy". Unfortunately, this implies strongly that Leagsaidh is a modern name. Barring evidence that it is a period name, we are forced to return it. Note: the LoI typoed the spelling of nighean and spelled it ninghean. (03/1998)

Leah Kasmira of Natterhelm. Device reblazon. Gules, a catamount couchant guardant coward Or, a bordure vair.

What is depicted is not "coward". It is in the normal position for feline beasts couchant. See the illustrations in Fox-Davies (Complete Guide to Heraldry, p. 185) and FriarÆs New Dictionary of Heraldry (p. 33) for classic depictions of this. Even if it was correctly drawn as "coward" we would not blazon it. Finally, the submitter has tried to get the position of the tail blazoned before and was told no. We quote from the March 1993 LoAR

"Leah Kasmira of Natterhelm. Blazon correction. Gules, a cat-a-mountain couchant guardant, tail reflexed to base Or, orbed vert, within a bordure vair ancient.

The submitter wishes her device's blazon to specify the exact placement of the cat's tail. (She's also added the tincture of the eyes, which isn't in the current blazon, registered 31 Oct 82.) While I sympathize with the submitter's wish to have her emblazon rendered as she prefers, this can't be done at the expense of correct blazonry. The posture of the tail is heraldically insignificant; moreover, the proposed reblazon doesn't use standard heraldic terms. Reflexed to base is not to be found in Parker, Franklyn & Tanner, Woodward, or any of our normal texts; nor is it found in the OED. As Lord Crescent noted, it seems pointless to "clarify" a blazon with an ambiguous phrase. This seems to be a problem more easily solved by communication with the artists than by torturous reblazon. [March 1993] (08/1998)

Learbhean Ó Maoil Eoin. Device. Argent goutty de larmes, a silkie sable headed proper crined between in chief two spokeless Catherine wheels sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. There is no such thing as a spokeless wheel in heraldry. We could not reblazon it as an annulets "line of division" on the outer edge, as the best description of the line of division is the out­of­period wavy crested. (08/1997)

Legend of Hunter's Home. Name and device. Purpure, on a chevron Or a chevronel vert and a chevronel azure, a bordure Or.

The given name Legend is the submitter's legal given name, and was submitted under the mundane name allowance. It was the feeling of the majority of the members of the College commenting on this name, as well as virtually everyone at the Road Show meeting, that this name was obtrusively modern. Since there is no way to form a holding name, the armory is being returned as well. (03/1997)

Leifr of the Crescent Moon. Device. Gules, on a bend sinister wavy between a maple leaf and a crescent Or, a scarpe sable.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. (01/1999)

Leifr of the Crescent Moon. Name and device. Gules, on a bend sinister sable wavy, a maple leaf and a decrescent Or, a scarpe sable.

While blazoned as Or, the tincture used was really orange, which is not used in this manner in the SCA. (11/1996)

Lenore von Falkenstein. Device. Per chevron embowed throughout gules and Or, two trees eradicated Or and a falcon belled azure.

This is being returned for conflict with Aonghus Macadair (SCA), Per chevron gules and Or, three oak trees couped counterchanged fructed counterchanged. There is a CD for the changes to type and tincture of the base charge, but the rules only grant one CD for even multiple changes to the basemost of three charges 2 & 1. (07/1996)

Leofleor Seó Reod. Name and device. Per bend sinister gules ermined argent and counterermine, a bat-winged lion salient to sinister between three Celtic crosses Or.

This was submitted as a constructed name. It was not properly constructed. In explaining the return of this name, we could do no better than to quote Fause Losenge:

Leofleor cannot be justified as a reasonable constructed OE forename. The oldest convenient corpus of OE names is that of Bede's Historia, written c.700, whose 215 names have been fully studied by Ström. About two-thirds of these are dithematic names whose protothemes and deuterothemes come largely from the standard Germanic stock. This stock of themes derives from roots used to form nouns and adjectives; the semantic content of these roots closely parallels the diction of heroic verse. Well before Bede's day themes were being combined for onomastic rather than semantic reasons; children's names were often chosen to alliterate with a parent's or even to share a theme. Clark, quoting Ström, says that `[a]n Old English personal name's "meaning" - in so far as it had one - chiefly concerned "the family and line to which its bearer belonged"'. And these observations can be carried back to an even earlier date in the royal genealogies. Moreover, Roman records from the Continent show the Germanic tribes using similar dithematic names, with themes that were in large part cognate to Old English themes, from very early times indeed. The period in which the meaning of such dithematic compounds was paramount seems to have ended well before the Germanic invasion of Britain. The 10th c. change noted by Reaney and quoted in the LoI was not a change from a system in which names were freely constructed from common vocabulary elements according to meaning to the combinatorial method of combining prototheme and deuterotheme fairly arbitrarily; it was a change from a combinatorial system with a relatively large number of proto- and deuterothemes that were freely combined to one that used only a small number of these themes. Moreover, these themes tended to be combined in the same ways over and over. This is the point, historically, at which Eadweard, say, began to assume an identity as a single, indivisible name instead of a compound of the themes Ead- and -weard.

Reaney's discussion of Bucstan and Pikstan has been misunderstood, so I'll summarize it here. These names are not actually attested, being deduced from surnames, but it seems likely that they were in fact used. The likeliest derivations, according to Reaney, are from Bucca + -stan and Pica + -stan. Bucca is an attested OE forename of non-dithematic type. Pica is another; though not attested, it can be inferred from several place-names. The construction is therefore not <word> + <deuterotheme>, but rather <simplex name> + <deuterotheme>. Since hleor doesn't seem to have been used as a simplex name, it wouldn't fit the pattern even if it were being used as the first element.

The byname needs only a little work. First, seo is the definite article; it should not be capitalized, and the accent, a modern editorial indication of vowel length, should be dropped. (It is in any case misplaced, the diphthong actually being éo.) Clark Hall does give réod `red', but réad is more usual and the ancestor of modern red. The adjective is in the weak declension after the definite article: seo Reode or seo Reade, of which the latter is apparently more likely.

The armory is being returned for a redraw. The ermine spots need to be draw a lot larger. As drawn (and colored) no one at the Laurel meeting could tell if they were argent or Or. (01/1997)

Leofwynn Wulfinga and Eric Alard. Household name for House Red.

This is being returned for incorrect construction. No documentation was presented for the form House Red, and no period analogies could be found. Possible models for household names include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart). (04/1999)

Leonide Rurikov Dainiovich. Name and device. Ermine, a lion dormant to sinister gules.

The name has multiple problems. The spelling Leonide needs some period documentation. The name in most transliteration styles would be Leonid and is dated to 1585-6 in Wickenden (122). Rurikov is a plausible variant spelling of Riurikov, dated 1456-71 in Ibid (198). No documentation was presented for Dainiovich, which does not appear to be a Russian word. First, the modern Russian word for a Dane is datchanin (it is unlikely that there is even a period word). The resulting (hypothetical) patronymic byname would be Datchaninov(ich), which appears to be quite unlikely, and certainly not a period form.

Period constructions, are usually based on the place name (not the race) and thus a construction that indicated Danish ancestry (as the LoI indicated was desired) would be formed from the word Daniia (Denmark -- in modern Russian). The construction might be Danyn or Danynskii but both of these are extremely unlikely. He needs to document the actual byname desired or show a pattern of the use of foreign place name construction in Russian (and then follow that pattern). The same problem was faced previously in Laurel's return of Vladimir Kambionets. Leonid Rurikov, on the other hand, would be fine.

The armory conflicts with Glanwyn Ty Meillionen Ermine, an African lion cub couchant guardant gules, in its teeth the stem of a four-leafed shamrock vert. There is one CD for reversing the cat, but nothing for the maintained shamrock. (02/1998)

Leonore of Black Diamond. Device. Azure, a boot Or.

This conflicts with Pascal Foljambe Azure, a leg couped Or. We grant no difference between a leg and a boot, so there is no countable difference. It also conflicts with Eveline of Shoreham, as cited in the LoI, Azure, a slipper bendwise sinister Or., with one CD for orientation. (02/1999)

Lete Bithespring. Device. Vert, a phoenix and in chief a sun Or.

This submission raised the question whether, in period, a change between a secondary charge and a "peripheral" was or was not used to indicate cadency. This was relevant to the acceptance or return of this submission, since the proposed armory was, under current rules, one CD from Julienne Dubarry (SCA), Vert, a phoenix within an orle Or., as cited in the LoI with one CD for changing the secondary charge from a sun to an orle. Some members of the College felt that the two coats given would be perceived as being more than one degree of cadency from each other, although they felt that each was only one degree from Vert, a phoenix Or.

Current SCA practice is that "a peripheral charge group is, in fact, a group of secondary charges; the phrase simply denotes a special class of secondaries, a class that can never be primaries, and that are automatically separate from any other secondary group in the same armory." Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, 24 July, 1993 Cover Letter (June, 1993 LoAR).

Period practice shows that charges in both peripheral and non­peripheral positions were used as differencing marks. For divers and varying reasons these marks sufficed to mark difference at the time; but one of the concepts behind the SCA's rules is that a change between things that were used for differencing in period is generally worth one CD.

Heraldic Cadency, by Robert Gayre of Gayre and Nigg, pages 112 ­ 113, says "Next we find Upton, who was born about 1400, and who wrote De Studio, lays down a system which is easily perceived from the following diagram:" [I will give the blazons of the devices since it is easier than reproducing the diagram]: X(1) "Field, a fess; X(2) ­ 1st son of the 1st "Field, a fess and in chief a crescent"; X(3) ­ 2nd son of the first "Field, a fess and in chief a label"; X(4) ­ 1st son of the second "Field, a fess in chief a label and in base a crescent"; X(5) ­ 2nd son of the second "Field, a fess in chief a label a bordure"; X(6) ­ 3rd son of the second "Field, a fess in chief a label a bordure". He notes that the two bordures are in different tinctures.

So, in the instance above, when we get to the third generation, we swap a charge in base, for a bordure. The Boke of St. Albans, by Dame Juliana Berners, second edition, printed in 1496, offers much the same scheme, having brothers swap a label for a bordure.

However, these are just theoretical texts. Were there actually cases in period where what we currently call a secondary or secondaries were exchanged for what we would consider a peripheral?

A European Armorial, which is an armorial of knights of the Golden Fleece and 15th century Europe from a contemporary manuscript, edited by Rosemary Pinches and Anthony Wood, shows, on page 89 the following French arms in this order: the King of France, "Azure, 3 fleurs­de­lys Or (France Modern), the Dauphin, "Quarterly, France modern, and Or, a dolphin gules", the Duke of Orleans, "France modern and a label argent", the Duke of Anjou, "France modern and a bordure gules" and the Duke of Berry "France modern and a bordure engrailed gules".

Lines of Succession, by Ji í Louda and Michael MacLagan show on Table 3 (England) the arms of the Prince of Wales (Edward, the Black Prince) "Quarterly France ancient and England, a label argent", followed by the arms of three of his brothers who all bear suitably differenced labels. The last brother, Thomas of Woodstock who bears "Quarterly France ancient and England, a bordure argent".

In the same book, table 110 (Lorraine) shows the arms of Lorraine "Or, on a bend gules three eagles displayed argent". Claude I, who was the second son of René II, Duke of Lorraine, became Duke of Guise and bore Lorraine with a label. He had six sons. The eldest, Francis I, also Duke of Guise, bore Lorraine with a label, while the youngest became Master of Elboeuf, and bore Lorraine with a bordure.

In conclusion, it is obvious that substituting a peripheral for a non­peripheral secondary charge was certainly a period way to change the same base coat to show that two individuals are brothers. We consider that changing from one to the other is equivalent to adding either in terms of visual impact. Therefore, on the grounds period practice, SCA usage and visual impact we are returning this for conflict with Julienne Dubarry because only one CD exists for changing the type of secondary charge. (06/1997)

Lettice Godfree. Device. Azure, a compass star argent and a ford proper.

This conflicts with Bleddyn of Coldwell Azure, three suns, one and two, argent and a ford proper. Since we give no difference between a sun and a compass star, there is only one CD for number of charges. This also conflicts with the trademark of Maersk trucking company Bleu-celeste, a mullet of seven points argent., with one CD for the addition of the base. (11/1998)

Lezlee of Sundragon. Device. Per chevron azure and Or, two jester's caps argent and a brown bear sejant erect affronty proper.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn, the bear looks like a teddy bear, and not a medieval bear. Furthermore, it is not clearly in a sejant erect affronty position; normally we would not see the bottom of the animal's feet. (01/1999)

Líadain Ní Bhrollacháin. Device. Sable, a catamount passant guardant Or, on a chief argent three torteaux, overall a bordure counterchanged.

This device is being returned for non period style, having two problems which necessitate returns. The first is the charged chief and bordure combination. I can do no better than to quote Master Bruce as Laurel:

When a bordure and chief are used together, the chief almost invariably overlies the bordure (Parker 73). The rare exceptions generally don't have tertiaries on the chief; they would be crowded by the bordure, rendering them harder to identify. The handful of SCA registrations with bordures surmounting charged chiefs have subsequently been disallowed as precedent (LoAR of Oct 91, p.17); far more often, such designs have been returned as non-period practice. LoAR of December, 1992, pg. 20)

Therefore, this is being returned for non period style of combining a charged chief with a bordure overlying the chief. This is also being returned for the counterchanging of the bordure over the chief. There have been several previous rulings that state we do not counterchange bordures over ordinaries. (10/1996)

Lidia O'Ceirin. Badge. (Fieldless) A pine tree couped proper, overall in base a stag trippant argent.

This is being returned for violating our rules on fieldless style. "Barely overall" charges are not considered acceptable style under any circumstances, and fieldless badges in particular have more strict requirements for overall charges: At least one of the charges involved should be long and skinny, and the area of overlap must be small. In this case neither condition is met. (03/1998)

Liesl von Katzenheim. Name.

The name is being returned for lack of documentation on the given name. No documentation was presented to show that Liesl is a period given name and none could be found. Barring such documentation the name must be returned.

The armory was registered under the holding name Elizabeth von Katzenheim. (05/1998)

Lilya Fedorovna Skazitelnitsa. Device. Sable, on a bezant a triangle gules.

This conflicts with Cynthia Arianhrod (SCA), Sable, upon a bezant a lion's head gules and a woman's head vert addorsed, their mane and hair intermingled., and Gwynaeth math o Ddylluan (SCA), Sable, a bezant charged with a raven on a branch bendwise all sable., with one CD for the changes to the tertiary. (01/1997)

Lindulf Alanson. Name.

The correct form of this name would be Lindulf Alan. However, to make that change we would have to delete the final three letters of the name. The submitter only permitted "minor" changes, such as removing a letter. Since removing three letters is not within the parameters of what the submitter allows, we are forced to return this submission. (06/1997)

Linnet Rose. Device. Azure, an estoile of eight points Or between flaunches ermine.

This conflicts with Wendryn Townsend (SCA) Azure, a sun in glory Or., with one CD for the flaunches, but nothing for the difference between an estoile of 8 points and a sun. (08/1997)

Lisette de Lisle. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for Lisette as a given name in period. The only documentation we could find for its use is as a surname. All SCA given names must be documentable as having been used as a given name by a human being in our period.

The armory was registered under the holding name Elizabeth de Lisle. (02/1999)

Ljótr Einarsson. Device. Per saltire vert and Or, in chief a dexter gauntlet fesswise reversed sustaining a hammer palewise argent, in fess two wolf's heads erased addorsed sable.

This is being returned for breaking our rule on "slot machine" with three different charges (the gauntlet, the hammer and the wolf's heads) in the same charge group. If a charge is sustaining another it is considered two different charges in the same group, unlike maintained charges. (09/1997)

Lleulyth o’r Cymry verch Llewfron mab Dafydd. Name.

This is being returned for multiple problems with the name. While the submitter says that Welsh adopted names from the bible, and that Lleulyth is Welsh version of Lilith. However Lilith is not a Biblical name -- she appears in non-canonical Jewish folklore, but not the version of the texts generally available in Europe during the medieval period. Nor does she fall in the class of figures whose names were borrowed for use. It is possible that somewhere in a period Welsh text, there is a reference to Lilith, however it does not occur in any of the texts cited by the submitter. No one in the college has any documentation for Lleulyth as a period Welsh name (whether connected with Lilith or not), nor can it be justified on the basis of existing compound name elements. And, the submitter did not provide any documentation for it, outside of her assertion.

One can find the byname Cymro (Welshman) in period Welsh records, e.g. Morgan & Morgan p.77 Dauid Kymro (1326). However the ethnic bynames I have seen in period Welsh records are either of this form (i.e., the word for a person of that nationality, e.g. Cymro, Gwyddel(es), Sais) or simply use the name of the place (e.g. Powys). No one in the College was able to provide any documentation for a personal name using a construction along the lines of this submission, and neither did the submitter.

Finally, there was no direct reference to Llewfron given in the documentation. It appears to be a compound of llew (lion) and bron (breast), and in fact the GPC (the Welsh OED) notes it as a poetic compound, appearing in a 16-17th c. verse, with a meaning similar to "lion-hearted". However, once again, no documentation was provided for its usage, and no one in the college could provide any for it as a personal or byname.

While not grounds for return, please inform the submitter that mab is the common noun from which the patronymic particle ap derives, it would not have appeared in this spelling in a name later than perhaps the 10th century or so, which is inconsistent with the general format of the name.

Barring documentation for the name elements and construction, we are forced to return this name. If the submitter is interested in a Welsh name, we recommend that she contact Harpy Herald, c/o Laurel. The armory was registered under the holding name Johanna of Gleann Dubh. (02/1998)

Llewelyn de Granville of Gwent (Known as Cadno). Name.

We have never seen any period records that use known as X, much less Welsh ones. The personal nickname belongs in its normal position right after the given name. The two locatives are a serious anomaly. Locatives are pretty rare in Welsh names in the first place and we have yet to find a single example of a double locative. All in all we feel the changes necessary for this name are greater than we feel comfortable doing, so we are returning this for further work. (10/1997)

Llyr ap Morgwn. Device. Argent, a wolf rampant maintaining a quill pen and a bordure embattled azure.

This conflicts with Iaroslav of the Pripet Marsh Argent, a seadog rampant within a bordure embattled azure. There is a CD between the two critters, but not substantial difference. (03/1998)

Loch Báis, Shire of. Device. Per fess wavy azure and sable, a skeletal forearm palewise argent maintaining a laurel wreath Or.

This is being returned for having an overlying charge across a low contrast field with complex line of division. (01/1997)

Loch Ruadh, Canton of. Badge. Quarterly gules and sable, on a flame Or a rock gules.

This conflicts with William of Sark as cited on the LoI, Sable, a flame proper. There is a CD for the field but William's device has a yellow flame with a red flame inside it, that looks almost exactly like the gules rock. (12/1998)

Loch Wylde, Shire of. Name and device. Sable, a demi lightning bolt pendant from a sunburst, all within a laurel wreath Or.

Loch is originally Gaelic, though it was borrowed into Scots English. Looking at Scottish place-names which have Loch as the first element, it can be seen that most of these involve later (and sometimes redundant) addition of Gaelic loch to a Scandinavian place-name; in the others loch is followed by an English or Scandinavian noun describing some feature of the surroundings. There are entirely Gaelic examples of the form Loch <adjective>, but we found none with an English adjective.

English usage of the element wild is seen in Wildmore (Wildemore 1198 in a copy from 1328) `waste moor' and Willand (Wildelanda 1155-8 in a copy of 1334, Wildelonde 1315) `waste land', both from Ekwall. According to Smith the adjective is also found in the place-names Wildhill, Wildwood, and Willyards; the meanings of the first two are clear, and the last is `waste, desolate, or uncultivated enclosure'. It is noteworthy that in each case the reference is to land. It appears that the meaning of the term in place-names wasn't simply `wild, desolate'; rather, there was a distinct implication that the region in question was wasteland, unsuitable for cultivation (or at least not under cultivation). On the basis of this evidence it seems fairly unlikely that the word would have been applied to a body of water.

The LoI introduces the possibility, mentioned by Black, that Wylde here is derived from OE weald `woodland'. The history of English dialects makes this pretty nearly impossible. The word, apparently from prehistoric OE *wæld, became weald in Kentish and West Saxon but wald in Mercian and Northumbrian (Smith, s.v. wald; Moore & Marckwardt, 25). The two forms produced ME wáld and wéld. The former, following the normal development of early ME long a, became wold south of the Humber but remained wald in the North. Thus, the result of all of these developments in the North Country (and also in Scots English) was wald. The development to wilde took place elsewhere (and later). The e in ME weld was like that of ME feld `field' and followed the same course of development, ending up at the sound in modern weald and field. This development, which was taking place toward the end of our period, led to the spellings weild and feild and even occasionally wild and fild (still pronounced [wi:ld] and [fi:ld], however, roughly like modern wield and field). But all of this was taking place only in what had been the Kentish and West Saxon dialect areas, in the Kentish and Southern ME dialect areas. The result is that in ME the various forms of the word had the following distribution: weld, later also written weild and wild, in the South; wold in the Midlands; and wald north of the Humber. Thus, the form needed to justify Black's conclusion is the one found at the opposite end of the island. And on referring to his article on Wyld, I find that he justifies his conclusion by reference to a Sussex usage: Sussex is in the Kentish dialect area. Moreover, his early citations are from 1372, which is too early for the wild spelling even in the South. Black derivation of the Scottish surname is plainly impossible and can safely be ignored.

Since the name is has major problems both in form and in meaning, it must be returned. However, we have a suggestion that they might be willing to consider. Smith says that OE wilde is applied only to topographical terms. These obviously include the OE words for `moor', `land', `hill', `wood', and `yard'. Another topographical term referring to a kind of region that could well be notably desolate or uncultivated is `island'. The OE word is eg (with sundry dialect variants), which is often modified by a descriptive adjective, as in Longney (Longanege 972, Langenei in Domesday Book) `long island' and Whitney (Hwytene temp. Edward I, Whyteneye 1283) `white island' (or possibly `Hwita's island'). An OE locative phrase æt þære wildan ege `at the waste island' is precisely the sort of phrase that gave rise to these names; in Middle English it would regularly have produced a place-name Wildeneye; this isn't attested, but it seems to be squarely within the range of normal period practice, and should be registerable.

Since we cannot register the name, we must return the armory, since we don't form holding names for groups. While not a cause for return, the sunburst could use better drawing. (04/1997)

Lochland Vale, Shire of. Name and device. Per fess purpure and sable two wingless seawyverns erect Or maintaining between them a laurel wreath argent.

This is being returned for a number of reasons. First, and most importantly, there was no petition. The name of an official SCA group and it's arms, must have documented support for the submission.

The name itself has a serious problem. The combination of elements is problematic. Smith says that Middle English vale (from Old French val(s)) is most common in place-names of French origin, though he also gives examples in which it is combined with an OE element. Combining it with a Gaelic element (Lochlann) and then further assuming the operation of folk etymology on the latter to produce Lochland is going well beyond any available evidence. In fact, the name is an attempt to combine three different topographical elements from three different linguistic traditions; there are a few examples combining that many elements, but they are quite different from this submission. Typically one element translates another that is no longer well understood into the current language.

Loughland Vale may be within the bounds of registrability, but it's not very plausible, and we would like the group to consider some other alternatives with approximately the desired meaning are readily available. A Gaelic "valley of the lakes" would be Gleann nan Loch, which could reasonably be Anglicized Glenanloch. An English construction with essentially the same meaning would be Meredene, and an Anglo-Scandinavian version would be Tarndale. (11/1996)

Lodin of Molde. Device. Quarterly gules and azure, a cross Or, overall a dragon salient maintaining a burning sword argent, flamed vert.

This is being returned for a redraw. The sword appears to be drawn as on a flame vert, a sword argent. This breaks tincture with the field, and is not the style of enflaming which was used in period. (05/1997)

Lodowick of Grays Inn. Device. Gyronny purpure and argent, a spider web counterchanged.

This is returned for violating our rules on identifiability. A spiderweb is a thin-line charge which does not do well counterchanged against a gyronny field, as here. RfS VIII.3. notes that "Identifiable elements may be rendered unidentifiable by significant reduction in size, marginal contrast, excessive counterchanging...." (04/1997)

Lois an der Baumhecke. Device. Per chevron inverted purpure and purpure fretty argent a cat sejant and on a chief argent a key fesswise, wards to sinister, vert.

This is being returned for a style and for a redraw. Fretty is not a field treatment, so the field is simply purpure, with a portion of the field covered with fretty. While we do seem to allow portions of a field to be fretty, they need to be better delineated than this one is. Furthermore, the line of division is too high to be per chevron inverted. When it comes to lines of division, the chief is treated as if it is attached to the top of the shield (as opposed to placed on the shield). Thus there needs to be a gap between the edge of the chief and the line of division. (01/1998)

Lora Anne the Silent. Device change. Barry vert and Or, two flaunches counterchanged.

This is being returned for obtrusive modernity and excessive counterchanging, barring period evidence of flaunches being counterchanged of the field. (04/1997)

Loric Silvestris. Badge. Gules fretty Or, a unicorn rampant sable.

This is being returned for violating RfS VIII.2.b.i., "The field must have good contrast with every charge placed directly on it and with charges placed overall." Therefore the sable unicorn cannot be put on a gules field (12/1996)

Lorn Mac Ewen. Badge. (Fieldless) a tree stump couped with three branches proper.

This conflicts with Kerensa of Willowmere Or, springing from a fracted stump, a field daisy stalked and leaved proper., with one CD for fieldlessness. (11/1998)

Lorraine Bach. Name.

This is being returned for lack of a given name. During our period, Lorrain is locative, meaning `of or from Lorraine', and not a given name. (07/1997)

Lorraine de Monteclair. Name and device. Vert, a cross of Lorraine fleury and a bordure indented points fleury Or.

This was an appeal of a September 1997 return for using Lorraine, which is a locative, as a given name. The appeal says:

"Lorrain, Lorraine: a rare French matronym as well as a surname based on well-known place name [page 397 in Les Noms de Famille de France]." The argument is made that, since a matronymic was built by making a surname from a mother's name, that would indicate that it was used as a given or first name, even if only rarely.

Unfortunately, the submitter is mistaken. A matronym may not (indeed, it often does not) take the same form as the given name from which it is derived. Indeed, Lorraine may very well be a matronym derived from the given name Lora or something very similar. That would make Lora an acceptable given name, but not Lorraine. Furthermore, Hanks and Hodges state that Lorraine as a given is a transferred usage from the locative surname and that it did not come into use until the nineteenth century even in Scotland where Lorrain in various forms was popular as a surname from the twelfth century on. Barring documentation that Lorraine was actually used as a given name in period, it must be returned.

The armory is being returned for using two different complex lines of division: indented and fleury. Such have been disallowed in the past:

[A chief triangular embattled] "With _very_ rare exceptions (e.g. in combination with enarched lines), the use of two or more complex lines on the same charge is confusing and unattested in period armory. (Wavy raguly? Embattled rayonny? I think not.) In this case, the chief could be either embattled or triangular --- but not both." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR December 1992, p. 20).

We see no reason, barring period evidence, to overturn this precedent. (05/1998)

Lorraine de Monteclair. Name.

This is being returned for lack of a given name. As Dauzat says, Lorrain is a locative, meaning 'of or from Lorraine'. Additionally, the place-name is incorrectly constructed: the French noun is mont, not monte, so the name should be Montclair. A slightly different form is preserved in the place-name Montclar (Dauzat & Rostaing, 471). If she picks a suitable given name, she can use the Latin de Monteclaro and preserve the interior e. (09/1997)

Lothar le Coi. Device. Vert, on a lozenge argent a crab tergiant sable.

This conflicts with Amber Lang (SCA), Vert, on a lozenge argent a cat sejant gardant sable., there is one CD for the substantial change in type of tertiary charge. (05/1997)

Lothar le Coi. Device. Vert, on a lozenge within a mascle argent, a crab sable.

Unfortunately, you cannot blazon your way out of a conflict. While blazoned as above on the letter of intent, an equally valid blazon would be Vert, on a lozenge argent, a crab sable within a mascle vert. That conflicts with Amber Lang Vert, on a lozenge argent, a domestic cat sejant sable., with only one CD, for the assorted changes to tertiaries. Additionally, if this blazon is used, the device now falls afoul of RfS XI.4. (Arms of Pretense. "Armory that uses charges which themselves are charged in such a way as to appear to be arms of pretense is considered presumptuous. Period and modern heraldic practice asserts a claim to land or property by surmounting an individual's usual armory with a display of armory associated with that claim. Such arms of pretense are most commonly placed on an inescutcheon or lozenge..... For this reason, such charges may not be charged in such a way as to suggest independent arms. Such charges may not contain an ordinary that terminates at the edge, or more than one charge." (02/1998)

Lucia Francesca de Valencia. Badge (Fieldless) A sinister hand couped at the wrist maintaining an egg argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The hand is not in any heraldic posture, but is drawn in trian aspect, the fingers angling "away" from the viewer. Such drawing style has long been cause for return. "The [charge] is in trian aspect, which is out of period." (Wilhelm von Schlüssel, LoAR 27 August 1980, p. 9) "The [monsters] are both in a truly non- heraldic posture and in trian aspect. This is not period style." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 30 July 1989, p. 14) (08/1998)

Luke der Getarnt. Name.

This is being returned for two reasons. First the adjectival byname was incorrectly constructed. However, even if it was correctly constructed it would have to be returned for non period style. The byname means The camouflaged, the invisible. Barring documentation for German bynames with that meaning, this must be returned.

The armory was registered under the holding name Luke of Iron Bog. (10/1998)

Lute MacAlpine. Device. Per pale sable and vert, a Celtic cross formy argent and in chief three compass-stars Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The cross is not a Celtic cross formy, or any other type of heraldic cross. (12/1998)

Lyn O'Clery. Name.

No evidence was presented for Lyn being a period name and no one could present any. Possible forms she might consider which are close to Lyn are Linet and Linota which are 13th century English and Lina, late 12th century English. (10/1997)

Lyon Filshenri. Name.

Lyon was stated in the letter of intent as coming from Dauzat. While this is a true statement, Dauzat only shows it as a surname, and not as a given name. Without documentation that it was used as a given name in our period, it cannot be used as a given name in the SCA, so are forced to return this name. The armory was registered under the holding name Lisa Filshenri. (11/1997)

Lyons Montaine, Shire of. Device. Per chevron raguly sable and Or, a lion rampant gules within a laurel wreath vert.

This is being returned for the use of orange not Or for the field. Resubmitting with proper heraldic colors will take care of that problem. (03/1998)

Madawc Seumus Caradawg. Alternate name Harald Slayname.

This is being returned for non-period style. We are not aware of, and no one was able to provide any evidence for, any English bynames involving killing abstract concepts. (01/1997)

Madelina of Mountain Pass. Name.

This name is being returned for non period style. Mountain Pass is both modern in style and widlly improbably. OE geat `gate' was used in the sense of `pass'; it can appear as yat(e) in ME. Madelina in the Yat would be quite good. (09/1996)

Madog Maelgwn ap Llywelyn and Rhael Anedd Dal Riata. Household name for House Sterling.

This conflicts with Stirling Castle which has its own entry in Britannica, and therefore is important enough to protect. (11/1998)

Mæth Storm Crowe. Name.

While Maeth is found in Searle, it is found as a protheme, not a personal name. While either byname is fine by itself, the combination of the two does not make any sense. The armory was registered under the holding name William of Cathair Daibhidh. (04/1998)

Magdalen de Feo. Device. Per bend embattled vert and sable, a holly branch bendwise sinister argent.

This conflicts with Alice of Kent, (SCA) Vert, a sprig of linden fructed bendwise sinister argent. Alice's leaves as drawn are toothy leaves, like an elder leaf. (01/1997)

Magge Reichenberg. Device. Per pale argent and gules, a drop spindle proper between two sheep passant to sinister counterchanged.

The drop spindle was blazoned as proper and was entirely brown, including the thread. While we have no problem with the spindle itself being brown, since it is made of wood, the thread needs to be in a standard heraldic tincture. (01/1997)

Magnus Jager. Device. Or, a ramÆs head cabossed sable.

This conflicts with Riordan Robert MacGregor Quarterly purpure and argent, a ram's head caboshed sable armed Or. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for the change in the color of the horns. (03/1998)

Maidiú Ruadh. Device. Gules, a lymphad, sail furled in base five mullets in chevron inverted and on a chief wavy argent, two broad arrows inverted gules.

An "arch" of stars (inverted or not) has been disallowed in armory for some years now. "The design, although pretty, is not heraldic. A circle of stars may surround an entire charge or group of charges, but stars surrounding only part of a charge is fantasy art." (Baldwin of Erebor, LoAR 28 September 1984, p. 14) "It has been ruled that an arch of charges is not period heraldic style. The ruling was originally for an arch of stars: 'Stars surrounding only part of a charge is fantasy art.' [BoE, 28 Sept 84] It has since been extended to any charges 'in arch'." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR October 1992, p. 30). Additionally, the chief should have deeper waves and the mullets should be drawn larger. (03/1998)

Máille ingen Bhrain Cadal. Name and device. Per saltire azure and argent, in fess a demi-lion couchant to sinister guardant Or between two Celtic crosses sable.

The name is being returned for lack of a period given name. While it is true that it appears in Woulfe's Irish Names and Surnames, that is no guarantee that it is a period. Ó Corrain and Maguire (Gaelic Personal Names, p. 133) under Máire lists Maille (with no marking) among pet-forms of Máire with no date. However, given their previous note that the name Máire itself was extremely rare before the seventeenth century, it is quite unlikely that Máire formed a pet-form during our period. Barring documentation that it was used in period, it is not acceptable for use in the SCA.

The armory is being returned for a redraw. The Celtic crosses do not appear to be of the standard or usual depiction; the upper three arms appear to be potent (the default for an equal-armed Celtic cross), but the lower arm is both longer than the others (so this isn't an equal-armed cross) and have an odd "block" of some sort drawn in trian aspect. The blazon will not adequately and consistently reproduce the emblazon (as required by RfS VII.7.b.), and there is no blazon that would. (03/1999)

Maine, State of. Arms. Argent, a pine tree, at its foot a moose deer couchant, all proper.

No evidence was presented for these being the state's arms versus their seal. (05/1999)

Maire ingen I Cathasaigh. Device. Purpure, a pale ermine, overall a antelope rampant within a bordure potenty Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The bordure is way too small. (09/1996)

Malachi of East River. Device. Quarterly Or and vert, in bend an anvil and a hammer sable.

This is being returned for violation of RfS XI.3.b, which requires all charged sections of a quartered field to bear the same charge. This is done to avoid the appearance of marshalled arms. (10/1996)

Malcolm MacLachlan. Device. Sable, on a pile wavy inverted bendwise Or, a wyvern rampant vert.

This is being returned for a redraw. Please instruct the submitter when he resubmits to draw the pile smaller, and to draw the waves bigger and bolder. (11/1996)

Marco Antonio Raimondi. Device. Vert, a building argent, issuant from chief a demi-sun Or.

This is being for violating RfS.VII.3, which states that artifacts that were known in the period and domain of the Society may be registered in armory, provided they are depicted in their period form. This building appears to be post eighteenth century, not pre-seventeenth century. Barring evidence that this is a period depiction, it must be returned. (06/1998)

Marcus Silverthorne. Device. Sable, in pale a scythe reversed argent and a fret throughout Or.

This is being returned for conflict with Leila of the Meadows, Sable, a bowen knot crosswise fretted with a bendlet and a scarpe Or., with one CD for the addition of the scythe. Additionally, the placement of the fret raised a number of doubts among the commenters. (09/1996)

Margaret Raedwulf. Device. Argent, a wolf's head erased gules, a bordure dovetailed sable.

This conflicts with Yllaria of Wildewode Argent, a wolf’s head erased gules, a bordure dovetailed sable. (01/1998)

Margareta af Thule. Name.

Submitted as Margareta af Thule, this violates III.1.a, Linguistic consistency, by combining two different languages in one phrase, "af" and "Thule", without providing any documentation that the two languages can be combined. Since the submitter forbade any changes, we were unable to substitute the lingua Anglica "of" for the "af". The armory was registered under the holding name Margareta of Uma. (01/1997)

Marged Bronwen Montague. Device. Azure, a sprig of heather argent.

This conflicts with Atenveldt, Kingdom of (badge for the College of Bards) Azure, a leaved branch palewise argent. (02/1998)

Márgrég inghean uí Chaiside. Name and device. Azure, on a bend sinister enarched argent between a decrescent and an increscent Or, three trees palewise eradicated proper.

No name form was received so we are forced to return the name. Since there is no name, we are forced to return the armory as well. (04/1999)

Marguerite d'Isère. Household name for Château des les Fleures.

No documentation was provided for the household name, and none was provided by the College. Barring such documentation, the household name must be returned. Period models for household names include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart).

