PRECEDENTS OF THE S.C.A. COLLEGE OF ARMS

VOLUME II - The Tenure of Karina of the Far West

Compiled and edited by Baldwin of Erebor
Second Edition February XVIII (1984)
HTML markup and minor emendations by Maggie Griggs
Several pages combined into one by Lindorm

Contents [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X] [Y] [Z]


A Disclaimer and Preface, an Introduction and a Reference List are available.

Table of Contents


INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION

BACKGROUND

In November of 1976, Karina of the Far West published a 26-page booklet of heraldic precedents of the SCA College of Arms. The document was a collection of excerpts from Laurel letters, ordinaries, minutes, and other such sources, organized into categories. Mistress Karina's intention was to use this body of material, together with the comments of her predecessors in the Laurel office, as the basis for a codification of the rules of SCA heraldry. This project, unfortunately, never reached fruition.

In June of 1980, I published two companion volumes to Mistress Karina's collection of precedents. These collections were drawn from the Laurel letters of acceptance and rejection, and covered the tenure of Karina of the Far West and the first year of the tenure of Wilhelm von Schlüssel.

Volume one of the Laurel Precedents was compiled in haste. As Mistress Karina said in her cover letter, "It is incomplete, sketchily cross-indexed, and occasionally mis-alphabetized; let me know what else is wrong with it." Some of the quotations were also inaccurate, and others were attributed incorrectly.

My own volumes didn't fare much better. I allowed myself too much liberty in editing quotations, over-categorized the quotations I selected, and sometimes failed to include enough of the original context for the quotations to make sense. I also missed several letters from Mistress Karina's tenure; and the subsequent flow of rulings from the Laurel office has rendered my volume on Master Wilhelm's tenure almost obsolete.

The second edition of Precedents of the SCA College of Arms is an attempt to correct many of the flaws of the first edition. The present volume has been recompiled from the original sources, in hopes of producing a document that is both accurate and useful.

ABOUT PRECEDENTS

A precedent is an action or decision "that may be used as an example in dealing with subsequent similar cases." The Laurel Precedents documents are founded on the philosophy that heraldic decisions should, whenever possible, be based on previous decisions. Every decision should, of course, be made on the basis of the best information available at the time; but once a specific practice has been adopted or rejected, the precedent set thereby should not be lightly disregarded.

Knowledge of SCA heraldry can be derived from four sources: (1) the Rules for heraldic Submissions, (2) policy statements made in the Laurel correspondence, (3) explicit comments made on submissions that have been processed, and (4) the submissions themselves.

The Rules for Heraldic Submissions have the advantage of being explicit, but they cannot be comprehensive; one still needs to know how the rules are to be applied. Policy statements are often more directly applicable than the rules, but they, too, require substantiation. Comments made on submissions provide immediate examples, but the reader may have difficulty determining the general principle from a single instance, particularly when the comments are sparse or inaccurate. The submissions themselves are the most accurate gauge of what has been approved, but they are not readily accessible, and they cannot explain why a specific action was taken, particularly in the case of a rejection.

The Laurel Precedents documents are drawn from the second and third of these sources. They are made up of quotations from the formal correspondence of the Laurel Sovereign of Arms. They are a codification, in the words of the persons who made the decisions, of what has been called the "case law" of the SCA College of Arms. The Precedents do not replace the Laurel letters as a source of information, but they can make that information more accessible, by presenting those portions of the Laurel letters that seem best to explain SCA heraldic policy, selected, categorized, and edited.

SELECTION

The quotations in the Laurel Precedents documents were chosen because I felt they (1) conveyed SCA policy, (2) clarified obscure points, (3) demonstrated the use of terms, or (4) expressed the attitude of the Laurel Sovereign who made them. If two quotations said approximately the same thing, I generally chose the one that said it better; if they were of equal merit, I usually chose the earlier one; but if they differed in nuance, or contradicted each other, I tried to include both of them.

CATAGORIZATION

In categorizing the quotations, I have laid a great deal of emphasis on relevance. In general, a quotation appears under a subject heading only if it is relevant to that topic. Omnibus categories (such as MONSTER) tend to include quotations that apply to the category as a whole. Rulings applying to a single element of a general category (such as CHIMERA) appear under the heading of that element only. This differs from my policy with the first edition, which was to include a quotation under both the general and the specific subject headings.

I have identified several topics, which I have termed issues, under which I have attempted to assemble enough quotes to constitute a general discussion of the topic at hand. ARTISTIC LICENSE, for example, attempts to show what freedoms (and limitations) we have given the herald painter; DIFFERENCE is made up of expositions on points of difference; and SHIELDS ON SHIELDS contains various rulings on apparent augmentations, inescutcheons, and arms of pretense.

EDITING

The editorial standards for the second edition are higher than they were for the first. My goals in editing the quotations in the second edition have been accuracy and clarity. The idea has been to convey the text of each quotation as accurately and completely as possible, while noting or correcting obvious errors, and omitting material that is not relevant to the general sense of the quotation.

Each paragraph in the Laurel Precedents represents a separate quotation. The implied speaker is the Laurel Sovereign of Arms whose letter is being quoted. In the handful of cases where Laurel has quoted someone else directly, I have enclosed the quote in double quotation marks and given the initials of the speaker, in square brackets, at the end of the quotation.

Omissions from the beginning and end of a quotation have been done silently. Anything left out of the little has been market with an ellipsis ("..."). Obvious typographical and spelling errors (including errors in capitalization) have been corrected without comment. Most other emendations have been enclosed in [square brackets].

Editorial changes have been made for the following reasons:

  1. To provide additional contest for a quotation.

  2. To correct simple errors in typography, spelling, grammar, and word usage.

  3. To replace specific terms with generic ones. When the name of a charge or tincture was not pertinent to the current topic, I usually replaced it with [charge] or [tincture]. This was done to make the general sense of the quotation clearer.

  4. To guard the identity of the person whose submission was being discussed. When the name of the person was not relevant to the topic, I generally replaced all or part of the person's name with one of the letters N. or M.
In addition, I have annotated a number of the quotations, to clarify obscure points or refute inaccurate or misleading statements. In each case, the comments follow the citation and are enclosed in square brackets.

No effort has been made to standardize the spelling of words appearing in the Laurel quotation. American and British spellings were freely mixed in the originals, and you may find several different spellings of any given heraldic term (cotise, for example). So long as I could find a citation for a given spelling, I used it.

Because the machine on which these documents were prepared does not recognize French accents, I have had to adopt non-accented spellings for some of the heraldic terms. I have usually used the English -y form, if one could be found. Contourné has thus become contourny, semé and semée have both become seme, vêtu has been represented by vetu, and so forth.

CITATIONS

Each quotation is identified in the document by the initials of the person being quoted, the date of the source document, the entry number of the document in the reference list, and the page number on which the quotation occurs.

For example,

refers to a quotation by Karina of the Far West occurring on page two of Laurel letter number 23, which (as can be determined with the help of the reference list) was a letter of rejections dated 20 November 1978.

REFERENCES

Spelling was checked using the UNIX program spell. I also consulted the following references in the course of editing this volume:

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin, new college edition 1976.

The American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin, second college edition 1982.

Jost Amman and Hans Sachs. The Book of Trades (Ständebuch). Dover Publications, 1973. Reprint of 1568 edition.

J. P. Brooke-Little. Boutell's Heraldry. Frederick Warne, revised edition 1973.

The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. Two volumes. Oxford University Press, 1971.

Rodney Dennys. The Heraldic Imagination. Clarkson N. Potter, 1975.

Julian Franklyn. Shield and Crest: An Account of the Art and Science of Heraldry. MacGibbon and Bee, third edition 1967.

The New Columbia Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press, 1975.

James Parker. A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry. Charles E. Tuttle, 1970.

Mary-Claire van Leunen. A Handbook for Scholars. Alfred A. Knopf, 1979.

Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. G. & C. Merriam Company, second edition 1960.

John Woodward and George Burnett. A Treatise on Heraldry, British and Foreign, with English and French Glossaries. Charles E. Tuttle, 1969.


DISCLAIMER

This is not a publication of the Society for Creative Anachronisms Inc., or of the S.C.A. College of Arms, and does not delineate official policy. It is an independent compilation made for scholastic purposes.

First edition, June XV (1980).

Second edition, February XVIII (1984).


PREFACE TO VOLUME TWO

"The original College of Arms did not begin by writing rules and then judging applications according to them. Rather, we first gave our personal reactions to applications, and then found reasons for them."
Karina of the Far West "Precedent: In Law, a previous decision, rule or practice which, in the absence of a definite statute, has whatever force and authority a Judge may choose to give it, thereby greatly simplifying his task of doing as he pleases."
Ambrose Bierce Volume two of Precedents of the SCA College of Arms deals with the tenure of Mistress Karina of the Far West, who held the office of Laurel Queen of Arms from August 1975 through June 1979.

Mistress Karina corresponded extensively with the members of the College of Arms, individually as well as collectively. I have limited my sources for this document to the letters she wrote to the College as a whole. As illuminating as some of her non-public letters are (I have, for example, had to forego an opinion on the use of a marijuana leaf as an heraldic charge), they do not have the weight of a proclamation or final ruling, and would be misleading if taken from their original contest.

Many heralds are familiar with Mistress Karina's reputation for stubbornness and her penchant for sarcasm. Evidence of both is to be found in the contents of this volume. If the reader also finds signs of her wit and erudition, and of the high standard she set both for herself and for the College, then I will have done my job well.

The format of this volume differs in a couple of ways from that of Volume III. The most obvious difference is that it was printed with an elite type element; the corresponding changes to the layout will (I hope) make the pages easier to read. I have also added the date of the source document to each citation. This practice is at odds with the model I have been following, but it gives the reader a better idea of when a particular ruling was made, and it simplifies the proofreading enormously.

The notation [HB], which follows several of the entries in this volume, indicates a comment made by Master Harold Breakstone, Laurel Emeritus, whom Mistress Karina appointed to the office of Clarion King of Arms. His comments were quoted directly in a number of the Laurel rulings. Other people quoted were MacCailavaghn of MacRae, Codex Herald Advocate, and Master Alfgar the Sententious, Brigantia Herald and later Virgule Herald.

The revised edition of Precedents II owes much to Master Hrorek Halfdane of Faulconwood and Mistress Aelfwynn Gyrthesdohtor, both of whom read the manuscript in draft and suggested numerous improvements. I am also grateful to Master Wilhelm von Schlüssel, who filled in the holes in my collection of letters from Karina's tenure.

Baldwin of Erebor


A-LA-QUISE

A-la-quise (i.e. a la cuisse, "with the thigh"), means that the entire leg is shown. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 8)

ABSTRACT SYMBOL

Badges may have letters and numbers. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 5)

[Nefr.] This isn't a stringed instrument, but an Egyptian hieroglyphic meaning "heart and windpipe." (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 9)

Flags follow the rules for arms, not badges, so no letters are allowed. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)

ABSTRUSE

I am aware of the "Golden Section" and "Golden Rectangle" of mathematics, but neither is found in the Oxford English Dictionary or the 11th Britannica. Therefore I consider the concept too abstruse for heraldry. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 6)

ACORN

An acorn "proper" would be all one color. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 16], p. 9)

The acorns should be drawn in natural size relative to the leaves. They have long stalks, and the leaves have short stalks. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 34)

AEOLUS

[Aeolus.] The winds are to be drawn in profile, NOT in trian aspect. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 30)

AESCULAPIUS

Try to avoid anything too reminiscent of the staff of Aesculapius. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 12)

ALEMBIC

The drawing shows a modern retort. An alembic that has been used in heraldry is illustrated on p. 372 of Parker's Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 3) [The entry in Parker is under limbeck. The charge does not even resemble a retort; it looks like some sort of lattice.]

ANNULET

What you have is not a torse but an annulet corded gules and or. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 69)

ANVIL

For an in-period anvil see Jost Amman's BOOK OF TRADES. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 64) [The anvil shown in the illustration for "Der Schmitt" (p. 80 in the Dover edition) has a single horn.]

