PRECEDENTS OF THE S.C.A. COLLEGE OF ARMS VOLUME III

The Tenure of Wilhelm von Schlüssel

Compiled and edited by Baldwin of Erebor
Second Edition - January XVII (1983)
HTML markup and minor emendations by Maggie Griggs
Several pages combined into one by Lindorm

Contents [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W]


A Cover Letter, a Disclaimer and Preface, an Introduction and a Reference List are available.

Table of Contents


Bard's Gate
Gyldenholt, Caid
6 February 1983, XVII A.S.





Unto all who come to receive these letters,

from Baldwin of Erebor, editor of the Laurel Precedents.

Greetings:

Your copy of the second edition of Precedents III is enclosed. Thank you very much for your order.

I received a total of forty orders from six kingdoms, with most of the copies going to Atenveldt and the Midrealm.

The quality of the printing is not quite up to the standard I had hoped for, for which I apologize. In addition to occasional blurring and streaking, I found several copies with blank or missing pages. Please inspect your copy, and let me know if anything is missing. I checked all the copies myself, and believe I have repaired all the defects, but such operations are wearisome, and hence prone to error. Each copy should have a title page, a disclaimer, twelve pages of introductory material, 104 pages of text, and a four-page reference list.

I have been asked why I chose not to advertise Precedents III in the kingdom newsletters. There were several reasons, the chief of which was timeliness. So long as Laurel King-of-Arms continues to ignore his own rulings and contemn those of his predecessors, College of Arms policy will change from month to month. Advertisement in the newsletters would have delayed Precedents III an additional four to six weeks, making it nine months out of date by the time it became available. I did not feel this was acceptable, and chose instead to advertise through the kingdom, principality, and regional heralds, to whom an heraldic source of this sort would be of greatest use.

I would be interested in knowing your opinion of Precedents III. Is it what you expected? Is there anything you particularly like or dislike about it? Is there anything I could have done to make the text clearer? Have you found any mistakes? Did I overlook anything important? Do you find the volume useful? How do you use it? Should the emphasis of the volume have been more on analysis and less on quotation? Does it make sense to codify the Laurel rulings when they change so frequently? Your comments would assist me greatly in the preparation of any future editions of this volume, as well as of the other two volumes in this series.

Work on the revised editions of Precedents I and II proceeds apace. Precedents II is presently being reviewed, after which I will make the final revisions. The text runs to about fifty pages at present, with an additional ten or so pages of supplementary material. I hope to begin soliciting orders around the first of May.

I have almost finished proofreading the initial text for Precedents I. It will then have to be categorized, edited, annotated, sent out for review, and revised for publication. I hope to begin soliciting orders no later than the first of September.

In answer to a question from Trillium Herald, I have no objection to people making personal copies of Precedents III. All I ask is that you copy the manuscript in its entirety, to ensure that no information is lost.

I pray you believe me to be,

Your servant,

/s/

Baldwin of Erebor
(Derek Foster)
P. 0. Box 11792
Costa Mesa, CA 92627


INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND

In November of 1976, Karina of the Far West published a 26-page booklet of heraldic precedents of the SCA College of Arms. The document was a collection of excerpts from Laurel letters, ordinaries, minutes, and other such sources, organized into categories. Mistress Karina's intention was to use this body of material, together with the comments of her predecessors in the Laurel office, as the basis for a codification of the rules of SCA heraldry. This project, unfortunately, never reached fruition.

In June of 1980, I published two companion volumes to Mistress Karina's collection of precedents. These collections were drawn from the Laurel letters of acceptance and rejection, and covered the tenure of Karina of the Far West and the first year of the tenure of Wilhelm von Schlüssel.

Volume one of the Laurel Precedents was compiled in haste. As Mistress Karina said in her cover letter, "It is incomplete, sketchily cross-indexed, and occasionally mis-alphabetized; let me know what else is wrong with it." Some of the quotations were also inaccurate, and others were attributed incorrectly.

My own volumes didn't fare much better. I allowed myself too much liberty in editing quotations, over-categorized the quotations I selected, and sometimes failed to include enough of the original context for the quotations to make sense. I also missed several letters from Mistress Karina's tenure; and the subsequent flow of rulings from the Laurel office has rendered my volume on Master Wilhelm's tenure almost obsolete.

The second edition of Precedents of the SCA College of Arms is an attempt to correct many of the flaws of the first edition. The present volume has been recompiled from the original sources, in hopes of producing a document that is both accurate and useful.

ABOUT PRECEDENTS

A precedent is an action or decision that may be used as an example in dealing with subsequent similar cases." The Laurel Precedents documents are founded on the philosophy that heraldic decisions should, whenever possible, be based on previous decisions. Every decision should, of course, be made on the basis of the best information available at the time; but once a specific practice has been adopted or rejected, the precedent set thereby should not be lightly disregarded.

Knowledge of SCA heraldry can be derived from four sources: (1) the Rules for Heraldic Submissions, (2) policy statements made in the Laurel correspondence, (3) explicit comments made on submissions that have been processed, and (4) the submissions themselves.

The Rules for Heraldic Submissions have the advantage of being explicit, but they cannot be comprehensive; one still needs to know how the rules are to be applied. Policy statements are often more directly applicable than the rules, but they, too, require substantiation. Comments made on submissions provide immediate examples, but the reader may have difficulty determining the general principle from a single instance, particularly when the comments are sparse or inaccurate. The submissions themselves are the most accurate gauge of what has been approved, but they are not readily accessible, and they cannot explain why a specific action was taken, particularly in the case of a rejection.

The Laurel Precedents documents are drawn from the second and third of these sources. They are made up of quotations from the formal correspondence of the Laurel Sovereign of Arms. They are a codification, in the words of the persons who made the decisions, of what has been called the "case law" of the SCA College of Arms. The Precedents do not replace the Laurel letters as a source of information, but they can make that information more accessible, by presenting those portions of the Laurel letters that seem best to explain SCA heraldic policy, selected, categorized, and edited.

SELECTION

The quotations in the Laurel Precedents documents were chosen because I felt they (1) conveyed SCA policy, (2) clarified obscure points, (3) demonstrated the use of terms, or (4) expressed the attitude of the Laurel Sovereign who made them. If two quotations said approximately the same thing, I generally chose the one that said it better; if they were of equal merit, I usually chose the earlier one; but if they differed in nuance, or contradicted each other, I tried to include both of them.

CATEGORIZATION

In categorizing the quotations, I have laid a great deal of emphasis on relevance. In general, a quotation appears under a subject heading only if it is relevant to that topic. Omnibus categories (such as DOG) generally include only quotations that apply to the category as a whole. Rulings applying to a single element of a general category (such as SPANIEL) appear under the heading of that element only. This differs from my policy with the first edition, which was to include a quotation under both the general and the specific subject headings.

I have identified several topics, which I have termed issues, under which I have attempted to assemble enough quotes to constitute a general discussion of the topic at hand. ARTISTIC LICENSE, for example, attempts to show what freedoms (and limitations) we have given the herald painter; DIFFERENCE is made up of expositions on points of difference; and SHIELDS ON SHIELDS contains various rulings on apparent augmentations, inescutcheons, and arms of pretense.

EDITING

The editorial standards for the second edition are higher than they were for the first. My goals in editing the quotations in the second edition have been accuracy and clarity. The idea has been to convey the text of each quotation as accurately and completely as possible, while noting or correcting obvious errors, and omitting material that is not relevant to the general sense of the quotation.

Each paragraph in the Laurel Precedents represents a separate quotation. The implied speaker is the Laurel Sovereign of Arms whose letter is being quoted. In the handful of cases where Laurel has quoted someone else directly, I have enclosed the quote in double quotation marks and given the initials of the speaker, in square brackets, at the end of the quotation.

Omissions from the beginning and end of a quotation have been done silently. Anything left out of the middle has been marked with an ellipsis ("..."). Obvious typographical and spelling errors (including errors in capitalization) have been corrected without comment. With a couple of exceptions, all other emendations have been enclosed in [square brackets].

Editorial changes have been made for the following reasons:

  1. To provide additional context for a quotation.

  2. To correct simple grammatical errors and misnomers. (If correction of an error required extensive changes to the text, I generally left the quotation untouched. The idea was to edit, not to rewrite.)