Even if documentation had been provided, the name is grammatically incorrect. des is a contraction of de les so the extra article is superfluous. House [of the] Flowers would be Château des Fleurs. (12/1998)

Marguerite Gisele Mont du Chat. Device. Argent, a natural panther couchant sable, on a chief azure, a decrescent between two mullets Or.

This conflicts with Ruben ben Yosef the Khazar Argent, a catamount courant sable, on a chief azure, three stars of David Or., and Cerdic MacAoidh Argent, an ounce rampant queue forchy sable spotted Or on a chief azure three increscents Or., with a CD for the posture of the feline, but the unlike tertiaries on this submission disqualify it from RFS X.4.j.ii. (05/1998)

Maria Louise von Lübeck. Device. Azure, a lotus flower in profile argent leaved vert, a bordure argent.

This conflicts with Arabella Cleophea Winterhalter, Purpure, ermined Or, a lotus blossom in profile within a bordure argent. There is one CD for the change in the tincture of the field, but ermine spots are considered part of the color of field, and not considered a semy, so they add no additional difference. (11/1998)

Maria von dem Mäuseturm. Device. Vert semy of mice couchant to sinister argent, a tower Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The mice as drawn are not identifiable as mice. They are far too small, and too stylized to be identifiable. (01/1999)

Marian of Heatherdale. Badge. (Fieldless) A lion passant guardant argent dimidiated with the hulk of a ship purpure.

This is being returned for violating RfS XI3, marshalled armory. This is not a charge; it is merely a visual effect of the dimidiation, which is a form of marshalling of two independent pieces of armory. In Parker’s Glossary the illustration on p.537 shows this clearly: no attempt is made to combine the charges on either side; they just happen to touch where the line of division cuts them off. Unless and until there is some documentation of the use of this combination as an independent charge not resulting directly from dimidiation, this cannot be registered in the SCA. (01/1998)

Mariana de Santillana. Device. Argent, a bend bevelled azure between a stick shuttle proper threaded gules and a spider inverted sable dependent from the shuttles' thread.

This submission has several problems. It has a complexity count of nine, surpassing our rule of thumb limit of eight. While we have registered submissions with a count of nine in the past, those were balanced and consistent with period style. This design lacks such balance. Furthermore, the picture submitted is dependant upon exact and unblazonable design considerations. (12/1997)

Marie Genevieve of Aquitaine. Device. Per pall inverted azure, argent and sable, two ewes rampant respectant playing recorders counterchanged argent and sable, and in base a mullet of six points Or.

This is being returned for a redraw/recolor. While blazoned as sable, it is a medium gray, not black. This blurs the line between argent and sable. If it was resubmitted with true heraldic colors, this problem would be taken care of. (02/1998)

Marie Simone de Barjavel 'la Fildena. Badge. (Fieldless) On a compass-star of sixteen points argent voided vert, a rose argent.

This is being returned for violating our rule on voiding/fimbriating. While she does have registered to her (Fieldless) A compass-star of sixteen points argent voided vert., that does not permit her to charge the compass star. (11/1998)

Marinus, Barony of. Badge for Award of the Marlin. Per pale vert and azure, a marlin contourny argent.

Conflict with Sean of Elmhurst (SCA). Per bend azure and sable, a shark naiant to sinister argent. There is one CD for the changes to the field, but it was the consensus of the commentors and those attending the roadshow meeting that there was no CD between a shark and the marlin here. (06/28/1996)

Marinus, Barony of. Badge for Award of the Sandpiper. Per pale vert and azure, a mermaid and a merman playing flutes within a bordure argent.

This submission has two problems: it has the appearance of being impaled arms, prohibited by RfS XI.3., and it has two non-identical but insignificantly different charges, running afoul of the "Sword and Dagger" rule. RfS XI.3.a. notes that a submission can avoid the appearance of marshalling with "identical charges over the entire field." While a mermaid and a merman are very similar, they are not identical. The bordure by longstanding precedent is insufficient to remove this appearance. At least as long ago as 10/90 Laurel ruled "The appearance of marshalled arms here is overwhelming, even with the bordure as a cadency charge. The intent of the 'overall charge' requirement of XI.3.a is one of a charge lying in the center of the field, not a peripheral charge such as a chief or bordure (which were often used as cadency charges). (04/1999)

Marinus, Barony of. Badge for Award of the Sea Fan. Or, a pile wavy fretty azure.

Conflict with Freyds Saemundardottir (SCA). Or, on a pile wavy azure a mermaid maintaining a peal argent. There is at best one CD for the changes to the tertiary charges. (06/28/1996)

Marinus, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Water Lily. Per pale vert and azure, a lotus blossom in profile within a bordure argent.

This is in conflict with Arabella Cleophea Winterhalter (SCA), Purpure, ermined Or, a lotus blossom in profile and a bordure argent. There is only one CD, for the difference in the two fields. (11/1996)

Marion Percy de Savage. Device. Gules, a chevron Or between two open books and a unicorn rampant argent.

This conflicts with Timotheos of Alexandria (SCA) Azure a chevron Or between two open books and a unicorn rampant reguardant maintaining a quill pen argent., with one CD for the field, but none for the details of the unicorn. (09/1997)

Maritsa Milovich. Badge. (Fieldless) A lamb's head cabossed argent.

This conflicts with Carl of Carmarthin (SCA), Azure, masoned argent, a ram's head cabossed argent., with the only difference being for the field, or lack thereof. A lamb's head and a ram's head, both cabossed, are not sufficiently different. Unlike a stag's rack, the prominence of the ram's horns depends very much on the type of ram the artist depicts. If one of the varieties with less prominent horns which lie closer to the head is selected, the lambs ears and the ram's horns will not be as distinct. Furthermore, "As a rule, baby animals are not used in SCA heraldry: they're visually indistinguishable from adult animals, and period examples of their use are rare. Lambs appear to be an exception: not only is the Paschal lamb often found in period armory, but lambs were used for canting purposes (e.g. the arms of Lambert --- or the current submission)." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR October 1992, p. 12) Given, however, that we would only blazon this as a lamb's head for the sake of a cant, and otherwise would call it a sheep's head, and there is no cant to be formed here, this animal's head falls under the general ban on baby animals -- or baby animal parts. (04/1997)

Maritsa Milovich. Badge. (Fieldless) A sheep's head cabossed argent dependent therefrom a bell Or.

This conflicts with the arms of Carl of Carmarthin (SCA) Azure, masoned argent, a ram's head cabossed argent. The bell doesn't add anything for difference, since it is not large enough to be considered a sustained charge. (09/1997)

Mark of Bergental. Device. Vair, a squirrel passant gules pierced by an arrow bendwise sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. The animal as drawn is not clearly a squirrel, or any other animal. (10/1998)

Marsali Morningstar Scribesdaughter. Name and device. Checky argent and sable, three eight-pointed estoiles and on a point pointed gules a cross patonce elongated to base argent.

This name has a number of problem. I can do no better than quote Fause Losenge:

Marsali appears to be a misspelling of modern Scots Gaelic Marsaili(dh), said by Morgan to be from Marcella; in an otherwise English name we need an English version of it, and we need reason to think that it's period. Black s.n. Fuktor answers both wants: he has Marsle 1527 as someone's daughter. Since Marsilla is found in Essex in the 13th c., the name may have a continuous tradition.

Reaney & Wilson s.n. Starr note the use of ME Sterre `star' as a byname, but there's no evidence for Morningstar or anything similar. (If she really wants something close, she might try a German name; Brechenmacher has Morgenstern 1374, either from a house-name or from a place-name.)

Scribesdaughter is somewhat similar to a type of relational byname that is found in Yorkshire in the late 14th c.; for instance, Reaney & Wilson (li) note Isabella Shephirddoghter and Beatrice Clerkwyf. It is ill-formed in three ways, however. Two are relatively minor: the available examples do not support the possessive form of the first element, and the spelling daughter is too late for this type of name. If these were the only problems, it could easily be corrected to Scribedoghter. However, scribe itself is questionable. The father of someone called Scribedoghter would most likely be called (the) Scribe; at the very least Scribe has to be capable of being used as a byname. The OED shows the word from the middle of the 14th c., but before the 16th c. or so it seems to have been used primarily in ways that make it an unlikely byname. Specifically, it is associated in two ways with the Bible. First, scribes are associated with Pharisees as interpreters of the law and upholders of ritual tradition; and secondly, the term is used to translate Latin scriba and Greek grammateus in the New Testament. Clearly secular uses seem to be later. There is, however, a period way to get exactly the intended meaning with the same type of construction: Clerkdoghter would be excellent (if the rest of the name were compatible with Yorkshire practice c.1400). And since Bardsley s.n. Scriven has Johannes Schryuen 1379 from Yorkshire, Schryuendoghter would also be just fine.

I'd be willing to give Marsle the benefit of the doubt with this type of patronymic; Marsle Clerkdoghter (or Schryuendoghter) probably ought to be registerable. Adding a second byname (other than a locative of the form de <place-name>) to a name of this type is exceedingly problematical.

The device is being returned for a redraw; as drawn it is halfway between point pointed and per chevron, and needs to be clearly one or the other. (03/1997)

Martim Ruiz do Porto. Badge. (Fieldless) A marten sejant argent maintaining a cross-crosslet fitchy gules.

This conflicts with Perygen Northynbr Sable, an otter (enhydra lutra) sejant regardant argent holding bendwise a felling-axe argent hilted proper. There is nothing for type between a marten and an otter. The maintained charges do not count for difference, leaving the only difference the one for fieldlessness. (04/1999)

Martin Andreas of Windsor. Device. Azure, a mandrake argent between three goblets Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The mandrake is halfway drawn halfway between the heraldic plant and the natural plant. (09/1996)

Martin de Thalassa. Name and device. Gules, upon a pile wavy argent an owl contourny perched atop a barrel sable.

The name is being returned for lack of documentation for the last name. The only documentation for it was that it is an imaginary port from period fiction. While we have registered place names from period fiction, it must be documented that the place was a place where humans dwelt. No such documentation was provided.

The armory conflicts with Ansetrude Hrodebertsdohtor Gules, on a pile nebuly argent, a sea-dragon, its tail ending in the head of a serpent, azure. There is one CD for the changes to the tertiaries, and nothing for the difference between wavy and nebuly. (11/1998)

Matthew James Ravenridge. Device. Per chevron sable and azure, a chevron compony Or and gules.

This is being returned for the use of brown, not gules on the chevron. Resubmitting with proper heraldic colors will take care of that problem. (03/1998)

Matthew Wynne. Name.

No forms were received, so this submission must be returned. (07/1996)

Matthias Alexander Casca. Device. Argent, a pair of hands erased gules.

This is being returned for a redraw. The hands are not erased, but appear to be dripping blood.

The question of conflict with the Red Hand of Ulster was raised in commentary. It is an augmentation of Baronets in Great Britain Argent, a dexter hand appaumy gules. We do not currently protect it, but the Red Hand of Ulster will be pended for commentary as to whether or not we should add it to our protected list. If it is added, then this submission will conflict with it. (01/1999)

Maurya Etain Sableswan. Badge. Quarterly argent and sable, two winged Bengal tigers rampant proper winged sable.

This is being returned for having orange tigers. In the cover letter of 3/97 Laurel said "We are also no longer going to register Bengal tigers proper. They must be in a standard, heraldic tincture (with or without markings). We have registered as proper both gules and Or Bengal tigers, leaving them with no default tincture." (05/1997)

Maximilian Alois von Brandenberg. Badge. (Fieldless) A mountain of three peaks couped sable enflamed proper.

This conflicts Jumare of the Dark Spire (SCA), Argent, issuant from base a spire of rock sable. There is no difference between a spire and a mountain, leaving the only difference being that for field (or lack thereof). (01/1997)

Maximilian von Wismar. Device. Quarterly sable and azure, a sword inverted between a decrescent and an increscent argent.

This is being returned violating the rule of tincture. As drawn this is Per pale azure and sable. . . a chief per pale sable and azure. This results in putting a color chief on a color field which has insufficient contrast. (09/1997)

Meadhbh Eileanach. Device. Vert, a puffin proper between three dragonflies argent.

As drawn, the puffin is more than 50% sable, and therefore is color on color. (03/1997)

Meadhbh inghean Róis. Device. Vert, a chevron and in base a triquetra argent.

This conflicts with Megan Silverstar Vert, a chevron throughout and in base a mullet of eight points argent. There is a CD for changing mullet to the triquetra, but nothing for the throughoutness of the chevron. As a general rule we grant a difference between an ordinary throughout and its non-throughout form. Chevrons are a bit of a special case, since "throughout" has a different meaning when applied to them, referring to the point touching the top of the shield rather than the ends. The distinction between chevrons and chevrons throughout is, in period heraldry, one of regional style or artistic preference. The same coat may be found depicted both ways. We would, however, grant difference between a chevron (whether "throughout" or not) and a chevron couped, i.e. with the ends cut off without touching the sides of the shield. This is identical to our practice with other ordinaries, such as fesses throughout vs fesses couped. (04/1999)

Meadhbh inghean uí Broíthe. Device. Sable, a wingless Greek sphinx rampant guardant, a bordure engrailed argent.

Without the wings, this is visually a lion. As such this conflicts with Oliver Cromwell Sable, a lion rampant argent. There is a CD for the bordure, but since the only real difference between these two charges is the head, there is no other CD. (04/1998)

Meadhbh ni Bhriain. Badge. Purpure, a dexter arm embowed fesswise reversed maintaining a bag erminois.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. However, even if the paperwork had been sent, this conflicts with Cecilia Warvic de Stradforde badge Purpure, a sinister arm fesswise embowed reversed argent sustaining a jester’s bauble Or, faced of skull argent, capped per pale ermine and Or., registered on this letter. There is one CD for the addition of the jester's bauble. (09/1998)

Meadhbh ni Bhriain. Badge. Purpure, a dexter arm embowed fesswise reversed argent maintaining a bag erminois.

This conflicts with Cecilia Warvic de Stradforde, Purpure, a dexter arm fesswise embowed reversed argent sustaining a jester’s bauble Or, skull argent, capped per pale ermine and Or. There is one CD for the removal of the jester's bauble, but nothing for the maintained bag. (02/1999)

Meadhbh nic Fhaoiltighearna. Badge. (Fieldless) A wolf statant to sinister maintaining a broken trap sable.

This conflicts with Malcolm Leslie the Scot (SCA) (Fieldless) A Scottish terrier statant contourny sable., and Lettice Atwode of Sandhyll (SCA) Gyronny gules and Or, a greyhound statant contourny sable. In both cases there is just one CD for fieldlessness and nothing for the particular type of canine. (01/1998)

Meave of Bydowne. Device. Azure, a pall between a cinquefoil pierced and two goats clymant respectant argent.

This conflict with Ailith ferch Dafydd Azure, a pall between a Celtic cross and two unicorns combattant argent. There is only one CD, for the change to the type of the secondary charges. (12/1998)

Medbh Gillacon. Name and device. Vert, two wolfhound's heads respectant, necks extended and conjoined to form a heart voided, issuant from the conjunction of the necks a tower, a bordure Or.

The name is being returned for lack of documentation for the given name. The documentation for the given name was taken from The Book of Irish Names, which is not a reliable source. Furthermore, the form there was not Medbh, but Meadhbh. While the LoI glossed the byname to mean Houndskeeper, it means something closer to servant of dogs.

The armory is being returned for a redraw. While we have reblazoned it as above, as drawn it is not reproducible. Torcs are round and not heart-shaped. (03/1999)

Medwe Janos. Badge. (Fieldless) A quatrefoil argent.

According to the LoAR of 9/90, page 16 "There is not really any visual difference between quatrefoils and cinquefoils." Regretfully, this is in conflict with Titus of Wormwood, Purpure, a cinquefoil slipped and singly leaved argent., as cited on the LoI. (08/1998)

Meg ny Devlin. Device. Argent, a seeblatt vert, a chief double­arched azure.

This conflicts with the arms of Salina zü der Bach (registered 2/97), Argent, a seeblatt vert within a bordure potenty azure., with one CD for changing the bordure to a chief. (07/1997)

Megge Pyper. Device. Per chevron azure and gules, a lute palewise argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. Despite the assertion in the LoI, lutes, except for the pegbox are not shown in trian aspect. (07/1996)

Meirionmedd Uinnbid. Name.

This is being returned for incorrect construction. While Meirion is an independent given name, no one could find examples of it being combined with a deuterotheme. The armory was registered under the holding name Mary Uinnbid. (03/1998)

Melchor Stoneteeth. Device. Argent masoned sable, goutty de sang, a bull rampant guardant sable and on a chief embattled azure a sword reversed argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. On the full size emblazon, the horns of the bull overlap the chief. Additionally, we have some doubts about the combination of the gouttes and the masoning. (09/1996)

Meleri verch Adam. Device. Azure, on a pale argent endorsed Or, a rose gules slipped and leaved vert.

This conflicts with Gaetana da Rispoli, Azure, on a pale argent endorsed Or an alaunt's head couped azure in chief. There is one CD for the multiple changes to the tertiary charges. (10/1998)

Melisande Alys Deschaux. Device. Argent, a bend sinister dancetty gules between a decrescent and increscent sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. The bend is very badly drawn: in chief it is almost dancetty, but in base it is much closer to indented. It needs to be redrawn as clearly one or the other. (09/1997)

Melisande de Frayne. Device. Or, a tree proper, a bordure vert.

This conflicts with the Barony of Forgotten Sea Argent, ermined, a poplar tree, its roots nowed in the form of a Ukrainian trident head inverted, all within a bordure vert., with one CD for the field, but nothing for the nowing of the roots. (11/1997)

Melisende Beaumont. Device. Purpure, a liondragon statant Or maintaining a crescent bendwise sinister a bordure invected argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The bordure needs to be redrawn with fewer and much larger bumps. (08/1997)

Mellitus of Rouncivale. Device. Azure, on a chevron Or five torteaux between three flames proper five torteaux.

These flames are not proper, but are gules, fimbriated Or. Flames proper should ideally be alternating tongues of gules and Or, and at the very least half gules and half Or. (11/1996)

Mercedes de Cerdaña. Name.

Unfortunately, no documentation has been presented, and none could be found to show Mercedes as a period given name. The best that was found was María de las Mercedes, from 1690. This is well past our grey area, and does not even document Mercedes as a stand alone name. Barring documentation that Mercedes was used as a given name in period, this must be returned. (09/1998)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Argent Lily. Sable, a lily slipped and leaved within a bordure embattled argent.

This is being returned for conflict with Keridwen of Montrose, Sable, an iris within an annulet argent. As drawn it appears closer to an iris than a lily, thereby leaving only on CD for the change from a bordure to an annulet. (12/1996)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Sable Sword. [Fieldless] An escutcheon argent, overall a sword sable.

There are two problems with this badge. It violates the partial ban on overall charges in fieldless armory, and the sword is just barely overall, which is in any case cause for return. (12/1996)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Name for Order of St. James de Compostella.

This conflicts with both the order and the city of Santiago de Compostela. In most cases this would be clear, as we don t count conflict by translation and the standard name references consistantly refer to the order and thecity in the Spanish form. Santiago de Compstela, however, is both in period and today one of the greatest Catholic pilgrimage destinations in Europe, second only to Rome. This submission is unmistakably evocative of the shrine. Therefore we are returning it under RfS VI.4., which grants extra protection to certain "widely known and revered protected items".(12/1996)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Name for Order of the Ebon Chalice.

"The word ebon does not appear to be used in any save a most literal sense (relating to ebony) until the very last of the 16th Century." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1992, p. 21). Therefore we must return this name. (10/1997)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Name for Order of the Rams Treasure.

This is being returned for non period style. No exemplars were provided, and none could be produced for an order name of this style. (10/1997)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Name for Order of The Sable Quill of Meridies.

This is being returned for conflict with the title of the Sable Quill Pursuivant. As Fause Lozenge said "RfS V.2.a (Difference of Descriptive Elements) defines a descriptive element of a non-personal name as `a word other than a designator, an article, a preposition, or the name of a branch of the Society' [emphasis added]. Both the order name and the registered title have two descriptive elements, sable and quill. RfS V.2.b (Conflict of Names with the Same Number of Elements) says that these two names conflict unless (i) each of them contains a descriptive element significantly different from every descriptive element in the other, which is obviously not the case here, or (ii) the order or grammatical structure of the name has changed in a way that significantly changes the meaning of the name as a whole. The relevant parts of the two names are identical, so (ii) doesn't apply either, and they are therefore in conflict. I might add that even if of Meridies were counted as a descriptive element, the names would still conflict by RfS V.2.c (Conflict of Names with Different Numbers of Elements), since the modifier of Meridies has been added to a root element, Quill, that has already been modified by Sable." (07/1996)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Name for Order of the Silver Fleece.

The name is clear of the Order of the Golden Fleece, under RfS V.2.b.ii, since Golden is significantly different from Silver, and vice versa. However, under RfS VI.4.,

Some names not otherwise forbidden by these rules are nevertheless too evocative of widely known and revered protected items to be registered.

Such items include the peerage orders of the Society and such well­known items outside the Society as the Order of the Garter. The House of the Rose and Laurel does not conflict with the Order of the Rose or the Order of the Laurel, but it is too evocative of both to be registered. Similarly, the Award of the Blue Garter is too evocative of the Order of the Garter, whose badge is a blue garter.

While the Silver Fleece and the Golden Fleece are not in conflict, we believe it is too evocative of the Golden Fleece to be registered, especially since the Golden Fleece was the premier Order of Chivalry from its founding to at least 1918, and is still a recognized order of Chivalry with two branches, the Spanish branch over which His Catholic Majesty Juan Carlos presides, and the Austrian branch, of which His Imperial Highness Archduke Otto von Hapsburg is titular head. (10/1997)

Meridies, Kingdom of. Order name for Companionate of the Pilgrims of Compostela.

This is being returned for non-period style. Taking this at face value, "Companionate" is the designator and "Pilgrims of Compostela" is the substantive portion of the name. This pattern follows no know period exemplars. If we regard both "Companionate" and "Pilgrims" to be designators then there is the problem of using two designators (a possibility which the RfS don't seem to take into account, and which at the least requires some justification). This would also raise a possible concern about conflict with the famous Spanish pilgrimage site. We are unwilling to register this name because of these issues.

The source of the difficulty the kingdom is having with this name, and its predecessor submission, is that it is attempting to register some form of the famous period pilgrimage site as a kingdom order. Even should they succeed in circumventing the conflict and style pitfalls inherent in this attempt, such a registration would violate the spirit of the SCA's approach to recreation in the Current Middle Ages. The SCA creates its own places, persons, and orders rather than reenacting those from period. It would also be inappropriate for any party, even a kingdom, to appropriate such an important period phenomenon as the shrine of Santiago de Compostella for its own exclusive use. We encourage the kingdom to consider any further resubmissions more in keeping with the traditions of the SCA. (10/1997)

Michael Alewright. Name and device. Vert, a sheaf of swords inverted argent, overall a barrel Or.

According to the LoI Alewright was intended to be a constructed occupational surname, intended to denote a brewer. However, no acceptable documentation was provided to show that this was a reasonable form. Period bynames for brewers include Brewere, Brewstere, Brasur, Braceresse, Malter, Maltester, Medemaker, Vineter, Vyntener, Taverner, Tipelere, Gannoker (#s 2, 4, 6 fem. forms; the last 3 are inn-keepers/ale-sellers), Berebrewer, Braciatur, Caumbier, Alemonger, Aleberer, Aleberster (latter two masculine and feminine ale-carriers), Meder, Malteman and Maltgrynder.

The armory is being returned for conflict with Deaton Claymore, Vert, two claymores in saltire surmounted by a third inverted proper enfiling a ducal coronet Or., as noted on the LoI. There is a CD for the addition of the overall charge, and normally there would be another one for inverting primary swords. But since the bulk of the swords are covered by the overall barrel, it loses the CD for inverting. (08/1998)

Michael Apenteger. Name.

According to the submitter Apenteger means "Collector of the Bronze Tax". It does not mean that, and no one in the College could figure out what is did mean or find a way to justify the surname. Furthermore, we have grave doubts about the likelihood of such a name having been used. (08/1996)

Michael die Zauberzunge von Essen. Device. Sable, a chevron Or between three Latin crosses gules fimbriated and a cobra coiled erect affronty Or.

This is being returned for the fimbriated crosses. According to RfS VIII.3 Voiding and fimbriation may only be used with simple geometric charges placed in the center of the design. The crosses are not in the center of the design. (04/1999)

Michael Grey. Device. Per pale vert and sable, six wheat stalks fretted Or, a label argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. While it is true that there were a number of different type of labels used in period, this does not resemble any of them. (04/1999)

Michael Kellahan. Device. Per chevron sable and purpure a chevron rompu argent.

This is being returned for conflict with Robyn Akre (SCA), Per pale counter-ermine and azure a chevron rompu argent. There is only one CD, for the change in the field. (08/1996)

Michael Lazarus of Antioch. Device. Per chevron azure and argent, a comet embowed fesswise head to sinister Or bearded argent, and three Maltese crosses gules.

This is being returned for using two radically different sizes of the same charge in the same group. The difference in sizes of the crosses are far more than artistic license. (03/1998)

Michael of Caernarfon. Device. Sable, two bendlets embattled between two unicorn heads erased Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The bends are not embattled-counter embattled nor brettessed, but something in between. Furthermore the embattlements need to be drawn larger with more space between them. While not in and of itself grounds for return, please show the submitter how to draw erased properly. (12/1998)

Michallet du Dauphiné. Device. Purpure, a winged female centaur contourny brandishing in her sinister hand a rapier and maintaining in her dexter hand a shield sable.

While we allow maintained charges to break tincture, as drawn the sable rapier is too thin to be seen on the purpure field. If the rapier was drawn larger and entirely argent it should solve this problem. (12/1997)

Micheline Elphinstone. Device. Azure, a pale between six roses Or.

The conflicts with Jeanette of Briarrose Azure, on a pale between six roses in annulo Or, a white heath tree couped proper. There is a CD for the addition of the tree, but nothing for moving the roses by a small amount. Jeanette's roses are only slightly out of a palewise arrangement around her pale. (12/1998)

Michelle de Chateaugrenouille. Name.

No documentation of the period usage of the form Chateau was presented, and no one could provide any. The name Grenouille, by itself would be an acceptable byname, but we felt that would be too big a change to make without the submitter's consent. The armory was registered under the holding name Michelle of Thescorre. (05/1997)

Midair MacCormaic. Name.

Midir, which is the standard form of Midair, is a mythological name, and no evidence was provided, nor could be found that it was used by human beings in period. Given names must be documented as having been given names used by human beings in period. The armory was registered under the holding name Charles MacCormaic. (02/1997)

Middle Marches, Barony of. Badge. Argent, a chevron inverted gules, overall an arrow inverted, a bordure dovetailed sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. The chevron is drawn so low that if it had a plain line of partition and was drawn with the proper width, it would overlap the chevron inverted. (08/1997)

Midewinde, Shire of. Device. Per fess azure and gules, an open gate argent and a moon in her plenitude, all within a laurel wreath Or.

While blazoned of the LoI as an open gate, it is virtually identical to a gateway, which was last registered in 11/96. When this was registered we said:

After some thought we have decided to register this submission, but not register this charge again after the April 1997 Laurel meeting. Please inform her that there are period alternatives that are close to what she submitted. The arms of Russia as given in 1581 by de Bara are De sable, à vn portal ouuert ayant deux portes & deux degrez d'or (and some say vn porche ouuert de deux pieces), i.e., Sable, an open portal with two leaves and two steps Or. The emblazon shows a rectangular gateway with a crenelated top; the doorway itself has a semicircular top edge, and the two valves or leaves of the door are fully open, one on each side. The whole structure sits atop two steps. A very similar charge appears in the Zürich Roll, which shows the arms of Portugal as Azure, an open portal gules ensigned with a ball Or (Popoff, 11,67). In this emblazon the top of the structure follows the curve of the doorway instead of being squared off and then crenelated, and a cute little gold pompon has been set down on the apex of the semicircle. The structure extends a bit below the doorway, so that one would have to step up in order to pass through the doorway, but there are no actual steps. Finally, there is less detail; in particular, the hinges of the valves of the door aren't shown. Nevertheless, these are clearly the same charge, and it is therefore certainly period.

Therefore we are returning this. Furthermore the laurel wreath really isn't a wreath. "A wreath is a circular charge, with its chiefmost ends nearly touching. Two sprigs (straight branches) crossed to form a "V" is not a wreath." (Glossary of Terms, Appendix 1). Please instruct the group on how to properly draw a laurel wreath for when they resubmit. (12/1998)

Mieszko Zielénski. Badge. Per bend azure and vert, a bend between two roundels argent.

This conflicts with Ailith of Sarum Per bend azure and vert, a bend between a cross crosslet and a sprig argent., with only one CD for the type of secondaries. (05/1998)

Miguel de Majorca. Device. Or, a lion statant azure a bordure azure semy of dreidels Or.

No documentation was presented for dreidels being a period charge and none could be found. Laurel herself went through her extensive collection of Judicia and could find no period documentation for them. Barring period documentation of dreidels or tops of this form, this must be returned. (07/1998)

Mikael Carhu. Device. Vert, a base urdy Or.

This conflicts with the protected flag of Libya Vert. The base is a peripheral secondary charge, like a chief or bordure, it cannot be a primary charge, so its addition is not sufficient under X.1. to generate enough difference for registration. (06/22/1999)

Mikhailina Ivanova Korabelnikovichin. Name.

There are multiple problems with this name. The first problem is that Mikhailina is not a period given name. One cannot infer from Akila/Akilina to Mikhaila/Mikhailina. Mikhailina looks more like a patronymic than a given name. The last element must be feminized to Korabelnikovichina, but the third element is in fact not a Russian name either. The submitter has taken a surname (Korabelnikov, on Unbegaun, p. 115) and tried to add "an appropriate feminine suffix" (as discussed by Unbegaun, p. 125) and chosen -ichina. Unfortunately, the two pages have nothing to do with each other. Milenia Ivanova Korabelnikova would be a registerable form. The armory registered under the holding name Elsbeth of al-Barran. (04/1997)

Mikhailo Zavadovsky. Name.

Unfortunately, a zavod is a factory and a late-period word. A zavod' (note the soft sign) is a creek or backwater. An anthroponym formed from the latter word would be Zavodin, not Zavodov. The earliest use of zavod in a place name appears to be Zavodoukovsk, which is dated to the 18th century by Room. The -sky ending is fine but the toponym upon which it is based is unlikely and undocumented. Without documentation that the toponym was used in period, we must return the name. The armory was registered under the name Elsbeth of al-Barran. (04/1997)

Mikolaj Krasnik. Device. Sable, on a cross formy quadrate argent, a double-headed phoenix gules rising from flames proper.

This is being returned for a redraw of the flames. They are not proper, but fimbriated. See the cover letter to the April 1995 LoAR for a discussion on flames proper. (02/1997)

Millesant Arizonelli. Device. Per pale vert and azure three trilliums argent.

This conflicts with a badge for the Principality of Ealdormere Gules, three trilliums argent., with only a CD for the field. (03/1998)

Milo FitzLyon. Badge. Quarterly sable and argent, a mullet of eight points throughout Or, overall a cross formy, a bordure gules.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn the cross is barely overall, a motif which has been ground for returns for a number of years. (07/1998)

Milo FitzLyon. Badge. Sable, on a mullet of eight points throughout Or a cross patty gules.

This is being returned for multiple conflicts including: Kourost Bernard of the East Woods (SCA) Sable, a sun eclipsed Or., Grainne ni Dyerree­in­Dowan (SCA) Sable, on a mullet of seven points Or, voided vert, a garb Or., Barony of Caerthe (SCA) Sable, on a sun throughout Or an aspen leaf vert., Bruce of Brandy Hall (SCA) Purpure, on a sun Or a dagger gules., Royal University of Ithra (SCA) Gules, on a sun Or eclipsed gules, an Arabian lamp flammant Or., and Martyn ap Cadwalladr the Bold (SCA) [Fieldless] On a sun Or a cross crosslet fitchy gules. The first three each get just one CD for the tertiaries (note that quaternaries are ignored for conflict purposes.) The last three each get a CD for the field (or lack thereof) but nothing for type only of tertiary on these complex charges. Variations in the specific form of the sun­equivalents count nothing. (08/1997)

Minán the Stout. Name change from Domhnall de Lindsay.

Withdrawn by the submitter on the June 1997 Atlantian letter of intent. (09/1997)

Miriam Meggett. Badge. (Fieldless) A pitcher argent.

This conflicts with a badge of the Kingdom of the Outlands Gyronny from dexter chief Or and vert, a mug argent. There is only one CD for fieldlessness. (05/1999)

Miriel MacGregor. Device. Quarterly argent and argent goutty de larmes, a cross between in bend two dolphins haurient azure.

This submissions suffers from several problems. First this violates RfS XI.3 "Armory that appears to marshall independent arms is considered presumptuous." Since there are charges in all four quarters of the field, and the charges in the four quarters are not identical, this has the appearance of being a marshalled display of Argent a dolphin haurient azure and Argent goutty de larmes, with the cross overall to mark the edges of the various quarters.

In addition, having a divided field of the same tincture, but with two sections having dissimilar semy charges, is grounds for return as well. (07/1998)

Miriel Verdy. Device. Vert, on a pale indented argent five cinquefoils purpure.

This is being returned for a redraw. A properly drawn pale indented would have the indents opposed instead of parallel. This cannot be reblazoned as lozenges conjoined, as the area of conjoining is too wide. (03/1997)

Mochalla ní Daibhead.

Submitted as Mochalla ní Daibhead, the proper spelling of the name is Mocholla. However, Mocholla is a male name. Since a man cannot be the daughter of anyone, the only registerable form would be Mocholla mac Daibhead. Not knowing the submitter's wishes in this matter, we have registered the device under the holding name Jennifer n í Dhaibheaid. (02/1997)

Molly Fagan. Device. Sable, on a plate a bat volant wings elevated and addorsed sable.

This conflicts with Sean a' Claidheamh Sable, on a plate a hound crouching to sinister upon a pile inverted sable., Shron Ravenhair Sable, on a plate a mullet of six points throughout sable charged with a compass-star of twelve points throughout pierced argent., Cassandra of the East Winds Sable, on a plate a flame gules., and Damian Nighthawk Sable, on a plate a falcon migrant sable and a point pointed Or., with only one CD in each case for changes to the tertiary(ies). (04/1998)

Monika aus Ritters Kreuzung. Name and device. Purpure, a pall ermine between a Celtic harp and two dolphins respectant Or.

The name is being returned for incorrect construction for a couple of reasons. First, it does not appear that aus was used as a locative preposition in period names; the apparent examples in Brechenmacher, Etmologisches Wörterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen, were long ago shown to be descriptions, not part of the cited names. Second, and more importantly while there is indeed a Barony of Knight's Crossing in Drachenwald, its existence is insufficient to justify her byname; that requires showing that Ritters Kreuzung is plausible as a period German place­name. We've not found any example of a German place­name containing the element Kreuzung. The device conflicts with Jan of Devon (SCA) Purpure, a pall argent between two dolphins haurient respectant, in chief a mullet of four points Or., with one CD for changing the tincture of the pall, and nothing for changing the type only of less than one half of the group of secondary charges. (08/1997)

Mons Draconis, Canton of. Badge. (Fieldless) A dragon's tail couped vert.

This is being returned for unidentifiability. As Aurum has shown there are a wide variety of period depictions of dragons’ tails. Those found in most period heraldic sources simply have a rounded end, but there are other possibilities (though none quite like this submission). While period examples of lions’ and foxes’ tails used as charges lend plausibility to the dragon’s tail, the dual problems of identifiability and reproducibility make this problematic, prior registration to the Midrealm notwithstanding. (04/1998)

Mons Draconis, Canton Of. Badge. (Fieldless) A fish-hook couped vert barbed gules.

Blazoned on the LoI as a dragon's tail, the charge in question is not a dragon's tail, but a fish-hook. The Gelre armorial (van Helmont) has this charge on page 41v in the arms of DIE V. BORNE "d'arg. au croc de hamé on de gu." Argent, a fish-hook gules. While this charge is registerable, barring documentation for making the tip a different color, this must be returned. (11/1998)

Mor Loft. Device. Or, in pale a bow fesswise surmounted by two arrows in saltire and a phoenix sable rising from flames gules.

This is being returned for breaking our rules on "slot machine" with three different charges in the same charge group. (12/1998)

Morfydd ferch Bronwen. Device. Quarterly purpure and argent, a mask of comedy and a mask of tragedy argent.

This conflicts with Estrid Ketilsdottir Quarterly vert and argent ermined vert, in bend two Thespian masks argent., with one CD for the change in the field. (06/22/1999)

Morgaine FitzStephen. Name for Chateau Corbeau.