ARM

Blazon the charge "an arm vested of a maunch"; the sleeve is more commonly empty. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 16], p. 10)

[Infant's arm.] It has pudgy fingers, hence the infant designation. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 27)

ARRONDI

The change from arrondee to arrondi returns the verb to its proper [conjugation]. (KFW, 30 Jan 76 [2], p. 1)

ARTISTIC LICENSE

The epithet "friendly," meaning with portcullis open, is not heraldic and is a matter between N. and his local artist. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 2)

The bordure was submitted "of Celtic knotwork", which isn't heraldry. But she may diaper the bordure in and way that pleases her ... (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 7)

The artist may be instructed to show the foot raised, but it would not be a point of difference and is omitted from the blazon. Besides, an animate charge should be "in the noblest attitude," not limping! (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 28)

Artistic license allows delineation of the mane in or and face in sable. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 39) [The delineation was therefore not blazoned.]

AUGMENTATION

The way you have the laurel wreath on a roundel, it looks like someone's personal device with an augmentation of the Society (not accepted in current usage). (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 65)

AVENTRED

"Aventred" (French ventre, belly) means that the wings extend downward: cf. addorsed. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 6)

BADGE

Badges, including household badges, are borne on roundels, not heaters or any other shape. (KFW, 21 Apr 76 [4], p. 3)

Badges may have letters and numbers. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 5)

Why do you need a badge? Baronial officers are entitled to wear the arms as heralds do, aren't they? (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 1)

[A quatrefoil knot.] This is what badges ought to be like -- not secondary coats of arms! (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 2)

The badge is scarcely heraldic, but then a badge needn't be. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 7)

Households with a royal charter ... may have arms; others are restricted to badges. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 9)

You need not actually name any color for a badge; why not drop the field color? (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 10)

I don't mind how many badges you have, but please, one name and one device per body! (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 6)

I can do no better than to quote Lord Codex again: "This sounds more like the crest of an Ugandan General. Are you sure this is a BADGE?" A badge is the sort of thing you use to mark your possessions, small children, faithful retainers, and other tourneyside kipple. It should be simple. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 15)

The conclave decided that since this is a badge the difference in gender and markings of the animals is sufficient. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 4)

You can't put the heralds' crossed trumpets on a badge. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 66)

There should not be badges for the lower offices. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 66)

We cannot register [this] until we have the name of an individual, by default that of the head of household, to register it to. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 74)

BAGPIPE

Goats (wild) range from dirty white to black ... The color of the bag must be specified because the bags are usually goatskin. (KFW, 30 Jan 76 [2], p. 4)

BAGWYN

The bagwyn is variously described in my sources as "early sixteenth century," "hard to give an instance," "a supporter." It's a fine-looking monster but I'm afraid it's out of period. Could you settle for a plain old antelope? (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 15) [At this time, the cutoff date for charges was 1485 "Early sixteenth century" was thus out of Period.]

BALISETTE

A balisette is a musical instrument in Frank Herbert's DUNE, which makes it out of period by at least several millenia. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 74)

BEAR

The term "sejant", in the case of bears and pandas, means sitting erect with the forepaws raised. (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 4)

BEAST

The artist may be instructed to show the foot raised, but it would not be a point of difference and is omitted from the blazon Besides, an animate charge should be "in the noblest attitude," not limping! (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 28)

BELL

"Bell" alone means a church bell. "Oriental bell" would mean a temple bell. "Dancer's bell" would mean Morris-dancer's bell unless otherwise specified. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 6)

BEND

Ld. Codex disapproves pungently of a bend "indented to sinister" so as to look like a flight of steps. "A bend is an Ordinary of Arms, not a staircase." (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 15)

Codex would rather we used "cotised" than "costed," though for a bent the latter therm is technically correct. (KFW . 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 3)

BHARAT

[Bharat peacock.l This is from an Indian painting. "Bharat" is Hindi for "India." (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 9)

BIRD

"Stooping" means that the bird is seen affronty, its wings addorsed and its talons extended as if about to pounce on something. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 1)

Statant close is the default position for birds. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 5) [According to Parker, the eagle is an exception, being by default displayed.]

BLAZON

We do not use numbers [e.g. "of the second", but repeat the word. (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [7], p. 4)

Resubmit with correct blazon. Your "Cross-crosslet stitchee" is familiar to the rest of us as a cross-crosslet fitchy, but no one would have known it without seeing the drawing. Thus it has not effectively been circulated to the Kingdom heralds. (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [7], p. 6)

If not otherwise specified, the [charge] would be aligned with the bend. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 7) [The charge is on the bend.]

This isn't heraldry. "Arched - counterarched - arched" is not proper blazon, nor is "per fess wavy of two crests." Please re-do it so it can be blazoned in standard terms. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 14)

The [charges] are three, two, and one. This is the default position for six of any reasonably compact shape on a heater. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 14)

see also ARTISTIC LICENSE

BOOK

The book should be drawn flat in the plane of the device. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 12)

BORDURE

Your device cannot have a colored bordure on a colored field. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)

The bordure is a mark of Scottish cadency, and without it, this is too close to [mundane arms]. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 72)

BOREAS

The Boreas in the emblazon is in trian aspect, which is late and not used in Society heraldry. It must be either full face or in profile. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 66)

BROWNIE POINTS

The practice of awarding Brownie points is discontinued. It was originally a merely oral expression of approval (or the reverse), but a too-literal member of the West College assumed that they were recorded. This idea spread to some of his correspondents ... Don't worry ---- I will note strong reactions to devices! (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 1)

If I were giving brownie points, this would rate -25 for Ugly. (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 4)

BUSY

see COMPLEXITY

CABOSSED

You can't have a collar if the head is cabossed; there's no neck to hang it from. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 63)

CADENCY

Why the label? N. has a label on his arms because he hoped to recruit his father into the Society (never happened); M. used his father's already registered arms with a label. A label means "eldest son of ..."; it isn't just a pretty charge. Give me a logical reason for the label and I'll reconsider. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 9)

Because a chief as the only difference implies a family connection, your arms are not sufficiently different from these and others. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 68)

The bordure is a mark of Scottish cadency, and without it, this is too close to [mundane arms]. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 72)

see also MARSHALLING

CARTOUCHE

Males and females are not required to register their arms on heater and lozenge shape respectively, but may use either shape. Cartouches, on the other hand, are not suited to either ladies or gentlemen in the Society, having been used chiefly by Princes of the Church. (KFW, 21 Apr 76 [4], p. 3)

Do not use a cartouche shape. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 1)

Cartouches are reserved for the Pharaoh. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 56)

CAT

The context ... shows that this is a domestic cat rather than a "catamount," a term loosely applied to several wild species of Felis and Lynx. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 9)

[A cauldron and a domestic cat in its curiosity.] That is, the cat is standing on its hindpaws, its forepaws on the rim of the cauldron, and is peering in. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 6)

[Cat-a-mountain.] This is the European wildcat, similar to the house cat. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 6)

"Catamount" in heraldry generally means the Scottish wild cat, which resembles a large alley cat. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 33)

CELTIC HOUND

Celtic hounds [proper] are brown. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 1) [A Celtic hound appears to be one drawn with stylization of the sort found in Celtic manuscripts.]

CENTAUR

If it were a "sagittary" it would have had a bow and arrow. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 9) [A sagittary (L. sagittarius, "an archer") is traditionally depicted as a centaur drawing a bow to release an arrow.]

CHAIR

A curule chair is a kind of folding camp-stool, having curved legs and no sides or back. Its use was a mark of great distinction. (KFW 29 Oct 76 19], p. 3)

CHALCEDONY

There is no "proper" for chalcedony. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 60) [Chalcedony is a variety of quartz. It occurs naturally in a number of different colors.]

CHAMPAINE

I will ask Lord Codex about the current status of the division variously called "champaine" (Parker) and "urdy" (Boutell). (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 10) [The query was apparently to determine whether or not the line of partition is in period. I have found no record of a response.]

CHANGE OF DEVICE

It has been pointed out to me that once a King has granted arms to a subject, they cannot be altered at will. Accordingly, when anyone wishes to alter such arms, it will be necessary to obtain royal permission in writing. This should be from the king currently on the throne, rather than from the former king who originally granted the arms. Also, it is not necessary for the details of the alteration to be approved by the king; he simply gives leave to the College to make an alteration ... Any new scroll of arms desired by the applicant will have to be negotiated with the local College of Scribes. In such a case, the royal signature would of course be that of the former king, and the date of issuance would be unchanged ... and of course none of this is necessary in the case of a change in the device of a non-armigerous person. (KFW, 10 Apr 78 [19], p. 1)

Since the College of Heralds of [kingdom] chose name and device for her, she may change either or both without charge if she desires. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 10)

CHECKY

Checky follows the laws of tincture. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 15)

CHEVRON

[Chevronelly sans nombre argent and gules.] The highest number Parker mentions for a field chevronelly is seven. This is seventeen, counting partials; hence "sans nombre." (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 3) [Sans nombre is French for "without number."]

CHIEF

Because a chief as the only difference implies a family connection, your arms are not sufficiently different from these and others. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 68)

CHIMERA

The classical chimaera has the head of a lion, the body of a goat (with the goat's head rising out of the middle of the back, whereas the lion head is attached to the shoulders in the normal manner), and the tail of a serpent, or sometimes a tail which is a serpent. Your chimaera appears to have a two-headed lion's body, the dexter head that of a lion and the sinister that of a goat, and a tail which is a serpent. Can you provide documentation for this as an "oriental" chimera? Or would you prefer to use the classical model? In the latter case, the beast should be passant or otherwise seen from the site, so as to display its interesting anatomy. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], pp. 8-9) [Descriptions of the chimera vary from one source to the next. Of the dozen or so definitions I consulted, no two were identical in all particulars.]

CHOUGH

The chough is heraldically defined and genus and species can be omitted. It resembles a crow but has red beak and feet. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 7)

CINQUEDEA

A cinquedea is a large dagger "five fingers broad," sixteenth century Italian. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 6)

CLARICORD

Clarion being not a trumpet but a claricord, sufflue, or organ-rest. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 2)

CLARION

Clarion being not a trumpet but a claricord, sufflue, or organ-rest. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 2)

CLOCKWISE

Deasil means clockwise, or sunwise. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 7)

CLYDESDALE

The Clydesdale horse is in period. (KFW, 21 Apr 76 [4], p. 2)

The Clydesdale is a recent version of the rough-legged draft horse. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 5)

COLLAR

You can't have a collar if the head is cabossed; there's no neck to hang it from. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 63)

COLUMN

Corinthian columns are forbidden, so also other classic orders. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 8) [The classical orders (styles) of architecture are Corinthian, Doric, and Ionic, to which the Romans added Tuscan and Composite.]

COMET

A comet can't be a gurges. (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 2)

COMPASS

The arc-shaped piece is only found on cheap compasses; see the drawing for Der Astronomus in Amman's Book of Trades (p. 21, Dover ed.); also Parker p. 131. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 4) [The reference is to a drawing compass.]