  3. To replace specific terms with generic ones. When the name of a charge or tincture was not pertinent to the current topic, I usually replaced it with [charge] or [tincture]. This was done to make the general sense of the quotation clearer.

  4. To guard the identity of the person whose submission was being discussed. When the name of the person was not relevant to the topic, I generally replaced all or part of the person's name with one of the letters N. or M.

In addition, I have annotated a number of the quotations, to clarify obscure points or refute inaccurate or misleading statements. In each case, the comments follow the citation and are enclosed in square brackets.

No effort has been made to standardize the spelling of words appearing in the Laurel quotations. American and British spellings were freely mixed in the originals, and you may find several different spellings of any given heraldic term (cotise, for example). So long as I could find a citation for a given spelling, I used it. (Those errors for which I couldn't find citations were treated as spelling errors, and each was corrected to what seemed the most appropriate attested form. Papellony, for example, became papelonny.)

Because the machine on which these documents were printed does not include any French accents, I have had to adopt non-accented spellings for some of the heraldic terms. I have usually used the English -y form, if one could be found. Contourné has thus become contourny, semé and semée have both become semy, vêtu has been represented by vetu, and so forth.

CITATIONS

Each quotation is identified in the document by the initials of the person being quoted, the entry number of the source document in the reference list, and the page number on which the quotation occurs. For example,

refers to a quotation by Wilhelm von Schlüssel occurring on page five of Laurel letter number 66, which (as can be determined from the reference list) was a cover letter dated 21 April 1982.1

REFERENCES

Spelling was checked using the UNIX program spell. I also consulted the following references in the course of editing this volume:

American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin, second college edition 1982.

Theodore M. Bernstein. The Careful Writer: A Modern Guide to English Usage. Atheneum, 1980.

J. P. Brooke-Little. Boutell's Heraldry. Frederick Warne, revised edition 1973.

J. P. Brooke-Little. An Heraldic Alphabet. Arco Publishing Company, revised edition 1975.

The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. Two volumes. Oxford University Press, 1971.

Charles Norton Elvin. A Dictionary of Heraldry. Heraldry Today, 1969.

Francis J. Grant. A Concise Description of the Several Terms Used, and Containing a Dictionary of Every Designation in the Science. John Grant, 1962.

Mary-Claire van Leunen. A Handbook for Scholars. Alfred A. Knopf, 1979.

William Morris, editor. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin, new college edition 1976.

James Parker. A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry. Charles E. Tuttle, 1970.

Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary. G. & C. Merriam Company, 1960.

John Woodward and George Burnett. A Treatise on Heraldry, British and Foreign, with English and French Glossaries. Charles E. Tuttle, 1969.


1 The type of document (CL - Cover Letter; LoAR - Letter of Acceptances and Rejections; etc.) and the date of the document have been added to each entry in the electronic version. DiA


DISCLAIMER

This is not a publication of the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc., or of the S.C.A. College of Arms, and does not delineate official policy. It is an independent compilation made for scholastic purposes.

First edition, June XV (1980).

Second edition, January XVII (1983).


PREFACE TO VOLUME THREE

"The College is not bound by anything that it has done or not done in the past. It is bound by its published rules and decisions. If a specific charge or usage has been rejected in the past and there has been nothing since then to change that stance then that charge or usage is still rejected."
Wilhelm von Schlüssel

"When I use a word," Humpty Dumpty said, in rather a scornful tone, "it means just what I choose it to mean -- neither more nor less."
Lewis Carroll

Volume III of Precedents of the SCA College of Arms presented me with a number of editorial problems. Chief among these was the amount of source material to be considered. In his initial three years as Laurel King of Arms, Master Wilhelm von Schlüssel produced as much paper as all three of his predecessors combined. A study of this sort requires that each quotation be considered, not only in its own context, but in the context of all the other quotations as well; so the number of interactions -- and hence, the complexity of the task -- grew exponentially as the number of quotations increased.

The greater part of the problem lay, however, in the quality of the material itself. Master Wilhelm's letters tended to be wordy without being enlightening; his rulings were often ambiguous, sometimes contradictory, and all too frequently contrary to fact. I would caution the user of this volume to be wary of subsequent rulings on a given topic, and not to rely solely on the content of the first quotation he finds.

Precedents III was drawn primarily from comments on submissions. Almost nothing was included from the various editions of the "Rules for Heraldic Submissions," nor did I quote any of the proclamations on purely administrative matters (such as heralds' regalia). In these cases, current policy, as expressed in the separate documents on these subjects, is of far more use to the working herald than any exposition of what has been said before.

The notation [EoE], which follows several of the entries in this volume, indicates a comment made by Mistress Eriod of Eire, Master Wilhelm's consultant on Irish names, whom he quoted directly in a couple of his rulings.

I was fortunate to have had the assistance of a number of people in preparing the revised edition of Precedents III. Lady Adelaide de Beaumont helped me draft editorial policy, and researched the fine points of citation. Master Hrorek Halfdane of Faulconwood reviewed the manuscript in draft, and returned his comments in jig time. Mistress Alison von Markheim suggested a number of cross-references, and made sense of twelve pages of quotations on names. Lord Iathus of Scara rescued Mistress Alison's comments from oblivion. To all of these people go my sincere thanks.

Baldwin of Erebor


AARDVARK

There is only one species of aardvark. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 1

ABASED

Abased means that the ... division is lowered to base. This is what we used to call "debased," which was incorrect. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 1

"Abased" means lowered to base. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 1

ABSTRACT SYMBOL

Your [submission] violates the rule against astrological symbols because the cross within an annulet is the astrological symbol of Earth. A true sun cross has the annulet on the cross, so the arms of the cross extend beyond the annulet. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 9.

Runes, like letters, numbers, hieroglyphs, and Chinese characters may not be used as charges in devices. Runes are acceptable for badges. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 3

Musical notes cannot be used in devices, but can be used in badges. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 10

The infinity symbol is out of period and inappropriate for registration as a tinctureless charge. Abstract symbols should not be used as tinctureless badges. Otherwise, you would get people registering the signs of the Zodiac and then denying their use to others. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 11

A person cannot register a single abstract symbol without a field as a badge. If we allowed such a practice, people would register the symbols they liked and deny their use to others. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 11

Letters, numbers, runes, and other such abstract symbols may not be used in a device, although they can be used in badges ... This rule was decided by the College to be the rule for SCA usage. Whether or not runes actually were used occasionally in period in European arms is irrelevant. We will not use them. our basis is English heraldry, which did not use them. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 6

ACHIEVEMENT

From now on, it shall be up to each individual kingdom to decide what achievements shall be used on scrolls. WVS [51] [CL 20 Sep 81], p. 1

If you wish to use supporters, crests, or mottoes, you are free to do so, but the College of Arms will not register them, although an individual kingdom could. I would prefer to see supporters reserved for holders of Patents of Arms. WVS [51] [CL 20 Sep 81], p. 2

ACORN

[Acorn wreath fructed.] The acorns must be enlarged by a factor of two to three to be in keeping with medieval practice and to remove the similarity to a laurel wreath. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 4Acorns are ripe (i.e. brown) by default. If you want a green acorn you have to so specify. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 7

AEOLUS

The Boreas is a cloud with the face of an old man, while the Aeolus is a cloud with the face of a young boy. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 9

Boreas is the North Wind, which has an icy breath. It is therefore argent. This is an Aeolus, i.e., a wind, no direction specified. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 5

AESCULAPIUS

Only a real doctor can register a caduceus or a staff of Aesculapius in a device. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 13

ALTERNATE VAIR

Alternate vair is a German variation of vair wherein each vair bell is divided per pale. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 2

ANCHOR

He must use a period anchor with straight arms instead of the 1800's anchor he has drawn. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 1

ANGELFISH

There are many species of angelfish but they all have the same basic outline and this is just a single specified tincture so there is no need for listing the genus and species. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 1

ANNULET

Seven annulets braced is excessive. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 9

Vires are concentric annulets. Thus you have one annulet, two vires, three vires, etc. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 8