The name conflicts with the Barony of Mountain Freehold's "The Order of the Corbie". Corbie and Corbeau sound too much alike. (01/1998)

Morgan ap Rhys ap Bran. Device. Counter-ermine, a sun charged with a lion's head cabossed gules, and on a chief embattled argent, two roses sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. The embattled chief has confusing lines where the field is not defined. More importantly, the lion's head cabossed is neither truly on the sun nor overall, but something halfway between. Note: if this had not been returned it would have been pended, as no tincture was given on the LoI for the sun, which is argent. (08/1998)

Morgan Blaidd Du. Device. Per chevron enhanced argent and sable, two pawprints and a wolf's head cabossed counterchanged.

This is being returned for Non Period Style - breaking the informal rule of two weirdnesses. The paw prints are one weirdness, and the per chevron enhanced is another. Redrawing this with a proper per chevron line of division would solve the problem. (07/1996)

Morgan Cadwalader. Device. Sable, a bend gules fimbriated overall in pale a skull and two swords crossed in saltire argent.

This conflicts with Gunther der Degentoter Sable, a bend gules fimbriated, overall three swords crossed above the hilts argent. (11/1998)

Morgan ferch Cennydd. Badge. Sable, a hawk's head erased argent.

This conflicts with Frederick Tinamou the Untamed Azure, a bald eagle’s head and shoulders issuant from base argent holding in its beak a sword inverted bendwise sable., and Ironhawk Hawkcrest Per pale vert and Or, a hawks head erased argent. In both cases there is but one CD for difference in field. (12/1998)

Morgan Fletcher. Device. Argent goutty de sang, a ship reversed sails furled proper enflamed gules.

This was withdrawn by the submissions herald. (01/1999)

Morgan of Osprey. Device. Or, a dragon's head contourny couped within and conjoined to an annulet, all within a bordure sable.

This is being returned for violating RfS VIII.4.b. "Overt allusions to modern insignia, trademarks, or common designs may not be registered.". While Laurel herself had no idea what Mortal Kombat was prior to this submission, six members of the College of Arms and virtually everyone present at the Laurel meeting, plus two of Laurel's housemates all instantly said Mortal Kombat when seeing this. Therefore, this must be returned. (07/1998)

Morgan of the Oaks. Device. Per fess indented argent and sable, three trees couped proper and issuant from a tree stump eradicated argent, a claymore inverted proper.

This is being returned for breaking our rule on slot machine by having three different types of charges (tree, tree stump and claymore) in one group. (07/1998)

Morgan the Defector. Name and device. Per bend gules and barry wavy argent and azure, in sinister chief a sun Or.

Defector in this spelling can only be dated to 1660, past even our grey period. Furthermore, English epithetical names don't generally derive from learned Latinate terms such as this. The combination of these problems makes the epithet unregisterable.

The device conflicts with a badge of Ansteorra (for the Chronicler) (Tinctureless) A mullet of five greater and lesser points distilling gouttes. There is one CD for field, but nothing for position on field" vs. a fieldless badge. There is no type difference between the mullet of five greater and lesser points distilling gouttes and the sun. (11/1998)

Morgan the Fellwalker. Name.

According to the LoI, Fellwalker is the submitter's legal last name. As such, unless it is obtrusively modern, it can be used as the submitter's SCA byname. However, no documentation was presented for it except that it is the submitter's legal name. No evidence was presented for the use of the in the name. Therefore, since the client will take no changes, this is being returned because of the the. (03/1999)

Morgana Elisabetta Rosatti. Badge. (Fieldless) a Norse sun cross purpure surmounted by a rose argent barbed and seeded proper.

This is being returned for violating our rules on fieldless style. To quote Baron Bruce as Laurel:

In cases where identifiability is maintained ­­­ where one of the charges is a long, slender object, and the area of intersection small ­­­ overall charges will still be permitted in fieldless badges. (15 January, 1992 Cover Letter (November, 1992 LoAR), pg. 3)

In this case, the area of intersection is not small. (03/1997)

Morgana MacKay. Name.

According to the LoI Morgana is SCA compatible. That is not the case. Barring documentation that Morgana was used by a human as a given name prior to the year 1600, this name must be returned. (09/1998)

Morgwen ferch Bronwen. Name.

This conflicts with Morgan Branwen, registered 9/92. (08/1997)

Morien MacBan. Device. Pean, on a chalice Or overflowing with water argent, a cross bottony gules.

As drawn the submission does not look like the exemplar of the Salter's Guild salt shaker. Therefore, this is being returned for nonreproduciblity. (08/1996)

Moroedd Oer, Canton of. Name and device. Vert, a walrus' head caboshed argent, on a chief enarched Or two laurel wreaths vert.

This is being returned for lack of documentation on the name. While it is correct Welsh for Cold or Icy Seas, no documentation was presented for that being a plausible period name. Barring such documentation the name must be returned.

Since we do not form holding names for groups, the armory must be returned as well. (12/1998)

Morwenna atte Fenix. Name.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. (07/1997)

Morwenna Llyn Llydaw. Device. Or, on a hurt, a seahorse erect contourny argent.

This conflicts with Ekaterina Vladimirovna, Or, on a hurt a horse’s head couped argent. There is only the one CD for the changes to the tertiary group. If there had not been a conflict this would have been returned because the field is not Or, but orange. (05/1999)

Mu the Mongol. Name.

The submitter has documented the name Mu from Lin Shan's Name Your Baby in Chinese. Unfortunately, this book gives no dates, so there is no evidence that Mu is a period Chinese given name. Therefore, this name is being returned for lack of documentation. Ottar Eriksson's list of period Chinese Surnames has Mu among them. Marta's list of period Mongol given names has Muge. Perhaps the submitter would wish to use either the Mongol form, or Mu as a Chinese Surname with a documented Chinese given name. The armory was registered under the name Conrad of Stargate. (07/1996)

Muin maqq Mínaín. Device. Vert, on a plate a brazier enflamed vert, a bordure rayonny Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The bordure was not drawn as a proper rayonny. Additionally, the flames need to be redrawn. They would be a great deal more identifiable if they were jagged on all sides except the bottom. (10/1997)

Muirdeadhach MacBheathain. Device. Gules, a Celtic cross, a bordure embattled Or.

This is visually in conflict with Valeran do Pico (for Casa do Pico), Gules on a cross formy Or, a cross pointed gules, a bordure embattled Or. Visually, Valeron's cross on a cross is just a complex voided cross, which is only one CD from a Celtic cross. (08/1998)

Muirgheal Sitheach of Ironhorse Keep. Name and device. Argent, a thistle proper and on a chief wavy purpure two whelk shells fesswise reversed argent.

This name has two different problems. First, Sitheach is a given name, not a byname. Since Gaelic does not use double given names, this formation is not registerable. Secondly, no documentation was presented, and none could be found for Ironhorse Keep as a period locative.

The armory is being returned for a redraw. The charges on the chief are not whelk shells or unicorn horns, or any other charge used in heraldry. The consensus of the Laurel meeting was that they were cream horns, but we did not think that was an appropriate term for the objects. (03/1999)

Muirne ní Chatháin. Device. Per chevron sable and vert, two increscents and an eagle displayed grasping in its talons a sword fesswise reversed Or.

This is being returned for "slot machine", with three different charges in a standard arrangement. Please ask the submitter when he resubmits to draw the crescents larger and the eagle with internal details. (11/1996)

Muriel de Chimay. Badge. (Fieldless) A fleur-de-lys conjoined in base with two swan's heads couped at the nape and addorsed Or.

This has two problems, either of which are ground for return. First, this conflicts with France (Fieldless) A fleur-de-lys Or. Visually it appears to be a fleur-de-lys flory. Second, as drawn the swan's heads are not identifiable, it is not clear what they are without a blazon. (08/1998)

Mykhailo Zavadivskyi. Device. Per fess Or and gules, in chief a demi-arrow inverted sable conjoined in base to an eagle’s tail grey.

This was an attempt to use the regional style exemption of the rules, in order to use grey as a tincture. He provided two examples of Polish arms which he claims use grey as a tincture: Gules, an ass’ head caboshed grey and Azure, a lion’s head erased grey issuing flames gules. The LoI gave neither one a name nor date, though the submitter provided photocopies from Ian Heath's Armies of the Middle Ages which gave names and dates for the two blazons.

There are, however, several problems with this submission. First, two examples of armory do not meet the requirements for a specific regional style exemption. The rules state:

RfS VIII.6.b. - Regional Style - Alternatively, a proposed exceptional armorial design element may be documented as characteristic of a specific regional armorial style.

"In such cases the submitted armory may be registered provided that all of the following conditions are met. (1) The submitter explicitly requests an exception to the other sections of Part VIII (Compatible Armorial Style) on the grounds that the submitted armory exemplifies a specific regional style. (2) Documentation is adduced to show that exceptional design element was not uncommon in the regional style in question. (3) Documentation is adduced to show that all elements of the submitted armory can be found in the regional style in question."

The situation is worsened because one of the two examples, according to the submitter's documentation, gives the blazon as Azure, a lion's head erased sable (or grey)...., therefore, it is not clear that the second example even demonstrates the use of grey in period armory.

Furthermore, of the two examples given, both are of a plain field, with a beast's head on it as a sole primary. The submitted armory is of a divided field with a conjoined charge which is not readily identifiable, unlike a simple beast's head.

Finally, the source the submitter used for his documentation is not a book of heraldry, but rather one produced for wargaming, so there is no way of knowing how reliable it is.

The submitter has failed to meet the standards of the regional style exemption, and this submission must be returned. (10/1998)

Naevehjem, Barony of. Badge. (Fieldless) On a roundel conjoined in pale to a staff argent, a gurges gules.

This is being returned for violating RFS VIII.4. Obtrusive Modernity ­ Armory may not use obtrusively modern designs. "Modern" is defined as anything outside the period of the Society. Everyone looking at this said "A lollipop!" (09/1997)

nan Crioch Tuatha, Shire of. Badge. (Fieldless) A sealion rampant gules.

This conflicts with Ivar Krigsvin (SCA) Checky sable and argent, a sea-lion erect gules. The only CD is for fieldlessness. (09/1997)

nan Crìoth Tuatha, Stronghold of. Badge. Argent, a sealion gules.

This is being returned for conflict with Rory Blackhand (SCA) Argent a sea-lion reguardant gules within an orle of hands sable., with one CD for the addition of the orle, and with Ivar Krigsvin (SCA) "Checky sable and argent, a sealion erect gules., with one CD for the difference in the field. (10/1996)

Nasir al-Tawil. Badge. An anchor, its beam an timber potent Or, surmounted by an elephant's head erased proper.

This badge violates our rules on fieldless badge style.

"I've therefore decided not to implement a comprehensive ban on fieldless badges with overall charges. I will be returning cases where the underlying charge is rendered unidentifiable, per Rule VIII.3; this will include the most egregious cases of overall charges (e.g. A pheon surmounted by a hawk's head).... In cases where identifiability is maintained --- where one of the charges is a long, slender object, and the area of intersection small --- overall charges will still be permitted in fieldless badges." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, 15 January, 1992 Cover Letter (with the November 1992 LoAR), p. 3)

(RfS VIII.3. states that "Identifiable elements may be rendered unidentifiable by significant reduction in size, marginal contrast, excessive counterchanging, voiding, or fimbriation, or by being obscured by other elements of the design.") In this case, neither of the charges is "long" or "slender". Furthermore, the anchor is not a period anchor. (02/1997)

Nataliya Ananovna Petrova. Device. Per pale indented argent and sable, two cats sejant respectant a bordure counterchanged.

This is being returned for a redraw. The per pale indented is not proper indentations, but closer to per pale pinking shears. There need to be far fewer indentations which are far bolder. (10/1997)

Nathan Rubenszoon Adelaer. Device. Argent chapé ploye engrailed azure, a rose gules barbed and seeded proper.

This is being returned for style and conflict. This uses a doubly­complex line of division which is not acceptable. The relevant precedent is "With very rare exceptions (e.g. in combination with enarched lines), the use of two or more complex lines on the same charge is confusing, and unattested in period armory. (Wavy raguly? Embattled rayonny? I think not.) In this case, the chief could be either embattled or triangular ­­­ but not both." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR December 1992, p. 20). While Bruce was discussing a "chief triangular embattled", the principle he outlined there applies here. We have a chapé which is both ployé and engrailed. And while it may be reasonably argued that this is only one step from period practice, a chief triangular embattled is also only one step from period practice. Both, however, are an extremely big step from period practice. While it is true that lines could be enarched and also embattled, engrailed, etc., the enarching was basically to show the curvature of the shield. We do not believe that such is the case of a chapé ployé. Furthermore, this conflicts with the badge of the House of Lancaster (important mundane armory), A rose gules. (06/1997)

Nerissa de Saye. Device. Per pale gules and purpure, a unicorn passant reguardant argent, armed and crined Or between three voided western crowns Or.

This is being returned for violating VIII.3. Armorial Identifiability. It states Voiding and fimbriation may only be used with simple geometric charges placed in the center of the design. This has been taken to mean that we void primary charges only; the crowns in this submission are clearly secondaries. Even if they were the primaries, this would have to be returned as crowns are not simple enough charges to fimbriate or void. Note: since the submitter is a viscountess she may use a crown in her arms, just not this depiction. (09/1997)

New Mexico, State of. Arms. (Fieldless) A bald eagle displayed, wings inverted, grasping arrows in its talons, overall to sinister a Mexican eagle close, maintaining in its beak a serpent and in its talons a cactus, all proper.

No evidence was presented for these being the state's arms versus their seal. (05/1999)

Niall Steorra Logan. Device. Vert, a chevron cotised Or between two bees rising respectant proper and a pine cone Or.

This was withdrawn by submitter. However, even if it hadn't been withdrawn, it would have had to be returned because the name is not registered, we received no paperwork, and it conflicts with Emrys Shaunnon Vert, a chevron cotised between three bees volant en arriere Or. with only a CD for the difference in the secondaries. (12/1998)

Nicolaa de Bracton of Leicester. Badge. (Fieldless) A pomegranate gules.

This conflicts with Granada (Important Real­World Arms) Argent, a pomegranate seeded gules slipped and leaved vert., with only one CD for fieldlessness. (11/1997)

Nicolette von Zweiberge. Name.

No paperwork was received for this submission, so we have to return this. (09/1997)

Nikodemus Sabas Victorius. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation on the name. All documentation that does not come from Laurel’s approved ‘no-photocopy list’ must include the title page of the book, the reverse of the title page (including title, author and publisher), and the page the name is found on. If the documentation comes from the Laurel website, the URL must be printed on each page of the documentation. The armory was registered under the holding name Nikodemus of Hawkland Moor. (05/1998)

Nikolas de Mont Nord. Device change. Per bend sinister sable and gules, a bend sinister between a cockerel's leg bendwise couped à la quise and a fleur-de-lis argent.

This conflicts with Lodhrer Ledhrfótr (SCA) Per bend sinister sable and gules, a bend sinister between two candles argent., with one CD for the changes of type of the secondaries. (01/1997)

Nikolas de Mont Nord. Device change. Sable, a fleur-de-lis argent.

This conflicts with the badge of Catelin the Patient (Fieldless) A fleur-de-lys argent., with the only CD the one for fieldlessness. (03/1998)

Nikulai Ivanovich. Device. Per chevron argent and vert, in chief a fox courant to sinister gules.

This conflicts with Sherry Foxwell (Fieldless) A fox herissony to sinister gules., as cited on the LoI. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for the slight change in posture. (05/1998)

Nina Mirovna Korsakova. Badge for House Vulpecula. Per pale vert and gules, a compass star argent, a bordure argent.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork for the badge. If paperwork had been submitted, we would have to return this for conflict with Brandon d’Arindel Per bend azure and sable, a compass-star of sixteen points elongated to base within a bordure argent., with one CD for the field, but nothing for the differences between the two mullets. (02/1998)

Nina Nerea Caballoblanco. Device. Per chevron inverted raguly azure and argent semy goutty de larmes, in chief a unicorn rampant argent.

This is being returned for a redraw or a redesign. This is not a per chevron line of division, but much closer to a chief triangular. However, it can't be a chief triangular with a complex line of division. To quote Baron Bruce as Laurel:

[a chief triangular embattled] With very rare exceptions (e.g. in combination with enarched lines), the use of two or more complex lines on the same charge is confusing, and unattested in period armory. (Wavy raguly? Embattled rayonny? I think not.) In this case, the chief could be either embattled or triangular --- but not both. (Johann Götz Kauffman von Erfurt, December, 1992, pg. 20). (02/1997)

Nordwache, Barony of. Badge. [Fieldless] On a chaplet of grape leaves argent four hearts in cross, points to center, gules.

This is being returned for two reasons. First, and most importantly, it is visually in conflict with the Order of the Rose (SCA). Secondly, the hearts are just barely overall, and violates our standards for Fieldless badges. (07/1996)

Northshield, Principality of. Badge. (Fieldless) An owl displayed argent maintaining in its talons an annulet Or.

This conflicts with House of Este Azure, an eagle displayed argent crowned Or., Poland Gules, an eagle displayed argent crowned Or., and Vladimir ap Gwynne Counter-ermine, an eagle displayed argent, armed Or, clutching a wild rose proper. Each gets just a single CD for the field and nothing for the held charges and other artistic details. (05/1998)

Northshield, Principality of. Badge. Per fess embattled sable and argent masoned sable, in chief a candle argent enflamed proper in a candlestick Or.

This conflicts with Lorelei of Lockehaven Per pale azure and Or, a candle argent, sconced sable, enflamed proper, fimbriated counterchanged. The candlestick is less than half the charge in both cases, in which case its tincture gives no CD. Fimbriation also contributes nothing, so the field CD is the only one. (05/1998)

Northshield, Principality of. Name for The Order of the Griffin Sheriffs of Northshield.

This name does not follow any period exemplars of order names, and is being returned for violating RfS III.2.b.ii. Names of Orders and Awards. Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards. These are often the names of saints; others are similar to sign names (see RfS III.2.a.iii). Some examples are: the Order of Saint Michael, the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, the Brethren of the Sword, the Order of the Garter, La Toison d'Or (the Order of the Golden Fleece), the Order of the Golden Rose, the Order of the Star, the Order of the Swan, La Orden de la Jara (the Knights of the Tankard), the Order of Lilies. While it was not the reason for the return, please advice them that to the best of our knowledge, period order names did not include a placename and will be considered one weirdness. (11/1996)

Northshield, Principality of. Name for The Order of the Stellar Constabulary of Northshield

This name does not follow any period exemplars of order names, and is being returned for violating RfS III.2.b.ii. Names of Orders and Awards. Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards. These are often the names of saints; others are similar to sign names (see RfS III.2.a.iii). Some examples are: the Order of Saint Michael, the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, the Brethren of the Sword, the Order of the Garter, La Toison d'Or (the Order of the Golden Fleece), the Order of the Golden Rose, the Order of the Star, the Order of the Swan, La Orden de la Jara (the Knights of the Tankard), the Order of Lilies. While it was not the reason for the return, please advice them that to the best of our knowledge, period order names did not include a placename, and will be considered one weirdness. (11/1996)

Nostas'ia Stepanova Kievskaia. Badge. (Fieldless) On a flame Or a cross of four pheons conjoined at the points sable.

This conflicts with Kristen Ahearn Vert, upon a ball of flame Or a bull rampant to sinister, head lowered, sable., and Akbar Khayam Pean on a ball of flames Or, a wolf's head erased sable. There is a CD for fieldlessness, but a ball of flames is not sufficiently simple to invoke X.4.j.ii, "In simple cases substantially changing the type of all of a group of identical charges placed entirely on other charges is one clear difference.", and the cross of pheons is considered a single object. (08/1998)

Oakford, Canton of. Device. Argent, a cross of four oak leaves within a laurel wreath vert, in base a ford.

This is being returned for a redraw. The laurel wreath is not vert, as blazoned on the LoI, but "argent, fimbriated vert", and a laurel wreath is far to complex to fimbriate. (08/1997)

Odd Grimsson. Badge. (Fieldless) A dolphin hauriant affronty, head to dexter, proper, winged Or, displayed.

This is being returned for violating RfS VII.7.a., which requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." The dolphin is in a unblazonable position. It is not hauriant affronty, and no one could come up with a better blazon. (04/1997)

Odinkar the Distress Bringer. Name.

The byname "Distress Bringer" does not follow any period exemplars in either Old Norse or English. The armory was registered under the holding name Odinkar of Westumbria. (11/1996)

Odo de Payens. Device. Per fess argent and vert, in base a wolf statant argent, on a chief embattled purpure three cups argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn it is not clearly per fess, nor field, a chief. While not grounds itself for return, the wolf needs to be drawn in a more heraldic position. (09/1997)

Ofelia le Fleming. Device. Per bend gules and azure, a Celtic cross Or and a rose argent.

This conflicts with Eleanor Colwell of Glouchester, as cited on the LoI, Per bend gules and azure, a cross-crosslet Or and another argent. There is a CD, but not substantial difference between the two types of crosses. (12/1998)

Olaf Jarnhond. Device. Quarterly azure and Or, a mullet of twelve points a bordure gules.

This conflicts with Mitchell MacBain, Gyronny sable and argent, a compass star within a bordure gules., with one CD for the field. (06/1997)

Olaf Wulf. Name.

This conflicts with Olaf Ulfsson registered 6/97. (08/1997)

Olav Henriksson. Device. Or, a griffin azure.

This is being returned for conflict with Diana Alene (SCA), Or, a griffin segreant azure, drawing a bow vert, in chief an increscent argent fimbriated sable. There is one CD for the addition of the increscent. (10/1996)

One Thousand Eyes, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Iron Talon of One Thousand Eyes. (Fieldless) A talon erect sable grasping an orb argent.

This conflicts with the badge of Arnow Rabenhertz (SCA) (Fieldless) A raven's foot couped sable armed and banded gules., Charles Ravenstone (SCA) Per fess lozengy argent and sable, and argent, a bird's leg a' la quisse sable., and the badge of the Shire of Mathom Trove, Per chevron inverted argent and azure, overall an dragon's gambe erased sable grasping a sun Or., with the only CD in all cases for fieldlessness. (09/1997)

One Thousand Eyes, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Iron Talon of One Thousand Eyes. (Fieldless) A talon erect argent grasping an orb sable.

This conflicts with Damianus Petrolino (Fieldless) a dragon's jambe erased inverted clutching a roundel argent. We give no difference between an eagle's jamb and a dragon's jamb. Since the default for a dragon's jamb is claws up and the default for an eagle's jamb is claw's down, there is no difference for orientation, leaving the only difference the CD for fieldlessness. (04/1998)

One Thousand Eyes, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Swan and the Escallop. (Fieldless) An escallop within a ribbon conjoined in chief argent.

In the September 1994 LoAR, Da'ud as Laurel said:

"The ribbon is an SCA invention. While the Armorial and Ordinary has five registrations of a ribbon, the most recent is 1984. In three of those it is a maintained charge or the equivalent. A fourth has three scarves "knotted in triskelion", which have a different and more substantial appearance. The fifth, which has the ribbons as a primary element, also has them intertwined into a mascle ­­ effectively, a mascle of two ribbons. Thus, the charge appearing in the Pictorial Dictionary, and copied here, has never been registered before in this form as a significant element of armory in the SCA. Its loops and twists are unblazonable, leaving a great deal of variation in appearance and making it virtually impossible to reconstruct accurately from the blazon alone, which would violates RFS VII.7.b. There seems to be no compelling reason to register the ribbon as an heraldic charge."

We see no reason to overturn this precedent. (09/1997)

One Thousand Eyes, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Talon d'Or. (Fieldless) A dragon's gambe inverted Or grasping an orb azure.

This conflicts with Lenore of the Dark Lands Sable, a talon erect couped Or enclosing an orb gules., with the only CD for the fieldlessness. (09/1997)

One Thousand Eyes, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Talon d'Or. Per bend sinister azure and Or, a talon erect Or grasping an orb azure

This conflicts with the Barony of Calafia, (Fieldless) a dragon's jambe inverted Or. There is nothing for type of talon/jambe leaving the only CD the one for fieldlessness. Note: even if there had been no conflict, this would have been returned for style since as emblazoned, much of the Or talon is on the Or field, leaving zero contrast for that portion. (04/1998)

One Thousand Eyes, Barony of. Badge for the Order of the Iron Talon. (Fieldless) A talon erect sable maintaining an orb argent overall in saltire two swords inverted argent.

This is being returned because no miniature emblazon was included on the LoI. (02/1999)

One Thousand Eyes, Barony of. Name for the Order of the Peacock Key.

This is being returned for lack of documentation. No documentation was provided and none could be found for period order names in the form of <animal name> <implement>.

While the LoI did list a number of alternatives, only one item at a time may be submitted; Laurel does not deal with alternatives. (02/1999)

One Thousand Eyes, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Argent Peacock.

The household name for Jonathan Thorne's House of the Argent Horse was returned September 94 for the following reason:

"Argent" is not a common English element; as an adjective referring to a color, its use is confined almost entirely to heraldry. English, unlike German, has no tradition of house names based on armory; the authentic usage would be White Horse.

Given this reason for return (the household was subsequently registered as Maison du Cheval d'Argent) we are returning this for the same reason. (09/1997)

One Thousand Eyes, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Opus.

This was an appeal of October 1992 Laurel return for being too close to the character Opus in the Bloom County comic strip. While this conflict was no longer valid as personal names do not conflict with order names. However, Latham's Revised Medieval Latin Word-List gives 'customary service' as the normal meaning of opus in English documents of our period, and no exemplars could be found for period models for the name. Therefore, we are returning this for non period style. (09/1997)

One Thousand Eyes, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Reflection of the Dream.

This was an appeal of a December 1990 return for non­period style. The appeal did not provide any documentation to show that the order name followed any period exemplars. Barring such evidence, the name must be returned.

In the appeal the person putting the appeal together states:

"In addition the College of Heralds have and must continue to make specific allowances based on realities such as long-standing, popular practices and well­understood applications of modern terms and techniques to period activities."

Unfortunately the writer(s) seem to misunderstand the purpose of the College of Arms. We have no such mandate. Our mandate, according to Corpora, says (among other things) "Members are encouraged to develop unique, historically valid names and armory." The Order of the Reflection of the Dream is not a historically valid name. (09/1997)

Oonagh nic Barith. Name.

This is being returned for using a non-period name. There is no evidence that Oonagh is anything but a modern form of the Irish name Úna. We assume that the patronym is typoed and should be Bárðr. This is a fine ON name; and since Geirr and Lind agree that Una is also an ON name, a period form of the name making her the daughter of Bárðr is Una Bárðardóttir. The device is registered under the name Carol of Misty Mere. (01/1997)

Orabella Gráinne O'Briain. Name.

This name combines Gaelic and English orthography in the same name. A totally Irish name would be Sibéal ni Bhriain, without a middle name as Gaelic didn't use double given name in our period. For an English form, as Gráinne is frequently anglicized by Grace in the late period (cf. Grace O’Malley), Orabell Grace O’Brian would be appropriate. Since we do not know what form the submitter would prefer, we are returning this so she can decide. (04/1998)

Oriana of Bonwicke. Device. Argent, a chevron azure between two natural tigers passant guardant addorsed proper and a rose gules slipped and leaved vert seeded Or.

The tigers were blazoned as natural tigers on the LoI. Natural tigers, proper, are Or, marked sable. These tigers were actually orange, marked sable. We considered reblazoning them Bengal tigers proper. However, there is no readily understood proper coloration for Bengal tigers; we have blazoned as proper both red and yellow Bengal tigers, (see cover letter), and there was some confusion among the commenters as to what color the tigers really were. Therefore, orange tigers are not acceptable for use in the SCA. (03/1997)

Orion’s Gate, Stronghold of. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation. While the LoI provided documentation for the use of gate in place names, no documentation was provided for Orion outside of the statement that the group used to have this name registered to them, it was released many years ago, and they want to use the name again. However, once an item is released, to be registered it must be registerable under the current rules. Barring documentation for Orion, this must be returned. (02/1999)

Orlando Sforza. Name change from Balaan Espie.

The surname Sforza is one of those names such as Hohenstaufen which are so closely associated with a single sovereign royal family as to be presumptuous in their use. Indeed, in times past it was one of those that were used as an exemplar for that category of restricted names. (The name of the dynasty was derived from the nickname of its founder and in period was associated closely with the immediate family of the sovereign Dukes of Milan.) The use of the Sforza surname is tantamount to a claim to being from the immediate family of the sovereign Dukes of Milan and is not be allowed under RFS VI.1. The armory was registered under the name Balaan Espie. (07/1997)

Osandrea Elspeth Gabrielle de le Bete. Name and device. Purpure, in fess a scroll argent charged with a quill sable and a unicornate seahorse, a bordure nebuly argent.

The name is being returned for several reasons. First, the constructed name Osandrea is highly unlikely. French does NOT form the feminine by suffixing an "a" to a form like André. Instead, it would add an "e": Andrée. Secondly, the number of name elements that merge into a single name in French in period is limited in the extreme, most commonly reflecting the custom of adding the name of the virgin before or after another given name (e.g., Marie Anne). Thirdly, Osanne itself actually derives from the exclamation usually rendered Hosannah in English. Morlet's Noms des personnes, Vol. II, p. 86 notes several examples of Osanna in period from 861 through to the twelfth century. Fourth, despite what the LoI says, Gaelic does not share much in common with French, and Elspeth is not a reasonable French variant. Finally, no acceptable documentation was provided for de le Bete as a period byname. Osanne Gabriel would be an acceptable name. But as she does not allow any changes, we were forced to return the name.

The armory is being returned for two style reasons. First is the unicornate seahorse. While we would register a seaunicorn, we do not register unicornate horses of any type. Secondly, the quill pen is not entirely on the scroll, but overlaps onto the field which is also grounds for return, since it is barely overall. (08/1998)

Óspakr Dagsson. Device. Azure, a chevron inverted and in chief a holly leaf argent.

This conflicts with Olafr Saelendingr Haraldsson (SCA) Azure, a chevron inverted and in chief an increscent argent., with only one CD for changing the type of the secondary charge. (08/1997)

Osprey, Barony of the. Badge. (Fieldless) An osprey's leg couped ala quisse, belled and jessed argent.

This conflicts with Damianus Petrolino (SCA), (Fieldless) A dragon's jambe erased inverted clutching a roundel argent., with the only difference the automatic one for fieldlessness. (06/1997)

Otelia du Pré Danzant. Name and device. Or, on a chevron vert three fleurs­de­lys Or.

According to the LoI, du Pré Danzant means 'Dancing Meadow'. Dauzat gives the following list Préval (valley meadow), Prévert (green meadow), Prémare (pond meadow), Prémorel (Morel's meadow), Préfol (wild meadow), Prégel (frosty meadow), Précour (short meadow), Préaumont (mountain meadow), Prébois (meadow by the woods) and Précostat (coast meadow). However these are all distinctive features, which make a meadow distinctive or identifiable. Therefore, we do not feel that dancing meadow is a reasonable construction, and must return the name. Note: Danzant is incorrectly spelled. It should be dansant. The armory was registered under the name Otelia of Thescore. (08/1997)

Otfried der Bergstiger. Device. Or, a fess azure and overall an increscent gules.

This conflicts with Marc of Glastonbury (SCA), Or a fess azure, overall a lion rampant gules, wearing the hood and tippet of a teaching master sable, turned up and tasseled ermine., with only one CD for changing the type of an overall charge. Note: even if there had not been a conflict, this would have had to be returned because the azure fess was colored closer to argent and we register the picture, not the words. (09/1997)

Otto Blauschild. Device. Azure, a fret argent.

This conflicts with Annora Margery FitzJames (SCA) Azure fretty argent, a weaver’s shuttle palewise Or, threaded vert., and with Meredudd Brangwyn (SCA) Per saltire gules and pean, a fret argent. In the first case, fretty is considered both equivalent to a fret and the primary charge in the design, leaving just one CD for adding the overall charge. In the second, there is just one CD for the field. (01/1998)

Otto Castor. Device. Argent, in pale atop a dolmen sable a beaver rampant proper maintaining in its sinister forepaw a vajhra gules.

As drawn, this conflicts with Darcy Graham, Argent, an otter (lutra lutra) erect guardant proper, maintaining an escallop inverted gules., with a CD for the dolmen, but nothing for the difference between a beaver and an otter or for the maintained charges. (05/1998)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Badge for the Order of the Iron Hart of the Outlands. (fieldless) Two stags combatant sable sustaining between them a double­headed axe Or.

This is being returned for violating our rules on fieldless style. Fieldless badges must have the elements conjoined; this badge, as drawn does not fulfill that requirement. Even if it had fulfilled that requirement, it would have had to be returned for administrative reasons, since only one colored copy of the emblazon was sent, not two. (07/1997)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Badge for the Order of the Silver Tyne. Vert, a stag's attire argent and a bordure embattled Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn the attire is not recognizably an attire, or any other charge. (01/1999)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Badge for the Order of the Stag of the Outlands. (fieldless) Two stags combatant sable sustaining between them a column argent.

This is being returned for violating our rules on fieldless style. Fieldless badges must have the elements conjoined; this badge, as drawn does not fulfill that requirement. Even if it had fulfilled that requirement, it would have had to be returned for administrative reasons, since only one colored copy of the emblazon was sent, not two. (07/1997)

Outlands, Kingdom of the. Order name for the Order of the Desert Flower of the Outlands and badge. (Fieldless) Two stags combatant sable sustaining between them a Mamluk rosette gules.

The name is being returned for non­period style. While the LoI claimed that the order name follows the period example of the Order of the Golden Fleece, it does not. The mundane order name is a straightforward Classical allusion; the present submission, even without the locative, is not. Another problem is that the OED has no example of this kind of attributive use of desert earlier than 1750. Without evidence for the period use of desert as a modifier meaning `found in or associated with the desert' the name must be returned.

The armory is being returned for violating our rules on fieldless style. Fieldless badges must have the elements conjoined; this badge, as drawn does not fulfill that requirement. Even if it had fulfilled that requirement, it would have had to be returned for administrative reasons, since only one colored copy of the emblazon was sent, not two.

After the November 1997 Laurel meeting, we will no longer register Mamluk rosettes. They are an artistic motif which is not all that common even in period Mamluk art, never mind Mamluk heraldry. (07/1997)

Outlands, Kingdom of. Order name for Order of the Flower of the Desert.

The name is being returned for non-period style. As stated in the return for the Order name of Desert Flower of the Outlands "... problem is that the OED has no example of this kind of attributive use of desert earlier than 1750. Without evidence for the period use of desert as a modifier meaning `found in or associated with the desert' the name must be returned." This name is being returned for the same reason. (05/1998)

Owain Grindal. Device. Per bend sinister sable and argent, a Latin cross formy, a bordure gules.

This is being returned for a redraw. The bordure is way too thin. (10/1996)

Owain Norgard of Greenbriar. Device. Per fess indented azure and Or, two harps addorsed Or and a dragon passant contourny vert maintaining in its dexter forepaw a sheaf of arrows sable all within an orle of leaves conjoined counterchanged.

This is being returned for unidentifability. The leaves were not clearly leaves, or any other distinct charge. (12/1996)

Owen Blakshepe. Name change from Owen Blacksheep.

While Laurel would have dearly loved to register this name change, no forms were included, so Laurel was unable to do so. (09/1996)

Owen Blakshepe. Name change.

This is being returned for the second time for lack of paperwork. Changes must include new name forms! (12/1996)

Owen Cwiran. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation of the byname. While the documentation cites the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles for both names, without any attached documentation, Owen is Welsh while no one in the College could provide any documentation for Cwiran. The spelling of the byname that is commonly associated with the Olaf cited in the LoI is Cwiran which is a Gaelic spelling, and therefore cannot be combined with the Welsh Owen. (04/1998)

The armory was registered under the name holding name Owen of Calontir.

Oyn Cefnog. Device. Counter-ermine, a pile Or.

This conflicts with John Richard Beauchamp (SCA), Counter-ermine, on a pile Or an owl sable; there's just one CD for removing the owl. (01/1997)

Padraic the Fierce. Badge. (Fieldless) A demi-griffin sable within and conjoined to a quatrefoil voided argent.

This is returned for breaking our style rules. A quatrefoil is not a simple enough charge to be voided. (08/1998)

Pancratz Pügge. Device. Per pale argent and sable, a maunche within a bordure rayonny purpure.

This is being returned for a redraw. The bordure as far too many rayons to be registerable. (01/1998)

Panther Vale, Shire of. Name and device. Vert chaussé Or, in pale a panther passant incensed Or, spotted of various tinctures and a laurel wreath Or.

The LoI presented no documentation for the name. The college could find vale used in English place names, albeit rarely, but no documentation could be found for Panther in English place names. Barring documentation this name must be returned.