COMPASS ROSE

A compass-rose is probably all right ... but what you have here is much too complex for any heraldic charge of our period. Please simplify. According to THE AMERICAN PRACTICAL NAVIGATOR (Nat[h]aniel Bowditch, 1966 et. p. 23), a compass rose of twelve points was common usage in the Middle Ages and ancient documents testify to wind roses of four to twelve winds. If you want more than twelve you will have to provide documentary proof. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 59)

COMPASS STAR

We have already passed several "compass-stars," a term invented for the very common Society charge of "a mullet of four greater and four lesser points." (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 59)

COMPLEXITY

Much too busy. Remember, Society arms are supposed to be recognizable across a tourney field. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 12)

This is so busy as to defeat the purpose of heraldry. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21],

Unless there is a very good reason we dislike tertiary charges, as they are too small to see from a distance. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 60)

Generally, these arms are too crowded; medieval heraldry is simple and easily recognizable. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 68)

COMPONY

"Counter compony" is "compony of two rows," usually used of bordures. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 35)

CONFLICT

Device and one of the badges probably conflict with an early Curtiss-Wright patent. (UN, 30 Jan 76 [2], p. 7)

He [Lord Codex] has also pointed out that normally the heralds of each nation are not concerned with similarities to arms registered in another nation; indeed, there are constant duplications between Scotland and England. Thus it is not necessary to consult Rietstaap; we will ignore Continental heraldry altogether. (KFW, 10 Jan 78 [17], p. 1)

In the matter of members who disappear: The majority opinion is that their devices should be protected fully, and if they cannot be found to give consent to a device that may slightly infringe their own, we should assume that consent has been refused. (KFW, 15 Nov 78 [22], p. 3)

We all recognize that beautiful piece of jewelry; there are people making a living out of selling reproductions of it; in some senses it is copyright and in others it is in the public domain, and you cannot register it. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 70)

see also NAME - CONFLICT

CONTRAST

The blue [charge], though technically color on fur is admissible, vanishes against the black background of the pean. Try again. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 63)

Even by calling it "proper" you can't put green on blue and black; IT VANISHES FROM SIGHT, which is what the laws of tincture are all about. (KFW. 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)

A death's head is by default argent. If you are trying for the natural yellowish ivory of minimally weathered bone, this is too close to your field or. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 69)

A lion proper is tawny, and will not show up on a field or. There is no brown lion such as appears on the emblazon. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 79)

CONTREVOIDED

"Contrevoided" means the arms of the cross are voided and the center is solid. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 7)

COSTED

Codex would rather we used "cotised" than "costed," though for a bend the latter term is technically correct. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 3)

COTISE

Codex would rather we used "cotised" than "costed," though for a bend the latter term is technically correct. (POW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 3)

COUNTER

"Countervolant" means "volant to sinister." (See "Counter" in Parker for examples such as counter-rampant.) (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 6)

COWARD

"Sufflexed" means "bent under." If it were "coward" the tail would be between the legs. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 10)

CREATIVE HERALDRY

We hereby define the riven star as that which you will find in the accompanying picture. To define it is one Niflheim of a lot simpler than to blazon it. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 36) [In Norse mythology, Niflheim was the lowest region of the underworld, ruled by Hel, goddess of the dead.]

[Cross of Samildanach.] The blazon submitted was incomprehensible to anyone who had not seen the emblazon, so when we could not describe it we named it. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 38)

Manticores have no wings. If you want a manticore, you may have one. If you want a winged manticore, we can enter a new category of monster. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 74)

CRESCENT

Victorian whimsy strikes again. We to not use crescent moons with faces. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 7)

A crescent moon must be blazoned as an increscent or a decrescent repenting on its phase, and does not show a face. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 70)

CROSS

[Cross griffee-de-loup.] Griffee-de-loup means "wolf-clawed." (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 9)

The cross of Jerusalem may be drawn with the plain crosslets inside or outside the cross potent, but they should not touch its arms ... With the arms touching ... the design is unclear and likely to be confusing at even a short distance. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 7)

"Contrevoided" means the arms of the cross are voided and the center is solid (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 7)

The patriarchal cross does not imply he has that rank. The only such cross we ever forbade for that reason is the Papal. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 8)

A Cross of Jerusalem in the S.C.A is a cross potent between four crosslets. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 16)

[Cross of Coldharbour.] This is a cross throughout, conjoined with an annulet centered thereon. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 23)

[Cross of Samildanach.] The blazon submitted was incomprehensible to anyone who had not seen the emblazon, so when we could not describe it we named it. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 38)

There are numerous versions of the Cross of Jerusalem. This is not any of them. Crosslets do not touch the cross potent. Blazon "a cross potent between four crosslets" or whichever other you want. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 73)

CROWN

Brigantia is right; "dancetty" is not the right term for the crown. (KFW, 17 Dec 76 [12], p. 1) [It was blazoned as "a crown of three points" instead.]

Crowns are at the disposal of Kingdoms and Principalities. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 18)

Crowns; sun disks, and so on are reserved to royal arms. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 62)

CUP

The cup and serpent are a symbol of pharmacy. (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 2) [The combination, known as a Bowl of Hygeia, is therefore reserved.]

CURIOSITY

[A cauldron and a domestic cat in its curiosity.] That is, the cat is standing on its hindpaws, its forepaws on the rim of the cauldron, and is peering in. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 6)

CURULE

A curule chair is a kind of folding camp-stool, having curved legs and no sides or back Its use was a mark of great distinction. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 3)

Please remember that curule is an adjectives It can also refer to a team of horses, a city official, etc. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 5)

CYMBAL

A dumbeg is a drum, zils are finger cymbals, both used by belly dancers. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 3)

DANCETTY

Brigantia is right; "dancetty" is not the right term for the crown. (KFW, 17 Dec 76 [12], p. 1) [It was blazoned as "a crown of three points" instead.]

Dancetty has three points. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 2)

DEASIL

Deasil means clockwise, or sunwise. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 7)

DEATH'S HEAD

A death's head is by default urgent. If you are trying for the natural yellowish ivory of minimally weathered bone, this is too close to your field or. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 69)

DEBRUISED

Rewrite your blazon so as to avoid the term "debruised", which is properly used for animals; "surmounted" for non-animals. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 64)

DEER

A hart is a male red deer over five years old. Appropriately branched antlers should be shown to identify it. The animal shown here has no antlers, and would have to be blazoned a hind (female red deer). (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 2)

DELINEATION

Artistic license allows delineation of the mane in or and face in sable. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 39) [The delineation was therefore not blazoned.]

DEMON

[Horned demon's head.] It's the famous grotesque from Notre-Dame, sometimes incorrectly called a gargoyle. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 4)

DETAIL

"All this orbed, langued, crined, armed or whatever incidental, only makes 1/2 of a point of difference COMBINED." [Codex] (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 15)

The conclave decided that since this is a badge the difference in gender and markings of the animals is sufficient. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 4)

DIAPERING

The bordure was submitted "of Celtic knotwork", which isn't heraldry. But she may diaper the bordure in any way that pleases her (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 7)

DIFFERENCE

"All this orbed, langued, crined, armed or whatever incidental, only makes 1/2 of a point of difference COMBINED." [Codex] (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 15)

The conclave decided that since this is a badge the difference in gender and markings of the animals is sufficient. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 4)

Because a chief as the only difference implies a family connection, your arms are not sufficiently different from these and others. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 68)

see also CONFLICT

DIMIDIATION

I know of no historic example of quarterly dimidiation, and this submission shows how undesirable it is. In any case dimidiation is a combination of two separate coats. In the SCA this would be permitted to husband and wife, or to their children (with marks of cadency), after both have registered separate devices. Individuals may not use marshalling otherwise. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 7)

This is clearly two coats dimidiated. Start over. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 9)

DISMEMBERED

Inform him that there is not as extensive and multiple dismemberment as is shown on the emblazon. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 25)

DOCUMENTATION

You will have to send me photographs of these weapons before I believe them. (Lord Breakstone's lady says that they would make attractive Dungeon artifacts. So they would, but we aren't playing Dungeons and Dragons, we're playing at being lords and ladies. (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [7], p. 5)

Resubmit with a brief description, and let the other heralds in on it. (Thank you for sending me the documentation.) (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 12)

I will not pass or otherwise put my name to anything I don't understand. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 7)

We need documentation on the [charge]. I can recognize the general cultural and artistic style but I need something more specific: a reference on exactly where the original is found; a photograph would be nice. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 8)

They have provided pages of documentation for the yale, which otherwise we would be inclined to consider out of period. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 20)

We recommend Jost Amman's BOOK OF TRADES (available from Dover Paperbacks) ... Generally speaking, any piece of technology you cannot find in Amman is probably out of period! (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 71)

DOG

Celtic hounds [proper] are brown. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 1) [A Celtic hound appears to be one drawn with stylization of the sort fount in Celtic manuscripts.]

DOLPHIN

Please clarify whether you want a heraldic or a natural dolphin; the heraldic dolphin is a prickly beast looking rather like a rock cod with delusions of grandeur. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 69)

DOOR

"Port" means "door." (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 3)

DRAGON

"Webbed" refers to the [tincture of the] webs between the toes. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 2)

Serpents do not have legs; shall I blazon this a "dragon serpentine"? (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 10)

The south end of a dragon going north is not a suitable subject for heraldry. You could have a dragon's tail emerging from a cave or from behind a rock ... or a dragon's tail couped and served on a platter for Twelfth Night. But not a dragon's fundament escaping over a wall. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 9)

DRUM

A dumbeg is a drum, zils are finger cymbals, both used by belly dancers. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 3)

A dumbec is a drum used in Middle Eastern music; it can be made of all kinds of materials and cannot be "proper." (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 7)

DUMBEC

see DRUM

DUMBEG

see DRUM

EAGLE

Even with three heads that is much too much like the Imperial Eagle. A triple-headed eagle was reserved for the Holy Roman Emperor. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 63) [The first sentence suggests that the word "triple" in the second sentence is a mistake for "double."]

ELF-BOLT

An elf-bolt is a flint arrowhead, concerning which there were numerous superstitions. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 8) [The charge was allowed.]

EMBATTLED

A fess, if embattled, is embattled on both sides. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 3)

EMMANCHE

Emmanche is not English heraldry (cf. Parker). (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)

ENDORSE

The width of an endorse is the same at top and bottom. Endorses are normally borne in pairs. (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [7], p. 5)

You can't have a single endorse; see Parker's GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN HERALDRY under Endorse and Cottice. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 65)

ENFIELD

Putting wings on an enfield does not make it legal. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 10)

ENGLISH HERALDRY

We don't use quarterly in equerre ... I doubt if it's English heraldry; it certainly isn't in Parker's glossary. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 8) [It's Continental. See Woodward's A Treatise on Heraldry, p. 82 and plate V, fig. 11.]

The nesselblatt (nettle-leaf) is a charge, not a bordure, and in any case it's German heraldry, not English. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 7)

We use English heraldry because we speak English. I do not claim that ours is in any way superior to other systems of heraldry. It is merely that we can research it most easily. We do need to stick to a single system; we would be far too confused if we tried to use them all at once. (KFW, 15 Nov 78 [22], p. 2)

Emmanche is not English heraldry (cf. Parker). (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)

EQUERRE

We don't use quarterly in equerre ... I doubt if it's English heraldry; it certainly isn't in Parker's glossary. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 8) [It's Continental. See Woodward's A Treatise on Heraldry, p. 82 and plate V, fig. 11.]

ERECT

[Sea lion erect.] Only four-legged creatures may be "rampant. " (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 2)

ERMINE

We will henceforth use the names ermines (sable, spotted urgent), erminois (or, spotted sable) and pean (sable, spotted or). (KFW, 10 Jan 78 [17], p. 3) [The term ermines was later abandoned for the established SCA usage counter-ermine.]

To qualify as counter-ermine, the emblazon should have more than the six tails shown. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], pp. 30-31)

ESCUTCHEON

see SHIELDS ON SHIELDS

EXCEPTION

This lady is recovering from a serious gunshot wound. Her application was lost in transit a year ago, and has not appeared on a letter of intent. I am passing it provisionally, after consulting Lord Clarion, since her friends believe that a rapid acceptance will aid her recovery. (W. 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 5)

FATIMA

"Dea" means Goddess. The hand of Fatima with an eye symbolizes All-seeing God. Taken together they are inadmissible. Change one or the other. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 10)

FESS

A fess, if embattled, is embattled on both sides. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 3)

FIMBRIATION

The device is iffy the use of fimbriation to avoid metal on metal is legal, but not really advisable; the device will be indistinguishable at a dozen paces, which is why the rule of tincture was formulated. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 60)

FLAG

Flags follow the rules for arms, not badges, so no letters are allowed. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)

FLAUNCHES

This was submitted as "... four flaunches ..." Flaunches, however, represent the sides (flanks) of an undergarment showing beneath a sideless surcoat. Since the shape as drawn suggests a stylized hide, I am using that as the name of the main charge. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 6)

Flaunches are always borne in pairs. (KFW, 18 Aug 77 [15], p. 2)

The flaunches must be of one color, not two. They represent "flanks," that is, sides, of an under-robe which is seen through the openings of an open-sided surcote. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 3)

FOOT

"Member" means its foot. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 4)

The artist may be instructed to show the foot raised, but it would not be a point of difference and is omitted from the blazon. Besides, an animate charge should be "in the noblest attitude," not limping! (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 28)

Counter-vair is out of period (first attested 1766, O.E.D.). (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 11)

Vair must be composed of one metal and one color. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 10)

We will henceforth use the names ermines (sable, spotted argent), erminois (or, spotted sable) and pean (sable, spotted or). (KFW, 10 Jan 78 [17], p. 3) [The term ermines was later abandoned for the established SCA usage counter-ermine.]