ANNULO

[Embowed in annulo.] The [charge] in chief determines the direction of rotation. By default, it points to dexter and so, by default, the [charges] are oriented in a widdershins direction. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 6

ANOLE

The anole is the American chameleon. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 1

ANVIL

The anvil must be a period anvil, which is double-pointed, rather than the modern anvil shown in the drawing. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 4

The medieval anvil was symmetrical, with two horns. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 1

APPEAL

This is the most massively documented appeal I have ever seen. It was well done. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 4

All rejections do have the right of appeal, so long as documentation accompanies the appeal. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 7

ARCHAIC TERMS

The use of archaic terms for canting purposes is acceptable. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 10

ARM

You cannot differentiate a newt's arm from any other reptilian arms ... Resubmit ... as a reptile's arm. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 6

ARROW

Arrows fesswise point to sinister, just [as] arrows palewise point to base. Arrows and arrowheads thus point in the opposite direction from most other charges. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 3

ARTISTIC LICENSE

The sword has the arms of the shire on the blade next to the hilt, but that is artistic license. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 10

With regard to small details on animals, such as claws and teeth, these really shouldn't clutter up the blazon unless really necessary. They should either be of the same tincture as the animal, or else colored to stand out in contrast. The standard tincture for such if the animal is Or or argent is gules, unless the field is gules, in which case it is azure. If the animal is colored then the standard tincture for the small details is argent, unless the field is argent, in which case it is or. Rather than clutter up the blazon it is much better to just use the space for notes to the scribe or artist on the picture sheet to detail just how to color the small details. Large details, such as a horse's mane, should be described in the blazon. WVS [12] [CL 18 Mar 80], p. 1

We view what is on the emblazon sheet as the only correct form for the device or badge, subject to artistic license. This is an old custom from the beginning of the College. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

The number of crenelations on a tower is a matter for the artist, not the blazon. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], pa 4

Delineating a charge is artistic license and need not be blazoned. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 1

The exact minor details of the Assyrian winged bull versus a normal winged bull are matters for the artist, not the blazon. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 2

Snowflakes are now acceptable charges. They must have six-fold symmetry, Id but the exact details are artistic license. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 6

In line with the decision on ordinaries and their diminutives having no points of difference, henceforth we will not use bordurelets. The size of a bordure shall be a matter for the artist. A single bar will be no different from a fess. For the benefit of the scribes, the first diminutive of an ordinary may be used singly and so specified to indicate that a smaller size is wanted, but no points of difference will result. Thus, you can specify one bar in the blazon, and it will be drawn that way, but it will be no different than if it were a fess for the purpose of conflicts. WVS [54] [CL 27 Oct 81], p. 1

Exactly which kind of oak leaf they are is a matter for the artist, not the blazon. Heraldically, a leaf proper is always green unless otherwise indicated, in which case you might as well say vert. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 1

ATOP

Atop means the [charge] is standing on top of the mount. Upon means the [charge] is charged on the mount. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 1

AUGMENTATION

Augmentations are listed separately. The original arms are unchanged unless, as in this case, they are modified to make room for augmentations. The bearer of the arms still retains the right to display the original arms if desired. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 13

You cannot have charged cantons or quarters, either dexter or sinister, with straight lines of division. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 6

The pall on the bezant looks like a form of augmentation. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 4

The device is rejected because the chief appears to be an augmentation of Brittany. Try moving the chief up off the bend sinister in the usual manner. Chiefs overall were generally only used for augmentations. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 7

see also SHIELDS ON SHIELDS

AUTHENTICITY

N. was the one spelling that was not used in period. I suggest you use one of the period forms, if you care about authenticity. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 1

BADGE

The arms of branches must have at least one laurel wreath as a major charge. Nothing else may, including badges and flags of branches. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 14

Quartering ... cannot be used for badges, as impaling is allowed there and that is sufficient. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 17

The College allows one to register a badge for an alternate persona, but the badge is registered under the name of the main persona. No more than one file per person. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 6

Badges need not have fields specified. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 1

From now on I am going to list badges of groups that are not personal households separately, although I still require the name of a representative. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 2

Badges for territorial branches should either obey the rule of tincture or have no specified field. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 3

Fields and tinctures of charges need not all be specified in a badge. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 1

Badges for subsidiary offices are forbidden, especially within the heralds. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 3

From now on all SCA badges must differ by one and a half points from SCA devices and one point from all other categories. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

From now on all badges must obey the rule of tincture. Badges need not have any tinctures specified, but if any are specified then they must obey the rule. I have finally decided to eliminate the acceptance of anything violating the rule of tincture because of all of the rules of heraldry [this] is the one that is most known to the populace, and so it is confusing to the populace to see banners which violate this practice. The primary reason for this change is to be more in keeping with period practice. In our period the rule of tincture was applied to both arms and badges. Although exceptions can be found, they were just that, exceptions to an otherwise adamant rule. Since the rule of tincture is one of the most practical rules we have, being based upon reasons of contrast and visibility, I have decided it is best to honor it in all cases. All previously registered badges are of course unaffected, but no longer constitute preceden[t]. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

A person may not place his or her own badge on an inescutcheon, lozenge or cartouche on his or her device, as that would seem to be a form of marshalling or else an augmentation. A person could place his or her badge upon a roundel and place this on his or her device. This is the proper shape for a badge, after all, and will not be considered a form of marshalling. You could also place the badge on the sail of a ship, or the sleeve of a maunch, or some other non-marshalling usage. In any event the addition cannot cause the device to exceed the limit on complexity. WVS [26] [CL 20 Oct 80], p. 3

The College will not register devices to cats or any other animals ... N. can register a badge to himself for his cat M. if he wants to. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 9

The College will not register a badge without a field that has a division of the field or an ordinary or subordinary that depends on the shape of the field for its own shape. This means you cannot register a fieldless badge with a pale, because if a pale is on a lozenge it is pointed at both ends, while on a heater it is straight at both ends. A badge with a field has the field in the shape of a roundel. A badge without a field is just the charge(s) it contains. If you want just a mullet on a pale for a badge, blazon it as a mullet on a billet. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 5

Do not use the arms of the Barony as a part of a badge of the Barony. The result is a roundel with a laurel wreath too small to make out. Besides, it looks like an augmentation. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 11

The infinity symbol is out of period and inappropriate for registration as a tinctureless charge. Abstract symbols should not be used as tinctureless badges. Otherwise, you would get people registering the signs of the Zodiac and then denying their use to others. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 11

A person cannot register a single abstract symbol without a field as a badge. If we allowed such a practice, people would register the symbols they liked and deny their use to others. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 11

The badge [containing an oak leaf and a sickle] is too Druidical in nature. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 5

Letters, numbers, runes, and other such abstract symbols may not be used in a device, although they can be used in badges. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 6

You can register a badge under your name for your teddy bear, but do not submit a device for your teddy bear. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 2

see also HOUSEHOLD

BAGPIPE

The triple-drone bagpipe is out of period. Redraw this with two drones. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 2

Tartans are mostly out of period, and so I have left the coloration of the bagpipe to the scribe. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 2. [The bagpipe was blazoned as "proper."]

BAGWYN

The bagwyn is cited in the early 16th century and so is admissible as a charge. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 7

BANNER

see FLAG

BAR

see FESS

BARREL

A puncheon barrel is elliptical in shape, as opposed to the normal round barrel. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 8

BARRULY

Heraldry does not count beyond ten. Hence, this is barruly instead of barry of fourteen. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 5

BARRY

A ford is a base barry wavy argent and azure, representing water ... If the ford were placed upon a metal field the colors would be reversed to azure and argent. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 2

Heraldry does not count beyond ten. Hence, this is barruly instead of barry of fourteen. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 5

You cannot have barry wavy of two colors. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], Peg 5

BASE

A ford is a base barry wavy argent and azure, representing water ... If the ford were placed upon a metal field the colors would be reversed to azure and argent. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 2

Note that dancetty can only be used on an ordinary that has two sides. You cannot have a chief or a base or a bordure dancetty. WVS [22] [CL 27 Aug 80], p. 1

BASTARDY

To use a surname to form a patronymic can indicate bastardy. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 7. [I am not aware of any reputable source that bears out this claim.]