We do not form holding names for groups, so the name must be returned. However, even if the name was registerable we would return the device as it conflicts with Alanna of Caer Du Pard Or, on a pile throughout vert, a tower Or, on the battlements a snow-leopard couchant reguardant proper. While we blazon them differently, we give no difference between chaussé and a charged pile. Therefore there is one CD for the difference to the charges on the pile. (06/22/1999)

Paraskova Chemislava. Device. Per chevron inverted dovetailed vert and Or, in chief a sun Or.

This conflicts with Wendryn Townsend Azure, a sun in glory Or., and Paul of Sunriver Azure, a compass star Or. There is one CD for the field, but the move of the sun to chief is forced by the field and there is no additional difference for it. In addition it conflicts with a badge of the Kingdom of Ansteorra (Tinctureless) A mullet of five greater and lesser points distilling gouttes. There is one CD for tincturelessness, and nothing for a move to chief vs. a fieldless badge (where position on the field is meaningless.)

Please advise the submitter when he resubmits that a per chevron inverted field should not come from the corners of the shield, and that dovetailing need to be deeper. (02/1999)

Patraic Ó Dochartaigh. Device. Vert, a chevron Or between three wolfhounds statant erect argent.

This conflicts with Derdriu ingen Raghnaill Gráig na Manach (SCA) Vert, a chevron Or between two crescents and a tree argent., with one CD for changing the type of the group of secondaries. Note: Derdriu's submission was registered 11/96. (01/1997)

Patric of Blackthorn. Device. Vert, a Celtic cross and a chief embattled Or.

This conflicts with Charles von Strasburg Vert, three Celtic crosses swallowtailed and a chief embattled Or. There is a CD for difference in number of primary charges, but nothing for the swallowtailing. It also conflicts with Aithbric an Ardain Dhuibh Vert, a Celtic cross within a bordure Or. There is only one CD for change to the type of the peripheral. (01/1999)

Patrick of Avebury. Badge. (Fieldless) On a compass star sable a crux ansata argent.

This conflicts with Glynn Llan-y-Rhyllwyn Potenty gules and argent, a sun sable eclipsed argent charged with a mullet throughout sable. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for change of type only on a complex charge, and nothing for the quaternary charge. This also conflicts with Rudiger Macklin Argent, scaly vert, on a compass star nowed and elongated to base sable, a winged ram salient argent. Again there is one CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for change of type only on a complex charge and nothing for the nowing and elongation of the compass star. (03/1999)

Patrick of Clan Lamont. Name and device. Azure, on a plate a phoenix rising from flames proper.

As colored the phoenix is not clearly any one color. It is closest to Or, which breaks tincture. The phoenix needs to be clearly a heraldic tincture. When resubmitting, please try to use deeper colors; the field as tinctured is not clearly blue. (12/1997)

Paul Franz von Drachenschloss. Badge. (Fieldless) A winged tower argent.

This visually conflicts with Guillaume di San Marino (SCA) Pean, a tower argent, issuant from its battlements two plumes pendant to base argent. There is clearly one difference for the field, but the plumes look very much like wings. (11/1997)

Paulo Mandolfo de Saucedo. Device. Argent, a wolf rampant azure.

This conflicts with Gillian Starke of Aberdeen Argent, a wolf rampant azure maintaining a gillyflower azure slipped and leaved vert, a bordure vert. There is but one CD for the bordure. (05/1998)

Pavla Dmitrovna. Device. Per pale vert and argent, three hawks migrant counterchanged.

This is being returned for a redraw. The birds lack interior details and are not identifiable as a hawk, or clearly as anything else, otherwise we would just reblazon it. (08/1997)

Pelacho the Kindhearted. Name.

This name is being returned for non­period style. It appears to be invoking the lingua Anglica rule on the byname, but that still requires that the element be demonstrated to be a valid byname in one or the other of the languages involved. (11/1997)

Pennsylvania, Commonwealth of. Arms. Per fess azure and vert, on a fess Or between a ship on the sea in full sail, all proper and three garbs Or, a plough gules.

No evidence was presented for these being the state's arms versus their seal. (05/1999)

Peregrine Fairchylde. Device. Vair a six-legged squirrel rampant gules.

There are multiple problems with a six-legged squirrel rampant. Rampant is not a defined term for hexapods, some early SCA blazons notwithstanding. Given the blazon the logical guess would be that this mutant beastie would have three sets of two legs, i.e. two fore, two middle, and two hind legs. However, this has two sets of three: three forelegs and three hindlegs. This means that this emblazon is not reproducible from this blazon, and must be returned for that reason. Absent any documentation of period heraldry adding limbs to otherwise ordinary beasts this must also be returned for style. (01/1998)

Peregrine of Thescorre. Device. Argent, a chevron rompu gules, in base a compass rose sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. The charge in base is not a compass rose, since it is missing the fleur-de-lys at the top pointing north. (05/1999)

Peter Schneck. Badge for Seitsemän pyhän unikeon veljeskunta. Argent, a sun sable eclipsed argent.

This conflicts with Glynn Llan-y-Rhyllwyn (SCA) Potenty gules and argent, a sun sable eclipsed argent charged with a mullet throughout sable. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for the removal of what is essentially a quartenary charge. (01/1997)

Peter Schneck. Badge. Argent, a sun purpure eclipsed argent.

This is being returned for multiple conflicts which include: Duncan Vitrarius (SCA) Argent, a sun vert, eclipsed Or., Thomas Britton (SCA) (Fieldless) On a compass star purpure a lion’s head erased argent., Drstha Maida of the Lowara (SCA) Argent, upon a sun gules a dexter hand apaumy couped argent., Lorimer MacAltin of Garioch (SCA) Argent, on a compass star azure a thistle couped argent., and Tiriel Benn Loring (SCA) Argent, a mullet of seven points purpure. The first gets one CD for tincture of the sun but nothing for tincture only of the tertiary, the second for fieldlessness but nothing for type only of the tertiary, the third and fourth get a CD for tincture of the sun [or equivalent] but nothing for type only of the tertiary on the complex charge, and the last gets just one CD for adding the tertiary. (12/1997)

Petros Monomachos. Device. Per saltire argent and sable, a cross doubly pommeled elongated palewise within a bordure gules.

This is being returned for conflict with Marke von Mainz (SCA) Gyronny argent and sable, a cross moline and a bordure gules., with one CD for the field, and nothing for the difference between the two crosses. (02/1997)

Philip Hohl. Device. Azure, a still Or.

This is being returned for lack of documentation of the still as a period charge. While the LoI did provide evidence from Parker that it is a charge used in English heraldry, Parker did not provide any dates. Barring documentation that this depiction of a still is of either a period artifact or charge, it must be returned. (10/1998)

Phoinix of Pucklechurch. Name.

There are several problems with the given name. In the first place, the usual Latin and English spelling (appropriate with the English form of the place name) is "Phoenix" as the submitted documentation shows. (This form is occasionally found in modern German sources.) In the second, though names from classical epic were used in period, the names usually fall into a definable category such as a hero from the medieval matter of Troy as was the case with Hector. We cannot think of any example where the name of peripheral characters like Phoenix son of Amyntas in the Iliad or divine/semi-divine hero like Phoenix, the brother of Cadmus and Europa who gave his name to Phoenicia, being used in the medieval period unless it had passed into the general name pool in antiquity. That is definitely not the case with Phoenix. Moreover, the most common meaning for "phoenix" in period was to denote the most definitely non-human avian who symbolized the self-regeneration of the soul. While this might make an appropriate byname, we feel that is inappropriate for a given name. (05/1997)

Pierre Gaston de Vallier. Badge. Azure, a lion's head erased vorant a sun Or.

This conflicts with Alphia Biraz­pars (SCA) Sable, a natural leopard's head couped Or marked sable. There is one CD for the field. Since the sun is much smaller than the lion's head, it would appear to fall into the maintained not sustained" charge category and not worth difference. Couped vs. erased is not worth difference nor is the difference between heads of lions, cats and natural leopards. Furthermore, since the sun is the same tincture as the lion's head, it blends into the charge, giving even less visual difference. (09/1997)

Pierre Gaston de Vallier. Device. Azure, a lion rampant, on a chief embattled Or three fleurs-de-lys azure.

This conflicts with Jowell Toledero Azure, a lion rampant reguardant Or, langued and armed gules, the sinister paw maintaining an estoile of seven points argent, on a chief arched embattled Or a shawm proper. There is one CD for changes to the tertiaries, but nothing for the addition of the enarching of the chief. (08/1998)

Pietari Pentinpoika Uv. Household name for S/V Aarnimetsän Ankka.

On the September 1992 LoAR Laurel said:

[Iron Horde of Cathanar] "As in the case of the Company of the Checquered Shield of Western Seas (LoAR of 19 Jan 91), the use of the SCA branch name implies this is an official group of the Barony of Cathanar. As the submitter doesn't represent Cathanar, he may not style his household in a way that suggests official sanction. (If he has official sanction from Cathanar, the name should be registered to Cathanar.)" (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR September 1992, p. 46)

In this case, the household name means Duck of Aarnimetsä, and thereby has the same problem as the others, since Aarnimetsä is the registered name of a barony in Drachenwald. Therefore, we must return this as well. (02/1998)

Proinnsias de Dragon Tigh-Osada. Name

According to the LoI, the name glosses to mean Francis of Dragon Inn, and the meaning of the name was the most important part. The name suffers from several problems. I quote Harpy's commentary:

"There are several problems with the byname, of various degrees of seriousness. The individual words in the byname do translate the words of the English original, however translation is not simply a matter of substituting words, and not even every grammatically correct phrase is reasonable as a byname in a given language (even if it may be reasonable in a different language).

De is a preposition that translates a number of senses for which of is used in English, but to the best of my knowledge, its use in Irish bynames seems restricted to translations of Latin/French de in English-origin surnames (see "de X" surnames in Woulfe).

Dragon may be a valid variant of the Irish borrowing of Latin dracon-, although I can't find this spelling specifically. The Modern Irish form is dragu/n; the Dictionary of the Irish Language shows various Medieval Irish forms: draic, drec, dracon, drecon. The genitive is similarly varied, appearing as dracon, draice, dracoin(e). Possibly of more use (for reasons discussed below) is the use of the derived form Drega/n or Dreaga/n as a masculine given name.

The compound Modern Irish teach-o/sta, Medieval Irish tech osda, tegh osta or tegh osda appears in the DIL meaning inn, hostelry. The first element is the ordinary Irish word for house, the second is a borrowing of hostel. The dative of the main element is Medieval Irish tig or taig; Modern Irish tigh, teigh, toigh. (Note that tigh is also a variant Modern Irish form of the nominative.)

A few of the problems are matters of Irish grammar and word-order. Irish places the modifier (Dragon) after the thing modified (Inn). In addition, if I am interpreting the intended meaning correctly (i.e., Inn of [a/the] Dragon), the modifier should be in the genitive (possessive) case. If the preposition de were appropriate in a construction of this type, it would require its object to be in the dative case. So a purely grammatical fix to the above byname would result in some variant of de Tig(h) Osta Dracon (to stick to the variants most similar to the submitted form -- although these are not necessarily the most typical of the variants).

However, while this could be interpreted as a phrase meaning from the Dragon('s) Inn, there are further problems with it as a historic Irish byname or even simply the name of a building or settlement. Locative bynames, while not completely unheard of in Irish, are quite rare in the available records. When they do occur, normally they are formed by using either a genitive form of the place-name, or an adjectival form (particularly in the case of regions or territories), and not with a prepositional phrase of this sort. A genitive form of this byname would be some variant of Tige Osta Dracon. This would appear to be the minimal level of modification to produce a registerable byname from the submitted material.

Secondarily, there is the question of whether Dragon Inn is a reasonable period Irish construction. Hogan's dictionary of Irish place-names (Onomasticon Goedelicum) provides extremely few examples of settlement names based on mythical creatures, although one of those few is Loch Be/l Drecon (Dragon's Mouth Lake). The largest single category of modifiers for Irish place-names is personal names. So if the desire is simply for a place-name based on dragon, in an Irish context, doing this via the given name Dreaga/n would be much preferable.

Although there are many names based on tech (house), there are none based on tech osta or on osta alone. Despite the appearance of tech osta in at least late-period Irish sources, it isn't clear whether it represents a concept native to Irish culture of the time (i.e., something that one could be from) as opposed to a word used for a foreign concept. However there is good evidence at least in the earlier medieval period for a native Irish concept with certain parallels, the bruidhen (hostel or guest-house), which was operated as part of the socio-political structure, rather than as an independent economic enterprise. The most typical name for this type of establishment (see Hogan) is of the form so-and-so's hostel, so a construction along the lines of Bruidhen Dreaga/in would be quite in line with existing period Irish settlement names, while still preserving the general sense of the type of settlement and the linguistic root of the modifier (although the literal meaning is Dregan's Hostel rather than Dragon Hostel). As a genitive byname, this would be Bruidhne Drega/in.

While Bruiden Drega/in would be very reasonable as a period Irish place-name, there still remains the problem that locative bynames are very atypical in Irish.

The armory was registered under the holding name Agnes of One Thousand Eyes. (02/1999)

Prospero the Merchant. Device. Per chevron rayonny Or and sable, a man affronty Or.

This conflicts with the badge of Migel Gneuyle de Normandie Gules, an old man statant affronty maintaining sword and shield Or. There is only one CD for the difference in the fields. (12/1998)

Prydwen ferch Bledig. Name.

This is being returned for lack of a period given name. Prydwen is given in the form that Gruffudd uses for modern names; it is also clearly described as the name of Arthur's ship. (01/1997)

Pyotr Lyagushka Vasiliev syn Tetiukhina. Device. Per pale lozengy Or and azure, and argent, a frog tergiant within a bordure, all counterchanged.

This is being returned for unidentifiability. When viewed across the room, it was virtually impossible for someone who not already seen it closer, to tell what was going on. It would be improved by using larger lozenges. (01/1997)

Qara Moridai. Device. Argent, a sea-dragon rampant vert between three roses gules, slipped and leaved proper.

This is being returned for conflict with Minimoto Akataro (SCA) Argent, a dragon rampant vert holding in the dexter forepaw a Latin cross trefly Or., and with Erik of Flamewood, Argent a wyvern erect vert maintaining an oak leaf and a fireball gules. We give no difference between a dragon, a sea-dragon and a wyvern, leaving only one CD for the addition of the secondaries. (12/1996)

Quebec. Important-non SCA flag. Azure, a cross between four fleur-de-lys argent.

Without any reasons as to why this flag is important enough to protect, we must return it. (01/1998)

Rachel Armstrong. Device. Per pale vert and argent, in bend three wolf’s paw prints counterchanged.

This conflicts with Greyes Oddson Per pale vert and argent, a paw print counterchanged. There is just one CD for number of charges. (05/1998)

Rafaela Bianca Manciata. Release of name and device. Sable, a saltire of chain Or, overall a pair of wings conjoined in lure argent.

No paperwork was received stating that the submitter wished to release these items. Barring such paperwork, this must be returned. (11/1998)

Raffe Scholemaystre. Name.

This was an appeal of a 12/92 return for violating RfS VI.1 "Names Claiming Rank". Because Master is a reserved title in the SCA, the name Scholemaystre was ruled to be presumptuous. The text of the rule reads, "Names containing titles, territorial claims, or allusions to rank are considered presumptuous." In that return Laurel quoted his 10/92 return of Sara Annchen Baumeister, in which he wrote, "we will not register any name that claims to be a "Master [anything]." The submitter argues that Scholemaystre does not represent a such a claim, and presents citations it in various spellings, and a quote from Orme, Education in the West of England 1066-1548, which refers to a William Scolemayster and then says, "Whether he was a practicing schoolmaster at the time, or whether ‘schoolmaster’ was merely a surname unrelated to his work, is hard to say." This is intended to demonstrate that the name Scholemayster does not make a claim to a title. He also writes, "I am in NO way making any claim to being a peer; what I wish to do is use my occupation as my surname . The term Scholmaystre was a specific occupational description during period . "

Laurel sympathies with the submitter, who is trying to use historically a term which the SCA uses ahistorically. However, as was said in the return of the Master Bowman of the East (7/90) "We cannot, in good conscience, register a title reserved by Corpora to peers to any non-peerage group, no matter in what form they propose to use it." The same argument applies to individuals.

And as Master Bruce said as Laurel:

"A large part of the Society's re-creation involves titles: bestowing them, earning them, using them. A fundamental axiom is that title, rank and honor may not simply be claimed; John can't call himself Sir John unless he is, in fact, a Knight of the Society. The College's Rules on presumption (in particular, Rule VI.1) follow from this axiom: we won't register any name that sounds like a claim to title, rank or honor. If someone were to submit an obvious titular claim --- say, Michael Rex --- then the need for return is fairly clear-cut. It's the less straightforward cases that give us headaches: when the "claim" is ambiguous, or when a title evolves into a documented period name. How can we judge which borderline cases are truly presumptuous, and which are acceptable? Examples of period usage help, but don't settle the matter; we also deal with SCA usage, and the perceptions of folk within the Society. (If period usage were our sole guide, then Lord wouldn't be our lowest-ranking title, nor Master one of our highest.) Our lodestar may be found in the Corpora section on Titles (VII.C): our main concern is the appearance of landedness, and of noble or hereditary rank. That, and the list of Society titles, provide some guidelines for judging names, to be balanced with period documentation. Let me give some concrete examples of the balance we try to keep. The classic example is the given name Regina: a documented given name, but also the Latin for "queen", and on the College's list of titles for use in the Society. If it weren't documented as a name in period, it probably wouldn't be registerable at all (the current case for its masculine counterpart Rex); but as it is documented, it can be used so long as it doesn't violate Corpora's ban on the appearance of landedness. Regina the Baker is acceptable; Regina of Germany is not. Other names may be acceptable because, even interpreted as titles, they don't interfere with the Society's official title structure. Mary the Apprentice would be registerable because the name implies neither landedness nor official SCA rank. Robert Abbot would be registerable because the "title" is a documented byname, and again implies no official SCA rank. (However, Robert Abbot of Lincoln would imply territoriality, and would be returned.) Our biggest headache to date has been the title Master/Mistress. Its Society usage as a title of peerage would prevent anyone registering, say, Peter the Master --- despite Master being a documented byname in a number of cultures. Peter the Brewing Master or Peter the Falconry Master are likewise unacceptable, as would be translations into other tongues. This is a case where Society usage takes precedence over such documented bynames as Baumeister. Short of a time machine set for A.S. II, when the first Masters of the Laurel were created, I don't see that anything can be done about the problem at this late date. (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, 20 August, 1993 Cover Letter (with the July 1993 LoAR), pp. 3-4).

Finally, after the Board polled the entire Society about making all bestowed peers knights of their order (knights of the laurel, the pelican and the chivalry), it was decided not to do so. As long as the Board has decided Master is a reserved title, Laurel cannot change that.

His holding name has been changed from James of Eoforwic to Raffe of Ardcreag as he requested. (12/1998)

Rafn Mýra. Name.

While Mýra is found in Geirr Bassi's The Old Norse Name, it is found being used as a prefix. When it is not a prefix, it changes spelling to Mryi. However, since the submitter forbade changes, we are forced to return this name.

The armory was registered under the holding name Cindy of Ponte Alto. (06/1998)

Rághnall MacIntyre. Name.

This combines Gaelic and English orthography in the same name, which we do not allow. Since the submitter does not permit changes this must be returned. An entirely Gaelic form would be Rághnall Mac an t-saoir.

The armory was registered under the holding name Rághnall of nan Crioch Tuatha. (11/1998)

Ramiro Nünez. Device. Per bend sinister sable and purpure, a bend sinister bevelled argent.

This is not "bevilled" as discussed (at length) by Laurel in the August 1992 LOAR. While the line of fracture is properly vertical, the examples cited by Laurel show the lower portion being elevated, rather than the upper one as in this submission. Unless period evidence (and a name) for this particular shift is obtained, this must be returned. (05/1998)

Ramshaven, Barony of. Badge. (Fieldless) Two ram's heads couped close butting argent.

This is being returned for violating RfS VII.7.a., which requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." As drawn, no-one at the Laurel meeting could figure out what they were from even a short distance. In a reverse of what normally happens, the mini-emblazon was drawn a lot more recognizably than the full size emblazon. (04/1997)

Ramshaven, Barony of. Order name for The Order of the Favor of Ramshaven.

This violates RfS 2.b.ii Names of Orders and Awards.

Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards. These are often the names of saints; others are similar to sign names (see RfS III.2.a.iii). Some examples are: the Order of Saint Michael, the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, the Brethren of the Sword, the Order of the Garter, La Toison d'Or (the Order of the Golden Fleece), the Order of the Golden Rose, the Order of the Star, the Order of the Swan, La Orden de la Jara (the Knights of the Tankard), the Order of Lilies.

Barring documentation that The Order of the Favor of Ramshaven follows such a pattern, it must be returned. (09/1998)

Raphael Eckhart. Badge. [Fieldless] A hart's head caboshed issuant between the antlers a goblet Or.

This conflicts with the device of Claude de la Beche (SCA), Vairy argent and gules, a stag's head cabossed Or. The goblet is not big enough to count for difference. (02/1997)

Rathnait inghean ui Chairealláin. Name and device. Azure, a pair of shears and on a chief Or three bobbins sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. While the charges on chief were blazoned as bobbins on the LoI, they do not resemble lace bobbins, which are what we refer to as bobbins. They are somewhat similar to quills of yarn or embroiderer’s quills, but are dissimilar enough to them that we cannot reblazon them as either one. They most closely resemble the bobbins used on a serger sewing machine, but those are way out of period. (03/1999)

Ravenslake, Shire of. Badge. Argent, a raven close to sinister sable a bordure wavy azure.

This is in conflict with the Alyna Duchez Argent, a raven rising wings elevated and addorsed sable, beaked and membered gules, maintaining in its dexter claw a heart sable all within a bordure nebuly azure. We give no difference between wavy and nebuly, nor for maintained charges, so there is only one CD for position of the raven. It also conflicts Kathren of Sandesward Argent, a legless quail close to sinister regardant sable., with one CD for the addition of the bordure. (04/1999)

Rayne Moyra O’ Ciaragain. Device. Per chevron argent and vert, in chevron three cinquefoils sable and a beehive Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn the charges in chief are not recognizably cinquefoils or any other charge. They need to be either redrawn, or documentation for use of charges that look like that in period heraldry must be provided. (02/1999)

Red Lórien of Oak River. Device. Gules, a sword inverted winged, blade on a bed of flames inverted, in chief three compass stars, all within an orle of oak leaves Or.

This submission suffers from the same problem which resulted in a return to Walram von Laufenberg (Fieldless) A flame gules, winged argent, surmounted by the blade of a sword proper. on the May 1998 LoAR. At that time we said:

"While blazoned on the LoI as (Fieldless) Between a pair of wings argent a sword proper blade enflamed gules., we have reblazoned to more accurately reflect the emblazon, as "Period enflamed has a few gouttes of flame scattered around the edge of the charge being enflamed. Where the flame completely surrounds an object, that object is said to be 'on a flame.'" (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1992, p. 26). "We don't permit flaming fimbriation in Society armory." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, 24 July 1993 Cover Letter (with the June 1993 LoAR), pp. 5-6). "

We see no reason to overturn our ruling, and we are returning this for the same reason. (04/1999)

Red Spears, Barony of. Badge. (Fieldless) On a heart Or fimbriated gules, a sheaf of boarspears gules.

This is being returned for several reasons. First, no armory forms were received for this submission.

However, even if forms had been received, we would have returned it for violating our rules on layering. The fimbriation is so wide that visually this appears to be (Fieldless) On a heart gules, another Or, charged with a sheaf of three boar spears gules., which is four layers.

Finally, a heart is a shape for heraldic display, so this could also be blazoned as Or, a sheaf of boarspears, a bordure gules. Fieldless badges should not consist of just a shape for heraldic display with a charge or charges thereupon as it looks like a display of arms. (You can't distinguish (Fieldless) An escutcheon gules charged with a rose Or. from a display of Gules, a rose Or. (05/1999)

Regan Davis. Badge for Blue Company. Azure, a bend sinister Or between two caltrops argent.

This conflicts with Dominique Salluste de Rovere Azure, a bend sinister Or between a tree eradicated and a Latin cross argent. There is just one CD for the type of the secondaries. (06/1998)

Regan Davis. Household name for Blue Company.

This conflicts with the registered household name of Fionnbhárr Starfyr of the Isles: The Blue Band. Band and Company are the designators in each case, and thus transparent, leaving Blue conflicting with Blue. (02/1998)

Reginleif Ragnarsdottir. Device. Or chapé gules, a bird displayed azure.

While blazoned on the LoI as a raven, it is really a generic bird. It has none of the identifying marks that would distinguish it as a raven., A generic bird is not significantly different from any other type of bird. Therefore this conflicts with Michael von Rosenau Argent, an owl displayed azure maintaining a rose fesswise gules, slipped., and Sheila Eileen Natalia MacDougal of Perth Ermine, a dove displayed azure grasping a vine vert, flowered purpure and leaved vert., as cited on the LoI. There is one CD in each case for the field, but nothing for the difference in type of bird, and nothing for the maintained charge. (09/1998)

Renata von Hentzau. Device. Azure, a fox courant reguardant argent, in chief three mullets Or.

This is being returned for redraw. As drawn it is not clearly courant or statant but something halfway between the two. (06/1998)

Rhiain nic Muirgheal. Name.

While Rhiain is found in Gruffudd's Welsh Personal Names, no one was able to provide evidence that it is a period Welsh name. (12/1996)

Rhiannon leis a'Madaidh-alaidh a'suilean. Name.

This combines Welsh and Gaelic in the same name. Since Gaelic wasn't combined with Welsh in period, we must return this name. Even if there wasn't this problem, no documentation was presented for the phrase being an acceptable byname, and barring such documentation the name would have to be returned. (12/1998)

Rhiannon MacRuari of Rannoch Moor. Name.

There is nothing in the cited forms from Black's Surnames of Scotland, to support the spelling MacRuari. While MacRuari is cited in a book by Lister, there is no way of knowing if he cited period forms. Since the submitter would not take changes, we are forced to return the name. (03/1997)

Rhiannon Makreury. Name.

This conflicts with Rhiannon ny Rory. The change in the format of the patronymic is not worth any difference. (10/1998)

Rhys Gwent. Device. Vert, a skull argent wearing a jester's cap Or.

This conflicts with Valentine Christian Warner Purpure, a skull argent wearing a fool's cap per pale ermine and Or. registered August 1998. The change of half the cap from Or to ermine is a total change on only 1/4 of the primary group, so there is just the CD for the field. (11/1998)

Richard de Lacy. Name.

This conflicts with Richard deLacy, registered 10/91. The armory was registered under the holding name Brian de Lacy. (10/1997)

Richard Sparhawke. Device. Per chevron Or and azure, a hawk displayed counterchanged.

This is being returned for several reasons. First, if you take the blazon as it stands, while the field is divided per chevron, as drawn the hawk is primarily Or, with only half of the wings being azure. This is not enough for a tincture CD, thereby putting it in conflict with a number of protected devices of the form (field) a displayed Or , including: Aethelhelm Hafoc (SCA), Bendy sinister wavy sable and argent, a hawk displayed, belled Or, jessed vert.; David Evan McKuenn (SCA) Per fess rayonny sable and gules, an eagle displayed Or breathing flames proper.; Napoleon I (Important mundane armory) Azure, an eagle displayed contourny grasping in both claws a thunderbolt Or.; and several others. In each case there is 1 CD for the field, but that is all.

Additionally, this could easily be blazoned as Or, a pile inverted azure, overall a hawk displayed counterchanged., and in fact was the blazon originally on the submissions forms. We don't allow counterchanging of animate objects over ordinaries.

The submitter should be careful when resubmitting to make it clearly per chevron to avoid this problem i.e. the eagle should clearly be half Or and half azure. (09/1996)

Richenda Elizabeth Coffin. Badge. (Fieldless) A daffodil slipped and leaved Or.

This conflicts with the Barony of Wintersgate's Order of the Gilded Lily, as cited on the LoI, Sable, a lily blossom Or. There is a CD for fieldlessness, but nothing for adding the slipping and leaving. (07/1998)

Ricohard Bach. Name.

This conflicts with Richard Bach, author of Jonathan Livingstone Seagull, and other books. By the standards set by Master Da'ud as Laurel on the LoAR of 3/92 in the return of Patrick MacManus for conflict with Patrick F. McManus, a modern humor writer, this is a conflict. (03/1999)

Rigan Nicgriogair. Name and device. Per chevron argent mullety sable and sable, in base a comet bendwise sinister Or.

The name is being returned for incorrect construction. It appears that the submitter has been misled by an inexactitude in Black: Nicgriogair is not Gaelic for 'daughter of Gregor', but rather for 'daughter of the MacGregor'. 'Daughter of Gregor' would be inghean Ghriogair. Moreover, Rígán is a masculine name, so a Rígán cannot be anyone's daughter. A consistent early name would be Rígán mac Grigóir (or possibly Grigóra, if we extrapolate from the genitive given by Woulfe for the modern Greagóir), but since this transparently changes the lady's sex, we would rather return this name as to make sure that the submitter really wants a name of a gender that is not hers.

The device conflicts with Brendan Shimmering Star (SCA) Sable chape ploye argent mulletty sable, a mullet of six points elongated to base Or. We give no difference between chape ploye and per chevron, giving at best only one CD for the difference between a comet and a mullet of six point elongated to base. (08/1997)

Rikharðr inn Vegandi Svansson. Device. Per saltire checky gules and argent and Or, in fess two battle axes sable.

This is being returned for not using a heraldic tincture. While blazoned on the LoAR as gules, in fact orange was used, which is not the same as gules. While not, per say, grounds for return, please use yellow and not gold for Or. (05/1998)

Rio de las Animas, Shire of. Name.

This is being returned for lack of period documentation. According to the submitter's own documentation, the river was named in 1776, which is over 100 years after our "grey" area. Without documentation that places were named in this fashion in period, this must be returned. (09/1997)

Riverhawk's Rest, Marche of. Name and device. Sable, an osprey (riverhawk) close within a laurel wreath, on a chief argent three towers sable.

This is being returned for non-period style. No one could provide any documentation for rest being used as an element in English place names. Without such documentation, the name must be returned. Since we do not form holding names for groups, the armory had to be returned as well. (04/1997)

Rivertree, Shire of. Name and device. Argent, a chevron wavy azure between two oaks proper and a laurel wreath vert.

This was an appeal of the kingdom return of the name. While the group has tried to document this name, they have not been able to provide sufficient evidence for this kind of construction. River is not generally found as an element in English place-names. It's a French word which wasn't used in English until after the Norman Conquest. River is used as a descriptive word (so that we have River Thames, Avon River, and so on) but there are no examples of places which are called Thamesriver or Avonriver. River isn't the sort of element that was normally used to modify Old English treow tree. River certainly does not describe the tree itself in the way that words meaning grey, fair, multi-colored, long, and red do. It isn't a number word. It isn't a word used to designate a person, like words meaning bishop and churl.

It is true that certain types of personal names were used in this way, but these were Old English forenames, probably the name of the local hundred-man or law-man of the assembly. (This is especially likely to be true in the case of names of hundreds.) Rivere could in fact be the locative surname (from a place in France) of a post-Conquest landholder, and such names do appear as affixes, as in Newton Reigny--held by William de Reigny in 1185 --but that's a usage quite different from the one under consideration here. Still, it could be used to justify a name with the desired elements. Ekwall has Treeton in Yorkshire West Riding (Treton 1204). Reaney & Wilson s. n. Rivers have Gozelinus Riueire or Riuere in Domesday Book and Walter de la Rivere c. 1150. That is sufficient to justify Treton Rivere as a medieval English place-name if the group wishes that form. Since we do not form holding names for groups, the armory must be returned as well. (01/1998)

Rixa Eriksdottir. Device. Sable, a dragon segreant on a chief argent a mullet of six points sable.

This conflicts with Irel Krist of Star Inn (SCA), Sable, a wyvern segreant regardant, maintaining two swords, and on a chief argent four mullets of eight points azure. There is no heraldic difference allowed between dragon and wyvern, nothing for head position or Irel's maintained swords; the only CD is for the changes to the tertiaries. (01/1997)

Robert Brockman. Device. Or, a compass star of sixteen points and in chief two wolves combattant, a bordure wavy azure.

This is being returned for a redraw. The compass star is not just "of sixteen points", but of "four greater, four lesser, and eight even lesser points". Basically, it is a variant of a non-period charge, the compass star. Variants of non-period charges have been disallowed before, as being not one but two steps from period practice. "The submitter's argument that a Maltese star cross is but one step from a recognized period charge, a *Maltese cross*, is interesting but not particularly compelling. The fact remains that six armed crosses are not a period charge." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR December 1993, p.10) Neither are compass stars of sixteen points. If the compass star was redrawn as a sun or a standard mullet, that would take care of the problem. (01/1999)

Robert Carmichael. Device. Argent, a fess wreathed Or and azure.

This conflicts with the arms of Carmichell of that ilk, Argent, a fess wreathed azure and gules., with one CD for the tincture of the wreathing, which we have decided are important enough to protect.

This was pended from the December 1998 LoAR. (05/1999)

Robert de Clifton. Device. Azure, a chevron between two trefoils and a garb argent.

This conflicts with Beorn Collenferth (SCA) Azure, a chevron between a harp, an axe reversed and a sabre-toothed tiger statant argent., and Angela of the Stoney Oak Forest (SCA) Azure, a chevron between two acorns and an oak leaf argent. In each case there is just one CD for changing the type of all of the single group of secondary charges. (01/1998)

Robert Drake. Device. Per bend sinister vert and Or, a duck volant sable.

This conflicts with Miscell of Lyonesse Per saltire argent and vert, a duck volant sable, with but one CD for the difference in the field. (06/1998)

Robert Edward Henry Dethewright. Device. Gules, on a pale sable fimbriated a fox's mask argent, in chief a label Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The fimbriation is so narrow in some places as to be totally invisible. (07/1998)

Robert FitzRobert of Bellmawr. Name.

No documentation was or could be provided for Bellmawr. Based on examples in Smith of the Anglo-Saxon element bel (fire, funeral pyre) in place names (e.g. Belstead, Belton, Beltoft, Belwood) you could probably postulate a combination with moor for Belmoor or Belmore. However, since the submitter forbade changes, we are forced to return the name. (01/1997)

Robert Kirkpatrick. Name and device. Per bend sinister vert and argent, two griffins passant respectant counterchanged.

The name was registered on the October 1998 LoAR and the device was registered on the February 1999 LoAR. (03/1999)

Robert MacArthur. Name and device. Per pale azure and gules two dolphins haurient respectant and in chief three roundels argent.

This conflicts with the already registered Raibert MacArthur. The armory is being returned for not using correct heraldic tinctures. The gules used was not red, but pink. (01/1998)

Robert of Deerbourne. Device. Or, a bend wavy azure, overall a brown stag lodged proper.

This is being returned for unidentifiablity. The most significant part of the stag is his head and antlers, which are virtually all on the bend. If redrawn with either the stag contourny, or with a bend sinister instead of a bend, this would be taken care. (09/1998)

Roberto Raimondo de la Montana de Trueno. Name.

"De la Montana de Trueno" is intended to translate the name of his local branch (Mons Tonitrus) into the language of the name (Spanish). While this is a praiseworthy intent, only the actual registered form of an SCA branch name is automatically registerable as part of a personal name. If the name is translated into some other language, then it must be a plausible place-name in that language. Unfortunately, no one has been able to demonstrate that mountains were named after atmospheric phenomena, such as thunder, in Spanish in period. Given the lack of documentation standards in earlier years - particularly for SCA branch names - there is no reason to assume that a registered branch name is documentable even in the language it is registered in. In addition, a place name may be a reasonable construction in one language and culture but not necessarily in another. So even if a registered branch name is, in itself, a well-constructed period place name, translating it into another language may make it a historic impossibility. For example, the existence of the registered SCA branch name "Mists" should not be taken as licensing the use of words meaning "Mists" as locative bynames in any and all period languages. Therefore barring evidence for "Mountain of Thunder" as a plausible period place name in Spanish, this name must be returned. The armory was registered under the holding name Roberto Raimondo of Mons Tonitrus.

Rülich Sturmveder. Device. Quarterly sable and gules, a Latin cross barby throughout surmounted and conjoined to a saltire couped barby argent.

While blazoned as above, this is effectively an escarbuncle ending in arrowheads. That is a well known sign of Chaos from the Moorcock universe which is banned by precedent.

[Escarbuncles ending in arrowheads] There was a very strong feeling among commentors from coast to coast and points in between that the use of the sign of Chaos from the Moorcock universe in Society armoury was quite inappropriate, not only because of its meaning but also because of its modern associations and design. (LoAR 30 Sep 89, p. 11)

Additionally, no difference is given between this and a standard escarbuncle, so this conflicts with Barony of Lonely Tower Quarterly sable and gules, an escarbuncle argent within a bordure argent, masoned sable, and Cerelia de Lacy of Sherborne Purpure, an escarbuncle argent, with the first getting only one CD for the bordure and the second only one CD for the field. (06/1998)

Robin Anderson of Ross. Device. Per saltire azure and purpure, on a roundel argent a bird migrant sable.