To qualify as counter-ermine, the emblazon should have more than the six tails shown. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], pp. 30-31)

The blue [charge], though technically color on fur is admissible, vanishes against the black background of the pean. Try again. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 63)

FUSILY

[Semy of fusils.] The blazon has been altered from "fusily," which signifies a tesselation, analogous to "checky." (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 3)

GARGOYLE

[Horned demon's head.] It's the famous grotesque from Notre-Dame, sometimes incorrectly called a gargoyle. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 4)

GEM

Gems should be shown top-view. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 9)

GENUS AND SPECIES

The chough is heraldically defined and genus and species can be omitted. It resembles a crow but has red beak and feet. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 7)

The order and family are of little use to me. Please give the genus. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 9)

I have assigned the genus and species names on the basis of the drawing; please inform if it's some other species. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 6)

It's not necessary to give genus and species of lion, as they are not "proper." (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 9)

Please specify the genus and species of lizard: though they are not "proper", the artists will need to know what kind of lizard to draw. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 14)

We will have to have the genus and species of the pine cones proper. They could be roundish and purple (Pinus albicaulis); narrow oval and light brown (P. attenuate); oval-to-oblong and reddish to yellow-brown (P. halapensis) - to name only a few possibilities. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 1)

Genus and species is necessary for living things blazoned "proper." (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 3)

GLADIUS

A gladius is a Roman shortsword. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 7)

GOAT

Goats (wild) range from dirty white to black so we have to specify a "brown goat proper." (KFW, 30 Jan 76 [2], p. 4)

GORE

Codex says in classical heraldry a gore is never charged; very well, in SCA heraldry it may be charged and this is a point in which SCA differs from mundane heraldry. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 3)

GOUTTE

Drops almost invariably follow the rule of tincture in English heraldry, and in Society heraldry we have (I believe) no exceptions (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [7], p. 6)

In order to make our blazons intelligible to the Lyon Office, we will adopt the standard names for roundels and drops of the various colors. (KFW, 10 Jan 78 [17], p. 1)

There is not, so far as I know, a name for purple drops. (KFW, 10 Jan 78 [17], P. 3)

Codex says that goutee need not follow the rules of tincture and this fimbriation isn't necessary. If you want to drop it, let us know. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 6)

GRANDFATHER CLAUSE

The Barony already has the same object on its arms, registered 'way back in 1973, but this was done in ignorance and I don't want to compound the error. I would like the Barony to try to bring the arms into line with proper heraldic usage too if possible. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 15)

GRIFFEE-DE-LOUP

[Cross griffee-de-loup.] Griffee-de-loup means "wolf-clawed " (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 9)

GRIFFIN

Opinicus was first attested in 1780; probably a corruption of Ophiuchus, "serpent." (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 10) [Karina's source appears to have been the OED. Rodney Dennys, in The Heraldic Imagination, cites examples in 1556 and 1561. This would still have been considered out-of-period, since 1485 was the cutoff date for charges as well as practices.]

[Hawk's head.] Note that a hawk doesn't have external ears. If you want what you have in the emblazon, with external ears, then it's a griffin. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 35)

GRIPPING-BEAST

Gripping-beast is a general term for a wide variety of creatures which grip themselves or each other. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 2)

GURGES

A comet can't be a gurges. (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 2)

GYRONNY

Gyronny is of eight by default, but Codex would prefer we said "of eight" anyway. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 4)

HAMMER

[Mjollnir-pendant.] Even on stones, the hammer is placed haft-up as a decorative element, and head-up only when held in Thor's hand. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 3)

HAND

"Dea" means Goddess. The hand of Fatima with an eye symbolizes All-seeing God. Taken together they are inadmissible. Change one or the other. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 10)

Lord Breakstone informs me that the hand charged with the eye is an occult or magical symbol, not suitable for heraldry. (KFW, 18 Aug 77 [15], p. 2)

The hand, incidentally, is fisted, palewise, knuckles in chief, its back to the viewer. All this seems to be default. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 6)

The Hand of Ulster is the mark of a British baronet. While in the Society we to not have baronets, let alone marks of them, outsiders would be mightily confused. Lord Virgule points out that the Hand of Ulster is one of the few heraldic charges that a mundane layman might recognize. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 73)

HART

A hart is a male red deer over five years old. Appropriately branched antlers should be shown to identify it. The animal shown here has no antlers, and would have to be blazoned a hind (female red deer). (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 2)

HAWK

[Hawk's head.] Note that a hawk doesn't have external ears. If you want what you have in the emblazon, with external ears, then it's a griffin. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 35)

HEAD

It has been pointed out that one cannot determine, heraldically, an animal's sexual status by its head alone. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 2)

The head is not identifiable as a giant's, since different charges are not necessarily to the same scale. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 6)

You can't have a collar if the head is cabossed; there's no neck to hang it from. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 63)

HEATER

Males and females are not required to register their arms on heater and lozenge shape respectively, but may use either shape. Cartouches, on the other hand, are not suited to either ladies or gentlemen in the Society, having been used chiefly by Princes of the Church. (KFW, 21 Apr 76 14], p. 3)

HEPTACLE

see STAR POLYGON

HERALDS

Since the delay has been so long, I am granting this, but only to be used as is the badge of the College in the Middle Kingdom to wit, as a seal. Most titled pursuivants and heralds in the West have individual seals. The sole emblem of his particular office worn by a herald in the West is a disc-shaped pendant with crossed trumpets and the name of his office (e. g. Vesper, Green Cloak.) (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 5)

May be used as a seal, but not on garments. A herald wears the crossed trumpets, and may wear the arms of the King, Prince or Baron whose voice he is, but no arms or badge of his own. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 8)

This badge is not to be worn on clothing; wear the arms of the Barony and the crossed trumpets of the College. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 5)

When the College of Arms was first established, it was assumed that it would be no more than a central registry office; that the essential checking, correcting and rejecting would all be done at the Kingdom level and everything submitted to this office would be ready to be accepted. How I wish it could have worked out that way. (KFW, 18 Aug 77 [15], p. 2)

The laurel wreath is not suitable for the seal of a branch herald. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 8)

You can't put the Heralds' crossed trumpets on a badge though you can have the crossed trumpets, plus the given Herald's title, made up on a medallion to be worn by the herald and there should not be badges for the lower offices. Don't resubmit this. Your fee will be refunded. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 66)

HIDE

This was submitted as "... four flaunches ..." Flaunches, however, represent the sides (flanks) of an undergarment showing beneath a sideless surcoat. Since the shape as drawn suggests a stylized hide, I am using that as the name of the main charge. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 6)

A hide (cf. Laurel's letter of 22 October 1976) is an ordinary and has no "proper." Resubmit with a natural bearskin proper. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 66)

HIEROGLYPHIC

[Nefr.] This isn't a stringed instrument, but an Egyptian hieroglyphic meaning "heart and windpipe." (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 9)

HIND

A hart is a male red deer over five years old. Appropriately branched antlers should be shown to identify it. The animal shown here has no antlers, and would have to be blazoned a hind (female red deer). (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 2)

HOLLY

Remember that holly berries [proper] are scarlet. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 19)

HORN

[Spiral horn.] This is a musical instrument. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 50)

HORSE

The Clydesdale horse is in period. (KFW, 21 Apr 76 [4], p. 2)

The Clydesdale is a recent version of the rough-legged draft horse. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 5)

HOUSEHOLD

Households with a royal charter ... may have arms; others are restricted to badges. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 9)

We cannot register [this] until we have the name of an individual, by default that of the head of household, to register it to. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 74)

HYGEIA

The cup and serpent are a symbol of pharmacy. (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 2) [The combination, known as a Bowl of Hygeia, is therefore reserved.]

IMPALING

It looks like an impaled coat; there are a few registered in the Society but we don't want any more. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 10)

We do not allow impaled arms (though some have slipped past us). Make this indivisible by adding a bordure or the like, or changing the line of partition, e.g. indented or dovetailed. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 9)

INESCUTCHEON

see SHIELDS ON SHIELDS

KATANA

"The etiquette of position is minute. For a Japanese sword, a katana is by default edge up, but a tachi (a sword worn at court and with armor) is by default edge down." [HB] (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 6)

KEN

A Ken is an ancient Chinese sword used in mon rather than a katana. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 5)

KNIFE

A cinquedea is a large tagger "five fingers broad," sixteenth century Italian. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 6)

[Calligrapher's knife.] I can't find anything about the knife in my sources. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 6) [The submission was approved. This presumably defines the SCA calligrapher's knife.]

KNOT

The bordure was submitted "of Celtic knotwork", which isn't heraldry. But she may diaper the bordure in any way that pleases her ... (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 7)

This is macrame, not heraldry. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 123], p. 2)

Knotwork is not, by and large, heraldic. A few simple knots have made it into mundane heraldry (e.g., Bowen knot) or into Society heraldry by definition and the circulation of drawings (e.g., Donnelly knot), but your elaborate interlace cannot be described or defined. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 70)

Heraldry cannot describe or define any but the very simplest of knots. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 71)

For one thing the emblazon shows the kraken with eight tentacles instead of the appropriate ten, and an oval human eye instead of a round molluscan eye. For another, there is no such thing as a kraken proper; they change color according to their mood of the moment, and Mithras only knows what emotions a kraken would experience while vulning itself in the head. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 9)

LABEL

Why the label? N. has a label on his arms because he hoped to recruit his father into the Society (never happened); M. used his father's already registered arms with a label. A label means "eldest son of ..."; it isn't just a pretty charge. Give me a logical reason for the label and I'll reconsider. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], Pa 9)

LANDSCAPE

It's some kind of landscape; we try to avoid landscapes unless there's a very good reason for them. (KFW, 30 Jan 76 12], p. 7)

This is highly stylized and not a "landscape." (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 6)

The device as it was submitted is a little too much like a 19th-century landscape painting with wild life. (KFW, 18 Aug 77 [15], p. 3)

LANGUAGE

"Moorish," by the way, is not a language but a culture; Moors speak Arabic. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 8)

One language per noun, and preferably per name. (KFW, 17 Dec 76 [12], p. 1)

As to the name, if you don't know what language it's in, how to you know the meaning? (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 2)

This "Latin" does not correspond to the language I studied for four years. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 7)

The name Cleindori is Casta (High Darkovan) for "Golden Bell," and as a future language is not acceptable. Try a Spanish or Italian translation. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 6)

Clean up the language - don't use a German preposition with a French noun. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 3)

We have no objection to the device, but you must make the name grammatical. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 74)

LANGUAGE - FRENCH

[N. file be M.] Fiz, filz, fitz are the Medieval forms; in any case the "de" was not used. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 19], p. 7)

LANGUAGE - GAELIC

"Mak" is not a variant of "mac", but a name coined by Robert E. Howard. There is no K in Gaelic. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 1)

Turns out it's good Gaelic not to capitalize dubh, "the black." (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 5)

LANGUAGE - SPANISH

Spanish does not contract de to d' before vowels. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 8)

Even with the plural article the Spanish surname is not pluralized. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 49)

LANGUAGE - WELSH

"Ap N." means son of N. (applicant is female). (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 11)

LAUREL WREATH

You need arms, not a badge; this would to if the wreath were laurel, rather than greenbrier. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 9) [The submission was for an SCA branch.]