BATON

The baton sinister is reserved to the English royal house. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 3

BEARD

A comet's tail heraldically is known as its beard. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 2

see also HAIR

BEAST

Any creature with four limbs can be rampant if the limbs are arranged in that specific artificial position. Wings count as limbs, as do fins. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 6

Heraldry doesn't care what positions a given animal can or cannot [have] in nature. It would be heraldically acceptable to have a seal rampant, even though that is also impossible. An animal sejant erect has the back legs under the body facing in the same direction as the head, even if one must break them to make them do that in nature. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 4

A beast rising means it is rising to its feet, going from sejant to statant. The hind legs are vertical and the front are bent. WVS [55]

All creatures must be in a standard heraldic positiona!! WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 11

BELL

The default bell is a church bell. If you want some other kind of bell you must so specify. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 4

BEND

There is very little difference between a bend sinister and a scarpe, as either is variable in size. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 6

BIRD

A bird rising has its wings displayed by default. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 4

A bird rising by default has its wings inverted. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 2

BLAZON

When two charges are in saltire you first mention the one in bend, and then that in bend sinister. The default position is for the charge in bend to lie on top of the charge in bend sinister. If not you have to say it is surmounted by the other charge. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 3. [Note contradiction in ruling of 21 Dec 81 [59], p. 1]

The use of archaic terms for canting purposes is acceptable. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 10

The field is blazoned completely first, then come the charges. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 2

Objects in bend are bendwise unless otherwise stated. The same holds true for in pale, in fess, in chevron, in pall, in bend sinister, in cross, etc. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 5

Do not use continental terms if you can blazon it with English terms. WVS [19] [LoAR 5 Jun 80], p. 1

Objects placed as if upon a bordure may be described as in bordure. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 1

A single charge is bendwise, while several charges are in bend. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p; 5

[In compass star.] This means that there are four long [charges] and four short [charges] around the [central charge], as if it was a dismembered compass star. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 1

If a charge rests wholly on another it is charged upon the other. If it extends onto the field then the lower charge is surmounted by the upper charge. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 4

Crossed in estoile means the first [charge] is bendwise sinister, the second is bendwise and the third is palewise, placed one upon the other. This is an SCA convention. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 2

By default charges are placed symmetrically around a field division. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 3

[Embowed in annulo.] The [charge] in chief determines the direction of rotation. By default, it points to dexter and so, by default, the [charges] are oriented in a widdershins direction. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 6

The [charges] are too small to be mentioned in the blazon. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 1

The College has ruled that out-of-period names for charges that themselves are in period may be used if those names are the ones the charges are commonly known by. An example of this is the fur, pean. WVS [37] [CL 10 Mar 81], p. 2

Whenever possible avoid using the split-field blazon style. Blazon first the entire field and then the charges. Semys may be considered part of the field for this purpose. WVS [47] [CL 30 Jul 81], p. 5

A charge facing towards the sinister side is "to sinister," while a charge lying in the sinister half of the field is "in sinister." The facing comes after the mention of the charge, but the location comes before it. Thus a drakkar sailing under full sail towards the sinister edge is "a drakkar under full sail to sinister," but a drakkar located in the sinister half of the field but sailing towards the dexter is "in sinister a drakkar under full sail." The same applies to "in chief" versus "to chief" or "in base" versus "to base." WVS [47] [CL 30 Jul 81], p. 5

Gyronny in cross means the gyronny is rotated one-half notch so the gyrons are in cross. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 6

It is an SCA convention that charges placed along a line of division behave like charges placed upon the corresponding ordinary with regards to default positions. Thus two swords on a bend are by default bendwise unless otherwise specified. By SCA convention two swords in bend are by default bendwise unless otherwise specified WVS [56] [CL 30 Nov 81], p. 2

When two charges are in saltire, the dexter charge is mentioned before the sinister charge. Normally, the sinister charge is on top of the dexter charge. When it is not, as in this case, the dexter charge is stated to be surmounting the sinister charge. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 1. [This contradicts the ruling of 19 Nov 79 [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 3]

A pharos is any lighthouse, and is thus not specific enough for use in a blazon. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 1

When two pairs of charges are in cross, one first blazons the pair in pale and then the pair in fess. If the two pairs had been in saltire, you would first blazon the pair in bend and then the pair in bend sinister. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 3

Hereafter, if charges are placed upon an ordinary, then by default they will follow the orientation of the ordinary (a sword placed on a bend will be bendwise by default), but charges placed along a line of partition will retain their normal default orientations. This will allow us to say that two charges placed in [the] 1st and 4th quarters on either side of a cross are in bend, without having to then say they are palewise. WVS [69] [CL 25 May 82], p. 5

see also ARTISTIC LICENSE

BONACON

The bonacon was considered too offensive by a significant fraction of the College and is therefore not allowed for use in the SCA. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 12

BOOR

Please remove the writing, as that is not proper usage. It should be a blank book. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 4

BOOT

Period boots did not have heels. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 5

BORDURE

For the last time, bordures in the SCA are on the field and do have to obey the rule of tincture! WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 5

A bordurelet is an SCA creation which is a diminutive of a bordure, being only one-third as wide as a bordure, but still being the edge of the shield. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 3

The addition of just a bordure is not sufficient because bordures are marks of cadency in Scotland. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 5

As Lord Virgule says, the addition of a bordure (a single charge) was ruled insufficient difference from Scrope in the famous Scrope vs. Grosvenor case in England. The addition of two different charges is sufficient difference between a Society device and mundane arms. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 5

Objects placed as if upon a bordure may be described as in bordure. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 1

Note that dancetty can only be used on an ordinary that has two sides. You cannot have a chief or a base or a bordure dancetty. WVS [22] [CL 27 Aug 80], p. 1

You get no difference between a bordure and a bordurelet. We allow the term to aid the artists. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 7

A bordure versus a bordurelet is at most one-half point. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 8

Placing a chief over a bordure is a non-period practice. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 4

Bordurelets themselves are not good style. Please drop the bordurelet. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 4

In line with the decision on ordinaries and their diminutives having no points of difference, henceforth we will not use bordurelets. The size of a bordure shall be a matter for the artist. WVS [54] [CL 27 Oct 81], p. 1

When one border surmounts another, the second is one-half the width of the first, effectively producing a bordure divided into two equal-width pieces. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 4

BORDURELET

see BORDURE

BOREAS

The Boreas is a cloud with the face of an old man, while the Aeolus is a cloud with the face of a young boy. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 9

Boreas is the North Wind, which has an icy breath. It is therefore argent. This is an Aeolus, i.e., a wind, no direction specified. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 5

BORZOI

The Borzoi is out of period, having been bred into existence in the 17th century. Try a wolfhound. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 4

BRIDESKOLD

N.'s own documentation lists the brideskold as an instrument of punishment that was intended to be degrading. In the SCA we are trying to re-create the Middle Ages as they should have been, without such evils as endemic disease, illiteracy, religious persecution, and sexual discrimination. Through SCA decisions to allow women to fight, to hold office, and to otherwise have an equal role in the SCA, we have affirmed our intention to avoid the subjugation of women practiced in the Middle Ages. Heraldic arms are supposed to be serious, honorable emblems. Therefore, in the SCA we shall not use as charges such offensive items as the brideskold, the chastity belt, the dunking stool, the burning stake, or any other symbol of female degradation. These charges are forbidden under the offensive[ness] clause. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 9. [It should be noted that the brideskold, the dunking stool, and the burning stake are symbols of HUMAN degradation, not necessarily reserved to women.]