This conflicts with Alison Gray of Owlwood Per pale vert and sable, on a plate an owl affronty perched on a branch sable. There is a CD for the field, but the difference between owl affronty and dove issuant is basically just a posture difference and so not worth a CD in a tertiary charge (04/1999)

Robin of Rhovanion. Alternate name Umm Rabban.

This is being returned for violating our name rules. The Rules for Submission state that all names registered in the Society must have a given name. (RfS III.2.a.: "A personal name must contain a given name and at least one byname". [emphasis in original].) A kunya is a form of byname, very much as Johnson, MacDhomnuill, or Ragnarrsdottir are forms of bynames. The submitted name lacks a given. (03/1998)

Robina M'Baine of Willow Wood. Device. Per pale purpure and vert, a fox sejant erect affronty argent playing a transverse flute Or.

This conflicts with Wolfangus MhicMarighdhin Azure, a wolf sejant erect affronty, forepaws spread in fess, argent, maintaining a basket-hilted broadsword and a targe Or. There is one CD for the field, but nothing for the held charges or between the two canines. (05/1998)

Rochelle Louise de la Côte d'Or. Name.

This is being returned for lacking a given name. Dauzat does document Rochelle at the location cited in the Letter of Intent but as a surname of origin from the geographic location better known as La Rochelle. The nearest documented feminine name we could find is Rachel, which may have been more popular after the Reformation among Christians, but remained a common name throughout our period in the Jewish community, both in England and on the Continent. (03/1998)

Roderick Conall MacLeod. Device. Quarterly sable and azure, a mullet of five greater and five lesser points and a bordure rayonny Or.

This conflicts with Mikhaela Straif Gyronny of six vert and argent, a sun within a bordure rayonny Or. There is a CD for the changes to the field, but nothing for the difference between a sun and a multi-pointed mullet. (05/1998)

Roderick Connall MacLeod. Device. Quarterly sable and azure, a mullet of five greater and five lesser points and a bordure rayonny Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The bordure is not rayonny, but the out of period wavy crested. Additionally, the rayonny needed to be bolder and with fewer indentations. (12/1997)

Rodrigo Hernandez de Toledo. Badge. Sable, a wolf courant argent.

This is being returned for two reasons. First, this needs a redraw. As drawn we can't tell what type of animal is it; guessing ranged all over the place include a badger. However, assuming the charge is a wolf, this conflict with Dorcas Dorcadas (SCA) Sable, a three-headed hound rampant, one head reguardant, argent, langued gules. Change in posture is one CD, but the change from one head to three heads is not sufficient for another CD. (12/1997)

Roffal de Rennes. Name and device. Per pale sable and argent ermined gules, an Elf Bolt counterchanged.

The name is being returned for lack of documentation. No evidence was provided to show that Roffal was used as a first name by humans in period, and no one in the College could provide any. Without such documentation, the name must be returned. The armory is being returned for a redraw; the engrailing on the arrowhead isn't nearly bold enough. (04/1997)

Roger de Gilbert. Name and device. Argent, a palm tree couped sable and in base between two roses proper, on a point pointed fleury gules, a rose argent barbed and seeded proper.

No name form was received so we are forced to return the name. Since there is no name, we are forced to return the armory as well. (04/1999)

Roger fitzRolf Le Normand. Household name for House Enduring.

This is being returned for non period style of the household name. RfS III.2.b.iv. requires that "Household names must follow the patterns of period names of organized groups of people." and notes that "Possible models include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart)." Enduring does not fit any of these models. (12/1996)

Roise ni Rhuaudhri. Name.

The patronymic was put into the genitive incorrectly. The proper form would be ni Ruaidhri. Since the submitter will not accept changes we have no choice but to return the submission. (10/1997)

Róise ó hUallacháin. Name and device. Per bend sinister azure and argent, a bell argent and a rose inverted azure barbed, slipped, and leaved vert within a bordure gules.

The feminine name Róise needs a feminine form of the patronymic: Róise ní Uallacháin. (The particle ní, unlike ó, does not prefix h to the patronym.) Since the submitter would not take changes, and would not accept a holding name, we are forced to return the armory as well. (04/1997)

Róisín of Rowanwood. Badge. (Fieldless) Three penguins affronty conjoined in pall inverted sable, bellied and faced argent.

This is being returned for violating RFS VIII.4.d (Modern Style): 'Charges may not ... be patterned after comic book art, fantasy art, ... etc.'. Not only did the college feel that this was modern style, but it is also the exact logo used by San Tio Products which produces "Hello Kitty". (06/1998)

Rolf of Esterfen. Device. Argent, on a bend vert a paw print palewise argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. In a departure from the norm, the bend is far too wide. (09/1997)

Rolf von Sternstein. Device. Argent, on a mug embattled to chief vert a mullet of six points Or.

This is being returned for several reasons. First and foremost for non-period style: Heraldry is the art of identification, and as drawn this charge blurs the line between a mug and a tower. Secondly, since this is halfway between a mug and a tower it conflicts with both. It is in conflict with Ceridwen Dafydd (SCA) Argent on a tower vert an equal-armed Celtic cross potent Or., with no SCA heraldic differences at all, and with Trobere Oakenseed (SCA) Argent, upon a tankard sable, an acorn inverted Or., with only one CD for changing the tincture of the mug. (10/1996)

Romula Rethe of the Cleftlands. Badge. (Fieldless) A sword sable surmounted by a feather fesswise, fracted in chevron, argent.

This submission depends on careful drawing as to not violate our rules on fieldless style. An average heraldic artist would not be able to reproduce this picture in a way that would not violate our rules. (09/1996)

Rosalie Automne. Device. Vert, two oak sprigs in chevron and on a base argent a rose azure.

This is being returned for a redraw. The oak sprigs are not in chevron or in any blazonable position. (09/1998)

Rosalind O'Maughan. Badge. (Fieldless) A chimera with the body of a lion, the tail of a dragon and the face and breast of a woman rampant guardant sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn it is in trian aspect. Additionally, this is a humanoid monster, and we don't register rampant humans or humanoids. (09/1997)

Rosalyn MacGregor. Device. Argent, a rose purpure slipped and leaved vert, a bordure engrailed purpure.

This is being returned for conflict with the badge of Alyanora of Vinca (SCA 2/75), Argent, a periwinkle (Vince minor) proper. There is only one CD for the addition of a bordure, but nothing to for the addition of the slipped and leaving. The tincture of the periwinkle in Alyanora's badge is somewhere between blue in purple, and therefore both azure and purpure flowers could potentially conflict with it. (09/1996)

Rosamond de Preston. Device. Gules, a tower and on a chief Or three cinquefoils gules.

This conflicts with Ximena Aubel de Cambria Gules, a triturated castle, on a chief Or three owls' heads erased gules., with one CD for the difference in the tertiaries. (01/1999)

Rose Otter. Device. Argent, a cross fusilly azure.

This conflicts with the flag of Finland Argent, a cross a azure., with one CD for adding the complex line of division to the cross. (05/1998)

Rose Owyne. Device. Azure, a bend wavy between a drop spindle and a cup, a bordure wavy argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The wavy is so faint to be almost unnoticeable. Additionally, both the drop spindle and the cup are drawn three dimensionally. (04/1999)

Rose Scarlett Slade. Device. Per pall argent, gules and sable, in chief a rose proper in sinister a sword inverted proper.

This is being returned for a redraw. It is not clearly Per pall... or Per pale... a chief triangular, but something halfway between. Additionally, this is not period style with its total lack of balance. (07/1998)

Rose verch Catrin. Device. Gules, a bend sinister between two roses argent barbed and seeded proper.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork; no armorial forms were sent to Laurel. Additionally, this conflicts with Fiona Julienne nic Lowry (SCA) Purpure, a bend sinister between two garden rosebuds slipped and leaved bendwise sinister argent., with one CD for the changes to the field. (11/1997)

Roswitha of Suanesfeld. Badge. Counter-ermine, a lion statant guardant argent.

Withdrawn by request of the submitter. (01/1999)

Roterde, Kanton. Badge. (Fieldless) On a tankard Or, banded and foaming argent, a laurel wreath sable.

This is being returned because of the use of the Laurel wreath on the tankard. Only official group arms may use a laurel wreath. When resubmitting, if they wish to use a tankard, they should be aware of: Daniel de Tankard (1/74) Gules, a tankard of beer Or headed argent; Peter Mihailopoulos (5/91) [Fieldless] On a tankard reversed Or a Stafford knot inverted sable; and William of Woodland (10/81) Vert, on a tankard Or a cross crosslet fitchy vert. (09/1996)

Rowan Killian. Device. Azure, on a bend between a bear and a griffin combattant Or, each maintaining a sword gules, three crescents palewise azure.

This is technically in conflict with Stewart the Stalwart Azure, on a bend cotised Or three keys palewise, wards in chief, azure. While cotises and other charges on the field would be considered separate charge groups on the same armory, they are still secondary charges and can be compared to other secondary charges. Precedent holds that a peripheral charge gets only one CD for type vs. a non-peripheral secondary charge [June 1997 LOAR, pp.10-11]; therefore there is only a single CD for the type of the secondary charges. Since the secondary charges on the submitted armory are of two different types, it does not qualify for RFS X.4.j.ii; under X.4.j.i there is no CD for changing the type only of the tertiary charges. Note if the secondaries were identical, two bears or two griffins, this conflict would be cleared. (06/1998)

Rowan Mabh MacTeera. Name.

There are several problems with this name. First, it combines Gaelic and English orthography in the same name. Second, Gaelic does not use middle names, so the use of Mabh is doubly out of place. Third, while Mabh is a female name, Rowan is a male name (it is the standard Anglicization of the Irish name Ruadhan). And, finally no documentation was presented and none could be found for MacTeera as a period name. (12/1998)

Rowan O Moroghoe. Device. Per bend Or and vert, an acorn inverted slipped and leaved proper and an owl argent.

The nut of the acorn, which was approximately 1/4 of the charge was done in a shade of brown that if it appeared on the field by itself we would blazon as Or. The only reason there was any real contrast with the field was because the acorn had a black line outlining it. While we don't worry about contrast with small items, such as maintained charges, 1/4 of a charge is too much to ignore. Changing the field to argent would clear this problem. (10/1996)

Rowan Wolfbane. Name.

The name is being returned for lack of a suitable byname. Bynames of the form X­bane don't seem to have been used in our period, though it's just possible that the ON cognate bani was so used. In ON one could construct úlfsbani, meaning either 'wolf's killer' or 'Ulf's killer', but this doesn't justify Wolfbane. No documentation was presented, and none of the college could provide any, for bynames formed from the name of the herb. Please inform the submitter that in our period Rowan was a man's name. The armory registered under the name Rowan of Iron Mountain. (08/1997)

Rowen Killian. Badge. (Fieldless) A demi-flamberge inverted argent hilted sable, handled of a lit candle argent, within and issuant from the base of a serpent involved deosil sable marked argent.

This device has several unattested elements: the odd hilting of the sword, and framing the badge within a serpent involved. The latter, while popular in the SCA, is nonetheless a weirdness. Therefore this violates the "Rule of Two Weirdnesses" for being at least two steps removed from documented period practice. (02/1997)

Rowena of Arundel. Name and device. Barry wavy vert and argent, a stag’s head erased proper.

This exact same name and device was registered at the October 1998 Laurel meeting. (12/1998)

Ruaidhrí MacCormac. Name.

This name needs to have the patronym put into the genitive case as Ruaidhrí Mac Cormaic. Since the submitter did not permit changes, we are forced to return it. (11/1996)

Rüdiger Lutz. Device. Azure, a scorpion tergiant and in chief an axe fesswise Or.

This conflicts with Prospero de San Giuseppe Iato, registered 11/98 Azure, a scorpion a bordure Or., with one CD for changing the axe to a bordure. (03/1999)

Rudolf Wimmer zu Nesselburg. Badge. Azure, two bones in saltire surmounted by a skull argent with a bird perched in the dexter eye-hole and pecking at the sinister eyehole sable, a bordure erminois.

This is being returned for breaking our style rules. The posture of the bird must be drawn very carefully (and very nearly unblazonably: it appears to be close contourné bendwise, mostly) to avoid the problem of contrast against the field. As the rules clearly state, "Armorial designs requiring such careful placement or specific charge sizes to ‘work’ or to avoid contrast problems have been returned in the past as not being period style." (02/1999)

Rülich Sturmveder. Device. Quarterly sable and gules, a Latin cross barby throughout surmounted and conjoined to a saltire couped barby argent.

While blazoned as above, this is effectively an escarbuncle ending in arrowheads. That is a well known sign of Chaos from the Moorcock universe which is banned by precedent.

[Escarbuncles ending in arrowheads] There was a very strong feeling among commentors from coast to coast and points in between that the use of the sign of Chaos from the Moorcock universe in Society armoury was quite inappropriate, not only because of its meaning but also because of its modern associations and design. (LoAR 30 Sep 89, p. 11)

Additionally, no difference is given between this and a standard escarbuncle, so this conflicts with Barony of Lonely Tower Quarterly sable and gules, an escarbuncle argent within a bordure argent, masoned sable, and Cerelia de Lacy of Sherborne Purpure, an escarbuncle argent, with the first getting only one CD for the bordure and the second only one CD for the field. (06/1998)

Rurick Christiansen. Device. Or, a sun and a chief dovetailed sable.

This conflicts with Rianna van Heiniken Or, a sun and on a chief embattled sable a pithon wavy volant to sinister Or. There is one CD for adding the tertiary charge to the chief but nothing between the dovetailed and embattled lines on the chief. (03/1999)

Rurik Longsword. Badge. (Fieldless) A hurst argent.

This conflicts with the device of Blaine de Navarre (SCA) Purpure two trees conjoined in fess argent. Normally there would be a CD for two vs. three trees, but the conjoining makes them a hurst, and there is no difference for the number of trunks attached to the conjoined crowns of the trees. (09/1997)

Rurik Zhenyanovich Tikhon. Name.

Rurik is usually spelled Ryurik (assuming you are using Revised Standard transliteration, as the spelling of the second element would seem to indicate). The second element is incorrectly formed. The son of Zhenya would be Zheninovich but the form is very odd and Zhenya is probably out of period. The form Ryurik Evgenovich Tikhon would be a period form. Since the second element is incorrectly formed, and the client will not accept changes, this must be returned. (12/1996)

Russell of Clan Neil. Device. Gules, a dragon segreant, a chief rayonny argent.

This conflicts with Alexander Graylorn (SCA), Sable, a dragon segreant incensed of icy breath and a chief rayonny argent., with one CD for change to the field. This also needs to be redraw. The rayonny is far to deep. (07/1997)

Ryggr Ormstunga. Name.

This is returned for lack of a given name. All SCA names must have as a given name, a name which was used as a human being's given name prior to 1600. The documentation on Ryggr was misread by the submitter; it does not support this as a given name, nor could anyone provide evidence for it. (04/1997)

Rykert Vercruysse. Device. Argent, on a pile gules a cross crosslet fitchy argent.

This is being returned for conflict with Gustav Athanasius von Hausenstadt (for House Hausenstadt) (SCA), Argent, on a pile gules a hippogriff passant argent between three Latin crosses Or, and the West Kingdom s 2/75 badge for the Order of the Silver Molet, Argent, on a pile gules an antique crown voided Or. In both cases there is only one CD for changes to the tertiary groups. (12/1996)

Sabine of Shernbourne. Device. Vert, a chevron between three goblets inverted Or.

This conflicts with Penelope of the Quill Vert, a chevron between two hawk’s bells and a quill pen Or. There is only the one CD for type of secondary charges. (11/1998)

Sabrina Morna. Badge. Or, a wingless wyvern statant, tail ending in a cinquefoil purpure, charged upon the tail with a cinquefoil Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. It is not a wingless wyvern; it is not clear what it is. The best guess was a dinosaur which is not a registerable charge in the SCA. While the submitter did provide documentation for monsters such as this in period illuminated manuscripts, called drolleries, the Rules VII.7.b say: Reconstruction Requirement ­ Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon.

Any element used in Society armory must be describable in standard heraldic terms so that a competent heraldic artist can reproduce the armory solely from the blazon. Elements that cannot be described in such a way that the depiction of the armory will remain consistent may not be used, even if they are identifiable design motifs that were used before 1600. For example, the Tree of Life occurs as a decorative element in period and is readily identifiable as such, but it may not be used in armory since it cannot be defined in a manner that guarantees its consistent depiction.

The monster, as drawn, is not reconstructible from the blazon. (07/1997)

Sabrina Morna. Badge. Or, a wingless wyvern statant, tail ending in a cinquefoil purpure, charged upon the tail with a cinquefoil Or.

This is being returned for a redraw.

Note: this is clear of Lindorm Eriksson, Or, a wingless wyvern statant gules., since he has registered a blanket permission to conflict which gives an automatic CD. However, no one was able to come up with a blazon which would guarantee accurate reproduction of the arrangement of the tail, and the cinquefoil is not a suitable charge for the voiding/fimbriation used in the submitted depiction. (06/1998)

Sadafa bint As­Sabiil. Name.

According to the submitter, Sadafa means "Sea­shell" and follows a period practice of using common nouns as personal names. However, no documentation was presented to show that this was a period practice, and no documentation was presented to show that Sadafa as a period or modern given name. It is true that Elias' English­Arabic Dictionary Romanized, p. 193, has sa'dafa (sa'daf) for "shell of fish" However, most of the "meanings" of names for girls tended to be more flowery or referred to more "positive" traits than "shell of fish".) The submitter also states that As­Sabiil means "Follower of the Path". Jaschke, p. 357, glosses sabil (the equivalent of "sabiil") as "public well, drinking fountain". Barring evidence that this is a correctly constructed Arabic name, we are forced to return it. The armory was registered under the holding name Michelle of Polderslot. (08/1997)

Saint Georges, Canton of. Device. Or, a stag's head erased gules within a laurel wreath vert, in base three barrulets wavy azure.

This is being returned for lack of petition for the device. The enclosed petition only showed support for a name, and not for a device. (02/1999)

Saint Malachy, College of. Device. Argent, in pale two hammers in saltire and an anvil sable within a laurel wreath, on a chief wavy vert an open book argent.

This is being returned for redesign. As drawn the hammers are too small to be considered part of the primary charge group. Normally we would send it back for a redraw, but if the hammers were drawn large enough, the submission would have to be returned for violating our rule on "slot machine" with three dissimilar charges in the same group. (08/1998)

Saint Michael and All Angels, College of. Name and device. Azure, on an open book between three angels argent, a laurel wreath vert.

This is being returned for administrative reasons. No paperwork was received. (04/1999)

Salah ibn Rami. Name and device. Sable, on a pavilion Or, in pale two swords crossed in saltire sable and a brown Bactrian camel statant proper.

This is being returned for violating the rule of tincture. As submitted there is virtually no contrast between the very dark Or and the very light brown. (09/1997)

Sanzio Sansovino. Device. Per pall inverted gules, sable, and argent.

This conflicts with Josse Gößler Per pall inverted sable, argent, and chevronelly gules and argent. There is one CD for rearranging the colors, but nothing for changing less than one half of the colors. (04/1998)

Sarasi Candrah. Device. Per fess and per bend sinister wavy azure and ermine, on a roundel counterchanged an increscent double enarched sable.

While both the field (because she has it on her currently registered device) and the increscent double enarched (because there is one on her mother's badge) are grandfathered to the submitter, the combination is not necessarily grandfathered. While it is true her original submission has a tertiary charge that overlies the line of division, the mullet in that case is quite small, and the increscent in this submission is very large. The combination of the unusual field with the unusual charge overlying the line of division, means this must be returned for unidentifiability. (10/1998)

Sarina von Bremerhaven. Name.

While the LoI cited a source for Sarina as a first name, no photocopies of the documentation were provided. Furthermore, while the LoI asserted that Sarina was a given name, no dated reference was provided. Absence documentation that Sarina is a period given name, we are forced to return it. (08/1997)

Sarolta Lalayvna Shahin. Name.

No documentation was presented and none was found for Lalayvna Shahin outside of a statement in the LoI that it was allegedly Bulgarian. Without documentation the name element cannot be used. The armory was registered under the holding name Sarolta of Tir Ysgithr. (02/1998)

Sasha von Siebenecke. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation that Sasha is a period diminutive. (07/1996)

Saturninus Nonanus Fortunatus. Device. Purpure, a compass star of four mascles fretted Or, a tierce lozengy Or and sable.

This is a resubmission of a return August 1997 for a redraw and conflict. While the submitter has redraw the submission which eliminated one problem, and added a peripheral, which has eliminated the conflict, however, since his new drawing is not the same as the old one, new problems have been introduced.

First, the design requires that the mascles be of different sizes, which violates our rules. Second, a design must be able to be recreated by a competent herald from the blazon alone, and the emblazon must be subject to adequate blazoning. This design does not satisfy that requirement. (05/1998)

Savaric de Pardieu. Device. Quarterly argent and sable, a Maltese cross between four others, all counterchanged.

This is being returned for using two difference sizes of the same charge on the field. (06/1998)

Savina des Gitanes. Device. Argent, two dogs combattant sable and an eagle displayed azure.

This conflicts with Michael von Rosenau Argent, an owl displayed azure, maintaining a rose fesswise gules, slipped and leaved vert. There is no difference between an owl displayed and an eagle displayed, leaving only one CD for adding the dogs. (06/1998)

Schoental, Canton of. Device. Per chevron azure and vert, a horse passant argent and in base a laurel wreath Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. This is not a proper per chevron, but closer to Azure, a pile inverted vert. However, that breaks the rule of tincture, and cannot be registered. (02/1997)

Scoithin mac Mhuireadhaig. Device. Or, five lions rampant sable, two, one and two.

This conflicts with Buchanan of that Ilk Or, a lion rampant sable., and Flanders Or, a lion rampant sable. There is just one CD for the number of charges. (01/1999)

Scoithin mac Mhuireadhaigh. Device. Per pale argent and azure, two Pictish dolphin beasts respectant counterchanged.

So far as the acceptability of the charge itself is concerned, the Pictish dolphin beast falls in the same category as the unregisterable Norse twistie­beasties, Book of Kells beasts, etc. "In the November 1986 LoAR a `borre­style gripping beast' was returned in part because `[t]he gripping beast is not a consistent heraldic charge which could reliably be rendered by a competent heraldic artist'. Such appears also to be the case with the Lisbjerg gripping beast." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR December 1995, p. 23). As far as the marshalling question is concerned, since this uses the same charge in each section it is not marshalled armory. If he resubmits with heraldic or natural dolphins, be sure to avoid conflicting with Diantha Sylvana Galatea Athalie de Castalia (SCA) Per pale argent and azure, two dolphins uriant respecting each other counterchanged. (08/1997)

Séamus Ó Cuileáin. Badge. (Fieldless) A cross formy convex Or.

His proposed device Vert, a cross formy convexed Or within a stag's attires, a bordure raguly argent. was returned on the December 1998 LoAR for the undocumented form of his cross. At that time we said:

The submitter has appealed the previous return of his submission for using a non-period cross by providing a copy of a picture from Foster's Dictionary of Heraldry which shows a similar cross. However, he was only able to find the cross he wants in one place in Foster's, and Foster's is a 19th century redraw of medieval armory. And, Foster was not copying from medieval originals, but rather from 18th and 19th century editions of Renaissance copies of the medieval originals. Brault's redraw in Aspologia III shows a standard cross. He also provided a copy of a period woodcut, showing a cross similar, but not identical to what he is submitting. Since the cross he is submitting is not the same as what is in the period woodcut, it does not help his case. Since we have used this woodcut for documentation in a different case to register the cross in the woodcut as an unblazoned variant of formy, if he resubmits drawing the cross to look like the one in the woodcut, barring any other problems, it should be acceptable.

Since this is the same cross that was returned previously, we see no reason to overturn that ruling. (04/1999)

Séamus Ó Cuileáin. Device. Vert, a cross formy convexed Or within a stag's attires, a bordure raguly argent.

The submitter has appealed the previous return of his submission for using a non-period cross by providing a copy of a picture from Foster's Dictionary of Heraldry which shows a similar cross. However, he was only able to find the cross he wants in one place in Foster's, and Foster's is a 19th century redraw of medieval armory. And, Foster was not copying from medieval originals, but rather from 18th and 19th century editions of Renaissance copies of the medieval originals. Brault's redraw in Aspologia III shows a standard cross. He also provided a copy of a period woodcut, showing a cross similar, but not identical to what he is submitting. Since the cross he is submitting is not the same as what is in the period woodcut, it does not help his case. Since we have used this woodcut for documentation in a different case to register the cross in the woodcut as an unblazoned variant of formy, if he resubmits drawing the cross to look like the one in the woodcut, barring any other problems, it should be acceptable. (12/1998)

Séamus Ó Cuileáin. Device. Vert, a cross formy rounded Or within a stag's attires, a bordure raguly argent.

While blazoned on the LoI as a cross formy rounded, there is no such cross. One commentor suggested that this be reblazoned as a cross alisée. The cross alisée is a roundel with four narrow wedges, with straight sides, in saltire cut not quite to the center. In this proposed design the ‘cross’ has four wedges, with slightly curved sides, in saltire cut not quite to the center. This is neither a cross formy not a cross alisée, but a hybrid of the two.

However, a cross looking like the one submitted above has been submitted before, though not by the same person, during the tenure of Master Bruce as Laurel. At that time he said.

"[A cross "formy convexed"] This badge had been returned on the LoAR of May 92 for lack of documentation on the type of cross. (It had been blazoned in the previous submission as a cross formy globate, which term we couldn't find in any of our references.) The submitter has appealed that return, providing evidence of this cross as an artistic motif on a suit of armor c.1630. The term "convexed", referring to the bulge of the outer edges of the cross's limbs, is documented in Elvin's Dictionary of Heraldry. Unfortunately, my main concerns about this cross remain unaddressed. Its not readily blazonable: as drawn, it resembles a roundel with four semi-elliptical notches, not a variant of a cross formy. Its been documented only to within our 50-year "grey area", and only as an artistic motif, not an heraldic charge. The only terms that adequately describe it are found in a 19th Century work, compiled by an author whose lack of scholarship is legend. I simply have no grounds for believing this cross to be compatible with period heraldic style.

This cross has been submitted before, and returned for the above reasons; v. Jamys Ellyn Rothesay of Bannatyne Hall, LoAR of Sept 92, p.49. I'm tempted, I admit, to simply give the cross its own SCA name. (In the immortal words of Baldwin of Erebor, "Spring is in the air, and the fit is upon me; let me name but one cross before I die!") But this would do no service to the heralds and scribes who will follow us; we need some assurance that any blazon we devised would be reconstructible. In this case, at the very least we need to find this cross mentioned by name in some accessible reference. Failing that, or better evidence that its a period motif, I must continue to return it. (Stanislaw Jan Ossolinski, March, 1993, pg. 28)"

Since no evidence has been presented for this cross, we see no reason to overturn this precedent. (05/1998)

Seamus Ruadh. Device. Gules, ermined Or.

This is being returned because Gules, ermined Or. is a plain tincture, and we do not register plain tinctures. RfS X.4.a.ii(b) says "The ermine furs and their variants are considered to be different tinctures..." (10/1998)

Sean Andrews. Name.

This was previously submitted as Sean Anderson and was returned by Laurel 12/95 for conflict with John Anderson. Changing the name to Sean Andrews does not clear the old conflict. Furthermore, this is in conflict with a number of John Andrews cited from Webster's Biographical Dictionary. (08/1996)

Seán Brannagh. Name and device. Sable an oak tree blasted and eradicated and on a chief argent a grapevine sable the whole within a bordure gules.

This submitter already has the name Sean Breathnach, and the device of Sable, a tree blasted and eradicated and on a chief argent a leaved vine throughout sable. registered November 1995. He had submitted Seán Brannagh, but since that mixed Gaelic and English orthography in the same name it was changed to Sean Breathnach when it was registered. We cannot treat this as a name change and change it to the submitted form, since there would be the same problem. The proposed new device breaks the rule of tincture with a gules bordure on a sable field. Additionally a chief normally overlies the bordure, and always does when the chief is charged. (01/1998)

Sean Cullin Redhawk. Device. Quarterly argent and sable, in saltire a sword inverted bendwise sinister proper and an eagle's talon bendwise, clasping a roundel gules.

This is being returned for violation our rule on slot machine, three different charges in the same charge group. If a charge is sustaining another it is considered two different charges in the same group, unlike a maintained charge. Furthermore, there are some identifiability problems with the talon and the roundel in the same in tincture. (01/1998)

Sean Donald of Caithness. Device. Azure, a bear statant gardant argent, antlered Or.

This conflicts with Septentria, Barony of Gules, a bear passant argent., with one CD for change of field. While there is a prior precedent granting a CD (for rabbits), in the case of Donata Ivanovna Basistova, May, 1995); the LoAR stated that visually the antlers were similar to adding wings. This is not the case here. Furthermore, adding wings is a period practice so could be considered a valid form of cadency. It is extremely rare to see beasts with added horns like this in period armory. Therefore both historically (barring evidence to the contrary) and visually adding the attires is not worth a CD. (02/1998)

Sean Donald. Name and device. Azure, a bear statant guardant argent, antlered Or.

This name combines English and Gaelic orthography in the same name, and therefore needs to be changed. However, the submitter does not allow changes, so it must be returned. When making resubmitting please inform the submitter that this conflicts with Sean MacDonald since the Britannica shows two John MacDonalds as worthy of their own articles; a Sir John Alexander MacDonald who was first premier of the Dominion of Canada, and a John Sandfield MacDonald who was a Canadian statesman. Given the period pronunciation of Sean we would hesitate to call Shane MacDonald and John MacDonald audibly clear. Since creating a holding name would be a change, we must obey the submitter's wishes as refrain from doing so, which means that the armory must be returned as well. Since there is no way to register this armory, we are explicitly not ruling on the issue as to whether or not adding the antlers to the bear adds the necessary CD to clear conflict. (07/1997)

Seán na Mora. Name

This is an aural conflict with Seán O' Móráin as cited on the LoI. The armory was registered under the holding name Seán of Naevehjem. (04/1998)

Sebastian Everard. Device. Azure, a wyvern stooping Or, a bordure counter-compony azure and Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The wyvern is in trian aspect, the tail is not a wyvern's tail, but closer to a scorpion's tail. (01/1997)

Sebastian Jameson of Stokesay. Device. Azure chapé ployé counter-ermine, a cross of four arrowheads points to center argent.

This is being returned for breaking tincture. While chapé ployé is a field division, it must obey the rule of tincture. Furthermore, as drawn, this is not a cross of arrowheads, a cross formy, or a cross patonce. (02/1998)

Sebastian von Drachenfels. Device. Per pale sable and argent two wyverns combattant and three chevronels braced counterchanged.

This is being returned for a redraw. The chevronels are draw so small that they are effectively peripherals, and not true primaries, which is what they should be. (05/1998)

Sebastiano da Pachino. Device. Gules, a martlet migrant within a bordure nebuly argent.

This was an appeal of kingdom return for conflict with Poland (important mundane armory), Gules, a double-headed eagle displayed argent. The East was perfectly correct in returning this; there is one difference for the addition of the bordure, but nothing for the difference in the two birds in what is essentially the same position. Prior Laurel precedent gives no difference for bird type when the birds are in identical postures. (02/1997)

Ségán ua Flaithfhiled. Device. Vert, a hawk close Or, on a chief three hands appaumy vert.

This conflicts with Ruth of the Debatable Lands Vert, a vulture and a chief Or., with one CD for the addition of the charges on the chief. (04/1998)

Sela nic a'Phearsoin of Clan Chattan. Alternate name of Arianrhod ferch Branwen ferch Saradwen ferch Morfydd o Glynnog Fawr.

On the 12/92 LoAR the alternate name Arianrhod ferch Branwen ferch Olwen was returned with this comment:

Arianrhod is the name of the Welsh moon goddess, and has not been shown to have been used by humans in period. It has been returned ere now (LoAR of Aug 87, p.13); pending evidence of its period use, it must again be returned.

It would appear that the same problem still exists. Furthermore, while not the cause of the return, we have no real period citation for Branwen. Saradwen appears in a single late-period variant of an early genealogy (Bartrum) and is given an Irish origin (one doubts whether she existed at all). In other words, three of the four names are in some way questionable. The underlying place name is Clynnog Fawr, but since it is a proper name of a place, it would not normally take a preposition when used as a locative byname in Welsh. (01/1997)

Sela nic a'Phearsoin of Clan Chattan. Badge. (Fieldless) A two-towered castle azure charged with a wheel argent.

This conflicts with Kelan McBride of Arainn (SCA) (Fieldless) On a tower azure a dragon's head couped contourny argent and Muirghein ni Ghrainne (SCA) (Fieldless) On a tower azure a hawk displayed argent. In each case there is one CD for the fieldlessness, but none for the change from tower to castle nor for the change of type only of the tertiaries. (01/1997)

Selina Marie Sinclair. Device. Per bend vert and Or, a Latin cross Or and a thistle gules, slipped and leaved vert.

This conflicts with Rowan Ramsay MacDiarmid, Per bend vert and Or, a crescent inverted Or and a thistle proper., While an SCA thistle proper has a purple head rather than a red one, that is a tincture change of only a small part of the thistle. There is thus only one difference, for the change of half of the type of the primary charge group. (02/1997)

Sentinels' Keep, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Mountain Pearl.

This is being returned for non-period style. Period order names are often the names of saints; others are similar to sign names (see RfS III.2.a.iii). Some examples are: the Order of Saint Michael, the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, the Brethren of the Sword, the Order of the Garter, La Toison d'Or (the Order of the Golden Fleece), the Order of the Golden Rose, the Order of the Star, the Order of the Swan, La Orden de la Jara (the Knights of the Tankard), the Order of Lilies. To the best of our knowledge there is no such as a mountain pearl, and pearls are certainly not found in mountains. Therefore, barring documentation, we are forced to return this. (06/1998)

Sentinels' Keep, Barony of. Order name for Order of Vigilance.

This is being returned for non-period style. Period order names are often the names of saints; others are similar to sign names (see RfS III.2.a.iii). Some examples are: the Order of Saint Michael, the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, the Brethren of the Sword, the Order of the Garter, La Toison d'Or (the Order of the Golden Fleece), the Order of the Golden Rose, the Order of the Star, the Order of the Swan, La Orden de la Jara (the Knights of the Tankard), the Order of Lilies. Order of Vigilance does not fit any of the exemplars we know of for period order names. Therefore, barring documentation we are forced to return this. (06/1998)

Seóna Dunliath ní Sheachnasaigh. Device. Per pale argent and sable, a fret counterchanged.

This conflicts with Rhodri ap Gwythyr (SCA) Per pale argent and sable, a fret and a bordure counterchanged. There is only one CD for removing the bordure from Rhodri's device. (08/1997)

Seónaid inghean Sheathain. Device. Per chevron vert and azure, a chevron between two pine trees couped and a mascle knot Or.

Unfortunately the mascle knot is no longer a registrable charge: From the March, 1996 LoAR (pg. 12):

The mascle knot is an SCA invention, with only two registrations, and is unattested anywhere else. As such, it is not sufficiently well-known or defined (outside of the Pictorial Dictionary) to retain as a registrable charge, nor does there appear to be sufficient interest to continue to register it in the future.

This precedent was reaffirmed in the January, 1997 LoAR. (12/1997)

Seraphima Iaroslava Suvorova. Device. Sable, a standing seraph argent.

This conflicts with Eleri of Nefyn (SCA) Sable, a demi female affronty issuant from a stump eradicated argent, maintaining a leaved staff bendwise Or., and Canton of the Guardians of the Sacred Stone (SCA) Vert, a winged man displayed maintaining above his head a spear fesswise argent. In the first case there is a CD but not substantial difference for type of humanoid; in the second there is a CD for the field but nothing between two winged humanoids. Even if there were no conflicts, we would be forced to return this for a redraw, as the seraph is not argent, but sable fimbriated argent. A seraph is far too complex a charge to fimbriate. (01/1998)

Seth Starr. Device. Per fess argent and gules, a rose sable between in fess a scimitar inverted and a scimitar Or in chief a goutte de sang.

This is being returned for a redraw. The "rose" is not clearly a rose; it is closest to a cabbage, though not clearly a cabbage either. (05/1998)

Seumas as a' Ghlinne Easgaiche. Device. Azure, three piles issuant from dexter argent.