The laurel wreath is not suitable for the seal of a branch herald. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 8)

Your wreath of ivy looks too much like the laurel wreath used for branches of the Society. If you make it extremely large ... so that it is plainly not a laurel wreath, even when seen halfway across the field, it will probably be all right. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 63)

The way you have the laurel wreath on a roundel, it looks like someone's personal device with an augmentation of the Society (not accepted in current usage) (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 65)

Put the wreath on properly; it should be larger and of a contrasting tincture so that it will be visible. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 65)

You must have a laurel wreath; two sprigs of laurel are not sufficient. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 65)

LEAF

Heraldic convention has leaves outsized. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 62)

LEG

A-la-quise (i.e. a la cuisse, "with the thigh"), means that the entire leg is shown. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 8)

LETTER

Badges may have letters and numbers. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 5)

LIGHT

"Light" is an obsolete term for "window"; I like it better than the heraldically used "porthole." (KFW, 29 Oct 76 19], p. 3)

LION

"African lion" will henceforth be used, like "Bengal tiger," to distinguish the natural animal from the stylized one. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 5)

It is hard to get any kind of lion, doing anything, that doesn't conflict with somebody. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 60)

A lion proper is tawny, and will not show up on a field or. There is no brown lion such as appears on the emblazon. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 79)

LIZARD

Please specify the genus and species of lizard though: they are not "proper", the artists will need to know what kind of lizard to draw. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 14)

LOZENGE

Males and females are not required to register their arms on heater and lozenge shape respectively, but may use either shape. Cartouches, on the other hand, are not suited to either ladies or gentlemen in the Society, having been used chiefly by Princes of the Church. (KFW, 21 Apr 76 [4], p. 3)

see also SHIELDS ON SHIELDS

LUTE

Face the lute to front; substitute an in-period plucking quill for the plastic plectrum. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 7)

Draw the lute with strings facing outward, so it can be recognized for what it is. (Lutes in side view look like spoons.) (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 7)

The lute must be shown either full-face or in profile, not in three-quarter view. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 4)

MAGIC

The whole thing reeks of magic (and besides, it's a landscape). (KFW, 19 Apr 76 [3], p. 6)

Caer Priddydd means "fortress of the poet." Welsh poets were considered magicians. This, combined with owl and black stars, suggests a stronghold of black magic. No. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 11)

The pentagram is forbidden ... Between the name and the design the intent is clear we don't register magic. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 12)

The badge is too much of a power trip. "Anyone even slightly into Western high magic will recoil at this. Including colors, I count at least five symbols, and I'm not an adept!" [HB] (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 12)

Lord Breakstone informs me that the hand charged with the eye is an occult or magical symbol, not suitable for heraldry. (KFW, 18 Aug 77 [15], p. 2)

The name Morgana, taken with the mullet voided, implies magic. (KFW, 18 Aug 77 [15], p. 3)

We cannot register a Wizard's Guild any more than we can an order of friars (Cf. Corpora 2:3.) We thought of registering it as a personal badge, but even Lord Codex finds it "too occultic," to say nothing of what Lord Clarion and I think. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 9)

The Abbey of Leng is a typically ghastly purlieu of the universe of H. P. Lovecraft, at the same time fictional, nonhuman, magical, AND offensive. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 12) [The icy desert plateau of Leng, with its horrible stone villages and unmentionable prehistoric monastery, figures in The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath.]

Everything in this device is a druidic symbol. We could register an owl or an oak sprig or a crescent, but the combination is just too much. Pick one and combine it with another charge to make it less magical. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 64)

see also STAR POLYGON

MAMMOTH

This is a borderline case, in that the mammoth was extinct in the Middle Ages. however, there were pictures in French caves which could have been seen, and a trade in Siberian mammoth ivory. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 5)

MANTICORE

Manticores have no wings. If you want a manticore, you may have one. If you want a winged manticore, we can enter a new category of monster. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 74)

MARSHALLING

It looks like an impaled coat; there are a few registered in the Society but we don't want any more. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 10)

I know of no historic example of quarterly dimidiation, and this submission shows how undesirable it is. In any case dimidiation is a combination of two separate coats. In the SCA this would be permitted to husband and wife, or to their children (with marks of cadency), after both have registered separate devices. Individuals may not use marshalling otherwise. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 7)

We do not allow impaled arms (though some have slipped past us). Make this indivisible by adding a bordure or the like, or changing the line of partition, e.g. indented or dovetailed. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 9)

This is clearly two coats dimidiated. Start over. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 9)

MARTLET

Martlets have legs, though the feet aren't shown. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 2)

MAUNCH

Blazon the charge "an arm vested of a maunch"; the sleeve is more commonly empty. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 16], p. 10)

MELANISTIC

[Melanistic gerfalcon proper.] "Melanistic" means that this particular gerfalcon is nearly black as the "black" panther is only a very dark spotted panther. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 8)

MELUSINE

A melusine is a two-tailed mermaid. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 15)

MEMBER

"Member" means its foot. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [181, p. 4)

MERMAID

A melusine is a two-tailed mermaid. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 15)

MIGRANT

"Migrant" is seen from above; the head should not be twisted, but seen from above. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 1)

MIRROR

The artist must show that this is a glass, not voided. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 5)

MJOLLNIR-PENDANT

Even on stones, the hammer is placed haft-up as a decorative element, and head-up only when held in Thor's hand. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 3)

MOGEN DAVID

"Four triangles braced" does not accurately describe two Stars of David. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 12)

"Two triangles voided and interlaced" is referred to in SCA heraldry as a "Mogen David" or "Star of David." (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 3)

We will consider the exact name of the Jewish emblem when we get to the Reblazoning Project. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 2)

MONSTER

The Tarask is an amphibious monster connected with Tarascon, France. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 4) [The spelling appears to be an anglicization of the French Tarasque.]

This is a Dungeons and Dragons monster, the Six-Armed Horror, and has no place in heraldry. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 7)

Manticores have no wings. If you want a manticore, you may have one. If you want a winged manticore, we can enter a new category of monster. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 74)

MOON

Victorian whimsy strikes again. We do not use crescent moons with faces. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 7)

The full moon is always shown with a face, and is sometimes called "the moon in her plenitude." A crescent moon must be blazoned as an increscent or a decrescent repeating on its phase, and does not show a face. A silvery roundel without a face is simply a plate. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], pp. 69-70)

MOSSU

Parker states that the term "mossu" is not attested by any recorded blazon. What is the shape intended to represent? If it's intended for a milestone, why not call it that? (KFW, 30 Jan 76 [2], p. 7)

MOTTO

We don't register mottoes except as part of badges; I don't like them a whole lot even then. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 5)

You can use mottoes, but we don't register them. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 16)

MOUNT

There is no mount proper. If it is a mount vert, then it becomes color on color. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 68)

MULLET

A shuriken resembles a mullet. It is a Japanese throwing weapon. (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [7], p. 2) [The charge, blazoned "a shuriken of eight points," appears to be a mullet of eight points pierced. This is a modern Chinese shuriken, of a type more correctly called a shaken. The period Japanese shuriken was a long, thin throwing knife.]

Lord Codex feels rather strongly that mullets are of five points. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 3) [The charges were therefore blazoned as "stars of N. points."]

We have already passed several "compass-stars," a term invented for the very common Society charge of "a mullet of four greater and four lesser points " (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 59)

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT

The musical instruments should be placed in their most recognizable aspect - in this case, strings front. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 12)

NAME

[N. Bonatea.] I would not have accepted the name Bona Dea (Good Goddess), considering it a sacrilegious use of a title belonging to a Divinity worshipped by many SCA members. However, the damage was already done when M. Bonatea was accepted (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 3)

The name is being checked; if it means what it says ("Dagger of the Dancing Death") it's awful. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 12)

A pity to hold up a good device for lack of acceptable name. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 8)

The name Morgana, taken with the mullet voided, implies magic. (KFW, 18 Aug 77 [15], p. 3)

Please may we have N.'s SCA name?! We hate to register things to mundane names (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 6)

PLEASE give us a SCA name to register this badge to! (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 8)

You must have a surname or place name. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [15], p. 65) [Only a given name was submitted.]

The name is rejected as being modern slang. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)

Do you REALLY want to have the College of Arms process you into its mechanical record-keeper with your mundane name spelled backwards? Please resubmit. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 125], p. 68)

NAME - CONFLICT

[N. Graylorn.] The name is too similar to Keith Laumer's novel Greylorn -- the regional spelling variation between <gray> and <grey> is insufficient " and must be changed. (KFW, 21 Apr 76 [4], p. 1)

[Britomart the Adamant.] The name will not do; it is used by the Embodiment of Chastity in Spenser's Faerie Queene and the Maiden aspect of the Triple Goddess. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 12)

[Kalvan vow Anderenheim.] Name conflicts with Kalvan of Otherwhen, a fictional character. (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 2)

The name conflicts with a copyrighted role-playing game. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 8)

[N. Shadowhawke of M.] The name conflicts with Shadow Hawk, the title of a novel by Andre Norton. The Egyptian manner of drawing the hawk [in the device] confirms the intended reference. "Shadow Hawk" as used in the novel refers to a Pharaoh's son who must overcome a usurper. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 9)

You may not combine the White Rose and the surname "of York." We understand where your sympathies lie, but you are claiming too much for yourself. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 8)

We will, of course, retain our chief peculiarity: that we do not allow conflict with names or arms of fictional persons, especially in the science fiction and fantasy field. One of the functions of the Kingdom (and now Principality) heralds is to point out such names when they are applied for; I don't have time to keep up with everything published, nor can I remember all I to read. (KFW, 10 Jan 78 [17], p. 2)

If the name Corwin is used, do not use a unicorn. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 1)

[Vlad the Impala.] The name is a clumsy takeoff on that of Vlad Tepes, the Hammer of the Turks. As Manuel Garcia O'Kelly would put it, it's a funny-once. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 123 ], p. 1)

There already was one Cain son of Adam, and that was quite enough. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 56)

You can't have the Eddystone Light in your name AND your arms! (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 59)

Setanta, who became Cuchulain, was a Celtic god. This is the only known use of the name Setanta. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 65)

Skallagrim, Bald-Grim, was a real person and what sons he had are known. Take another surname or patronymic and resubmit. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 68)

Eldarion was the son and heir of the King Elessar. You cannot bear that excessively famous name, even with modifiers, even if it is your mundane name. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 76)

There was only one Macsen, ne' Maxim[u]s, Roman general in Britain, briefly Roman emperor, killed by the Byzantines and transmogrified into a Welsh folk hero. There were plenty of people named Maximius, and you could be Maximius N. without infringing. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 78)

Richard? Of Gloucester? With a white boar? and a whole field full of roses? There already was one ... (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 79)

NAME - DESCRIPTIVE

What, if anything, is this name supposed to mean? My resident Norse expert says it's nonsense. (KFW, 30 Jan 76 [2], p. 4) [The submission was approved.]

Do not use the soubriquet Halfling unless you are one. 4'5" is generally considered the maximum height. (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [7], p. 3)

Your surname means "dragon's traveling companion." This is a little too much to accept from a human being. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)

[N. Starfarer.] A seafarer travels seas; a starfarer travels stars. This implies abilities beyond those of mortals, at least in our period. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 77)

NAME - DOCUMENTATION

"Melusine" is apparently a corruption of Melisante, but it also means a two-tailed mermaid. Please document it as a proper name (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 3)

Take a surname, or provide documentation that your persona is from a culture not using them. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 77)

NAME - FANTASY

Surname "Halfelven" REJECTED without proof of parentage (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 9)

[Giliniel Silmeline.] Change the name with its multiple meaning of "starlight" it sounds too Elvish; unless she can prove that a mortal could have used the name. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 11)

Do not use the soubriquet Halfling unless you are one 4' 5" is generally considered the maximum height (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [7], p. 3)

For your information, the name Ivivis is not English but Nehwonese; as used here it is acceptable. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 9)

"Ruatha" is a Pernese name - out of period. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 2)

The name Cleindori is Casta (High Darkovan) for "Golden Bell," and as a future language is not acceptable. Try a Spanish or Italian translation. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 6)

If the name Corwin is used, do not use a unicorn. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 1)

[Celeborn of N.] Surprisingly, the name is acceptable; our Elvish experts tell us that Sindarin names were used by mortals, and the place name distinguishes him from Celeborn of Lorien. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 20)

Eldarion was the son and heir of the King Elessar. You cannot bear that excessively famous name, even with modifiers, even if it is your mundane name. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 76)

NAMES - GIVEN

[Zaragoza N.] This is a very interesting travelogue but there is no personal name in it. "Zaragoza" is a city and province in Spain, formerly Caesarea Augusta. He might as well call himself Pittsburgh. (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 5)

[Gray of N.] The name "Gray" conflicts with a famous English noble family "Lady Gray" (as she would sooner or later be called) would correctly be the title of Earl Grey's wife. There are six pages on the Grey family in the 11th Britannica. One of them, Lady Jane Grey, was proclaimed Queen of England after Edward VI's death. (Not to mention a variety of tea!) (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 10)

N. is, to the best of my knowledge, a masculine name only. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 11)

I understand N. is the lady's mundane given name but it doesn't make it acceptable for the Society, any more than one can use his mundane arms. (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 2)

"N." is a place name, and would be good as a surname; take a given name. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 6)

Lord Virgule objected to the plant name athelas as a personal name; "Basil" (royal) is also the name of a herb; "Oliver" and "Perry" mean olive- and pear-tree. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 1) [The name was allowed.]