BROOCH

[Open penannular brooch.] The default position here is the ring part crescentwise with the pin palewise. A closed broach has the pin fesswise. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 4

BROWNIE POINTS

Five brownie points. This is classic heraldry at its best. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 2

BULL

The exact minor details of the Assyrian winged bull versus a normal winged bull are matters for the artist, not the blazon. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 2

BURNING STAKE

see BRIDESKOLD

BUSY

see COMPLEXITY

BUTTERFLY

Papillons are butterflies. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 1

CABOSSED

In the SCA we use heads caboshed instead of faces. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 6

CADENCY

N. may register his father's device with a label added as one point of difference. WVS [2] [LoAR 16 Jul 76], p. 2

A label is a charge just like any other, and may be so used. In the SCA it is NOT a mark of cadency, as THERE IS NO CADENCY IN THE SCA! WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 11

As we are not using cadency per se it is acceptable to put a label on the mother's arms as well as the father's. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 13

The addition of just a bordure is not sufficient because bordures are marks of cadency in Scotland. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 5

Normally we do not worry about mundane arms consisting only of fields, but you cannot have a device consisting of one of them plus a mark of cadency. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 13

Our 1-1/2 point rule for difference between SCA devices and mundane arms is based upon the concept of avoiding the appearance of cadency with those mundane arms. Most of the 1-point differences were used as marks of cadency, so we adopted 1-1/2 points of difference as the rule, to ensure that the SCA didn't conflict by cadency with mundane arms. Two forms of differencing were generally not used for cadency. One was removing or replacing the major charge, while leaving the secondary charge in place. The second was adding a new primary charge so the original primary charge(s) became secondary charge(s). In the case of N's arms, the addition of the [charge] demotes the [ordinary] from primary to secondary charge, and thus does not conflict, as this would not have been a form of cadency in period. WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 4

CADUCEUS

Only a real doctor can register a caduceus or a staff of Aesculapius in a device. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 13

The arrow and snake combination ... looks too much like a caduceus, which is restricted. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 5

CAN

A can is a type of drinking cup. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 1

CANTING

The thylacine existed in period and so it can be used, even though it wasn't named until after our period. Since we of course must use the proper but out-of-period name in the blazon, I see no reason that it can't be used as his name, for the sake of canting, so long as it looks like a name and passes the other rules WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 8. [The thylacine is also known as the "Tasmanian wolf."]

The use of archaic terms for canting purposes is acceptable. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 10

CANTON

You cannot have charged cantons or quarters, either dexter or sinister, with straight lines of division. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 6

see also SHIELDS ON SHIELDS

CARTOUCHE

see SHIELDS ON SHIELDS

CAT

Herissony means back arched and spitting, a very catly position. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 3

To save space, a cat is a domestic cat. If you want a mountain lion it is a catamount. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 2

Genus and species need not be given for common animals where there is only one species involved. There is only one species of domestic cat. The same is true of dogs and horses. There are, however, many breeds, and these are what must be specified. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 2

CEDAR

For the benefit of the ordinary, all trees should have the word tree at the end. hence cedar tree instead of just cedar. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 6

CHAMELEON

The anole is the American chameleon. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 1

CHANGE OF DEVICE

If an armiger who has already registered his arms decides to change his arms he need not obtain the approval of the monarch who made him armigerous. The kings give the rank, but the College gives the actual blazon of the arms. WVS [16] [CL 15 May 80], p. 1

CHAPLET

A chaplet graminy is made of grass. WVS [2] [LoAR 16 Jul 76], p. 1

Wreaths or chaplets of roses are restricted to royalty. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 8

CHARGED

If a charge rests wholly on another it is charged upon the other. If it extends onto the field then the lower charge is surmounted by the upper charge. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 4

CHASED

Chased means voided but with the interior details and lines still showing as well as the outline. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 3

Chased means to void a charge leaving both the outline and the internal lines. Like voiding, you can chase something of a tincture other than the field. If the [charge] was chased or then it would be voided of the field with the gold lines showing. In that case the [underlying charge] would show through. Since it does not the [charge] is a [charge] or, chased sable. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 7

The only cases for internal lines in heraldry are masoned or chased. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 4

The College of Arms has decided not to allow complex voiding or chasing because of the lack of contrast. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 7

CHASTITY BELT

see BRIDESKOLD

CHAUSSE

Chausse is a division of the field formed by two lines from dexter chief and sinister chief meeting at the base point. As it is not an even division of the field, it may not be of two metals or two colors. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 1

Chausse-ploye looks like a pile concave throughout, except that the pile portion is the field and the sections to either side are the charges. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 2

CHECKY

Checky, like all divided tinctures, can be of any combinations of colors or metals (even ermine variations). If it is of two colors or two metals then it is treated as a color or metal, respectively, with regard to the rule of tincture. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 7

CHECKY PER SALTIRE

see LOZENGY

CHEVRON

A pile inverted is actually per chevron unless it is a very narrow pile inverted between other charges. If it's wide enough to put a charge on properly, it's generally per chevron. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 5

In the old days of heraldry all chevrons were enhanced. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 11

A chevron voided has the two chevronels connected by bands along the edge of the shield. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 11

A chevronel fracted is like a chevronel rompu but the point section is lowered instead of raised. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 1

CHIEF

The addition of a charged chief counts as one and a half points of difference, one for the chief and one-half for the charges on the chief. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 7

Note that dancetty can only be used on an ordinary that has two sides. You cannot have a chief or a base or a bordure dancetty. WVS [22] [CL 27 Aug 80], p. 1

This is color on color. A chief and a flank are charges, not divisions. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

A chief triangular is a continental term of questionable period. Either prove it is in period or switch to per chevron inverted. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 8

A chief triangular is now an accepted charge. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 7

A chief of one indent is out of period. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 10

Placing a chief over a bordure is a non-period practice. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 4

A chief triangular truncated doesn't exist. That's a keystone issuant from chief. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 7

The device is rejected because the chief appears to be an augmentation of Brittany. Try moving the chief up off the bend sinister in the usual manner. Chiefs overall were generally only used for augmentations. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 7

You cannot have a chief enhanced. WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 9

CHIMERA

A chimera has the goat's head emerging from the back of the lion's head. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 6

CLEF

The modern treble clef is out of period. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 10

CLOSET

see FESS

CLOTH

see TARTAN

CLOUD

The Boreas is a cloud with the face of an old man, while the Aeolus is a cloud with the face of a young boy. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 9

Boreas is the North Wind, which has an icy breath. It is therefore argent. This is an Aeolus, i.e., a wind, no direction specified. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 5

There is no such charge as a thundercloud. WVS [70] [LoAR 24 May 82], p. 8

COLLIE

My sources seem to indicate that the collie is out of period, being bred in the late 17th century. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 15

COLUMN

The only cases for internal lines in heraldry are masoned or chased. Anything else, such as the Doric meander, is diapering and is not listed in the blazon. Changing the meander to silver on white would be proper diapering. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 4. [The charge, which was submitted as a Doric meander, was eventually registered as an Ionic column.]

COMET

A comet's tail heraldically is known as its beard. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 2

COMPASS ROSE

Compass roses and Mariner's Roses are too complex to be used in the SCA. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 7

He has established that this sort of symbol is in period. By default a compass rose has a fleur-de-lys in chief to point to north. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 3

COMPASS STAR

A compass star has alternating greater and lesser points, with a greater point to chief. To be proper the number of points should be divisible by four. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 6

[In compass star.] This means that there are four long [charges] and four short [charges] around the [central charge], as if it was a dismembered compass star. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 1

COMPLEMENT

see MOON

COMPLEXITY

This is six layers, which is too much. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 16

In all there are eleven charges crammed onto this device. This is too complicated. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 4

This is a special exception to the rule against complexity and does not constitute a precedent. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 1

This is far too complex and is Victorian. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 5

This device is too busy. It has six charges. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 8

This has six different types of charges and is, therefore, too complex. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 9

CONFLICT

You may not charge a sail if the resulting sail conflicts with existing arms. It would imply a relationship to that family. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 6

[Pellinore.] The device is acceptable but the name is not in conjunction with the device. You must either change the word Pellinore or else use a different charge other than the questing beast. The combination of Pellinore and a questing beast is too much of a conflict with King Pellinore. If you want to use a famous name of a mortal you must not only difference from the famous person by the rest of the Society name, but also you must avoid any further reference to the famous person in the device. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 7

This would seem to be the arms of a bastard son (hence the bordure counter-compony) of the Royal House of Gondor. The addition of the Elvish name is just too much. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 8

This conflicts with [blazon]. They are too visually similar. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 7

Normally we do not worry about mundane arms consisting only of fields, but you cannot have a device consisting of one of them plus a mark of cadency. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 13

During the Renaissance, N.'s arms could well have been drawn with a rapier, as that was the sword in use in those days. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 7. [In other words, a "rapier" is considered to be a special case of the heraldic "sword," and one will conflict with the other.]