This conflicts with Veniamin Nafanovich Medvednikogotev Sable, three wolf's teeth issuant from dexter argent., as cited on the LoI, with one CD for the difference in the field, but nothing for the curved line in the wolf's teeth. Just as we would give nothing for the enarching of three bars, we give nothing for the enarching of the piles. (12/1998)

Shane McNeil de la Forest. Device. Azure, a man's head cabossed crined and bearded of leaves within an orle Or.

This is being returned for non-reproducability. If the submitter had drawn what was blazoned we would consider registering it. However, the blazon does not adequately describe the emblazon. While the head could be described as bearded of leaves, we could come up with no heraldic way to describe the hair - crined of leaves does not describe it. (09/1996)

Shane Stuart of Airth. Device. Sable, an equilateral triangle inverted gules fimbriated Or, and in chief a rainbow proper.

This submission is virtually identical to a well known gay pride button, and therefore violates VIII.4.a.b. Modern Insignia ­ Overt allusions to modern insignia, trademarks, or common designs may not be registered.

Such references, including parodies, may be considered obtrusive. Examples include using a bend within a bordure gules to parody the international "No Entry" sign, variations on the geometric Peace sign, and so forth. (03/1997)

Shealea Kidd the Melodious. Name and device. Vert, a kid rampant gorged and chained and maintaining a shillelagh Or between three Vikings' heads argent, crined gules.

The name is being returned for two problems. First is lack of documentation of the given name. The only documentation for it is that it is the legal given name of the submitter's mother. That does not qualify it for the legal name allowance. Secondly, while the word melodious is documented to our period, its use as an epithet is highly implausible, and barring documentation for its use in names, is not acceptable.

The armory is being returned for two reasons. First the use of the kid. We do not use the young of animals except in very specific cases which were used in period, such as the pascal lamb. Secondly it is being returned for the use of "Vikings heads". We have never registered such a charge, and barring documentation for it as a period charge it must be returned. While it is true that human heads were used in period armory, no documentation was presented for the "Hagar the Horrible" type helmets, or why the addition of the helmets makes these "Viking heads". (03/1999)

Sheamus Selvayn. Device. Per chevron sable and argent, a chevron counterchanged between an increscent argent and an oak leaf vert.

This is being returned for a redraw. The per chevron line of division is far too low, the chevron is too thin, and the oak leaf needs to be redrawn to look like an oak leaf. (12/1997)

Sheela Marcq. Device. Per pale azure and argent, a catamount statant erect argent maintaining a staff Or and a unicorn statant erect contourny purpure maintaining a staff palewise proper.

This is being returned for violating RfS XI.3 on marshalling. Charges on either side of a per pale line of division must be the same to avoid the appearance of impaled arms. (05/1998)

Shishido Tora. Device. Per chevron gules, ermined Or, and argent, in pale an eagle displayed and a snaffle- bit sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn it is not per chevron, as the line of division is too high. Furthermore, this is not an eagle, or a demi eagle, but rather 2/3rds of an eagle. The eagle needs to be either full or half, not partway between. (02/1997)

Siani Glendower. Device. Azure, two pallets and on a chief argent three crosses fleury sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. The chief is far too thin, and the crosses, as drawn, are not clearly crosses, or any other identifiable charge. (04/1999)

Sidric Swano. Device. Azure, a pall between three swans argent.

This conflicts with Ailith ferch Dafydd Azure, a pall between a Celtic cross and two unicorns combattant argent. There is only one CD for the change to type of secondary group. (05/1999)

Sigismund Jaeger. Badge. (Fieldless) A heart per fess embattled azure and argent.

Since a heart is a standard shape for heraldic display, for purposes of conflict this is considered to be (Fieldless) Per fess embattled azure and argent., and so conflicts with Grey Gargoyles, College of the Per fess embattled azure and argent, masoned azure., with one CD for changing the tincture of half the field. (02/1999)

Sigmund von Welf. Household name for Haus Welf and household badge. Azure, a fess embattled Or between three crosses formy in fess and a double­headed eagle displayed argent.

The household name is being returned for violating RfS VI.1 ­ Presumptuous Names. Welf is the Middle High German form of the name more familiar to English­speakers as Guelph. This is, as noted in the OED and many historical sources, the name associated with the princely family who were the primary opponents of the Hohenstaufens for control of the Holy Roman Empire and the ancestors of inter alia the current British royal family. Therefore this name violates RFS VI.1 on presumptuous names just as much as Hohenstaufen which is specifically mentioned as an exemplar in the current edition of the RFS. The use of Welf as a surname is presumptuous with any name. The armory is being returned for a redraw; the fess needs to be drawn a lot larger. (06/1997)

Sigmund von Welf. Name.

This is being returned for violating RfS VI.1 ­ Presumptuous Names. Welf is the Middle High German form of the name more familiar to English­speakers as Guelph. This is, as noted in the OED and many historical sources, the name associated with the princely family who were the primary opponents of the Hohenstaufens for control of the Holy Roman Empire and the ancestors of inter alia the current British royal family. Therefore this name violates RFS VI.1 on presumptuous names just as much as Hohenstaufen which is specifically mentioned as an exemplar in the current edition of the RFS. The use of Welf as a surname is presumptuous with any name. (06/1997)

Sign Bjarnardóttir. Name.

This conflicts with the already registered Signy Bjanarsdottir (3/87E). The armory was registered under the holding name Sign of Hindscroft. (05/1997)

Signy Ingadottir. Device. Per chevron ermine and gules, in base a swan naiant contourny wings addorsed argent.

This conflicts with Catelin the Patient Per bend sinister engrailed purpure and plummety bendwise argent and vert, a swan naiant to sinister argent. SignyÆs swan is forced to base and CatelinÆs to chief by contrast, so position does not give a CD. This semi-addorsed wing position, halfway between close and fully elevated and addorsed, does not get a CD from either. That leaves just the one CD for the field. (03/1998)

Sigrid Briansdottir. Device. Vert, a serpent nowed in a Heneage knot inverted argent.

This is being returned for conflict with Frewin Finnbogason (SCA), Per saltire gules and sable, a Norse serpent nowed argent., with one CD for the difference in the fields. Frewin's Norse serpent is in virtually the same position as the serpent submitted by Sigrid. (08/1997)

Sìle à neo - fhaicsinneach. Name.

This name was meant to mean in Gaelic, Síle the Unseen or Invisible. There are two problems with this, each of which is grounds for return. First, the Gaelic for unseen/invisible was incorrectly constructed. More importantly this is not a reasonable byname. No one could come up with any parallels in period names. Therefore, without some period support for the semantic content of the byname, this runs afoul of VI.2. "Names Claiming Powers Names containing elements that allude to powers that the submitter does not possess are considered presumptuous." The armory was registered under the holding name Síle of Oldenfeld. (04/1997)

Silence de Chambourg. Name.

Withdrawn by the submitter. (06/1998)

Simidh am Piobaire. Name and device. Argent, a saltire cotised and on a chief azure three cinquefoils argent seeded gules.

No paperwork was received for the name, so we must the entire submission. (08/1997)

Simon Justus. Device. Azure, a saltire couped Or, overall a feather inverted argent tipped sable.

This submission has two problems. First is lack of contrast. The combination of argent feather overlying the Or saltire and the sable tip on the azure field makes considerably more than half of the outline of the feather have poor contrast. Second "tipped sable" does not unambiguously describe the coloration of the feather. There is no way to accurately blazon the feather coloring. (12/1998)

Sine ní Dheaghaidh. Badge. [Fieldless] A honeybee Or.

This conflicts with Andre Lessard (SCA) (Fieldless) A legless bee displayed barry sable and Or, winged Or. Andre's bee is at least 3/4's Or, giving no difference for tincture, leaving the only countable difference the one for fieldlessness. (05/1997)

Sìne Peregrina. Name and device. Per bend sinister bevelled azure and vairy en point argent and gules.

The name is being returned for combining Gaelic and English in the same name. She could either combine the Gaelic forename with a Gaelic byname, or replace the Gaelic forename with a forename suitable for the Latin byname. (04/1997)

Siobhán le Blake. Badge. Purpure, on a quatrefoil throughout Or a trefoil slipped vert.

The proposed blazon is not accurate. A quatrefoil, like other foils, has distinct lobes which meet at a defined central nexus. What was submitted was simply four blobs mushed together, which in this instance, are necessary for the design to work. No one in the college would come up with a better blazon, which strongly suggests that this is not in fact heraldry. It appears to be a very nice artistic design, which may well, be period, but this does not make it heraldry. (04/1997)

Sion Becote. Device. Or, a sprig of oak fesswise proper.

This conflicts with Deidre O'Rourke Or goutty sable, a sprig of oak fructed proper., with a single CD for removal of the secondaries. (01/1999)

Sionnach of the Highlands. Name.

According to MacLysaght, Sionnach is in fact a byname rather than a documented given name: ". . . it is mainly found on Cos. Mayo and Galway and used there synonymously with Fox. An Sionnach (the Fox) was the epithetal designation of the chief of the Ó Cathernaigh sept." Even in modern Gaelic sionnach is the common word for a fox (Mac & Mac, Gaelic Dictionary, p. 301). If he wants an actual Irish given name that sounds and looks almost identical, he might opt for Senach which appears to have been a very common early Irish name but is derived from sen meaning ancient (Ó Corrain and Maguire, p. 164). (11/1997)

Sionnan Mac an t-Sabhaisigh. Name and device. Argent, six lions rampant sable.

The SCA given name must have been used as a given name in period. The only documentation presented for Sionnan was for its use as a surname. The closest name we could find was Seanán. However, that is a masculine name, and a bigger change than we feel comfortable making. If a feminine Gaelic given name is selected, the byname will have to be modified, since the byname is a masculine patronym.

Unfortunately, this lovely device conflicts with Houri the Savage Argent, a lion rampant sable armed, orbed and langued gules. There is only one CD for the number of charges. (02/1998)

Skerri Langdrakkar Valthjofrson. Name.

There are several problems with this name. The first and most serious is the given name. No documentation was provided for Skerri as a given name in period. The noun skerry appears as a common noun in several contexts in the OED. The first is as a small bo<t. The second, which is particularly associated with the Orkneys, refers to an isolated rock or series of rocks and derives from Old Norse sker, whose plural is the closest form we can find to the submitted form. The others are for the most part out of period. Therefore, barring documentation, Skerri may not be used as a given name. As for Langdrakkar, apart from the details of grammar and tautological meaning, the normal usage would be to make the individual to be of the nature of a longship, which does not make sense. Finally, the correct patronymic for Valthjofr would be Valthjofsson.

The armory was registered under the holding name Robert of Tir Ysgithr. (06/22/1999)

Skraeling Althing, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Friendship of the Hare. (Fieldless) On a heart gules, a hare salient contourny argent.

While blazoned on the LoI as (Fieldless) On a heart gules, a hare salient contourny argent., since a heart is considered standard shape for armorial display, the submission is considered as Gules, a hare salient contourny argent. As such it conflicts with Enid Aurelia of the Tin Isles Gules, a hare salient to sinister argent within a delf voided and fracted in cross Or., with one CD for the addition of the delf. (05/1998)

Sláine ní Chiaraín. Device. Per chevron inverted gules and vert, a pall between three round buckles argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn it is not per chevron inverted, but Per pall gules, vert and vert which we do not allow. (01/1999)

Somhairle Ó Laidhigh. Badge for Clann an Chullaich Bhain. Purpure, a boar's head erased contourny argent.

This is in conflict with the badge of Catharina Dietrich von Villach, Per pale sable and gules, a boar's head erased to sinister argent. There is only one CD, for the differences in the fields. (06/1997)

Sören Thurlin. Device. Sable, a double-bitted axe between two boar-spear heads addorsed fesswise argent.

This is being returned for lack of identifiability of the charges; from any distance the cross and boar-spear heads blend into one unrecognizable mass. RfS VII.7.a. requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." If the spear heads were drawn a bit further from the cross, and palewise instead of fesswise, the problem would be corrected. (04/1997)

South Carolina, State of. Arms. (Fieldless) A Palmetto tree atop a seashore, maintaining at the top of its trunk two round shields, that to dexter inscribed "MARCH 26", that to sinister inscribed "JULY 4", at its base a log erased at both ends; conjoined to the trunk of the palmetto two sheaves of spears crossed in saltire, bound by a scroll charged with the words "QUIS SEPARABIT"; in base the words "MELIORAM LAPSA LOCAVIT" above the number "1776", all proper.

No evidence was presented for these being the state's arms versus their seal. (05/1999)

Stagridge, Shire of. Device. Or, a stag’s head erased sable attired gules within a laurel wreath sable.

No petition was received for this group device, so it must be returned. (06/1998)

Stanislav von Neuland. Device. Per fess pean and erminois, a boar statant Or and a base rayonny gules.

This is being returned for a redraw. The base is not a true rayonny but the long time forbidden wavy crested. Please instruct the submitter when he resubmits not to draw so many ermine spots. (11/1996)

Starkhafn, Barony of. Badge. Sable, a candle issuant from a handleless flat candlestick argent lit proper.

This conflicts with Myrkfaelinn, Dominion of Sable, a candle enflamed and environed of a laurel wreath proper. There is one CD for the removal of the laurel wreath, but Myrkfaelin's candle is white, so there is nothing for the difference in the candle, and nothing for the addition of the handleless flat candlestick. (05/1999)

Stefán askmaðr. Name.

No forms were received, so this must be returned. (06/1998)

Stefan de Bâle. Device. Or, a serpent involved sable.

This conflicts with Conrad Breakring of Ascalon Argent, an annulet fracted on the dexter side sable., with one CD for the difference in the fields. (02/1999)

Stefan von Westenhagen. Device. Argent, a bend vert, overall a bear rampant sable.

This conflicts with Cedric Helmcleaver (SCA) Argent, a bend vert, overall a Norman helm sable cleaved by an axe fesswise reversed gules., with one CD for changing the overall charge from a bear to an helm, and nothing for the addition of the (small) axe on the helm. (08/1997)

Steinar Vidfamne. Device. Per saltire argent and azure, in pale a hawk displayed and on a roundel sable a hammer and in chief an anvil argent.

This is being returned for violating our rules on arms of pretense, by having more than one charge on a shape that was used for displaying armory in period. Additionally, this is very bad style, by having two different tertiary charge groups on the same charge. (03/1997)

Steitan Bogenschütz. Device. Gules, three pheons inverted argent, on a chief indented Or a catamount passant sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn it is not clearly per fess, nor field, a chief, but something halfway between that blurs the line between the two. (02/1998)

Steitan der Bogenschütz. Name change from Steitan Bogenschütz.

No name forms were received for the name change. (12/1998)

Steitan der Bogenschütze. Name change from Steitan Bogenschütz.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for the der. No documentation was presented and none could be found, nor was there any in the original submissions package. (05/1999)

Stephan MacTir. Device. Vert, two chevronelles braced a bordure argent.

This is being returned for a redraw; the chevronels and bordure are drawn far too thin. (09/1997)

Stephan of Churchton. Device. Azure, a chevron ensigned with a Latin cross between three annulets engrailed on the outer edge Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The cross needs to be about one half the size it is and the annulets need to be thicker, so it is more obvious what they are. (01/1998)

Stephen Egremont. Badge. (Fieldless) A natural dolphin haurient argent.

This conflicts with Anton Hojen (SCA), Gyronny from canton Or and sable, to sinister [in the sinister portion of the field] a dolphin haurient argent. We give no difference between a natural and a heraldic dolphin, and none for placement against a fieldless badge. Therefore, there is only one CD, for fieldlessness. (01/1997)

Stephen Egremont. Device. Per chevron vert and sable, two natural dolphins embowed in annulo argent.

This conflicts with that Asenaeth of Thorne (SCA), Per chevron ployé vert and sable, three narwhales naiant in annulo argent. We give no difference between a narwhale and a natural dolphin, and between a field per chevron and per chevron ployé. Therefore, there is only one CD, for number between these two submissions. (01/1997)

Stephen McLarty. Device. Gules, a hammer inverted and on a chief Or three anvils sable.

This conflicts with Gunnar the Smith Sable, a Thor’s hammer and on a chief Or three anvils sable. Since a Thor’s hammer is inverted by default, the only CD is for the field. (09/1998)

Stephen of Forth Castle. Device. Sable, on a saltire argent two swords inverted gules.

This is being returned for multiple conflicts including Dianne of the Golden Chalice Sable, on a saltire argent, a chalice Or enflamed sable., Anne de la Tour Lointaine Sable on a saltire argent, five shamrocks vert., and Edwin of Svart Elder Sable, on a saltire argent, two swords Or, hilted and enflamed sable. In each case, there is only one CD, for the changes to the tertiary charges. (08/1998)

Stephen Wolfe. Badge. [Fieldless] A wolf's head erased within and conjoined to an annulet argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The ears, nose and part of the neck of this head overlap the annulet and the head is barely overall. The parts of the head should not overlap the annulet. (09/1996)

Sterling Schawn Leopard. Household name for Manor of the Silent Rose.

This is being returned for two reasons. It conflicts with the Order of the Rose. While in most cases, addition of an adjective clears conflict (eg. Order of the Golden Aardvark is clear of House Aardvark) the names of the SCA peerage orders and important mundane orders are given additional protection per RfS VI.4. Additionally, this is being returned for non-period style. By and large, manor names are ordinary English place-names, often modified to include the name or station of an early holder of the manor. Ekwall has many examples of this type, including: Melton Mowbray (Melton Moubray 1284) was held by Roger de Moubray c.1125; Melton Constable (sic 1320) was held by the constable of the bishop of Norwich; Dowlish Wake (Duueliz Wak 1243) was held by Ralph Wac in 1189; Felton Butler (Felton Butiler 1205-30) was held by Hamo fitz Buteler c.1165 and by Hamo Pincernator `butler' 1242; and Miserden (Musardera 1187) was held in 1086 by Huscoit Musard. In this last example Musard is a nickname from Old French musard `dreamer', and Ekwall glosses Musardere as `Musard's manor'. In a few cases the manor name is derived directly from that of a holder. For example, on p.195 of The Origin of English Place Names Reaney notes the example of Garnons (La Gernunere 1231 `the manor of the Gernons'), which in 1086 was held by Robert Gernun. Finally, many manor names are just ordinary English place-names; for example, McKinley mentions onomastic data from 1305 from the manor of Broadwell (modern spelling). (12/1996)

Stjerne-Odd Sörensen. Device. Azure, a fess engrailed ermine between a demi-sun Or and a crescent argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The fess needs to be redraw with the engrailing drawn deeper and bolder. Additionally there need to a lot fewer of them. Good period style would have five engrailings on the fess; here there are nineteen. (09/1997)

Stonemarche, Barony of. Badge. Azure, three printer's balls argent.

This conflicts with the badge of Thor's Mountain Azure, three stone throwing hammers in pall handles to fess point argent. There is one CD for orientation of half the group, but nothing for the difference between a printer’s ball and a stone throwing hammer. (10/1998)

Streonwold the Wolfbane. Name and device. Per fess argent and sable, a natural panther salient inverted to sinister counterchanged.

The name is being returned for improper construction. The form the Wolfbane could not be documented. Both Streonwold wulfesbana and Streonwold Wolfsbane are registerable. The device is being returned for non period style. There was much debate in the College as to how exactly to blazon this position, and no documentation was provided to show that this was a period position. (01/1997)

Sundridge Faire, Marche of. Badge. (Fieldless) An open pavilion vert bearing a twin-tailed pennant Or.

Since we returned the name, we have no choice but to return the badge, since we do not form holding names for groups. (04/1997)

Sundridge Faire, Marche of. Name.

In the return of this name, I could do no better than to quote Fause Lozenge:

Sundridge may have developed from a phrase meaning `pasture at the separated house', but this form is so far removed from the meaningful phrase that it can only be considered a place-name; that is, its meaning is simply the place that it names. Smith says that Old French and Middle English feire (also faire in ME) `a fair, a gathering of merchants' is common in street names, e.g., Horsefair in the town of Ripon in the West Riding of Yorkshire. He has no example of faire as an element of a name for anything but a street. The notion of a shire taking its name from a street or lane strikes me as fairly ludicrous, but they're forced to be a shire, and I see nothing in the rules to keep them from using a street name if they want to do so: so far as I can see, just about any period place-name is acceptable. However, there is still a problem: it's not clear that the name of a town or village is an appropriate modifier. One would expect faire to be qualified by a word indicating the nature of the merchandise, as in the Yorkshire example, or perhaps its location, e.g., north, west, or by some other term describing the fair. The Sundridge Faire, on the other hand, would presumably be the fair held at Sundridge; as such it wouldn't be a place-name because Sundridge itself already serves that purpose. Nor does Sundridge Faire seem likely to be the name of a street in Sundridge. All in all, Sundridge Faire seems unlikely as any sort of place-name if Faire is interpreted as they suggest.

Fairness obliges me to offer a slightly better justification, though one that I still consider specious. Ekwall has probably dozens of examples of place-names in which an owner's byname (or in some cases even forename) has been appended to the original place-name. This of course occurs most often with very common place-names, like Newton `new town', and in the nature of things most of the bynames are of French origin: after all, most of the early owners had originally French bynames. Most of the English bynames are locative, which is also not surprising: though used by all, such bynames were especially favored by the landowning classes. However, there are a few examples in which the new element was added surprisingly late, e.g., Eaton Bray, which came to Sir Reginald Bray in 1490. A 15th c. modification obviously needn't be limited to locative surnames and surnames of French origin. Reaney & Wilson s.n. Fair cite Robert faier 1191 and Thomas le Fayre 1332. The surname seems not to have been especially common, but in theory it's not out of the question that someone in the 15th c. might have borne it and come to own a place called Sundridge, which might then have come to be known as Sundridge Faire. This derivation stretches the evidence to the breaking point, especially in view of the likely period confusion with faire `gathering of merchants', but it might be registerable. Moreover, in the overwhelming majority of cases of English place-names of the form <place-name> <name of early tenant>, <place-name> is a common name like Morton or Newton. This makes sense, since the modifier was presumably added (in most cases, at least) to distinguish this Morton or Newton from that one. Sundridge is not a name likely to need further differentiation.

Therefore, we do not think that Sundridge Faire is a reasonable constructed period place-name, and we are returning it. (04/1997)

Susan of Foxmeadow. Device. Argent, a fox's mask proper, on a chief triangular azure three daisies Or seeded sable.

This is being returned for a redraw, as the chief is far too deep, going almost to fess line. (07/1997)

Susan Paraventur. Device. Or, fretty azure within a bordure engrailed vert.

The emblazon shows the fretty drawn halfway between a fret and fretty. A fret is drawn as a lozenge voided which is interlaced with two ribands, one of which passes over the other in the center of the field, fretty is drawn as interlacing ribands over the entire field.

This submission is based on a drawing in Foster's The Dictionary of Heraldry, which shows the arms of Sir John de Hudleston with fretty drawn as this.

However, Foster was a Victorian era herald who drew the emblazons in his book, based on period armory. Therefore, one depiction from Foster's is not sufficient to register this drawing, which blurs the line between a fret and fretty. (11/1998)

Susana del Lago. Device. Argent, a mounted knight passant, bearing a banner gules, a bordure sable crusilly formy argent.

The name was registered on the October 1998 LoAR and the device was registered on the February 1999 LoAR. (03/1999)

Suzanne de la Ferté. Device. Argent, three artist’s brushes in pale and a pair of flaunches azure each charged with a feather argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The flaunches are drawn so largely that there is little room for the paint brushes. From any distance they are unrecognizable. (05/1999)

Sven Karlsson. Device. Azure, on a plate a viking helm affronty between three natural dolphins naiant in annulo sable.

This is being returned for three reasons. First, this conflicts with Rhaithyn yr Gwlad yr Had, Azure a plate charged with a cauldron and a domestic cat in its curiosity sable., with one CD for changes to the tertiaries. Second, this violates RfS XI.4, which is our rules on arms of pretense. "Armory that uses charges which themselves are charged in such a way as to appear to be arms of pretense is considered presumptuous. Period and modern heraldic practice asserts a claim to land or property by surmounting an individual's usual armory with a display of armory associated with that claim. Such arms of pretense are most commonly placed on an inescutcheon or lozenge, but may also appear on other geometric charges such as roundels, cartouches, etc. For this reason, such charges may not be charged in such a way as to suggest independent arms. Such charges may not contain an ordinary that terminates at the edge, or more than one charge."

Finally, this is being returned for lack of documentation on the viking helm. This does not match the exemplars already registered, and no documentation was included to show this is a period artifact. (08/1998)

Sylard of Eagleshaven. Badge. Argent, a kraken inverted gules.

This conflicts with Atai Tetsuko (SCA), Argent, an octopus displayed within a bordure wavy gules. There is one CD, for the addition of the border, but nothing between a kraken and an octopus in the same position. Note: the default for an octopus is opposite that of a kraken. (04/1997)

Talan Cam vap Morcant. Device change. Gules, a chevron between three crosses-crosslet argent.

This conflicts with Merevyn Hanley of Myrkfaelinn Gules, a chevron between two pairs of candles in saltire argent, enflamed Or, and a squirrel sejant erect argent, maintaining in both forepaws an acorn Or. There is a CD for the change to the type of the secondary charges; but nothing for changing their number. The candles in saltire are effectively one charge per pair, rather than two, and the nut the squirrel holds is a maintained charge, and does not count for number. (10/1998)

Talib al-Mulk ibn Hanif ibn Habib Abdul-Malik ibn Husam al-Salih al Albarrazini. Name.

This is being returned for multiple problems with the name. To quote from al-Jamal's letter of comment:

"N + al-Mulk", among others, were sultanic names, "bestowed upon princes, statesmen, generals and high officers of state by the Caliph as titles, and hence such laqabs are generally unique to an individual." It is my opinion that such "titles" are not appropriate for SCA usage. (Not to mention the fact that "Student of the Kingdom" does not make much sense as a laqab. Most were along the lines of "Light of the Faith, Defender of the State", Light of the Religion", "Order[er] of the Kingdom", "Sword of Islam", and so on.) If the submitter will accept changes, the problem with this part of the name could most easily be solved by simply dropping "al-Mulk", since Talib is documented as a given name (an ism) in period. ... I can find no documentation for the use of Salih with the article (al-). It is true that some names were used both ways; examples given in the KWHS article include Rashid and al-Rashid, Hasan and al-Hasan, Anbar and al-Anbar, and Fadl and al-Fadl. I do not find al-Salih, however, only Salih. But we cannot simply drop the article, because that leaves the name with two isms in a row, a condition which does not occur in Arabic names. Finally, Albarrazin appears to be a Spanish version (just as El Poema de Mio Cid is in Spanish) of a placename, not an Arabic one.... I cannot support al-Albarrazini at all."

Based on this commentary from al-Jamal, we must return this name for major reworking.

The armory was registered under the holding name Leopoldo of Tree Girt Sea. (05/1998)

Talmere, Shire of. Device. Per fess wavy azure and sable, a sea-stag rampant and in dexter chief a laurel wreath argent.

This is being returned for having an overlying charge across a low contrast field with complex line of division. Note: while not the reason for return, the wreath should look more like a circle and less like a horse shoe. (01/1997)

Talon Ravenesclawe. Badge. (Fieldless) A raven s claw palewise reversed argent, marked sable.

This is being returned for several reasons, each in and of itself grounds for return. As depicted, it is not clear if the claw is argent marked sable, or sable marked argent, as it appears to be halfway between them. Additionally, the charge is unrecognizable. Most members of the College, and people attending the Laurel meeting had no idea as to what it was without being given the blazon. (03/1997)

Tancred of Tanglewood. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for the placename. The documentation boiled down to it being the English translation of an Icelandic byname that sounds a bit like an English byname. Barring documentation of the byname we have to return the name. (01/1998)

Tanwayour, Canton of. Device. Sable, in pale a scimitar fesswise Or and an open scroll argent within a laurel wreath Or .

This is being returned for violating our rule on slot machine with three dissimilar charges in a standard arrangement. While it is true that this was not mentioned in the original return, no mention pro or con was made on the armory, since once the name was returned the armory could not be registered. (03/1998)

Tanweeristan, Incipient Canton of. Name and device. Sable, an open scroll argent within a laurel wreath and in chief a scimitar fesswise Or.

This is being returned for incorrect construction. Tanweer is not a tribal name, so there is no reason to think that it can be combined with - (i)stan. If they wish an Arabic name, we recommend contacting Master Da'ud, whose name, address and e-mail are in the roster. (10/1996)

Tanya of Shoreham. Device. Or, on a lozenge purpure a lightning bolt palewise Or.

Unfortunately, this is considered to be the equivalent of Purpure vêtu, a lightning bolt Or., putting it into conflict with Thora of Thescorre (SCA) Quarterly sable and gules, a lightning bolt palewise Or., with just one CD for the field. (08/1997)

Tara the Twin of Dartford.

The LoI glossed Tara as the Anglicized form of Temair. Unfortunately, the statement was not correct. According to the LoAR of January 1994:

"The prior registration of Tara as a given name hinged on the statement ‘If the given name and the place name [Temair] are identical in Irish, and Tara is a valid anglicization of the latter, then it should be acceptable as an anglicization of the former.’ The problem is that Tara is not an acceptable Anglicization of Temair; only of the genitive case of the name: Temra (pronounced approximately 'tev-ra). Tara is not an Anglicization of Temair but rather an English name for the place derived specifically from the context in which it appears as a place name (e.g., ‘hill of Tara’). (A similar case occurs with Erin, as a poetic English name for Ireland is based on the genitive case (Éireann) of the Irish name Éire.) Since the given name Temair would not normally be found in the genitive, it is unlikely that it would be taken into English in the genitive form."

Based on this precedent we are returning the name.

The armory was registered under the holding name Debbie the Twin of Dartford. (04/1999)

Taraneh al Basra. Name.

The only documentation for the given name came from a web site of Iranian names with no dates given. Schimmel's book on Arabic names gives a similar name, implying it is modern. Without documentation for period usage, this must be returned. Note: the correct feminine form of the byname would be al-Basriya(h).

The armory was registered under the holding name Kathleen of Wuduholt be Secg. (12/1998)

Tarimaat Ankhseniset the Exile. Badge [Fieldless] A lotus affronty azure, seeded Or.

This is being returned for conflict with the mon of the Emperor of Japan [tinctureless] A chrysanthemum. (12/1996)

Tarimaat Ankhseniset the Exile. Name and device. Argent, a lotus affronty azure, seeded Or.

Pharaonic Egyptian names were ruled out of the scope of the SCA on the 3/95 LoAR. This submission does not provide us with any reason to overturn that policy. In fact, even without that ruling, this name would have had to have been returned since no information was provided to indicate that the two elements of the name are correctly combined. The device is being returned for conflict with the mon of the Emperor of Japan [tinctureless] A chrysanthemum. (12/1996)

Tatiana Ariadna Kalisfena Kazimierova. Name.

This is being returned for using a triple given name in Russian, for which there is no evidence of any usage any time in our period. Even double Christian given names in Russian are considered a weirdness, since the documentation for them is virtually non-existent. Furthermore, no documentation was presented for the variant spelling of the final byname, and none could be produced by our Russian name expert.

The armory was registered under the holding name Tatiana of Sundragon. (01/1999)

Tatiana Nikitovna Alekseeva. Household name for Household of Fire and Frost and badge. Sable, a leaf inverted argent and in base a demi-arch of five flames Or.

The name is being returned for non period style. Household names must follow period exemplars of groups of people. Possible models include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart). This follows none of these examples.

The armory is also being returned for style. As emblazoned, the flames are not identifiable as such from the drawing alone. Furthermore, since the tenure of Baldwin of Erebor as Laurel King of Arms, a demi-arch of charges has been ruled to be not registerable. (04/1998)

Tatyana Mkihailavna Popovych. Name.

This name is incorrectly constructed. According to Escutcheon:

"[T]he second element is spelled incorrectly and should be Mikhailovna. The final element is spelled wrong and in the wrong gender. Wickenden [using 2nd ed] (182) gives Popovich as a masculine patronymic of Pop. The feminine could be Popovicha or Popova, but the former is not grammatically sound in conjunction with a patronymic that ends in "-ovna" like the preceding element does.

Correct forms would be Tatyana Mikhailovna, Tatyana Popovicha, or Tatyana Mikhailovna Popova. (03/1999)

Téarlach MacDonnachaidh. Device. Vert, on a chevron argent between two pairs of quills pens crossed in saltire Or and a sword proper, three star crosses couped azure.

This is being returned for using a star cross. The 'star cross' is an SCA invention. It's supposed to have been an ancient Christian symbol formed from the Greek letters IX (iota-chi), the monogram for Jesus Christ. In modern times, it has become the symbol of emergency medical care...." (Pictorial Dictionary, 2nd ed., #215) It has only one prior registration in the SCA, and has since been banned by Laurel precedent: "The fact remains that six armed crosses are not a period charge." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR December 1993, p.10) (07/1998)

Tearlaich of the Borders. Name.

This is being returned for combining Gaelic and English in the same name. Except for a few specific circumstances involving the lingua Anglica clause, the grandfather clause, or the mundane name allowance, we do not permit Gaelic and English to be combined in the same name. (10/1998)

Tegan Rhos. Device. Per chevron sable and vair, a dragonfly argent.

This conflicts with Maighread Maire Draigdaimhalachd Per saltire azure and vert, a dragonfly tergiant displayed argent orbed Or. There is one CD for the change of field. Tegan’s dragonfly is forced to chief, as an argent charge cannot be on a half-argent field such as vair; therefore there is nothing for position. (02/1999)

Terence Golddragon. Household name for House Glen Dragon.

This is being returned for non-period style. The household name follows none of the period models for household names. Possible models include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart). (01/1997)

Teresa de León. Name.

This conflicts with Teresa de Leon, one of the Queens of Spain and therefore important enough to protect. (04/1999)

Terrance Petard Cheredame. Name.

The name is being returned for lack of documentation. No documentation was presented and none could be found for Terrance as a period given name. No documentation was presented for Cheredame except that it was a constructed name.

The armory was registered under the holding name Doug Petard. (05/1999)

Terry Oakwood. Device. Per chevron embattled sable estoilly argent and vert, in base a wolf rampant argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The per chevron line should be higher on the field; as drawn it is halfway between Per chevron... and Field, a point pointed.... The low-contrast complex line should be much bolder to show up well (half as many and twice as big at a minimum). The wolf should be larger; as drawn it conflicts with Rupert Fairchilde MacChlurain, Per fess sable mullety argent and vert, a pheon argent., as the wolf is clearly a minority member of a group of primary charges). (07/1998)

Terwen ap Gwynedd. Name.

Terwen is an undocumented female form of modern Welsh given name. Welsh uses verch or ferch for "daughter of", not ap which means "son of". Gwyndedd is a place name, not a personal name, so "son" of a town is not appropriate. The armory was registered under the holding name Harriette of Dun Ard. (04/1998)

Texas, Republic of. Flag (1836-1839). Azure, a mullet Or.

No evidence was presented that this was clearly used by the Republic of Texas. (05/1999)

Valgarðr hrafnhauss. Name and device. Ermine, issuant from base a dragon’s head contourny and in chief two Thor’s hammers gules.

No name form was received so we must returned the name. Since there is no SCA name to register this to, we must return the device as well. (11/1998)

The Crest of the Royal Arms of Canada; the badge of the Governor General, Rideau Hall (the Canadian "White House"), and Canadian Heraldic Authority. Badge. (Fieldless) On a wreath argent and gules a lion passant guardant crowned Or maintaining in its dexter paw a maple leaf gules.

While mentioned in LoI as a badge, this is a crest, and it is long standing CoA practice not to register or protect crests. (01/1998)

The Summits, Principality of. Device for the Consort. Azure, a griffin passant, on a mountain issuant from base argent a goblet azure environed by two barberry sprays vert fructed azure.

While there was a petition enclosed with this submission, it was signed by less than 30 people, and less than two third's of the officers, and if any of the relevant royalty signed the petition, it was not noted. The Administrative Handbook says:

Evidence of Support – Submissions involving the name or arms of an active branch must include evidence of support for the action on the part of a majority of the active members of the branch. In the case of branches with no ruling noble, this support may be demonstrated by a petition of a majority of the populace and officers or by a petition of the seneschal and at least three-quarters of the other local officers. In the case of branches with ruling nobles, such petitions must also include a statement of support from the ruling noble. If a submission would result in the registration or modification of the Branch Name or Branch Arms of a kingdom, principality or equivalent branch, support must be demonstrated by the results of a poll conducted in the relevant official newsletter and certified by the seneschal of the appropriate branch.

Additionally, some questions were raised as to whether the Barberry plant was known in period. If the sprigs are used in future resubmission, please include such evidence. (12/1997)

Theodric Afhaims. Badge. (Fieldless) A mouse's head cabossed argent.

This conflicts with Twila of Meridies Quarterly vert and sable, a mouse head caboshed argent., with only one CD for the fieldless versus field. (04/1998)

Theodric Rotbert. Device. Vert, a bend between a wolf rampant and a abacus within three bezants Or.