N. is a surname. It is used as a given name in the twentieth century, but was not so used in our period. Please find a given name. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 7)

You need a given name, such as your mother might have given you in your cradle. So far you have an epithet, a surname, and a place name. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 75)

Eldarion was the son and heir of the King Elessar. You cannot bear that excessively famous name, even with modifiers, even if it is your mundane name. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 76)

There was only one Macsen, ne' Maxim[u]s, Roman general in Britain, briefly Roman emperor, killed by the Byzantines and transmogrified into a Welsh folk hero. There were plenty of people named Maximius, and you could be Maximius N without infringing. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 78)

You can't be Mordred. There was only one of him, and that was quite enough. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 78)

NAME - HOUSEHOLD

You may not call your household "Elvenhome." (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 6)

He cannot use the name House Burgundy. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 51)

There have been too many confederations for the name to stand by itself. Please contrive to call it "The Confederation of Something" or "The Something Confederation." (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 60)

NAME - NON-HUMAN

Surname "Halfelven" REJECTED without proof of parentage. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 9)

[Giliniel Silmeline.] Change the name with its multiple meaning of "starlight" it sounds too Elvish; unless she can prove that a mortal could have used the name. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 11)

A Lailat is a succubus, and thus non-human. Do not use as a surname. (KFW, 18 Aug 77 [15], p. 2)

"De Danann" implies immediate descent from the Goddess we are all human beings in the Society. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 9)

Llyr is a Celtic god; you cannot claim to be his son. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 7)

Of course he can't be "Odinsson" without proof of his parentage. (A few ash leaves in midwinter?) (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 9)

"Melusine" is apparently a corruption of Melisande, but it also means a two-tailed mermaid. Please document it as a proper name. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 3)

[Celeborn of N.] Surprisingly, the name is acceptable; our Elvish experts tell us that Sindarin names were used by mortals, and the place name distinguishes him from Celeborn of Lorien. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 20)

[N. Thorsson.] Between the patronymic and the charge [a hammer], no way. We are all mortals here and none of us can claim to have a god for a father unless he can prove it, and we take a lot of convincing (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 66)

Your surname means "dragon's traveling companion " This is a little too much to accept from a human being. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)

[N. Starfarer.] A seafarer travels seas; a starfarer travels stars. This implies abilities beyond those of mortals, at least in our period. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 77)

NAME - OFFENSIVENESS

[Trixie la Tush.] The name is offensive. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 11)

The Abbey of Leng is a typically ghastly purlieu of the universe of H.P. Lovecraft, at the same time fictional, nonhuman, magical, AND offensive. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 12) [The icy desert plateau of Leng, with its horrible stone villages and unmentionable prehistoric monastery, figures in The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath.]

NAMES - PATRONYMIC

[N. Thorsen.] In medieval Scandinavian usage, this means that his father's given name was Thor, which was not the practice. Compounds such as Thorgeir, Thorkild, etc., were used. Modern Thorson is a contraction of Thorgeirsson, Thorkildsson, etc. Note that the s is doubled. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 11)

We'd rather ignore the forty-generation patronymic he included with the name. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 7)

Of course he can't be "Odinsson" without proof of his parentage. (A few ash leaves in midwinter?) (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 9)

A father's human-type name, not epithet, goes in the patronymic. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 73)

NAME - PLACE

The name of a branch should not be used as a surname, as it could not be used with the title of (Court) Baron or Baroness. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 4)

Nifelheim is not a land inhabited by mortals. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 5)

I regard Lyon[n]esse as quasi-historical, as real as Narnia or Cornwall; it may be used in personal names but not branch names. (KFW, 18 Aug 77 [15], p. 2)

[N. de Gormenghast.] "De" with the name of a castle implies ownership or at least a familial relation to the owner, who in this case is the Earl of Groan. (KFW, 18 Aug 77 [15], p. 3)

She cannot use "of Epsilon" as this is a letter of the Greek alphabet and NOT a place name. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 33)

NAME - SCA BRANCH

[Nytha d'Hui.] Explain the name. If the Lord Aten is not being facetious when he tells me that it comes from an exchange, "My lord, we have no record of a name for your SCA branch" -- "Well, Nytha to we!" ... it is unacceptable. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 19], p. 8)

I regard Lyon[n]esse as quasi-historical, as real as Narnia or Cornwall; it may be used in personal names but not branch names. (RIFE, 18 Aug 77 115], p. 2)

Both name and device are lifted from Zelazny's NINE PRINCES IN AMBER and however many sequels there are by now, both fictional and magical. This is not suitable for a branch of the Society. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 59)

NAME - SPELLING

[N. of Pretense.] It [his name] sounds like pretense to a throne. Let him find another way of saying he has theatrical interests. Spelling it -ce or -se is regional variation, not influencing meaning. (KFW, 19 Apr 76 13], p. 6)

[N. Graylorn.] The name is too similar to Keith Laumer's novel Greylorn Id the regional spelling variation between <gray> and <grey> is insufficient -- and must be changed. (KFW, 21 Apt 76 [4], p. 1)

I would like some attestation for the spelling of the name. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 2)

We would much rather see the correct spelling of [name]. Society members are not devoid of brains and can learn to pronounce a word or two of French. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 15)

NAME - SURNAME

We'd like a surname in addition to the name of her local branch of the Society. (KFW, 30 Jan 76 [2], p. 5)

We will use the mundane surname until an SCA one is chosen. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 5)

Take a surname, or provide documentation that your persona is from a culture not using them. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 77)

NAME - TITLE

Take another surname. Chagan is a variant of Old Turkish khagan "king, sovereign." Khagan or Kha Khan, the Mongol variant, was rejected as a title by Temujin (Genghis-Khan), though his heirs used it. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 6)

Pendragon is not a surname but a title, Chief of the Dragon (i.e., Wales). Even without the Red Dragon it would be unacceptable. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 7)

You may not use the nickname Dracul, as it is the name of an ancient award. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 9)

"Khan" is a royal title and you may not use it. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 12)

[N. Basiliskus.] You cannot be "the Basilisk." (The term is a Greek adjective meaning "resembling a king", which was later applied to a nonhuman monster.) (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 58)

Please document the use of "Koenig," meaning "king," as a surname for non-royalty during our period. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 69)

Bahadur is a hereditary title. Please take another surname. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 80)

NEFR

This isn't a stringed instrument, but an Egyptian hieroglyphic meaning "heart and windpipe." (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 9)

NESSELBLATT

The nesselblatt (nettle-leaf) is a charge, not a bordure, and in any case it's German heraldry, not English. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 7)

NUMBER

Badges may have letters and numbers. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 5)

OFFENSIVENESS

If I were seriously going to consider this I would have to change the blazon from "Or, two flaunches sable, a mantele diminished fimbriated sable, in chief two torteaus, in nombril point doubly pierced sable and or" to something heraldically intelligible. But it's a representation of a naked torso and I am not going to consider it. HE IS HEREWITH REJECTED. START OVER. (KFW, 26 May 76 [5], p. 3)

It is blatantly offensive: the bibliophiles among us cringe at this as at an unedited print of The Chainsaw Murders. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 61)

This is rejected as being offensive to the sensibilities of many. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 62)

The Convocation of Heralds agreed unanimously to reject this device on the grounds of offensiveness. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 71)

OFFICE

Why to you need a badge? Baronial officers are entitled to wear the arms as heralds do, aren't they? (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 1)

There should not be badges for the lower offices. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 66)

OPINICUS

Opinicus was first attested in 1780; probably a corruption of Ophiuchus, "serpent." (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 10) [Karina's source appears to have been the OED. Rodney Dennys, in The Heraldic Imagination, cites examples in 1556 and 1561. This would still have been considered out-of-period, since 1485 was the cutoff date for charges as well as practices.]

ORDER

We can't pass this until they tell us more about the order. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 7)

ORGAN-REST

Clarion being not a trumpet but a claricord, sufflue, or organ-rest. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 2)

OUROBOROS

The serpent is not an Ouroboros; it is not swallowing the tail but biting near the tip. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 12)

OWL

An owl is statant gardant by default. (BLOW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 71) PALE

Lord Codex tells me pallets cannot be borne upon a pale, and I believe it. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 14)

PANDA

The term "sejant", in the case of bears and pandas, means sitting erect with the forepaws raised. (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 4)

PARTED FIELD

[Chevronelly sans nombre argent and gules.] The highest number Parker mentions for a field chevronelly is seven. This is seventeen, counting partials; hence "sans nombre." (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 3) [Sans nombre is French for "without number".]

This is color on color. There is no such field division as "per pile." (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 61)

PARTITION

Do not use "counterflory" line of division; use a standard variation such as nebuly, wavy, etc. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 6)

A field division in the shape of two opposed horse's heats is not heraldry in our period. Way late and decadent. Pretty, but not medieval heraldry; actually it looks like one of the works of Escher. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 8)

PASSANT

This tortoise is correctly blazoned tergiant, signifying that the entire back (L. tergum) is visible. Passant is said to mean the same position; however, we have in the SCA the example of Kathleen the Forgetful's "Argent a turtle statant vert" which is shown in profile, like any passant or statant lion or griffin. Passant, therefore, ought not be considered synonymous with tergiant in Society heraldry. (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 5)

PEACOCK

[Bharat peacock.] This is from an Indian painting. "Bharat" is Hindi for "India." (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 9)

PEAN

We will henceforth use the names ermines (sable, spotted argent), erminois (or, spotted sable) and pean (sable, spotted or). (KFW, 10 Jan 78 [17], p. 3) [The term ermines was later abandoned for the established SCA usage counter-ermine.]

PEGASUS

This was submitted as a "horned Pegasus" but since we already had the usage "winged unicorn" I have used it. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 5)

PEN

[Pen sable quilled gules.] Pen is from Latin penna, a feather. Quill is the hollow central shaft of a feather. If I must disagree with Franklyn in the name of common sense I will do so. (KFW 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 5) [Julian Franklyn, in Shield and Crest, uses the term penned to describe the quill when it is of a different color than the rest of the feather. Parker lists quilled, penned, and shafted.]

[Reed pen.] The pen as drawn does not appear to be a quill. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 6)

PENTACLE

see STAR POLYGON

PENTAGRAM

The pentagram is forbidden ... Between the name and the design the intent is clear. We don't register magic. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 12)

PENTANGLE

see STAR POLYGON

PENTASKELION

see TRISKELION

PERIOD

This is a borderline case, in that the mammoth was extinct in the Middle Ages. However, there were pictures in French caves which could have been seen, and a trade in Siberian mammoth ivory. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 5)

We will no longer accept "wavy-crested" (characterized in Boutell as "new"). It is too far out of period. We beat our breasts and cry Mea culpa for having allowed it once." [HB] (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 6)

The bagwyn is variously described in my sources as "early sixteenth century," "hart to give an instance," "a supporter." It's a fine-looking monster but I'm afraid it's out of period. Could you settle for a plain old antelope? (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 15) [At this time, the cutoff date for charges was 1485. "Early sixteenth century" was thus out of period.]