If two SCA arms differ only by color (i.e., the outlines are the same), then they conflict. One reason is that, if both were used as tinctureless seals, they would be identical, which is confusing. The other reason is that we remember shapes very well, but colors only somewhat. Thus, two devices differing only in the colors of the charges would be easily confused. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 4

see also DIFFERENCE

CONSTELLATION

You cannot have the Southern Cross, as constellations are out of period for use as charges. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], pa 7

The use of a constellation as a charge is out of period and not acceptable. However, I would be willing to consider an Ursa Major as a charge if you draw the full constellation of mullets on the proper bear shape as drawn by the ancients in our period. The College could then debate whether this is acceptable usage, as such drawings did exist in our period. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 7

CONTOURNY

From now on, an animal turned to face sinister is contourny ... Counter-X shall now be used ... when there are two or more animals moving in opposite directions. Please note that an animal's head that is couped and turned to face sinister is now "couped contourny." Charges that are not animals or animal heads (and for purposes of this rule, humans are animals) still use reversed if turned to sinister. WVS [37] [CL 10 Mar 81], p. 3

Charges facing sinister are contourny. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 6

I hereby allow either "contourny" or "to sinister" to represent [the position of a charge] turned to the sinister ... From now on I will take them as they come in. Counter-positions are still reserved for two or more animals going in opposite directions. WVS [41] [CL 12 May 81], p. 4

Normally the fimbriation would not suffice to avoid lack of contrast, but the semy adds enough extra contrast to make it work. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 1

[Gyronny of sixteen vert and azure.] The excessive division of the field into green and blue pieces is a bad idea given the lack of contrast between the two. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 9

You cannot place argent upon ermine, as there is insufficient contrast. Similarly you could not place Or on erminois, nor sable on counter-ermine or pean. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 4

The College of Arms has decided not to allow complex voiding or chasing because of the lack of contrast. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 7

see also PROPER

CONVENTIONAL CHARGE

There is no such thing as a heart proper. That is a conventional charge, and can be borne in any tincture. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 9

COTISE

It is now legal to use cotices as independent charges. You specify if they are bar cotices or bend cotices or chevron cotices. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 8

You cannot have an endorse or a cotise standing alone. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 10

Flaunches voided and flaunches cotised are both non-period. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 4

COUNTER

see CONTOURNY

COUNTERCHANGE

It is the consensus of the College and my decision that the counterchange of a submission is no longer registered along with the submission. Counterchanging is now a single point of difference, with the stipulation that no badge, device, or arms can be the counterchange of another badge, device or arms without the written permission of the holder of the latter. Thus when one submits a device now it is no longer necessary to worry about what its counterchange conflicts with, or whether the device itself conflicts with the counterchange of other devices or arms. WVS [16] [CL 15 May 80], p. 2

The counterchanging leaves the lines of the bend intact, thereby leaving the bend as the major charge, so there is only one point of difference. WVS [19] [LoAR 5 Jun 80], p. 4

From now on all SCA badges must differ by one and a half points from SCA devices and one point from all other categories. That one point cannot just be counterchanging. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

Counterchanging is less than a full point in most cases. In the case where there are several tinctures then a complete permutation can be a full point. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

You can specify tinctures for counterchanging other than the tinctures of the field and its ordinaries. In this case the [charges] on the azure half of the field are argent and those on the Or half are vert. The default case is to use the colors of the field and ordinaries, as is the case with the [other charge]. In this case the tinctures are not specified. This is a new SCA convention. It should prove useful. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 3

Counterchanging by a line of division is 1 point of difference. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 13

As this is a badge, it needs only one point of difference from mundane arms and mon, and therefore does not conflict with the Japanese mon which is the counterchange. In mon color doesn't count, just light on dark or dark on light. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 4

CRAB

Spiders, turtles, crabs, etc., are all tergiant displayed by default. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 2

CRANE

A crane in its vigilance is statant with its dexter foreleg upraised. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 2

CREATIVE HERALDRY

This [charge] is insufficiently unique to warrant its own name in the ordinary. You can call it [special name] in [kingdom] if you like but it can't go into the ordinary that way. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 9

It was standard practice in period European heraldry to create new monsters by combining pieces of common animals. The College of Arms allows the use of those monsters created before 1601 and allows the creation of new monsters in this fashion by Society members. These monsters must be made from pieces of common animals known to Europe in our period. The use of highly unusual or unknown animals is not allowed. Thus one could not make an animal out of a platypus's head, a gnu's body, a coelacanth's tail, and the legs of a penguin. The College has from time to time allowed the registration of new monsters created out of whole cloth that are not blazonable as parts of common animals. These are exceptions treated on a case-by-case basis. The College often assigns a new name to these new monsters rather than listing them as a long combination of various parts of animals (e.g., the Bog Beast). At this time, the College refuses to register as out of period those monsters which were created between the years 1601 and 1966, even if they are completely in keeping with and compatible with period usage. The College does not allow them either under their actual name or as a list of parts of animals. Thus, if you create a new monster out of pieces of animals that has never been thought of before, it is acceptable, but if it turns out that somebody else thought of it in 1758, then it is not allowed. WVS [37] [CL 10 Mar 81], p. 2

Henceforth there will be a moratorium on the normal registration of out-of-period monsters and of made-up monsters. Instead, we will allow people to petition the College of Arms for acceptance of a particular monster, on a case-by-case basis. Such proposed monsters may be made up or out of period monsters. The question will be whether the monster is in keeping with period practice and whether the College feels it would be a good idea to allow its use in the SCA. Once approved, the monster is available for use by anybody in the SCA. All monsters already registered now are still available for general use. WVS [41] [CL 12 May 81], p. 5

You cannot give special names to simple charges like a roundel engrailed. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 2

CRESCENT

An increscent moon is an increscent with a face and is in period as it was used in statuary in our period. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 2

I prefer crescent inverted to crescent pendant. WVS 140], pa 5

Vesper has convinced me that a crescent pendant is a proper period version of a crescent inverted and so I allow it. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 6

CREST

see ACHIEVEMENT

CRINED

Crined applies to all hair parts, not just the mane. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 2

CROSS

Your [submission] violates the rule against astrological symbols because the cross within an annulet is the astrological symbol of Earth. A true sun cross has the annulet on the cross, so the arms of the cross extend beyond the annulet. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 9

A Bowen cross is a Bowen knot rotated 45 degrees to be in cross, with the loops straightened into straight lines and right angle bends. It looks like five mascles conjoined in cross. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 3

Formy and paty are the same thing. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 4

A Cross of Calatrava gules is the symbol of the Spanish Order of Calatrava, an order of knighthood. A Cross of Calatrava vert is the symbol of the Order of Alcantara, another Spanish order of knighthood. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 8. [The submission was rejected for containing one of these charges.]

A cross sarcelled means its ends are split back towards the center (see Copinger's Heraldry Simplified, plate 69, $183, p. 66). WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 1

It is better to call these mullets [of four points] than star-crosses, because that way they are grouped with mullets in the Ordinary rather than crosses. We already have another use for star-cross, anyway. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 5

A Latin saltire is a Latin cross bendwise. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 1

A tau cross has concave arms. A cross couped in chief has straight arms and thus looks like the capital letter T. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 4

[Cross annuletted.] Annuletted [sic] means each arm of the cross ends in an annulet. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 3. [The forms given in the heraldry books are annulated and annuletty.]

A straight tau cross looks like a capital T. A normal tau cross has formy arms. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 4

In the SCA, a Cross of Jerusalem is a cross potent between four crosses couped. WVS [70] [LoAR 24 May 82], p. 1. [This is the mundane usage as well.]