This is being returned for breaking our rules on "slot machine", by having three different charges (wolf, abacus and bezants) in the same charge group. (01/1999)

Theodweard L'Archier. Device. Per fess gules and vert, on a fess embattled argent between three Latin crosses and an arrow fesswise reversed Or a tree vert.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn, the device is halfway between Per fess, a fess and Argent. .. a chief and a base. (01/1997)

Theolan Grimulf. Badge. (Fieldless) A wyvern displayed gules surmounted by a heart Or.

This badge violates our rules on fieldless badge style.

"I've therefore decided not to implement a comprehensive ban on fieldless badges with overall charges. I will be returning cases where the underlying charge is rendered unidentifiable, per Rule VIII.3; this will include the most egregious cases of overall charges (e.g. A pheon surmounted by a hawk's head).... In cases where identifiability is maintained --- where one of the charges is a long, slender object, and the area of intersection small --- overall charges will still be permitted in fieldless badges." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, 15 January, 1992 Cover Letter (with the November 1992 LoAR), p. 3)

(RfS VIII.3. states that "Identifiable elements may be rendered unidentifiable by significant reduction in size, marginal contrast, excessive counterchanging, voiding, or fimbriation, or by being obscured by other elements of the design.") In this case, neither of the charges is "long" or "slender", and the area of intersection is not "small"; indeed, the initial reaction upon seeing the emblazon is that this charge combination is a red wyvern displayed with a gold, heart- shaped body, not of two charges, on overlying the other. As a consequence, it falls afoul of both RfS III and Laurel precedent. (02/1997)

Thomas de Castellan. Transfer of heraldic title. Treblerose Herald

When we ruled that individuals could own their heraldic titles, we said in a cover letter:

"After much thought we have decided to allow heraldic titles to be transferred to individual heralds under the following conditions:

1. The title must have been granted to the individual herald by the crown of the kingdom and the principal herald of the kingdom (except in cases where the Principal Herald is receiving a personal title for himself), or by the Laurel Sovereign, as a personal title for the herald.

2. The transfer must appear on a letter of intent, and follow all the requirements of any transfer.

3. The title will be counted as a name, when seeing how many registered items the person has."

This submission did not fulfill these requirements. It was not properly placed on the LoI as a transfer from the East kingdom, nor was any documentation included showing that this was a personal title given to Thomas. More importantly, this was NOT a creation for the individual nor has it been peculiarly associated with him. This is a very old Eastern title (one of the oldest) and was revived for the use of Arval Benicoeur when he became a commenting herald in the 1980’s. Through the better part of the 1980’s it was associated particularly with Arval (for good or ill!!). Just as Eastern titles such as Brigantia, Eastern Crown or Blue Tyger, may not be transferred to an individual, neither may this. (06/22/1999)

Thomas de Grey. Device. Per chevron sable and Or, two towers and a natural seahorse counterchanged.

This conflicts with Tuman Elnikov Per chevron throughout sable and Or, two towers Or and a demon genuant guardant vert maintaining a sword gules. The precedent allowing difference for changes to the single charge in base also limits such difference to one CD, so the type and tincture are not counted separately in this case. (06/1998)

Thomas Goldweard. Device. Azure, in chief two dragons combattant Or and in base a cross swallowtail argent.

This conflicts with Domhnait of the Cleftlands Azure, two dragons combattant Or., with a single CD for addition of the cross. (03/1999)

Thomas Grayson of Falconridge. Device. Argent, a three-headed hydra segreant, wings elevated and addorsed, the center head breathing fire gules, maintaining in its dexter claw a sword and in its sinister claw a cross azure.

This conflict with Elayne Gwenlhian de Bellême Argent, a demi-dragon rampant contourny gules., Erich von Drachenholz Argent, a dragon segreant coward gules within an orle sable., and Bela of Eastmarch Gyronny sable and argent, a dragon rampant gules, armed and webbed vert., Martin Jäger Or, scaly sable, a seven-headed hydra rampant gules. The first should get only one CD for type (from hydra to demi-dragon contourny), the second only one CD for adding the orle and the remainder only one CD for the field. Details of the dragons, including number of heads, and maintained charges count for nothing. (03/1998)

Thomas Lancaster. Name.

This is being returned for conflict with Thomas Lancaster, Earl of Lancaster 1277-1322 and grandson of Henry III. Since he has his own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica, he is considered important enough to protect. (05/1998)

Thomas the Potter. Badge. (Fieldless) A wine amphora within and conjoined to an annulet argent.

This is being returned for violating our rules on fieldless style. The amphora is not truly conjoined, but rather overlaps the annulet. (03/1998)

Thome le Lent. Device. Azure, on a chevron inverted argent three fleurs-de-lys gules.

This conflicts with Edward O Dea, registered October 1998, Azure, on a chevron inverted argent two mullets of six points sable., with only a CD for the changes to the tertiaries. Please inform him that inverted chevrons do not issue from the corners of the shield. (11/1998)

Thora Grimsdóttir. Name.

The patronymic as submitted was spelled Grimsdóttir, with an accent over the o. However, the standard Norse patronymic would be Grímsdóttir with accents over the i and the o. The standard English representation would be Grimsdottir with no accents. Therefore, either an accent needs to be added to the i, or the one over the o needs to be eliminated. Since the client permits no changes, we are forced to return this name. (05/1998)

Thora Wolfromsdochter. Badge. (Fieldless) A satyr rampant proper, crinned sable, maintaining a bow drawn, marked proper.

This conflicts with Marta as-tu Mika-Misliwy Per chevron vert and Or, in base a satyr dancing and piping proper. There is one CD for fieldlessness but nothing for location in a fieldless badge. There is nothing for the posture of the satyr and there is none for the maintained objects. (02/1999)

Thorfinnr inn vegsvinni Ingason. Device. Argent, two ravens rising wings addorsed respectant, maintaining between them a stone sable.

This is being returned for breaking the rule of tincture. While blazoned on the LoI as sable, they were colored in a very light grey, far closer to argent than sable. Since we register the picture, not the words, this is being returned for insufficient contrast. If they were colored with a true black, it would eliminate this problem. (09/1997)

Thorgard inn Svarti. Badge. Argent, in cross four Norse ravens displayed sable.

This is being returned for several, related reasons. To being with the birds as drawn were not sable, but argent with sable details (on argent field). This violated the rule of tincture. Furthermore, as drawn they are not identifiable as Ravens. They have been drawn in a too stylized manner. Finally this submission is in conflict with Prussia, Argent, an eagle displayed sable crowned Or: there is a CD for the number of birds, but there is nothing for the difference between displayed eagles and displayed ravens, and there is nothing for the crown. (12/1996)

Thorhalla Carlsdottir Broberg. Badge. Purpure, a lur Or.

This is being returned for several reasons. First, a lur is a bronze age horn, which means this conflicts with a badge of the Kingdom of the West Purpure, a hunting horn Or. There is a CD for type of charge, but not complete difference of charge. Even if there had not been a conflict this would have been returned for lack of documentation. While a photocopy of a page of a book which contained this item was included, the title page of the book was not, nor was the name and author of the book included so Laurel and the College have no way to evaluate the source. Finally, doubts were raised as to whether a bronze age item is suitable for use in SCA heraldry. Because of the other problems, no decision is being made at this time, except to note that if this charge is resubmitted, documentation that it was used in our period would increase the likelihood of registration. (10/1998)

Thor's Mountain, Barony of. Badge for Order of the Rams Horn. Sable chape argent, three ram's horns conjoined at the bells in pall inverted argent.

This is being returned for violating RfS VII.7.a. which requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance. The conjoining of the horns, especially since they appear to be conjoining to something like a Y-joint in the center, increasing their unrecognizability. (04/1997)

Thor's Mountain, Barony of. Badge. Or, a griffin segreant to sinister and a bordure sable.

This conflicts with Principality of Northshield Or, a griffin passant within a bordure sable. There is just one CD for the change in posture from segreant contourny to passant. (03/1998)

Thorvald Greybeard. Badge. Azure, a unicorn head couped argent.

This conflicts with Verena Marre (SCA), Azure, a unicorn's head couped argent armed and crined Or between two bars wavy ermine., with one CD for the removal of the bars, Mary of Neath (SCA), Azure, three unicorn's heads erased in pall conjoined at the horns argent, armed and crined Or., with only one for number of primary charges, Saerlaith nic Uilliam O'Ceallaigh (SCA), Per bend paly argent and azure and azure, in dexter base a unicorn's head couped argent., with one CD for the change in the field, and Isabella d'Hiver (SCA), Azure, a unicorn's head couped argent collared gules., with one CD for the addition of the collar. (09/1997)

Thorvald Ingvarsson. Badge. (Fieldless) A brown oak leaf bendwise sinister proper.

This is an unwarranted extension of the concept of "brown [charges] proper". This usage applies to charges which, in their natural state, would reasonably be assumed to be brown. These include objects made of leather or wood. Most animals are included as well, unless there is some obvious other natural coloration.

The question is not whether the charge could reasonably be found in nature as brown, nor if it is the only possible color. The criterion is whether, absent any further information, brown is the obvious choice. This is consistent with period heraldry's use of brown animals and inanimate objects. The word "brown" is often included in the blazon, but this is merely for clarity's sake and does not seem to be a feature of period blazons. A good test is if it is actually necessary for an accurate reproduction.

A leaf does not fall within this criterion. A reader would most likely interpret "a leaf proper" as being green. The inclusion of "brown" in the blazon is necessary for the emblazon. In the absence of any specific documentation of brown leaves in period heraldry, this must be returned. (03/1998)

Three Towers, March of. Device. Argent, three towers sable, that in base within a laurel wreath vert, a bordure embattled azure.

This conflicts with Shire of Silfren Mere (SCA), Argent, a tower sable, its base environed of a laurel wreath vert, all within a bordure embattled azure. There is only one CD, for the number of towers. (01/1997)

Thurstan Ravensholme. Badge. Azure, a tree within a bordure argent.

This is being returned for conflict with Myrtle Holt, Shire of (SCA), Azure, a myrtle tree eradicated argent within a bordure compony sable and argent, with only one CD for the tincture of the bordure, Atenveldt, Kingdom of, College of Bards, Azure, a leaved branch palewise argent, with only one CD for the addition of the bordure, Gregor of Dakerwald (SCA), Azure, in fess two trees couped within a bordure argent, with only one CD for changing the number of primary charges and Ygraine of the Seven Oaks (SCA), Per saltire vert and sable, an oak tree eradicated within a bordure argent, with only one CD for the change of tincture of the field.

The reason for granting no difference for a tree vs. a tree eradicated is obvious if one considers the poor excuses for root systems found in many trees blazoned as eradicated. Without any period evidence that a changing a tree couped to a tree eradicated was considered a cadency step, we see no reason to grant any difference between them. (07/1996)

Thyra Beiskaldi Øláfsdóttir. Device. Or chapé ployé purpure, a domestic cat sejant to sinister sable.

This conflicts with Giuliana Margherita Bonaccolsi Per chevron throughout azure and Or, in base a domestic cat sejant contourny sable., with just one CD for the field. While Thyra's cat is not blazoned as being in base, in fact it is quite low, and Giuliana's is rather high, therefore there is no difference for position. (08/1998)

Thyra Thorkillsdottir. Device. Gyronny arrondy vert and Or, a Lisbjerg gripping beast sable.

This was an appeal of a Laurel return of 12/95. In the return Laurel stated:

"The Lisbjerg gripping-beast seems to have been registered only once, in March 1978 to Bjorn of Havok. In the November 1986 LoAR a `borre-style gripping beast' was returned in part because `[t]he gripping beast is not a consistent heraldic charge which could reliably be rendered by a competent heraldic artist'. Such appears also to be the case with the Lisbjerg gripping beast. Indeed, no one was able to find a source for it outside the Pictorial Dictionary, which is, it must be remembered, but a compilation of charges which have been registered in the SCA even if only, as with this charge, once. Given the obscurity of the charge, its difficulty of reproduction from the blazon, and the fact that it has not been registered since the time of the original registration some 17 years ago, we do not feel that it remains appropriate for registration in the SCA."

The appeal says:

"We point out that the creature considered in the 11/86 return was not a Lisbjerg gripping beast but a borre-style gripping beast. There was thus no explicit prohibition against the Lisbjerg gripping beast prior to this decision. We also note the following from the 4/94 LoAR (registering Hrólfr bláskegg Rgnvaldzson, Per pale sable and gules, a Norse Jelling beast argent within a bordure Or.): For better or worse, the currently defined, already-registered Norse beasts continue to be acceptable. As the Jelling beast is one of those, we did not feel that we could reasonably deny it here." As the Lisbjerg gripping beast is a type of Norse beast (and was defined and already-registered), it would seem that at the time of the client’s prior submission this Laurel precedent specifically allowed the beast to be registerable. We note that the current crop of Norse beasts remain registerable to this day (most recently registered, without comment, to Malachai Halfdan Brightskull in 2/95). The usual policy, which had been firmly rooted until a few years ago, was that charges not previously announced as unacceptable would be allowed a final registration. As a reminder, in 9/96 Laurel registered the final Donnelly knots, despite the fact that none had been registered since their original registration in 4/75. A situation very analogous to the current one. After reviewing these facts the Middle Kingdom College agrees with the client that, absent a specific prohibition of an otherwise acceptable charge, her submission should have been given the typical consideration and granted a final registration of the Lisbjerg gripping beast. "

The main point behind the appeal is whether or not charges previously announced as unacceptable would be allowed a final registration. The submitter and the CoH of the Middle contend that they are.

Unfortunately, while it is, in our opinion, a good thing to allow a charge a final registration, Laurel is not bound by that practice. As we stated to the College before we became Laurel, appeals must show evidence that Laurel's decision was wrong, not just that the person disagreed with Laurel's decision. In this case, there is no evidence that Laurel's decision was wrong, since the return was made within Laurel's purview.

Furthermore, even if Laurel had not been within his rights to return a submission without previous notice, in fact previous notice had been given. The Lisbjerg gripping beast is actually just a variety of the Borre-style gripping beasts which were banned in 11/86, and therefore the Lisbjerg gripping beasts were banned at the same time.

Finally, after the October 1998 Laurel meeting we will no longer register zoomorphic beasts of any kind. (05/1998)

Thyri Aradottir. Device. Barry wavy of six azure and argent, on a chief wavy argent three duck's feet inverted sable.

This is being returned for violating VII.7.a., armorial identifiability. The duck's feet were not identifiable by anyone at the Laurel meeting. (01/1997)

Tiberius Marius Scutarius. Device. Vert semy of pheons, on a bend argent a cross of Calatrava elongated in base so as to form a sword inverted vert.

This is being returned for violating RfS VII.7.a. which requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance.". The "sword hilted of a cross of Calatrava" seriously confounds the identifiability of the charge; it is hard to see it as either a sword variant or as a cross variant. (04/1997)

Tiernan Diego de las Aguas. Badge. Sable, on a mountain of four peaks couped argent, two tilting lances crossed in saltire sable.

This is being returned for a redraw. While blazoned as a mountain of four peaks, it was not identifiable as such; more people thought it was a crown than any other charge. (02/1998)

Tiernan Diego de las Aguas. Name and device. Barry wavy argent and vert, a cross formy throughout sable.

This name has several serious problems, either of which would be grounds for return. First, Tiernan is a 20th century post-spelling-reform spelling of the earlier Tighearnán. Second, in either spelling, this would mix a Gaelic given name with Spanish, which, barring documentation, does not seem likely. Third, we were unable to find the byname Aguas. There are generic locative names del Rio, in particular, but of the waters is too vague for Spanish names, particularly as such bynames are rather uncommon in the first place. Therefore, we have no choice but to return the name.

The armory conflicts with the badge for the Teutonic Order, A Latin cross formy sable fimbriated argent. There is neither a CD for the tincture nor for the couping. (02/1998)

Tigra McKay of Marwode. Name.

No documentation was provided to show that Tigra was used as a give name in period, and none could be produced. The armory was registered under the holding name Karen McKay of Marwode. (02/1997)

Timothy O'Brien. Device. Vert, a bend sinister between a cross crosslet fitchy and a quill pen bendwise sinister tip to base argent.

This conflicts with Wilhelm der Krieger Vert, a bend sinister between two foxes heads erased argent., with just one CD for the type of the secondaries. (02/1998)

Timothy O'Brien. Device. Vert, a bend sinister Or between a cross crosslet fitchy and a quill pen bendwise sinister argent.

This conflicts with Rosamond Tindomiellem Vert, a bend sinister Or between a white Oak and a lyre argent, entwined of a vine Or. The vine is the equivalent of a maintained charge, and thus there is only one CD for change of type of secondaries. (10/1998)

Tir Briste, Shire of. Device change. Argent vetu vert, a compass star within a laurel wreath sable.

This conflicts with Amber Lang (SCA), Vert on a lozenge argent, a cat sejant guardant sable. There is only one CD, for changes to the tertiary. (04/1997)

Tir-y-Don, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Sea Phoenix.

The order name is being returned for non­period style. While the LoI is correct that some period order names followed the patter of Order of the [mythical object], a sea­phoenix is not a mythical object or beast, and the combination is too unlikely to be registerable. (07/1997)

Tjörvi Fasthaldi. Device. Quarterly gules and sable, in chief two cat’s eyes Or pupilled sable, a bordure argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The cat's eyes do not resemble natural cat's eyes or the one in the PicDic. (04/1999)

Tobias of Emerickeskepe. Badge. [Fieldless] On a compass star elongated to base per pale sable and argent, a castle counterchanged.

This is being returned for two reasons. First, it is in conflict with Robert of Holliston (SCA) Per pale argent and sable, a mullet of eight points pierced counterchanged. The piercing considered equivalent to a tertiary roundel.

Additionally, as draw, this violates our rules on overall charges. The castle is not on the compass star, but overall. However, overall charges are only permitted in fieldless badges when at least one of the charges is long and skinny, such that the area of over lap is small and the identifiability of the charges is not lost. (11/1996)

Toby of Isenfir. Device. Potent, a horse rampant Or.

This conflicts with Anne Pomeroy of Woodswell Counter-vair, a mare courant reguardant Or. There is a CD for position, but we give no difference between vair and potent. (08/1998)

Toke Magnusson. Badge. Purpure, in fess a roundel between an increscent and a decrescent argent.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork; no forms were received. However, even if the forms had been received this would have had to have been returned for conflict with Fiacha Suileach Per pale azure and purpure, in fess an increscent argent, a bezant, and a decrescent argent. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for changing the tincture of one of a group of three charges in fess. (10/1998)

Toke Magnusson. Device. Purpure, a dexter hand inverted, in chief a roundel between an increscent and a decrescent argent.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork; no forms were received. See the cover letter for a discussion on phases of the moon. (10/1998)

Tóki Gunnarsson. Device. Per bend sinister wavy purpure and azure, an orle argent.

This is being returned for violating Rule VIII.3. Two-color fields with a complex line of partition should not have the partition obscured by charges. (04/1997)

Tomas de Valle de Bravo. Device. Per saltire vert and argent, a gurges counterchanged a bordure Or.

This is being returned for excessive counterchanging and unidentifiability. The counterchanging removes the identifiability (such as it is in the first place) of the gurges. Furthermore this submission runs afoul of RfS VIII.4.d, Modern Style, since it resembles an op­art designs. Please instruct the submitter when resubmitting to draw any future bordures wider. (07/1997)

Törägänä Al'altun-Bäki Khanzade. Name and device. Azure, a tanit between in fess a hand of fatima bendwise and another bendwise sinister all between Arabic words "laha badraaw" and "fahalayimiska" Or.

No name form was received so we are forced to return the name. Since there is no name, we are forced to return the armory as well. However, both the name and armory have serious problems that we feel obligated to mention to help the submitter when he resubmits.

The commentary on the problems with the name was done by Pennon who said:

"The documentation that the submitter uses is a good book for Mongol history and a good book for names. But it is not a good book for spelling. The rest of the documentation is fine for each element. But they all really don't go together.

Toragana should be spelled Döregene as it is on page 239 of The Secret History of the Mongols, translation by Francis Woodman Cleaves. T and D are interchangeable in Mongolian so the spelling Töregene is equally as valid. Al Altun is fine as it stands, but not Al Altun-Baki. Al Altun is the original form of the name and could be joined to Al-Altun to form the name Töregene Al-Altun. This I feel is registerable. However, Baki, or better spelled Beki is a title meaning female chieftain or shaman. I have seen it describe both males, females, chieftains and shamans. I am going to request that this be restricted as a title because of its use in period. I have not yet had the needed time to put the research together for this. Al Altun can be found on page 229 of The Secret History of the Mongols. Khanzade, while it may look Mongol is not. It is Arabic or Turkic. There is no reason that pure Mongol and Arabic or Turkic cannot be mixed. The real problem is that Mongols didn't use three part names. I don't say three element names here because they did do three element names, but not of this form. In period the Mongols never would have used Khanzade as a second name.

So in summary, This submitter could have Töregene Al-Altun, Töregene Khanzade, or Al-Altun Khanzade. But Töregene Al-Altun Khanzade matches no known period pattern. There is a later period pattern that might allow Töregenealtun Khanzade."

The armory has two problems. First, no documentation was presented for the "tanit", or, per Meyer's Saracenic Heraldry, "figure 26", "the so-called target" as having been used in period armory. Since the charge has never been registered before, it requires this documentation. Secondly, a translation of the Arabic is required by Laurel precedent and the Administrative Handbook. (04/1999)

Tormod of Kirk Andreas. Device. Argent, on a sun gules a dexter gauntlet clenched argent, a bordure rayonny gules.

This conflicts with Drstha Maida of the Lowara (SCA), Argent, upon a sun gules a dexter hand apaumy couped argent., with just one CD for the bordure. Even if this had not had a conflict we would have been forced to return this for a redraw. Please instruct the submitter how to properly draw a rayonny bordure. As draw, the bordure is not rayonny but wavy crested, which is not used in SCA heraldry. (08/1997)

Treasa Callan. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for the given name. The only documentation for Tresa came from Coghlan which is not a reliable source. Without a given name, the name as a whole must be returned. (01/1999)

Trey Chiché. Name and device. Argent, a cup­hilted rapier gules surmounted by a skunk statant sable, marked argent.

This name is being returned for several reasons. First, Trey is not the submitter's legal name, but what he uses, something very different. The rules, under part II.4 state: Legal Names ­ Elements of the submitter's legal name may be used as the corresponding part of a Society name, if such elements are not excessively obtrusive and do not violate other sections of these rules.

This allows individuals to register elements of their legal name that cannot be documented from period sources. The allowance is only made for the actual legal name, not any variants. Someone whose legal given name is Ruby may register Ruby as a Society given name, but not Rubie, Rubyat, or Rube. Corresponding elements are defined by their type, not solely their position in the name. This means a person with the legal name Andrew Jackson could use Jackson as a surname in his Society name in any position where a surname is appropriate, such as Raymond Jackson Turner or Raymond Jackson of London, not just as his last name element.

Furthermore, even if Trey were registerable, combined with Chiché, it becomes a obtrusively modern, and therefore not registerable. While we did not find any obvious problems with the armory, without an acceptable name to register the device to, we cannot register the armory. Since all the paperwork was clear on the fact that Trey was his use name, not legal name, we could not use Trey to form a holding name. There was no clear evidence to what his legal name is, so we are forced to return the armory as well. Additionally, the skunk while blazoned as sable, was actually grey. Please ensure when this is resubmitted that a real sable is used. (07/1997)

Tridroichead, Canton of. Name and device. Azure, a triquetra within and fretted with another, on a chief wavy Or, three laurel wreaths vert.

According to the LoI:

"The name is intended to be Gaelic for "three bridges." [Room Irish] notes -drohid as a common second element in modern Irish place names, from droichead "bridge" (p.133), and tri- "three" as in Trileac (p.122). Submitted as Thriur Droicead, we have changed the name according to e-mail correspondence from Harpy (docs to Laurel) as allowed by the group."

This violates the Administrative Handbook by not giving a summary of the documentation. However, if the e-mail from Harpy had 100% supported the form submitted we would have been loath to punish the group for the failure of the submissions herald and would probably have registered the name. However, Harpy's e-mail express doubt that this is the correct form. Therefore, we are returning this for lack of documentation.

Since the name is being returned we are returning the armory as well, since we do not create holding names for groups. We are declining to rule on the suitability of the triquetra within and fretted to another at this time. (05/1999)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Fletcher. Azure, a feather fesswise between three pheons inverted one and two argent.

This is in conflict with the badge of the Barony of An Dubhaigeainn, Azure a feather fesswise argent. There is only one CD, for the addition of the pheons. (06/1997)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Watchful Flame. Argent, a hanging lantern sable, a candle argent flament proper.

This is being returned for violation of breaking the rule of tincture, with an argent candle on an argent field. (08/1996)

Trimaris, Kingdom of. Badge. Per fess argent and azure, a chevron inverted surmounted by a chevron counterchanged.

This is being returned for nonidentifiability. The chevrons, because they are of the same tincture where they overlap, make the badge look like "Per fess argent and azure, in pale the letter W and the letter M conjoined at the line of division counterchanged". RfS VII.7.a. requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." Therefore, this is being returned. (08/1996)

Tristan d'Alsace. Device. Azure, three elephants' heads cabossed argent.

This conflicts with Edward the Incorrigible Azure, an African elephant’s head caboshed argent, maintaining in its trunk a seax bendwise Or., with one CD for number of charges, but nothing for the maintained seax. (02/1998)

Tristan d'Alsace. Device. Azure, three elephants statant affronty argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn on the forms (although the mini-emblazon was fine) the elephants are in trian aspect, and virtually unidentifiable. (02/1997)

Tristan Wulfskin. Name and device. Per bend sinister sable and argent, a round padlock set fesswise, a bordure all counterchanged.

The name is being returned for lack of documentation of the byname. While Wulf and Skin can be documented as period names, no documentation was presented for combining them into one name.

The armory is being returned for several reasons. First, while documentation was presented for round padlocks, the submitted form did not look like the documented forms. Second, the submitted padlock did not have a keyhole, making its identification as a padlock difficult. When that is added to the fact that it was on its side, it became totally unidentifiable. Finally, the counterchanging contributed to the identifiability problem. (08/1998)

Tristana de Winter. Household name House de Winter and badge. [Fieldless] On a snowflake azure a fleur-de-lys Or.

The household name is being returned for being in a non-period form. No one could document the name with a de. We would not register House of Smith; though we would register House Smith, therefore we cannot register House de Winter. The household badge has been registered under the submitter's registered name, Tristana Raufenloch. (08/1996)

Tristana de Winter. Name change from Tristana Raefenloch and badge. [Fieldless] A snowflake azure conjoined with eight fleurs-de-lys in annulo, points outward, Or.

The name is being returned for being a non-period form. While the name Winter can be documented as being period, no-one could document the form de Winter, either for this submission, or in the submission of Emma de Winter which was returned 9/95. The submitter will not accept changes, so the name must be returned.

The badge is being returned for non-identifiability. While the snowflake is grandfathered to the submitter, with the conjoined fleur-de-lys it loses identifiability. (08/1996)

Tristram Hunter. Device. Purpure, a fess fusilly argent between three stags skulls Or.

This conflicts with Magdalena de Hazebrouck (1/95) Purpure, a fess fusily argent between three torches Or. There is only one CD for the change of type of the secondaries. (02/1997)

Tryphena von Stargard. Device. Purpure, a pascal goat argent and on a chief triangular ermine a harp gules.

Just as a unicornate horse is banned because it blurs the distinction between a unicorn and a horse, the use of a pascal goat blurs the distinction betwen a goat and a Paschal lamb, making this run afoul of RfS VII.7.a. (02/1997)

Tsivia bas Tamara v’Amberview. Name change from Tsivia bas Tamara of Amberview (see PENDS for device change).

The submitter wished to use the Hebrew v rather than the English of. There are two problems with this. First, according to RfS III.1.a each name phrase must be entire in the same language or in a language with an English connective such as of or the. Unless Amberview can be documented as Hebrew, it cannot be combined with Hebrew. Second, no documentation was presented for v being Hebrew for of. (12/1998)

Turgeis av Markland. Device. Per fess bendy sinister gules and Or and chevronny Or and gules per pale counterchanged.

This is being returned for violating RfS.VIII.4.d. - Modern Style. "Charges may not be used to create abstract or op-art designs". (02/1998)

Twin Moons, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Heart.

This is in conflict with the Order of the Heart of Artemisia since the only difference is the addition of a group name, which the rules specifically excludes as a differencing descriptive element. (02/1997)

Twin Moons, Barony of. Order name l'Ordre du Coeur d'Or.

This conflicts with the College of Cour d'Or. (07/1997)

Tyche Nonanus Saturninus. Name and device. Per bend purpure and sable a compass star of four fretted mascles Or.

The name is being returned for incorrect construction. Presumably this is intended to be some sort of Roman name. It certainly isn't a classical tria nomina, and it doesn't follow any of the later models with which we're familiar, either. The problems begin with the first element, presumably intended as a praenomen. Withycombe (xviii) notes that by the late 2nd c. B.C. only 18 praenomina were still in use: Appius, Aulus, Decimus, Gaius, Gnaeus, Kaeso, Lucius, Mamercus, Marcus, Manius, Numerius, Publius, Quintus, Servius, Sextus, Spurius, Tiberius, and Titus. Birley (14ff) notes that the use of the cognomen didn't really become common until the 1st c. B.C., we can assume that these were the only praenomina available. He goes on to say that by the 3rd c. A.D. the praenomen was hardly used. Thereafter Roman naming became quite erratic, but by far the most common types are single names and <nomen> <cognomen> pairs. The one exception that comes readily to hand is Rubrius Carinus Orientalis, a name found on an intaglio in Britain., but it turns out to be basically of the second type: Rubrius is an attested nomen, or gentilicium, and Carinus is an attested cognomen. Evidently Orientalis here is an agnomen, probably a true byname describing him as an easterner. (A similar construction from the earlier period when the praenomen was still in regular use is Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus.) Now let's look at the individual elements.

Tyche is a Greek word meaning 'good fortune, luck; what man obtains from the gods', also 'chance, fortune, luck (good or bad)'; it's equivalent to Latin fortuna, and both were deified. Lemprière also makes Tyche the name of one of the Oceanides, or sea­nymphs. There's nothing here to suggest that it was used as a personal name, though the Latin Fortuna and its masculine equivalent Fortunus were (Morlet, II:53b). Even if it was, there are still a couple of problems. Morlet says that Fortunus was both cognomen and gentilicium, so it could stand in the second or third place in this name; it does not appear to have been used as a praenomen, and a Greek borrowing is even less likely to appear in the first spot. (It would most likely appear third, as cognomen.) Moreover, Tyche, like Fortuna, is feminine; we don't see a way to justify combining it with the masculine Nonanus and Saturninus. As for these, Solin & Salomies attest Saturninus and Nonianus as both gentilicium and cognomen, but they have Nonanus only as cognomen. Thus, <praenomen> Nonianus Saturninus or <praenomen> Saturninus Nonanus would be fine, but not the submitted version.

If it weren't for the gender problem, we'd suggest Saturninus Nonanus Tyche or Nonianus Saturninus Tyche, with Tyche functioning as a byname somewhat in the manner of Orientalis in Rubrius Carinus Orientalis. However, this doesn't really work here because of the gender problem. If it's the meaning that's important to him, Saturninus Nonanus Fortunatus would be fine.

The device is being returned for a couple of reasons. First, as drawn it violates our rules on "thin­line heraldry". Properly drawn mascles are much thicker than this. Secondly, it conflicts with Thorvald Rodericksson (SCA) [Fieldless] A mullet of eight points concave voided and interlaced Or., as cited on the LoI, with one CD for fieldlessness. (08/1997)

Tymm Colbert le Gard. Device. Per pale wavy azure and sable mullety argent, in dexter a dolphin hauriant contourny argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. The wavy is unacceptable by current standards, being far too shallow, and there are far too many mullets. Finally, we no longer allow combining azure and sable with a complex line of division. (09/1997)

Tyrack of Trinlyr. Name and device. Per fess sable and vert, a winged elephant affronty with wings displayed argent.

The name is being returned for incorrect construction. Most names constructed from ill-attested "themes" given by Searle don't work. The evidence for Tir- is especially unimpressive: five instances of Tirweald (if he hasn t normalized the actual citation), two of them moneyers and therefore quite likely to be foreign, and one of Tirwulf. However, there is some evidence that there were a few rare OE names with this prototheme: Seltén shows ME descendants of both of the names noted by Searle (e.g., Christina Terrewald 1283, Ric. Tirewald 1283; Hugo f. Tirolf 1153-68). Searle doesn t list -ac as a deuterotheme; rather, he lists it as a spelling variant of -heah, to which the reader is referred. This is a genuine OE deuterotheme, but Searle gives no cross-references to names containing it; fortunately, Seltén (II:192) lists ælfheah and Wulfheah. In his article on the latter he cites inter alia Wulfac de Felterton 1209; for the former he has only Rogerus Alfey 1327, to which Feilitzen adds Alfac and Elfac (among many others). From this we may conjecture an OE Tirheah, which might have appeared in ME as Tirac. Furthermore, four of Seltén s five citations for ME reflexes of Tirweald have e instead of i in the first syllable, indicating that the original long i had been first shortened and then lowered to e before the liquid r. Thus, the evidence actually supports Terac a bit better than it does Tirac in the first place. We would be quite willing to register Tirac as a hypothetical early ME reflex of a hypothetical OE Tirheah; We'd prefer not to stretch all the way to Tyrac, and the final k is out of the question.

Reaney & Wilson note a few ME topographical bynames like Hiller "dweller on a hill", Denner "dweller in the valley" (from OE dene "valley"), Fielder (Geoffrey le Felder 1327), etc. S.n. Trendall they cite Ernald Trendel 1177, the byname being OE trendel, used of "woods, wells, hills, earthworks, etc. of circular shape". Smith glosses the OE word "a circle, a ring" and notes that it also occurs as trindel and tryndel. It's a bit hypothetical, but on this evidence we'd be willing to allow the possibility that someone living near a trendel in the 12th c. might have been called tryndeler. Tirac Tryndeler is pretty hypothetical from start to finish, but we would consider registereing it.

The armory is being returned for a redraw. As drawn it is difficult to figure out what the submitted charge is. (09/1996)

Tzvi ben Avraham. Device. Argent, a stag's head erased gules within a star of David, all within an annulet azure.

This is being returned for non-period style. The visual effect of the head is similar to that of a quaternary charge, and the use of one charge to enclose another is rare in period armory. Putting the charge within another charge makes it unregisterable. (01/1997)

Uggedei Mighan Nidun. Badge. (Fieldless) An oriental phoenix rising, wings displayed and tail pavonated, maintaining in its talons a sprig of basil, gules.

This badge had several problems. While blazoned as an oriental phoenix, it is quite similar to a Russian Firebird, and we would have no problem with reblazoning it as one. However, the bird was not in any blazonable position. Please advise the submitter when resubmitting to be avoid conflicting with John Milton (important non­SCA arms) Argent a double­headed eagle displayed gules., and Brandenberg, Argent, an eagle displayed gules, crowned Or. (07/1997)

Uilleam Nial McAndrew. Name and device. Vert, fretty Or, on a chief argent a rose, a rosebud and a rose azure.

The name mixes Gaelic and English orthography in the same name, thereby breaking our rules on name construction. An entirely English version would be William Nial McAndrew. A Gaelic form would be Uilleam Mac Aindriu. Note: the Gaelic form must lose the middle name, since Gaelic does not use double given names. Since no changes were allowed, we must return the name.

The armory is being returned for breaking two different style rules, each in and of themselves grounds for return. First, we do not register rosebuds. Second, by combining rosebuds and roses the submission violates our "sword and dagger" rule, by using two variants of the same charge on the same piece of armory. Armory is used for identification. Using two variants of the same charge in the same piece of armory is visually confusing. (04/1998)

Uilliam MacCloskey. Device change. Ermine, a bear passant, on a chief sable three roses argent barbed vert seeded Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The bear is not clearly a bear, nor any other animal. (04/1999)

Ulfr Raude. Device. Gyronny vert and Or, a wolf rampant gules maintaining a barrel proper.

This conflicts with James the Fox (SCA) Or, a fox rampant guardant gules., and Frank Wutendwolf (SCA) Sable, a wolf rampant gules, fimbriated argent., with one CD in each case for field, and nothing for the maintained charge, head position or fimbriation. (01/1998)

Ulfrikr Bjornssen. Device. Vert, on a plate a wolf's head erased sable.

This is being returned for conflict with Anne of the Golden Mantle (SCA) Vert, on a plate a swan naiant couped on the fess line sable. (12/1996)

Ulric de Dalyhel. Device. Or, a lion rampant gules within a bordure lozengy sable and Or.