A field division in the shape of two opposed horse's heads is not heraldry in our period. Way late and decadent. Pretty, but not medieval heraldry; actually it looks like one of the works of Escher. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 8)

We picked 1485 as the cutoff date - the death of Richard III and the beginning of the Tudor era -- since this date marks the shift of emphasis in heraldry from the practical purposes of the battlefield to decorative indoor uses. There was no longer any need to read a banner or shield at any distance, and designs became more complicated and harder to recognize. (KFW, 15 Nov 78 [22], p. 2)

Your [charge] is in trian aspect, which is very late in heraldry and which the Society doesn't use. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 64)

The name "thylacine" for the Tasmanian or marsupial wolf is first attested in 1827 (Oxford English Dictionary). We suggest you call it a Pocketwolf, and find a new personal name for yourself. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 66)

Generally, these arms are too crowded; medieval heraldry is simple and easily recognizable. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 68)

We recommend Jost Amman's BOOK OF TRADES (available from Dover Paperbacks) ... Generally speaking, any piece of technology you cannot find in Amman is probably out of period! (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 71)

A balisette is a musical instrument in Frank Herbert's DUNE, which makes it out of period by at least several millenia. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 74)

PERSONA

One persona per body, please! My Mongol persona has not registered a device, and will not. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 13)

Best to base your device on your SCA activity, not on an imaginary biography. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 7)

I don't mind how many badges you have, but please, one name and one device per body! (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 6)

Take a surname, or provide documentation that your persona is from a culture not using them. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 77)

PHOENIX

"Proper" for a phoenix is the same as for flames of fire. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 24)

PIERCED

Pierced means there is a round opening through which the field appears, unless otherwise specified. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 9)

PILE

This is color on color. There is no such field division as "per pile." (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 61)

PINE CONE

We will have to have the genus and species of the pine cones proper. They could be roundish and purple (Pious albicaulis); narrow oval and light brown (P. attenuate); oval-to-oblong and reddish to yellow-brown (P. halapensis) -- to name only a few possibilities. If borne stem-up, they should be blazoned "reversed." (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 1)

PIPE

Clay pipes are out of period. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 6)

PLENITUDE

see MOON

PLUMETTY

Plumetty has in fact not yet been authorized. When it is, a correct drawing will be circulated. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 9)

The article on heraldry in the 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, by Oswald Barron, states that there is a single British example of "Plumetty." ... A fifteenth-century book of arms gives it, blazoned "Plumetty of gold and purple," for Mydlam in Coverdale ... This form is acceptable for S.C.A. use. It should be treated as a form of vair, being composed of any metal with any color, but not two metals or two colors. Whichever tincture falls in the uppermost row should be mentioned first; blazoned in the standard form, Mydlam is "Plummetty or and purpure." (KFW, 15 Now 78 [22], p. 1)

PORT

"Port" means "door." (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 3)

PORTHOLE

"Light" is an obsolete term for "window"; I like it better than the heraldically used "porthole." (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 3)

PROPER

A dumbec is a drum used in Middle Eastern music; it can be made of all kinds of materials and cannot be "proper." (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 7)

A laurel wreath proper will not be color on color as a laurel wreath vert is. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 125], p. 60)

There is no "proper" for chalcedony. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 60) [Chalcedony is a variety of quartz. It occurs naturally in a number of different colors.]

The laurel wreath, technically proper, is in fact green and green on blue doesn't show up. That's why we have the rule of tincture, so that charges will be visible. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 61)

A hide (cf. Laurel's letter of 22 October 1976) is an ordinary and has no "proper." Resubmit with a natural bearskin proper. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 66)

Even by calling it "proper" you can't put green on blue and black; IT VANISHES FROM SIGHT, which is what the laws of tincture are all about. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)

see also GENUS AND SPECIES

PYTHON

The heraldic python has wings. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 6)

QUARTERLY EN EQUERRE

We don't use quarterly in equerre ... I doubt if it's English heraldry; it certainly isn't in Parker's glossary. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 8) [It's Continental. See Woodward's A Treatise on Heraldry, p. 82 and plate V, fig. 11.]

QUILL

[Pen sable quilled gules.] Pen is from Latin penna, a feather. Quill is the hollow central shaft of a feather. If I must disagree with Franklyn in the name of common sense I will to so. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 5) [Julian Franklyn, in Shield and Crest, uses the term penned to describe the quill when it is of a different color than the rest of the feather. Parker lists quilled, penned, and shafted.]

[Reed pen.] The pen as drawn does not appear to be a quill. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 6)

RAMPANT

[Sea lion erect.] Only four-legged creatures may be "rampant." (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 2)

RECORDER

These are baroque recorders, which are out of period. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 9)

RESERVED CHARGES

The Tudor rose must be removed. (It is a Tudor rose, though a counterchange of the usual variety; Boutell, ed. of 1966, says that red on white or vice versa is Tudor.) (KFW, 19 Apr 76 [3], p. 6)

Try to avoid anything too reminiscent of the staff of Aesculapius. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 12)

The white rose and sun are both Yorkist badges. A pity, because that's just what you'd expect the QOG [Queen's Order of Grace] of Atenveldt to have, but we'd have to prove each queen's direct descent from the House of York. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 13)

Star polygons are forbidden. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 11)

The cup and serpent are a symbol of pharmacy. (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 2) [The combination, known as a Bowl of Hygeia, is therefore reserved.]

You may not combine the White Rose and the surname "of York." We understand where your sympathies lie, but you are claiming too much for yourself. (KFW, 11 Now 77 [16], p. 8)

The patriarchal cross does not imply he has that rank. The only such cross we ever forbade for that reason is the Papal. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 8)

Crowns, sun disks, and so on are reserved to royal arms. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 62)

Even with three heads that is much too much like the Imperial Eagle. A triple-headed eagle was reserved for The Holy Roman Emperor. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 63) [The first sentence suggests that the word "triple" in the second sentence is a mistake for "double."]

Unless you are a Countess, you cannot have a wreath of roses. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 69)

The Hand of Ulster is the mark of a British baronet. While in the Society we do not have baronets, let alone marks of them, outsiders would be mightily confused. Lord Virgule points out that the Hand of Ulster is one of the few heraldic charges that a mundane layman might recognize. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 73)

RETORT

The drawing shows a modern retort. An alembic that has been used in heraldry is illustrated on p. 372 of Parker's Glossary of Terms Used In Heraldry. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 3) [The entry in Parker is under limbeck. The charge does not even resemble a retort; it looks like some sort of lattice.]

RIVEN STAR

We hereby define the riven star as that which you will find in the accompanying picture. To define it is one Niflheim of a lot simpler than to blazon it. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 36) [In Norse mythology, Niflheim was the lowest region of the underworld, ruled by Hel, goddess of the dead.]

ROSE

The Tudor rose must be removed. (It is a Tudor rose, though a counterchange of the usual variety; Boutell, ed. of 1966, says that red on white or vice versa is Tudor.) (KFW, 19 Apr 76 [3], p. 6)

Delete the Tudor rose - though she be of the Tudor period, yet she is not one of the Tudors. (KFW, 21 Apr 76 [4], p. 1)

The white rose and sun are both Yorkist badges. A pity, because that's just what you'd expect the QOG [Queen's Order of Grace] of Atenveldt to have, but we'd have to prove each queen's direct descent from the House of York. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 13)

A "proper rose" is what we used to call a garden rose. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 4)

You may not combine the White rose and the surname "of York." We understand where your sympathies lie, but you are claiming too much for yourself. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 8)

Roses have five petals, or a multiple of five. "A sixfoil ..." would be all right, but not "A rose ..." of any number of petals. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 14)

Unless you are a Countess, you cannot have a wreath of roses. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 69)

ROUNDEL

"Pomme," "bezant," et caetera should be reserved for symbolic or canting use. (KFW, 30 Jan 76 [2], p. 4)

Lord Codex feels strongly about calling roundels by their assorted names; e.g. a roundel argent is a plate. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 5)

In order to make our blazons intelligible to the Lyon Office, we will adopt the standard names for roundels and drops of the various colors. (KFW, 10 Jan 78 [17], p. 1)

The Tai-ch[i] is the familiar yin-yang symbol. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 6)

The way you have the laurel wreath on a roundel, it looks like someone's personal device with an augmentation of the Society (not accepted in current usage). (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 65)

RULES

Heralds of all Kingdoms should pay careful heed to the notes, whether for their Kingdom or others, as they contain statements of policy both old and new. A compendium of such statements is being made, but I don't know how long it will take. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 2)

In response to requests for a clear statement of the rules we work under, first let me say that they have never been codified, and there is no one who knows all of them. This is the next major project I will undertake. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 1)

RUNE

Which futhark does this dag belong to? There are several possibilities. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 2) [A futhark (variously spelled) is a runic alphabet.]

SAGITTARY

If it were a "sagittary" it would have had a bow and arrow. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 9) [A sagittary (L. Sagittarius, "an archer") is traditionally depicted as a centaur drawing a bow to release an arrow.]

SAIL

I question the propriety of arms containing a sail painted with what appears to be a complete coat. Why not just use the design on the sail and forget the ship? (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 1)

SANS NOMBRE

[Chevronelly sans nombre argent and gales.] The highest number Parker mentions for a field chevronelly is seven. This is seventeen, counting partials; hence "sans nombre." (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 3) [Sans nombre is French for "without number."]

SCA BRANCH

Why do you need a badge? Baronial officers are entitled to wear the arms as heralds do, aren't they? (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 1)

see also LAUREL WREATH

SEA HORSE

Rampant is the default position for a seahorse. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 72)

SEA LION

Note that the sea-lion is a monster, in the shape of a fish-tailed lion, not a Pacific eared seal. (KFW, 30 Jan 76 [2], p. 1)

[Sea lion erect.] Only four-legged creatures may be "rampant." (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 2)

SEA MEW

A sea mew is a gull. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 53)

SEAL

Seals [sigils] don't have tinctures. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 10)

The laurel wreath is not suitable for the seal of a branch herald. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 8)

SEJANT

The term "sejant", in the case of bears and pandas, means sitting erect with the forepaws raised. (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 4)

"Sejant tergiant" is my best attempt to describe a mouse seated on its haunches, its back turned to the viewer. (KFW, 19 Apr 76 [3], p. 1)

SEMY

[Semy of fusils.] The blazon has been altered from "fusily," which signifies a tesselation, analogous to "checky." (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 3)

Semee must be regular, and all the [charges] must be in the same alignment. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 63)

SERPENT

The serpent is not an Ouroboros; it is not swallowing the tail but biting near the tip. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 12)

The heraldic python has wings. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 6)

The cup and serpent are a symbol of pharmacy. (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 2) [The combination, known as a Bowl of Hygeia, is therefore reserved.]

Serpents do not have legs; shall I blazon this a "dragon serpentine"? (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 10)

SHIELDS ON SHIELDS

I question the propriety of arms containing a sail painted with what appears to be a complete coat. Why not just use the design on the sail and forget the ship? (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 1)

We do not use single escutcheons; whatever it was charged with, it would look like au escutcheon of pretense. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 3)

A lozenge as part of a device is like a shield as part of a device: it is an inescutcheon, looking like someone else's arms grafted onto yours: in this case, the counterchange of [mundane arms]. It looks like an inescutcheon of pretense. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)

SHIP

"Targeted" refers to the [tincture of the] round shields along the bulwark. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 6)

I question the propriety of arms containing a sail painted with what appears to be a complete coat. why not just use the design on the sail and forget the ship? (KFW, 09 Jun 77 [13], p. 1)

SHURIKEN

A shuriken resembles a mullet. It is a Japanese throwing weapon. (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [7], p. 2) [The charge, blazoned "a shuriken of eight points," appears to be a mullet of eight points pierced. This is a modern Chinese shuriken, of a type more correctly called a shaken. The period Japanese shuriken was a long, thin throwing knife.]

SHUTTLE

Tatting shuttles are out of period. You could have a weaving shuttle. (D!W, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 76)

SKULL

A death's head is by default argent. If you are trying for the natural yellowish ivory of minimally weathered bone, this is too close to your field or. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 69)

SLIP

A "slip" is a twig with three leaves. If with five it may be called a "sprig." "These rules are not rigorously followed," says Parker. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 9)

SNOWFLAKE

We don't have many snowflakes ... so the field is fairly wide open. But to remember that all the arms of a snowflake emanate from the center. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 16)

SPLENDOR

see SUN

SPRIG

A "slip" is a twig with three leaves. If with five it may be called a "sprig." "These rules are not rigorously followed," says Parker. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], pa. 9)

STAR

Lord Codex feels rather strongly that mullets are of five points. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 3) [The charges were therefore blazoned as "stars of N. points."]