The patriarchal cross (often blazoned as a Cross Lorraine or an Archiepiscopal Cross) was usually used in ecclesiastical heraldry, but there are instances of its use in normal heraldry. WVS [70] [LoAR 24 May 82], p. 2

CROWN

Crowns are reserved for Kingdoms, Principalities, Dukes, Duchesses, Counts, Countesses, Viscounts and Viscountesses. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 3

The badge is OK, but it cannot be a badge for use by a household, as only Duke N. has the right to display the crowns. His household members do not have this right. Therefore, I have registered this as a personal badge. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 5

CUP

A can is a type of drinking cup. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 1

CYGNET

A cygnet is a baby swan. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 4

DANCETTY

Dancetty is indented of three points. Since you have six it is just indented. Your large indents are actually the correct way to draw indented, instead of the modern fine-scale sawtooth form. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 5

Dancetty is not a line of division at all, but is a treatment of an ordinary. Indented is the line of division. If you want three points call it indented of three points. [Indented] means to indent the chief part of an ordinary and to counter-indent the base part, yielding a series of conjoined lozenges. An ordinary [dancetty] is indented on both sides unless otherwise specified, yielding a sawtooth line effect. The small scale indenting is out of period and I would rather not see it, although I will not reject a device for using it. Note that dancetty can only be used on an ordinary that has two sides. You cannot have a chief or a base or a bordure dancetty. WVS [22] [CL 27 Aug 80], p. 1. [N.B. The definitions of "indented" and "dancetty" were interchanged in the original quotation. This error was corrected in a subsequent letter. and the above text has been amended appropriately.]

DEATH'S HEAD

Death's heads or skulls are not proper, but argent. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 1

DEBASED

Debased is no longer used as it means mirror imaged and is an abatement. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 1

Abased means that the ... division is lowered to base. This is what we used to call "debased," which was incorrect. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 1

DEBRUISED

A snake ... with its tail looped over its body is debruised. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 1

Do not use debruised for placing one object upon another, as debruised is used in describing serpents. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 4. [The term debruised is roughly synonymous with surmounted; its application to serpents is a special case.]

DELINEATION

Delineating a charge is artistic license and need not be blazoned. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 1

DEMON

see GARGOYLE

DETAIL

see ARTISTIC LICENSE

DEVICE

From now on groups that are not personal households can register devices. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 2

The College will not register devices to cats or any other animals ... N. can register a badge to himself for his cat M. if he wants to. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 9

You can register a badge under your name for your teddy bear, but do not submit a device for your teddy bear. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 2

I have decided to allow groups with royal charters to register a device. If they receive an Award of Arms, their device shall become their arms. An Award of Arms shall be considered a Royal Charter, as shall an Augmentation of Arms. A Royal Charter consists of a document signed by the Ring and Queen and witnessed by the Principal Herald stating that the group is recognized and chartered by the Crown. WVS [66] [CL 21 Apr 82], p. 5

DIAMOND

Octahedral diamond crystals were not in period. Like all transparent charges, a diamond crystal is argent. You cannot put it on argent. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 9

DIAPERING

The only cases for internal lines in heraldry are masoned or chased. Anything else, such as the Doric meander, is diapering and is not listed in the blazon. Changing the meander to silver on white would be proper diapering. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 4. [The charge, which was submitted as a Doric meander, was eventually registered as an Ionic column.]

Papelonny of one tincture is a form of diapering. Papelonny of two tinctures is an allowed fur. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 9

DIFFERENCE

When you take off one charge and replace it with another you only get one point of difference, even if you change the type of charge, the color, and the position. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 15

The differences between a winged unicorn and a horned pegasus are the beard and the cloven hooves, very tiny differences indeed. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 9

To the medieval herald more than six of anything is many, and so there is no difference heraldically between seven charges and semy of those charges. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 4

Complete difference of charge between two submissions is sufficient difference, even if the field, the tinctures of the charges, the number and positions are the same. In order for there to be complete difference the charges must look totally different. A lozenge is completely different from a horse. A unicorn is not. WVS [16] [CL 15 May 80], p. 1

It is the consensus of the College and my decision that the counterchange of a submission is no longer registered along with the submission. Counterchanging is now a single point of difference, with the stipulation that no badge, device, or arms can be the counterchange of another badge, device or arms without the written permission of the holder of the latter. Thus when one submits a device now it is no longer necessary to worry about what its counterchange conflicts with, or whether the device itself conflicts with the counterchange of other devices or arms. WVS [16] [CL 15 May 80], p. 2

In the case of mundane coats of arms consisting of a single-tinctured field and a single-tinctured ordinary, only one full point of difference is needed, as each combination is held by many families and so you cannot be said to be a cadet branch of any one family. The addition of a single secondary charge is not a full point of difference. The addition of several secondary charges, or the addition of a single major charge overall (which visually changes the ordinary from the primary charge to a secondary charge) is a full point and is sufficient. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 5

The addition of just a bordure is not sufficient because bordures are marks of cadency in Scotland. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 5

This does not conflict with [mundane arms] because nobody in our period would have indicated a cadet branch of the family by adding a major charge behind the main charge of the primary family's arms. In such a situation where it clearly is not a cadet branch, one full point is sufficient. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 5

As Lord Virgule says, the addition of a bordure (a single charge) was ruled insufficient difference from Scrope in the famous Scrope vs. Grosvenor case in England. The addition of two different charges is sufficient difference between a Society device and mundane arms. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 5

The addition of a charged chief counts as one and a half points of difference, one for the chief and one-half for the charges on the chief. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 7

A single bar and a fess are not really visually different. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 10

The counterchanging leaves the lines of the bend intact, thereby leaving the bend as the major charge, so there is only one point of difference. WVS [19] [LoAR 5 Jun 80], p. 4

From now on all SCA badges must differ by one and a half points from SCA devices and one point from all other categories. That one point cannot just be counterchanging. All SCA devices must differ from all other SCA devices by two full points, and from all other categories by one and a half points. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

Counterchanging is less than a full point in most cases. In the case where there are several tinctures then a complete permutation can be a full point. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

In the SCA we do not follow the medieval practice of always showing charges advancing. If a person wishes to register a charge retreating he or she may. A lion rampant is one point of difference from a lion counter-rampant. We view what is on the emblazon sheet as the only correct form for the device or badge, subject to artistic license. This is an old custom from the beginning of the College. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

Adding a number of identical charges counts as a single point of difference. You need one and a half. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 5

Rotation is not a point of difference. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 4

In the case where one has mundane arms which [are] not the arms of a royal house [and] which consist of a simple field plus a simple ordinary, the addition of a major overall charge ... is sufficient difference. The overall charge must be drawn large enough to make it the primary visual charge. The relegation of the ordinary to secondary status will constitute the extra half point needed. These simple combinations of field plus ordinary are usually held by many mundane families and this multiplicity allows us to be a little more lenient. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 6

Differences in lines of division are one-half point. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 8

All breeds of the species Equus equus are horses, as far as heraldry is concerned. The difference of breed comes in the coloration. Minor bodily differences are matters for the artist. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 6

The difference between an ordinary and its subordinary [diminutive] is one-half point. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 1

There [are] ZERO point(s) of difference for having a fieldless badge versus having a field. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 8

Counterchanging by a line of division is 1 point of difference. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 13

In line with the decision on ordinaries and their diminutives having no points of difference, henceforth we will not use bordurelets. The size of a bordure shall be a matter for the artist. A single bar will be no different from a fess. For the benefit of the scribes, the first diminutive of an ordinary may be used singly and so specified to indicate that a smaller size is wanted, but no points of difference will result. Thus, you can specify one bar in the blazon, and it will be drawn that way, but it will be no different than if it were a fess for the purpose of conflicts. WVS [54] [CL 27 Oct 81], p. 1

As this is a badge, it needs only one point of difference from mundane arms and non, and therefore does not conflict with the Japanese mon which is the counterchange. In mon color doesn't count, just light on dark or dark on light. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 4

With regard to the "complete difference of charge" clause, I have been convinced that we should allow it to be invoked in the case of a device of several charges because otherwise it is impossible to check all of the conflicts. Therefore, if a badge or a device differs from another by having all of its charges be completely different, then it does not conflict. Thus Argent, three lozenges azure does not conflict with Argent, three swords azure, but it would conflict with Argent, three mascles azure, as a lozenge and a mascle are not completely different, although they are different. When multiple charges are involved, the standard of "completely different" will be tougher than in the case of a by single charge. In particular. if there are a lot of charges in an unusual arrangement, then it may not be possible to achieve complete difference, and so two full points would be required. An example would be nine bezants in cross within eight swords in annulo. This would be blazoned as a cross of bezants within an annulet of swords. If you then had another SCA device which had nine lozenges in cross within eight dolphins naiant in annulo, the arrangements are so visually striking that the two would immediately be confused, even though the charges are different. This is a case where complete difference could not be achieved. WVS [64] [CL 18 Mar 82], p. 2