This is being returned for conflict with Hapsburg (important mundane arms) Or, a lion rampant gules crowned azure. As no difference is given for the crown there is only one CD for the addition of the bordure. (09/1996)

Ulric de Dalyhel. Device. Or, a lion rampant sable, a bordure lozengy Or and sable.

This conflicts with Flanders (important non­SCA) Or, a lion rampant sable., Buchanan of that Ilk (important non­SCA) Or, a lion rampant sable., and the badge of Thorin Njalsson (SCA) Or, a lion rampant guardant sable, maintaining a claymore proper. Also, the submitter's previous submission of a gules lion on an Or field was returned for conflict. Please advice him that on an Or field an azure lion is also unavailable: Percy, Earl of Northumberland, Or, a lion rampant azure is also protected. On an argent field sable, gules, and purpure are taken. Note: there may be other combinations that are protected; these are just the most obvious. (07/1997)

Ulrich of Rudivale. Device. Quarterly gules and sable, on a bezant a raven displayed, maintaining a sword sable.

This is being returned for conflict with Gwynaeth Math o Ddylluan, Sable, a bezant charged with a raven on a branch bendwise all sable. There is a CD for the field, but there is basically only a change in posture for the tertiaries, which is not enough for the second CD. (07/1996)

Ulrich Schwarzwolf. Device. Sable, on a chevron argent, a double bitted axe between two wolves combattant sable.

This conflicts with Rafaella d’Allemtego Sable, on a chevron throughout argent an escallop vert. (registered 3/99). There is only one CD for the cumulative total changes to the tertiaries. (05/1999)

Ulrike von Retelsdorf. Name.

According to the submitter, Ulrike is the feminine form of Ulrich. Unfortunately, no documentation could be found to support that usage in period. Furthermore, no documentation was presented for Retelsdorf. The LoI said that "[t]here is a town named Rettel found under Rettenbach on p. 392 of (Bahlow-Geographische). While there is a minor difference in the spelling, we consider the name Retelsdorf (Retels Village) plausible given the existence of a town of Rettel. Since no information was given for the derivation of Retels, we have no way of determining if the argument is valid. (04/1999)

Uma, Shire of. Device. Argent, on a pale azure a salmon embowed contourny argent, overall a laurel wreath vert.

This conflicts with King of Caid Argent, on a pale azure, a crescent argent., and College of Blaiddwyn Argent, on a pale gules a wolf sejant affronty argent overall a laurel wreath vert. The first has a CD for the wreath and the second has one for the tincture of the pale, but RFS X.4.j.ii does allow its application in the presence of overall charges (which are not "entirely on the field"); lacking that application there is no CD for type only of tertiary in either case. (01/1998)

Umberto Lodovico Scolari. Device. Per chevron vert and azure, a Da Vinci bicycle and an open book argent.

The Da Vinci bicycle fails to meet the requirements of RfS VII. Compatible Armorial Content. We have no evidence that it was used as a period armorial charge. Therefore it must be justified either as a period artifact, or as an otherwise compatible element. We have no reason to believe that the bicycle was actually constructed in period. The fact that some other Da Vinci artifacts were in fact built does not change this. This leaves only the possibility of ruling it compatible anyway. While elements from period art are sometimes considered compatible with SCA heraldry we see no reason to do so here. (02/1997)

Una of Aire Faucon. Badge. Gules, a bend embowed-counterembowed between two bears statant argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. While the bend was emblazoned as embowed-counterembowed, the embowing was so slight to be barely seen. The embowing must be drawn more boldly. (05/1998)

Una of Aire Faucon. Device. Gules, a wolf rampant contourny ermine, a bordure argent crusily couped gules.

The Glossary of Terms, Table 2, Restricted Charges, notes that the "Red cross on white" may not be used in SCA heraldry because it is the symbol of the International Red Cross which is protected by international treaty. The bordure, white semy of crosses couped gules, is in violation of this restriction. Therefore, we must return this submission. (12/1997)

Ursella of Rowantree. Device. Per saltire sable and vert, four suns in splendor in cross Or.

This conflicts with Lucius Mandefort Sable, in cross three compass-stars and a brazier enflamed to chief Or. There is a CD for the field, but nothing for changing the type of one charge in a group of four suns and nothing for the difference between suns and compass stars. (07/1998)

Vaclav Bily. Badge. (Fieldless) A lozenge gules.

We can do no better than to quote Baron Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, as Laurel on the subject of fieldless badges:

Fieldless badges consisting only of forms of armorial display, such as escutcheons, lozenges and delfs, are not acceptable since in use the ``shield'' shape does not appear to be a charge, but rather the field itself. This presents an entirely different armory for view. (Stephen Wolfe, September, 1993, pg. 25) Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme.

Since lozenges are used as armorial display, this would be the equivalent of registering a plain tincture, which we do not do. (01/1997)

Valentina Andreyevna Sokolova Krasnaya. Household name for House of the March Hare.

This conflicts with Barony of the Middle Marches Order of the March Hare. Since House and Order are transparent, these two names are identical. (11/1997)

Valley of the Three Walls, Canton of the. Name and device. Per fess sable and vert, a fess embattled-counter-embattled and in chief a chalice within a laurel wreath Or.

The name is being returned for clarification of the groups wishes. While submitted as a new name, in February 1999 we registered Canton of the Three Walls for the group. Note: this return has no bearing on the suitability or lack there of, of the name Canton of the Valley of the Three Walls.

The armory is being returned for a redraw. While blazoned as a laurel wreath, the charge in chief was not identifiable as any heraldic charge. (05/1999)

Van of Vest Yorvik. Name and device. Per chevron inverted embattled purpure and Or, a griffin salient Or and two swords in chevron inverted crossed at the hilts sable.

This is being returned because Van is not a first name. While documented from Dauzat, Dauzat says:

"Van, prépos flamande correspondant à de, marquant l'origine (allem von). ..." That is to say it is "a preposition corresponding to de marking a locative [origin of the person] (also von)...not a first name.

We found no problems with the armory, and would have registered it, but there was no legal name on the form to use to construct a holding name. (01/1998)

Vanessa of Tempio. Badge. Per pale sable and vert, a pair of barnacles inverted Or.

This is being returned for conflict with Alric of Castleburg's (SCA) badge. Sable, a pair of barnacles inverted Or. There is one CD for change of field. (07/1996)

Varinka of Eversly. Name and device. Purpure, an angel and on a chief argent, three saltires couped purpure.

While the combination of Russian and English names is registerable under our rules, no documentation was presented, and none could be found by the College, that Varinka was a period given name. Since the submitter would not take a holding name, we are forced to return the name. (03/1997)

Vasilla Anastasiia syna Ioannova Krasnoiskaia. Name and device. Per pale sable and argent, a rabbit rampant counterchanged.

The name is being returned for multiple problems in construction. To quote Escutcheon:

The double Xian given name is a weirdness but registerable. The rest of the name is not registerable. The genitive use of "syn" (son) must appear after a masculine name or patronymic also in the genitive case. Thus, "Ioannova syna" might have worked but not "syna Ioannova." What makes this confusing is that "doch’" (daughter) could have appeared either before or after the patronymic. Almost always, the genitive form of a man’s patronymic (which is what "Ioannova syna" would be) would appear with the man’s given name as well. This would also be in the genitive case, thus the name Vasilla Anastasiia Mikhaila Ioannova syna might be registerable, but it is awkward. As for the final element, this is simply incorrectly constructed. The masculine adjective for "red" is Krasnoi and the feminine is Krasnaia (you do not just throw "skaia" on the end of adjectives to make them feminine). Vasilla Krasnaia would be a fine name. However, there is a final problem: having decided to place her father’s/husband’s name on hers (in the genitive), you cannot simply go back to the nominative form again. Two options: her significant male is named Ioannov syn Krasnoi, in which case, her name could be Vasilla...Ioannova syna Krasnogo or she drop the patronymics out altogether and goes for the simpler Vasilla Krasnaia I mentioned above.

OK, to summarize. The registerable name closest to what was sent in would be Vasilla Anastasiia Ioannova syna Krasnogo. The most period name would be [Vasilla or Anastasiia] Ioannova [syna Krasnogo or doch’ Krasnaia]. Do the patronymic OR the descriptive byname would be best.

The armory is being returned for a redraw. While the blazon had the rabbit counterchanged, in fact an outline of the rabbit was drawn in the contrasting tincture, with the rabbit actually being the tincture of the field. This violates our rules on contrast, thin line heraldry, and identifiability. (01/1999)

Victor of Shrewsbury. Household name for House Orsorgnes.

The submitter wanted an Anglo-Saxon name meaning House Ostentiousness. However, this name in either English or Anglo-Saxon, does not follow any period exemplars for Household names. RfS III.2.b.iv. notes that "Household names must follow the patterns of period names of organized groups of people. Possible models include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart)." (04/1997)

Victoria of Lochlann. Device. Argent goutte d'larmes, two flaunches vert, overall a natural rainbow proper.

While it is acceptable to charge flaunches, the flaunches here are not charged; the rainbow surmounts them. Surmounting flaunches is not allowed by many Laurel precedents. "It was ruled some five years ago that flaunches should not be surmounted by charges (Wilhelm von Schlüssel, April, 1983) and we see no reason to reverse that ruling." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 23 April 88, p. 16) (See also: LoAR 21 May 89, p. 24; LoAR 27 Aug 89, p. 20). We see no reason to reverse this precedent. (03/1998)

Victoria von Rohrbach. Badge. (Fieldless) A sheaf of two peacock feathers proper bound by a ribbon gules.

This is being returned for a redraw. The feathers are not clearly palewise or bendwise sinister. No one could come up with a blazon which will adequately reproduce the emblazon, which is a requirement of RfS VII.7.b. (01/1999)

Vidar Oxenstierna. Device. Gules, an ox's head cabossed, a bordure argent.

This conflicts with the Shire of Stierbach Gules, a bull's head cabossed within a bordure embattled argent. There is a CD for the removal of the complex line from the bordure, but nothing between an ox’s head and a bull’s head. (02/1999)

Vilhelm Borsbane. Name change from Vilking Jöfursbani.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for Vilhelm and for Borsbane. While the LoI asserted that Vilhelm is found in Withycombe, we were unable to find it there, or in any other source. No documentation was found for the form Borsbane as well. (03/1999)

Virginia, Commonwealth of. Arms. Argent, a cross gules between four escutcheons (respectively: quarterly France and England, Scotland, Ireland, and quarterly France and England), each crowned Or.

No evidence was presented for these being the state's arms versus their seal. (05/1999)

Virginia, Senate of. Arms. Argent, on a cross gules between four escutcheons (respectively: quarterly France Modern and England, Scotland, Ireland, and quarterly France Modern and England), each crowned Or, a gavel argent.

No evidence was presented to show that these arms were important enough to protect. (05/1999)

Viviana Eucheria l'Indòmabile. Device. Argent, a butterfly sable.

This conflicts with Constance von Messer (SCA), Argent, a butterfly azure marked proper., and with Lessa of the Wierde Beasties, Argent, a monarch butterfly (monarchus monarchus) displayed proper., with one CD in each case for the color of the butterfly. (07/1997)

Viviane of Essex. Device. Quarterly azure and gules, a cross throughout between in bend two mullets argent and in bend sinister two roses Or.

This is being returned for violating our rules on marshaled armory. Two relevant precedents on the subject are:

[Returning Quarterly . . . a cross between in bend two <charges> and in bend sinister two <other charges>]. This device submission violates Rules for Submission XI.3. Marshalling. "divisions commonly used for marshalling such as quarterly or per pale, may only be used in contexts that ensure marshalling in not suggested." The fillet cross was often used on marshaled arms and thus the cross here does not remove the appearance of marshalling. LoAR 12a/93, p. 16

[Quarterly gules and argent in bend two <As> argent and in bend sinister two <Bs> vert, overall a cross sable.] "Given that crosses overall were not infrequently used in marshaled arms in period, this has every appearance of the marshaled arms of [Gules an <A> argent and Argent a <B> vert]." [The submission was returned for this reason.]LoAR 11/91, p. 16.

This submission is being returned for exactly the same reasons as those in the exemplars. (04/1998)

Vivienne du Lac. Name.

This conflicts with The Lady of the Lake, whose given name in much Arthuriana is Viviane. (02/1999)

Vladislav de Jaffa. Device. Argent, a paw-print counter-ermine.

This conflicts with Igor Medved (SCA) Argent, a bear’s dexter paw print azure., with one CD for tincture of the paw-print. (01/1997)

Volker Ælfwine sunnu. Name.

No evidence was presented, and none could be found for Volker as a given name. Absence such documentation the name must be returned. (05/1998)

Walram von Laufenberg. Badge. (Fieldless) A flame gules, winged argent, surmounted by the blade of a sword proper.

While blazoned on the LoI as (Fieldless) Between a pair of wings argent a sword proper blade enflamed gules., we have reblazoned to more accurately reflect the emblazon, as "Period enflamed has a few gouttes of flame scattered around the edge of the charge being enflamed. Where the flame completely surrounds an object, that object is said to be 'on a flame.'" (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1992, p. 26). "We don't permit flaming fimbriation in Society armory." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, 24 July 1993 Cover Letter (with the June 1993 LoAR), pp. 5-6).

This means that this must be returned for violating our rules on overall charges in fieldless badges. They are only permitted where the area of intersection is small, which is not the case in this instance. (05/1998)

Walraven van Nijmegen. Device change. Bendy Or and gules.

While blazoned on the LoI as Or, it was actually colored orange. Since orange is not an heraldic tincture this must be returned. (06/1998)

Warrick. (Fieldless) A ragged staff argent.

While Laurel personally feels that this badge is important enough to protect, the College did not agree. (01/1998)

Wealdsmere, Barony of. Badge for the Order of the Golden Acorn. Azure, three acorns conjoined at the stems in pall inverted Or within an orle of eight oak leaves in annulo argent.

This is being returned for violating the rule of tincture. The oak leaves are not argent, but sable marked argent. Sable leaves on an azure field violate the rule of tincture. (01/1998)

Wendel Weller. Device. Or, a well sable, on a chief rayonny gules, three bat winged badgers sejant affronty, wings displayed and inverted, argent.

This is being returned for violation of RfS VII.7.a. [Identification Requirement]. The bat winged badger were unidentifiable as anything but amorphous blobs. (07/1996)

West, Kingdom of the. Badge. [Fieldless] An annulet of oak leaves conjoined argent.

This is being returned for conflict with the Order of the Laurel (SCA) (Tinctureless) A laurel wreath. Period Laurel wreaths can be drawn as a closed wreath, and they can be drawn with leaves looking remarkably like the submitted form as in the Arms of Lenberg, Siebmacher, plate 90 (Or, a laurel wreath vert), blazoned in Rietstap as D'Or, à une couronne de laurier de sin. (01/1997)

West, Kingdom of the. Badge. [Fieldless] An annulet of oak leaves conjoined Or.

This is being returned for conflict with the Order of the Laurel (SCA) (Tinctureless) A laurel wreath. Period Laurel wreaths can be drawn as a closed wreath, and they can be drawn with leaves looking remarkably like the submitted form as in the Arms of Lenberg, Siebmacher, plate 90 (Or, a laurel wreath vert), blazoned in Rietstap as D'Or, à une couronne de laurier de sin. (01/1997)

Westgate, Canton of. Device. Per bend invected azure and argent, a tower argent and a laurel wreath vert.

This conflicts with Shire of Dismal Fogs Per fess azure and argent, issuant from the line of division a tower proper and in base a laurel wreath vert. There is one CD for the difference in the fields, but nothing for the forced difference in position of the two towers. (03/1998)

Wieland Wickram. Device. Azure, on a pale between two compass stars argent a bird close perched on a sledgehammer and in base an anvil sable.

This is being returned for slot machine. The bird, the sledgehammer and the anvil are three dissimilar charges in a standard arrangement. (08/1996)

Wiesenfeuer, Barony of. Badge. (Fieldless) An annulet of flames proper.

We no longer register annulets of flames. While it is true that the use of an annulet of flames is grandfathered to the group, what they have registered is a single tinctured annulet, not with two colors as with this. (12/1998)

Wilfrid de Ackelonde. Device. Checky sable and argent a dragon rampant gules.

This is being returned for administrative reasons. No mini-emblazon was included on the LoI. (03/1999)

Wilhelm Baumhecker. Badge. Vert, a stump Or.

This conflicts with Huette Aliza von und zu Ahrens und Mechthildberg Vert, a tree blasted throughout Or. There is, at best, a CD between a tree blasted and a stump, but not complete difference of charge. (08/1998)

Wilhelm Cameron von Holstein. Household name for Haus von Holstein.

This conflicts with the Duchy of Holstein which has its own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica, and is therefore important enough to protect. (01/1997)

Wilhelm von Adlersheim. Device. Sable, an eagle rising Or.

This conflicts with Anne Gaverel d'Avesor (SCA) Sable, a peregrine falcon close belled and jessed Or, orbed gules, maintaining in dexter foot a fountain., John of Ravenwolf (SCA) Sable a raven speaking Or, beaked and membered argent. and Amron the Stygian (SCA) Sable, a hawk volant to sinister, wings aventred Or., with the only CD in each case for position of the bird, and with Eve Nightstalker (SCA) Azure, an owl striking Or, beaked and membered argent, orbed sable., with one CD for the difference in the fields. (09/1997)

William A' Becket. Device. Gyronny azure and argent, eight fleurs-de-lys in annulo counterchanged.

This is visually in conflict with Bess Haddon of York (SCA), Gyronny azure and argent, on each gyron a quatrefoil counter-changed. When the two emblazons were compared from across the room, both heralds and non-heralds at the meeting had trouble telling the charges apart. (02/1997)

William Atwode. Change of device. Gules, a demi­griffin erased reguardant Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. While blazoned on the LoI as a demi­griffin, it was not identifiable as a demi­griffin, but looked more like a eagle in a non­blazonable position. (07/1997)

William Blacwode. Name and device. Azure, on a pale argent three trees in pale sable.

The name conflicts with William Blackwood, a Scottish publisher from the early 19th century. He has his own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica, and therefore is important enough to protect.

The armory conflicts with Corrmacc na Connacht Azure, on a pale argent, a sword inverted gules., Barony of Illiton Azure, on a pale argent a mermaid erect affronty proper, scaled Or, crined vert maintaining in her right hand a trident bendwise sinister and in her left and upraised hand a grey granite tower proper, and in base a laurel wreath vert., and Guatemala Azure, on a pale argent a wreath vert surmounted by two rifles bayonets fixed surmounted in base by two sabres in saltire proper all surmounted by an open scroll palewise argent charged with the words LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 Or and perched thereon a quetzal bird vert bellied gules. In each case there is just the single CD for changes to the tertiaries. (03/1998)

William de Clarence. Name.

This name conflicts with Duke William of Clarence, who later reigned over England as William IV. The armory was registered under the name William of Dragonship Haven. (05/1997)

William Geoffrey the Rogue. Device. Ermine, a wingless griffin segreant contourny a bordure sable.

This conflicts with Helmut zu Jülich Quarterly gules and Or, a lion rampant contourny within a bordure sable., As drawn there is no visual difference between the wingless griffin and the lion. (05/1998)

William le Loup. Device. Or, a sword inverted, surmounted at the tip by a cup sable, a chief wavy vert.

This is being returned for a redraw. No one could come up with a blazon that would accurately reproduce the emblazon. (10/1998)

William le Red of Storvik. Device. Per pale argent and gules, a three headed python displayed affronty counterchanged.

This is visually in conflict with David FitzJames le Rouge (SCA) Per pale argent and gules, a bat-winged tower counterchanged. In both cases what you see is the counterchanged wings, with the tall slender central figure being absorbed into the background. (01/1998)

William MacAndro. Device. Azure, a claymore inverted, on a chief argent four decrescents vert.

This conflicts with Patrick Cei MacBrian (SCA), Azure, a sword palewise inverted, and on a chief enarched argent, three trefoils slipped azure., with one CD for the change to the tertiaries and nothing for the enarching which was considered an artistic variant in period. (07/1997)

William MacGregor. Device. Ermine, on a pale sable a dexter gauntlet clenched apaumy Or.

This conflicts with Karl Adler der Reisender Lozengy gules and Or, on a pale sable, a dexter gauntlet appaumy argent., which gets a CD for the field but nothing for tincture only of the tertiary (the clenching is an artistic detail which does not contribute difference). (05/1998)

William of Weir. Badge. Azure, a cross crosslet fleury argent.

This is being returned for conflict with Greece (important mundane armory), Azure, a cross couped argent, and the Eureka Flag (important mundane armory), Azure a crux stellata argent. In both cases there is a CD between the crosses, but not a complete difference of charge. (07/1996)

William Taylor the Pure. Device. Per pale purpure and vert, a bear s leg issuant from base, maintaining a clay pot, Or.

This is being returned for unidentifiability. The clay pot, since it is of the same tincture of the bear's paw, makes the entire charge look like some sort of strange tower from a distance. If the pot was a different tincture from the bear's leg, we would consider registering it. (09/1996)

William the Bashful. Device. Gules, three piles inverted conjoined in point Or, in chief a cloud argent.

This is being returned for non­period style. To quote from Baldwin of Erebor as Laurel:

"A medieval pile is approximately one­third the width of the chief, and is always throughout ­­ it resembles a tapered pale more than anything else. ... A pile inverted does the same thing from the bottom up." [Baldwin of Erebor, Cover Letter, 10 October 1984, p. 2] "A pile should extend most if not all the way to the base; properly drawn, there would not be enough room for a charge ... to fit between the pile and the base." [Baldwin of Erebor, LoAR 16 December 1984, p. 18]

The piles here fall afoul of this long­standing precedent. (07/1997)

William Wilde. Badge. (Fieldless) A rose sable jessant-de-lys argent

This is being returned because no miniature emblazon was included on the LoI. Even if the miniature had been included this would have to have been returned. You cannot have an item jessant-de-lys if it doesn't have a mouth. If the submission is considered to be (Fieldless) A fleur-de-lys argent overall a rose sable,, it breaks our rules on fieldless style. (02/1999)

William Wilde. Badge. (Fieldless) An owl's head erased affronty argent.

This conflicts with Serena Lucia of the Peacemakers Gyronny vert and or, a snowy owl's head erased affronty proper (Nyctea scandiaca). and Merric of Stormgate (Fieldless) an owl's head cabossed argent, maintaining in its beak a candle fesswise azure, lit at both ends proper. In both cases there is a CD for fieldless, but nothing for the difference between a snowy owl's head proper and argent, or for the sustained candle. (06/1998)

Windale, Shire of. Device. Argent, chaussé azure, in pale a laurel wreath vert and an aeolus azure.

This conflicts with Eleanora Valentina Beota Azure on a pile ployé argent, a hummingbird rising, wings elevated and addorsed, vert. Windale's device is equivalent to a charged pile. As such it gets naught for ployé and only one CD for changes to the tertiaries. (01/1999)

Windale, Shire of. Name and device. Argent chaussé azure, in pale a laurel wreath vert and an aeolus azure.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. No name forms were received and no petition was received. Without a petition showing group support, the submission must be returned. (08/1998)

Windy Valley, Shire of. Name and device. Azure chaussé argent, in pale a laurel wreath vert and an aeolus azure.

Unfortunately, this isn't formed like a period place-name. If the group wants a name that refers to wind, they might wish to consider Windale or Winden(e), the latter containing OE denu `valley' rather than ON dalr `valley'. Since the name was returned, we are forced to return the armory, since we do not create holding names for groups. (05/1997)

Winefrid of North Lake. Device. Azure, a tree blasted and eradicated between three escarbuncles, two and one, argent.

This conflicts with Susan of Forgotten Sea (SCA) Azure, a tree blasted and couped Or between three escarbuncles argent., with one CD for changing the tincture of the tree. (03/1997)

Wittanhaven, College of. Badge. (Fieldless) An open scroll argent charged with a pine tree eradicated vert.

This conflicts with Stonemarche, Barony of (Fieldless) An open scroll argent fretty vert. The fretty is a charge equivalent to a single fret and the scroll has an outline complex enough that it does not qualify under RFS X.4.j.ii. (01/1998)

Wolfker der Jäger. Device. Per bend barry sable and Or and checky sable and Or, on a bend Or fimbriated three fleurs­de­lys palewise gules.

This is being returned for breaking the rule of tincture, by having a metal on a metal. The gules fimbriation lies entirely on sable on the checky side, and on an equally divided sable and Or field on the other, making the field the fimbriation lies on primarily sable. Additionally, the combination of two different complex fields is not only inadvisable, but without documentation for it being done in period, it will be considered a weirdness. (10/1997)

Wulfric de Balliol. Device. Argent, a jester statant arms upraised inverted motley, in chief three roundels gules.

This is being returned for violating VIII.1.b. ­ Armorial Balance. Armory must arrange all elements coherently in a balanced design.

Period armory usually places the primary elements of the design in a static arrangement, such as a single charge in the center of the field or three identical charges on an escutcheon. More complex designs frequently include a central focal point around which other charges are placed, like a chevron between three charges, but the design remains static and balanced. Designs that are unbalanced, or that create an impression of motion, are not compatible with period style.

This submission definitely creates an impression of motion. Nor is this the only problem with the submission. It violates our style rules, by inverting an animate object. It also has a technical count of nine, because of the many different tinctures which are used in the motley. This could also be grounds for return. (08/1997)

Wulstan of Ravenswood. Badge. Vairy vert and Or, a raven contourny sable.

This conflicts with Morgan ni Lochlainn Gyronny gules and argent, a raven close to sinister sable, armed and membered Or. and Susan of Ravenhill Or, a raven statant to sinister proper grasping a broken tilting-spear banded sable and gules. In each case the only CD is for the field. (03/1999)

Wulstan of Ravenswood. Household name for House Ravensrook.

The earliest dated example of rookery in the OED is from 1725. Since that is after our period, it cannot be used in an SCA name. There are other period forms that would be acceptable, for instance Ravenhurst. (04/1997)

Wyvern's Lake, Shire of. Name and device. Per saltire, azure and argent, in pale a dragon's head erased and a laurel wreath argent.

No documentation was presented for the use of Wyvern in a place name, and none was found by the College. Barring such documentation, the name must be returned. Since we do not form holding names for groups, the device must be returned as well. (12/1998)

Yakoub Kadar. Device. Per chevron azure and vert, a chevron Or between two swans rousant respectant argent and a mullet of eight points Or.

This is being returned for a redraw. The swans are not rousant or naiant but something halfway between which blurs the distinction between the two. Therefore, we are returning this so the swans can be clearly drawn as one or the other. (12/1998)

Yasha Ivanovich Romanoff. Name and device. Argent, a double-headed eagle displayed gules maintaining in each claw an egg, charged on the breast with an Orthodox cross Or, in chief a beribboned egg gules charged with a mullet of eight points Or.

The name is being returned for violating VI.3 of the rules - Names Claiming Specific Relationships.

Names that unmistakably imply identity with or close relationship to a protected person or literary character will generally not be registered.

Explicit claims to descend from a particular person, such as Edwin fitzWilliam Marshall or Rhys ap Cariadoc of the Bow will not be registered.

Since both Ivan V and Ivan VI of Russia were Romanovs, Yasha Ivanovich Romanoff is a claim to being either one's son and forbidden by our rules.

In a similar instance, Master Bruce as Laurel said:

[Juan Sanchez Ramirez] The name also infringes on Sancho I Ramirez, King of Aragon in 1063 and of Navarre in 1066 (Louda & Maclagan, Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, table 45). Sanchez is the patronymic form of Sancho (being the genitive case; it means literally ``of Sancho''), so the name is a claim of descent, prohibited under Rule V.5. (Juan Sanchez Ramirez, September, 1992, pg. 45).

The armory is being [returned] for violating our rules on style. The beribboned egg is unidentifiable and unreproducible. Furthermore, we have not allowed ribbons as charges for several years.

The issue of presumptuousness was raised in regards to the entire submission. It is our opinion that if the name was registerable the entire submission would violate XI.2. Presumptuous Armory. The rule states:

Charge and Name Combination - Armory that asserts a strong claim of identity in the context of the submitter's name is considered presumptuous.

Some otherwise permissible names and armorial elements cannot be used together because joining the two creates too strong an association with famous individuals from myth, literature, or history. For example, while Rhiannon can be used as a given name, and horses can be used as charges, the two cannot be used together as it suggests the Rhiannon of Welsh myth. Similarly, charges that merely allude to a specific name on their own may become presumptuous if several such charges are used.

The problem here is not any one charge, but the combination of everything. The name, the eagle, the cross and the egg push this submission over the edge. (01/1998)

Yasmin al­Shillaliyyah. Device. Per chevron vert and azure a chevron and in base a dragonfly argent.

This conflicts with Katla von der See (SCA) Per chevron enhanced vert and azure, in pale a chevron throughout and a gull volant argent., with just one CD for type of charge in base but nothing for the "enhancement". (08/1997)

Yasmin bint al­Shandi. Name.

No paperwork was received for this submission, so we must return the name. (08/1997)

Yedaya Magdiel. Device. Vert, an elephant passant argent caparisoned purpure.

This conflicts with Andrew Castlebuilder, Per chevron purpure and Or, overall an elephant trumpeting passant proper, on its back a carpet purpure fimbriated Or supporting a tower argent masoned sable. There is a CD for field, but nothing for removing the small argent tower which lies totally against the yellow field. (09/1997)

Yin Mei Li. Badge. (Fieldless) A cluster of Arabian jasmine flowers proper.

As drawn it is difficult to identify and difficult to blazon in a manner that will allow reliable reproduction. Furthermore, it is not clear from the documentation that this is a period breed of flower. Please remind the submitter that fieldless badges must have the charges touching. (03/1998)

Yin Mei Li. Badge. (Fieldless) An octofoil per bend sinister azure and argent.

This conflicts with the tinctureless mon of the Emperor of Japan (Tinctureless) A chrysanthemum. There is one CD for tinctureless, but that is the only difference. (02/1999)

Yin Mei Li. Device. Per bend sinister argent and azure, an octofoil within eight octofoils in annulo all conjoined and counterchanged.

This is being returned for breaking our style rules by having the same charge as both a primary and a secondary charge. (02/1999)

Yin Mei Li. Device. Per bend sinister argent and azure, in bend a cluster of arabian jasmine flowers azure and a cluster of Arabian jasmine flowers proper.

As drawn it is difficult to identify and difficult to blazon in a manner that will allow reliable reproduction. Furthermore, it is not clear from the documentation that this is a period breed of flower. (03/1998)

Yin Mei Li. Name.

There are two problems with this name. V.B.2.d clearly says "Summary of Supporting Evidence — A summary of all supporting evidence provided for the submission must be included on the letter of intent. Such evidence includes documentation, permissions to conflict, proofs for entitlement, statements of support for transferred items, evidence for support in the case of branch submissions and, in the case of resubmissions or appeals, a history of previous submissions to the College of Arms, including the dates and grounds for previous returns. Where possible, the letter should include specific references (including page numbers) to all supporting documentation." The summary provided was inadequate for the College to judge the documentation. Furthermore, the documentation was for the name Yin Mo Lei, with a handwritten note that says "All instances of 'Mo" should be read as "Mei" and all instances of Mo definition (Jasmine) should be read as Mei definition (Beautiful)." While there is a lot of documentation for Yin being a period Chinese name, the documentation for Mo Lei is, at best, scanty, and when the name becomes Mei Li, there is effectively none. (05/1997)

Ysabeau Lambert. Device. Or, an angel statant affronty azure maintaining a sword inverted proper and a chief flory counter-flory azure.

Unfortunately, the effect of the flory counter-flory line of division was to put three gold fleur-de-lys on a blue chief, making it a chief of France. We do not permit more than two gold fleurs on a blue background, since that is how augmentations of France were done in period. Using a different line of division, or a different tincture would fix this problem. (01/1999)

Ysabel Natalia Osorio de León. Device. Per chevron purpure and vert, two lions combatant Or and a chalice argent.

This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn it is not Per chevron purpure and vert... but rather Purpure.....a point pointed vert. That puts a vert point on a purpure field which breaks the rule of tincture. (01/1999)

Ysabella de Montrose. Device. Quarterly Or and sable, in dexter chief a rose proper.

This conflicts with the House of Lancaster A rose gules. There is one CD for fielded vs. fieldless, but nothing for position on the field versus a fieldless badge or for the tincture of the barbs and seeds. (08/1998)

Zahra bint Talib. Change of Holding Name from Iris of Bryniaid.

This is being returned for lack of paperwork. No forms were received. (10/1998)

Zahra Safiya. Name.

While both elements of this name are registerable on their own, the combination has problems, best explained by al-Jamal.

Both [names] (in all the sources) are feminine ism's, or given names. Now, if she wants "Zahra daughter of Safiya", in Arabic that would be Zahra bint Safiya. The difficulty with this, of course, is that Safiya is a feminine name, and matronymics are so vanishingly rare in Arabic as to be considered unregisterable.

"Unfortunately, Rabi'ah is feminine, and the use of metronymics does not appear to be part of Arabic naming practice. Neither does the use of two given names; both practices have been grounds for return in the past (Aliyah bint Leyla, Middle, 4/94 LoAR; Nasr Hasan ibn Muhammad Abdullaziz, Calontir, 11/93 LoAR). We recommend that she drop one of the given names and replace Rabi'ah with a masculine name." (Talan Gwynek, LoAR August 1995, p. 19)

The name as submitted, however, also has other difficulties. Arabic appears never to have used double given names. "Submitted as Triq Yazd, both elements of this name are ism's, or given names. Period Arabic cultures did not do this, and the usage has been grounds for return in the past (Nasr Hasan ibn Muhammad Abdullaziz, Calontir, 11/93 LoAR). We have added ibn, making him the son of Yazîd; Târiq ibn Yazîd." (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1997, p. 16)

"Unfortunately, none of the Arabic-speaking peoples seems to have used double given names, and this practice has been grounds for return in the past (Nasr Hasan ibn Muhammad Abdullaziz, Calontir, 11/93 LoAR)." (Talan Gwynek, LoAR October 1995, p. 18)

Given that "the language and sound" are "considered most important" by the submitter, and that the form and construction are entirely inconsistent with period practice for Arabic names, I am at a loss to make meaningful recommendations. I do not find a period given masculine name which comes close to Safiya in sound, nor do I believe we can simply "masculinize" Safiya to create a patronymic; this would leave us with Safi, the first element in one of the titles of the Prophet Muhammad, Safi Ullah. The initial element alone does not appear to have been used as a given name on its own. (12/1997)

Zarges Rüdi. Name.

This is being returned for lack of documentation for the given name. The LoI documented Zarries and Zacharias, not Zarges. Since there was no documentation on the given name and no one could provide any, we are forced to return the name.

The armory was registered under the holding name Chad of One Thousand Eyes. (08/1998)

Ziegfried Gunter von Wieselburg. Household name for Haus Godwiesel.

This is being returned for violating RfS III.1, by combining two different languages, the of Middle English god and the German Wiesel in the same word. Moreover, the existence of Middle English bynames of a particular type is no guarantee that bynames of that type existed in German as well. (04/1997)

Zoltán the Magnificent. Name.

This is being returned for violating VI.1 ­ Names Claiming Rank: Names containing titles, territorial claims, or allusions to rank are considered presumptuous. This combines a name meaning sultan with an epithet which was most often applied to individuals of extremely high status. Here, two individuals come almost immediately to mind: Lorenzo de' Medici, called Lorenzo the Magnificent, and the Turkish sultan Suleyman, called by his own people "the Lawgiver", but almost universally elsewhere, Suleiman the Magnificent. While documentation showing Zoltán to be a period name was provided, in combination with "the Magnificent" (effectively, Sultan the Magnificent) takes it beyond the bounds of acceptability. (06/1997)

Zophar Dragon. Badge. (Fieldless) A wooden dragon headed staff proper.

This is in conflict with a badge belonging to the Barony of Storvik (Fieldless) A wooden drakkar’s prow proper., with the only difference being the automatic difference we give for fieldless armory. (04/1997)

Zuzanne od Suwalki. Name.

No forms were received for this submission so it must be returned for lack of paperwork. Please inform the submitter that the Polish word od is only one of the words for "of." Far more common with town names is the Polish word z. However, the rules on whether to use z or od depend on the nature of the word. Furthermore, after od or z, the word must be put into the genitive case. Far more common are the adjectival forms (ending in -ski/-ska [masc/fem])

One grammatically correct form of the name would be "z Sulwakl." However, this sounds odd and would probably be better, as Hoffman (79) notes, as Suwalski (fem Suwalska). Therefore, the best form would be Zuzanne Suwalska. (06/1998)

Return to the Precedents Index Page




Jump to Precedents main page
Jump to Laurel main page



maintained by Codex Herald

This page was last updated on Sunday, April 17th, 2016 @ 03:54 pm CDT

The arms of the SCA Copyright © 1995 - 2017 Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.