We hereby define the riven star as that which you will find in the accompanying picture. To define it is one Niflheim of a lot simpler than to blazon it. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 36) [In Norse mythology, Niflheim was the lowest region of the underworld, ruled by Hel, goddess of the dead.]

We have already passed several "compass-stars," a term invented for the very common Society charge of "a mullet of four greater and four lesser points." (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 59)

STAR OF DAVID

see MOGEN DAVID

STAR POLYGON

[Heptacle.] This figure is like a pentacle, a thin-lined interlaced star polygon but having seven rather than five points. Star polygons "were studied by the Pythagoreans and subsequently engaged the attention of many geometers -- Boethius, Athelard of Bath, Thomas Bradwardine, archbishop of Canterbury, Johannes Kepler, and others. Mystical properties were assigned to them at an early date." (Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., vol. XXII, p. 25) We do not use magical figures. (KFW, 19 Apr 76 [3], p. 6)

Star polygons are forbidden. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 11)

The pentacle, or pentangle, or 5-pointed star polygon, is a well-known magical symbol. The reference in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight to the pentacle on Gawain's arms is the only appearance of it anywhere in English before the seventeenth century. We wouldn't pass the other charge on Gawain's arms either, which is the Virgin Mary. Try a five-lobed interlace. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 14)

The star polygon is magical. You may use a star of nine points voided but not interlaced. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 76)

STOOPING

"Stooping" means that the bird is seen affronty, its wings addorsed and its talons extended as if about to pounce on something. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 1)

STYLE

This is lawful but UGLY. (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 3)

This isn't heraldry, it's nineteenth-century whimsy. Go back to Square One. (KFW, 21 Apr 76 [4], p. 2)

The picture is a striking piece of decorative art, but it is not heraldry. (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [7], p. 4)

Simple is beautiful! (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 6)

Nullo modo! It is not heraldry! "This represents a school of art a good 3+ centuries outside our period good design is not automatically good heraldry." [HB] (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 10)

You've got to be kidding! "In the sky above a green and yellow pavilion, an Oreo cookie with a bite out." No way. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 9)

I don't know whom I pity more, the dragons or the artist who has to draw it. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 3)

The design is virtually a direct copy from a recent Tarot deck. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 6) [The submission was rejected.]

This would give a headache to any herald who had to look at it long enough to blazon it. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 6)

Lord Alfgar rightly says that "Anything which requires over fifty words to blazon should be sent to the Russian front." (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 7)

It took me 20 minutes to blazon this. Not bad as a badge, though not really heraldry. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 4)

The device looks, as Lord Virgule pointed out, like an Early American tombstone. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 9) [The submission was rejected.]

This isn't heraldry. "Arched - counterarched - arched" is not proper blazon, nor is "per fess wavy of two crests." Please re-do it so it can be blazoned in standard terms. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 14)

I can to no better than to quote Lord Codex again: "This sounds more like the crest of an Ugandan General. Are you sure this is a BADGE?" (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 15)

This is macrame, not heraldry. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 2)

SUFFLEXED

"Sufflexed" means "bent under." If it were "coward" the tail would be between the legs. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 10)

SUFFLUE

Clarion being not a trumpet but a claricord, sufflue, or organ-rest. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 2)

SUN

The sun is not "in splendor," as submitted, since it lacks features. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 6)

The white rose and sun are both Yorkist badges. A pity, because that's just what you'd expect the QOG [Queen's Order of Grace] of Atenveldt to have, but we'd have to prove each queen's direct descent from the House of York. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 13)

A sun in splendor has a face. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 4)

SUN DISK

Crowns, sun disks, and so on are reserved to royal arms. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 62)

SUNWISE

Deasil means clockwise, or sunwise. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 7)

SURMOUNTED

Rewrite your blazon so as to avoid the term "debruised", which is properly used for animals; "surmounted" for non-animals. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 64)

SWORD

Argent, hilted Or, is the default tincture for swords. (KFW, 26 Nay 76 [5], p. 2)

A Ken an ancient Chinese sword used in mon rather than a katana. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 5)

A gladius is a Roman shortsword. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 7)

"The etiquette of position its minute. For a Japanese sword, a katana is by default edge up, but a tachi (a short worn at court and with armor) is by default edge down." [HB] (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 6)

The Tai-ch[i] is the familiar yin-yang symbol. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 6)

TAIL

"Sufflexed" means "bent under." If it were "coward" the tail would be between the legs. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 10)

The south end of a dragon going north is not a suitable subject for heraldry. You could have a dragon's tail emerging from a cave or from behind a rock or a dragon's tail couped and served on a platter for Twelfth Night. But not a dragon's fundament escaping over a wall. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 9)

TARASK

The Tarask is an amphibious monster connected with Tarascon, France. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 4) [The spelling appears to be an anglicization of the French Tarasque.]

TARGETED

"Targeted" refers to the [tincture of the] round shields along the bulwark. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 6)

TERGIANT

This tortoise is correctly blazoned tergiant, signifying that the entire back (L. tergum) is visible. Passant is said to mean the same position; however, we have in the SCA the example of Kathleen the Forgetful's "Argent a turtle statant vert" which is shown in profile, like any passant or statant lion or griffin. Passant, therefore, ought not be considered synonymous with tergiant in Society heraldry. (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 5)

"Sejant tergiant" is my best attempt to describe a mouse seated on its haunches, its back turned to the viewer. (KFW, 19 Apr 76 [3], p. 1)

THISTLE

Lord Breakstone ruled as Laurel King of Arms (acceptance letter of 14 December 1971) that in a thistle proper part 1 [the spray at the top of the flower] is purple and the rest is of course green. This is the natural color of the thistles I saw in Scotland, as well as the common North American ones. (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [71] p. 5)

THYLACINE

The name "thylacine" for the Tasmanian or marsupial wolf is first attested in 1827 (Oxford English Dictionary). We suggest you call it a Pocketwolf, and find a new personal name for yourself. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 66)

TIGER

"African lion" will henceforth be used, like "Bengal tiger," to distinguish the natural animal from the stylized one. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 5)

TINCTURE

Color on color is forbidden. (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [7], p. 5)

Drops almost invariably follow the rule of tincture in English heraldry, and in Society heraldry we have (I believe) no exceptions. (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [7], p. 6)

You need not actually name any color for a badge; why not drop the field color? (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 10)

Seals [sigils] don't have tinctures. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 10)

Checky follows the law of tincture. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 15)

Codex says that goutee need not follow the rules of tincture and this fimbriation isn't necessary. If you want to drop it, let us know. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 6)

A laurel wreath proper will not be color on color as a laurel wreath vert is. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 60)

The device is iffy - the use of fimbriation to avoid metal on metal is legal, but not really advisable; the device will be indistinguishable at a dozen paces, which is why the rule of tincture was formulated. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 60)

The laurel wreath, technically proper, is in fact green and green on blue doesn't show up. That's why we have the rule of tincture, so that charges will be visible. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 61)

Even by calling it "proper" you can't put green on blue and black; IT VANISHES FROM SIGHT, which is what the laws of tincture are all about. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)

Your device cannot have a colored bordure on a colored field. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)

TITLE

He should drop the title Jarl, since it is used in the East Kingdom as the equivalent of Count. (KFW, 30 Jan 76 [2], p. 7)

Another point of usage that is often forgotten is the correct use of numbers with the names of kings. The first king of his name is not referred to by number until there is a second of the same name. If you will look at a history book, you will not find any reference to "John I," "Stephen I," or "Victoria I" of England. (When I went to school there was no "Elizabeth I," either.) Possibly the frequent habit of referring to "King N. the First" from the beginning is due to a facetious use of such terms as "Henrik the First, Part Four" - which was merely a reference to Shakespeare's history plays. (KFW, 06 Dec 76 [11], p. 1)

In the Society we do not have baronets, let alone marks of them. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 73)

see also NAME - TITLE

TOOTH

[Shark's tooth point downward.] There is no default position, as tooth could be from upper or lower jaw. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 9)

TORSE

The torse, when represented as a charge, is shown circular - not edge-on as you have it. (KFW, 20 Aug 76 [7], p. 4)

A torse can be of one color only. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 5)

What you have is not a torse but an annulet corded gules and or. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 69)

TORTOISE

see TURTLE

TOWER

There is no "proper" for a tower. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 72)

TRIAN ASPECT

Your [charge] is in trian aspect, which is very late in heraldry and which the Society doesn't use. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 64)

TRIQUETRA

The term triquetra is in use in the Society for three objects arranged radially. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 8)

TRISKELION

"Triskelion" can refer to curved lines, but the most familiar heraldic example is that of the Isle of Man with three armored human legs, bent at the knee. The only SCA example is that of Marya of Zag[a]mar, with straight lines bent knee-fashion. But compare the pentaskelion of Douglas Longshanks, which consists of five armored human legs. The term triquetra is in use in the Society for three objects arranged radially; in my opinion, "three scythe-blades in triquetra" gives a clearer description of the charge in question. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 8)

TURTLE

This tortoise is correctly blazoned tergiant, signifying that the entire back (L. tergum) is visible. Passant is said to mean the same position; however, we have in the SCA the example of Kathleen the Forgetful's "Argent a turtle statant vert" which is shown in profile, like any passant or statant lion or griffin. Passant, therefore, ought not be considered synonymous with tergiant in Society heraldry. (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 5)

UNICORN

This was submitted as a "horned Pegasus" but since we already had the usage "winged unicorn" I have used it. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 5)

If the name Corwin is used, do not use a unicorn. (KFW, 20 Nov 78 [23], p. 1)

URDY

I will ask Lord Codex about the current status of the division variously called "champaine" (Parker) and "urdy" (Boutell). (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 10) [The query was apparently to determine whether or not the line of partition is in period. I have found no record of a response.]

VAIR

Counter-vair is out of period (first attested 1766, O.E.D.). (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 11)

Vair must be composed of one metal and one color. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 10)

VICTORIAN

Victorian whimsy strikes again. We do not use crescent moons with faces. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 7)

VOLANT

"Countervolant" means "volant to sinister." (See "Counter" in Parker for examples such as counter-rampant.) (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 6)

WAVY CRESTED

We will no longer accept "wavy-crested" (characterized in Boutell as "new"). It is too far out of period. "We beat our breasts and cry Mea culpa for having allowed it once." [HB] (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 6)

WEBBED

"Webbed" refers to the [tincture of the] webs between the toes. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 2)

WHEEL

I have altered the blazon to "cart-wheel" because the Catherine wheel is so much more common. (KFW, 12 Dec 75 [1], p. 3)

WHIRLPOOL

This is a concentric form of whirlpool. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 46)

WIND

[Aeolus.] The winds are to be drawn in profile, NOT in trian aspect. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 30)

The Boreas in the emblazon is in trian aspect, which is late and not used in Society heraldry. It must be either full face or in profile. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 66)

WIND ROSE

see COMPASS ROSE

WINDOW

"Light" is an obsolete term for "window"; I like it better than the heraldically used "porthole." (KFW, 29 Oct 76 [9], p. 3)

WING

"Aventred" (French ventre, belly) means that the wings extend downward: cf. addorsed. (KFW, 22 Oct 76 [8], p. 6)

WOLF

[Cross griffee-de-loup.] Griffee-de-loup means "wolf-clawed." (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 9)

The name "thylacine" for the Tasmanian or marsupial wolf is first attested in 1827 (Oxford English Dictionary). We suggest you call it a Pocketwolf, and find a new personal name for yourself. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 66)

WORM

[Xonecuilli.] This is a well-documented Aztec design motif, representing a blue worm. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 8)

WREATH

Unless you are a Countess, you cannot have a wreath of roses. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 69)

see also LAUREL WREATH, TORSE

XONECUILLI

[Xonecuilli.] This is a well-documented Aztec design motif, representing a blue worm. (KFW, 10 Mar 78 [18], p. 8)

YALE

They have provided pages of documentation for the yale, which otherwise we would be inclined to consider out of period. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 20)

ZIL

A dumbeg is a drum, zils are finger cymbals, both used by belly dancers. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 3)


REFERENCE LIST


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