Semy is a treatment of the field ... This means that an SCA device which consists of a field, semy of something, plus one or more charges is automatically sufficiently different by the complete-difference-of-charge rule from a mundane arms consisting of just that field semy of something. This is equivalent to saying that we do not worry about conflicts between mundane arms consisting only of a field or a field semy and an SCA submission which adds a major charge to that field or field semy. An exception is ... France Ancien (Azure, semy-de-lis Or), which may not be used as a field in the SCA. Inasmuch as only unusual cases will allow an SCA member to register a device consisting of only a field or only a field semy, I feel the complete-difference rule should not apply for conflicts between these and other SCA devices. If somebody added a major charge to the arms of Raymond the Mild (Bendy pily Sable and Or), I would say that is only one point and another is needed (such as changing the sable to azure) because, as Master Raymond's arms are so distinctive and unusual, there would be a visual conflict with any device that added just a charge. The same is true for an SCA device consisting solely of a field semy. one must change one of the colors of the field or semy or the type of semy as well as add a charge. WVS [66] [CL 21 Apr 82], p. 3

Making semy a treatment of the field means that now, if you go from Azure, a cross Or to Vert, bezanty, a cross Or, then you have only one point of difference, because that is all you can ever have for difference of the field. Adding the semy does change the outline, which will help when considering the case of conflict through identical outlines. WVS [66] [CL 21 Apr 82], p. 3

Our 1-1/2 point rule for difference between SCA devices and mundane arms is based upon the concept of avoiding the appearance of cadency with those mundane arms. Most of the 1-point differences were used as marks of cadency, so we adopted 1-1/2 points of difference as the rule, to ensure that the SCA didn't conflict by cadency with mundane arms. Two forms of differencing were generally not used for cadency. One was removing or replacing the major charge, while leaving the secondary charge in place. The second was adding a new primary charge so the original primary charge(s) became secondary charge(s). In the case of N's arms, the addition of the [charge] demotes the [ordinary] from primary to secondary charge, and thus does not conflict, as this would not have been a form of cadency in period. WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 4

see also CONFLICT

DIMIDIATION

The device is a form of dimidiation by quartering. No [marshalling] is allowed. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 14

This is very lovely, but it looks like dimidiation, which we do not allow. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 16

DIMINUTIVE

The difference between an ordinary and its subordinary [diminutive] is one-half point. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 1

In line with the decision on ordinaries and their diminutives having no points of difference, henceforth we will not use bordurelets. The size of a bordure shall be a matter for the artist. A single bar will be no different from a fess. For the benefit of the scribes, the first diminutive of an ordinary may be used singly and so specified to indicate that a smaller size is wanted, but no points of difference will result. Thus, you can specify one bar in the blazon, and it drawn that way, but it will be no different than if it were the purpose of conflicts. WVS [54] [CL 27 Oct 81], p. 1

DIRT

You cannot have a mountain proper, as dirt comes in many colors. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 9

DISPLAYED

Displayed applies only to winged creatures. The above method [tergiant erect, heads to dexter, limbs spread in saltire] describes the equivalent position for four-legged creatures who are spread out with their backs to the viewer. If the legs are vertical or horizontal they would be spread in pale or in fess. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 2

Since the references disagree and we have used displayed in the past in the SCA, I have decided to continue the use of the term for all animals. By default an animal displayed is affronty with all limbs extended radially outwards, with the head turned to dexter. If you want its head looking outwards it is gardant. If you want its head facing sinister it is regardant. If its back is to the viewer it is tergiant. The main axis of the body is by default palewise. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 1. [Regardant means "looking back over the shoulder." An animal affronty cannot be regardant.]

Displayed has the head facing to dexter. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 1

DOCUMENTATION

This is the most massively documented appeal I have ever seen. It was well done. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 4

All rejections do have the right of appeal, so long as documentation accompanies the appeal. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 7

I need the language, translation, and/or source for the name. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 10

As a reward for their excellent documentation on [charge], I am granting a specific exception to the rule to N. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 2

This was held for documentation of the [charge]. The documentation not having been sent, the device is rejected. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 7

Send the documentation on N. to me. Don't just claim to have it. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 11

DOG

Genus and species need not be given for common animals where there is only one species involved. There is only one species of domestic cat. The same is true of dogs and horses. There are, however, many breeds, and these are what must be specified. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 2

[Ornamental Chinese Fu dog's head.] These are from the statues of Fu dog heads on a gate in Peking and are therefore highly stylized. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 4

DOGWOOD

The difference between a rose and a dogwood blossom is basically five instead of four petals, plus barbs. There is thus not enough difference. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 7

DOLMEN

The default form of a dolmen is a trilithon, unless otherwise specified. A trilithon is a dolmen composed of one horizontal stone resting on two upright ones. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 2

DOLPHIN

The word "bottle-nosed" means that this is a natural and not a heraldic dolphin. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 5

DOVETAILED

Dovetailed is in fact out of period but has been accepted for use in the SCA as it is compatible with period usage. WVS [22] [CL 27 Aug 80], p. 1

I have bowed to research and objections and have ruled that "dovetailed" as a line of division is out of period and may no longer be used. WVS [41] [CL 12 May 81], p. 4

With our new ruling on allowing out-of-period usages that are compatible with period practice, I hereby allow dovetailed for SCA use. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 6

DRAGON

A Chinese dragon is a wingless dragon. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 10

A Dun dragon is a made up charge, looking rather [like] a dinosaur with two horns. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 1

[Ounce-dragon.] This monster is the front half of an ounce (snow leopard) and the back half of a dragon. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 2

The Chinese dragon cannot have five toes, as that is for Imperial use. Try four toes. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 7

Another word for dragon is wyrm. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 1

Dragon's tails are drawn differently by different artists and so cannot be used as a charge. WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 8

DRAGONFLY

We must have genus, species, and breed for the dragonfly, as dragonflies come in all colors. Choose one that is in period. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 11

DUCK

A duck proper is sable. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 9

DUNKING STOOL

see BRIDESKOLD

EAGLE

A wyvern's head is an eagle's head with ears. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 6

A phoenix is an eagle rising from flames. The flames need not be specified because if they weren't there it would be an eagle instead of a phoenix. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 2

Only triple-headed eagles are restricted. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 1

ELLIPSOID

An ellipsoid is not a period charge. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 10

EMBOWED

[Embowed counter-embowed.] This is the opposite curvature from haurient. This looks like a question mark while haurient looks like a capital C with the head at the top turned to dexter. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 4

[Counter-erect embowed.] The [charge] is in the shape of a capital C. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 5

[Embowed in annulo.] The [charge] in chief determines the direction of rotation. By default, it points to dexter and so, by default, the [charges] are oriented in a widdershins direction. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 6

EN SOLEIL

The white rose en soleil was the royal badge of Richard II and Edward IV and may not be used. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 10

ENDORSE

You cannot have an endorse or a cotise standing alone. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 10

ENFIELD

Charges, monsters, and usages created between the years 1601 and 1966 may not be used under any name or description, as they are out of period. An enfield by any other name is still unacceptable. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 10

An enfield is out of period. Blazoning it by parts does not change this fact. I have put the question of out-of-period monsters to the College, but at this time the rule still holds. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 8

Based upon the opinion of the College of Arms, the enfield is hereby ruled compatible with period usage and is thus allowable for SCA use. An enfield proper has a red fox's head and forequarters, a grey wolf's back half, and yellow hawk's talons for the front forelegs. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 2

ENSIGN

see FLAG

ERMINE

You cannot place argent upon ermine, as there is insufficient contrast. Similarly you could not place Or on erminois, nor sable on counter-ermine or pean. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 4

Ermine spots are called musketours [sic] when used as charges. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 8. [Parker lists French hermine, moucheture, and mouchator as occasional variants of the more common English term ermine spot.]

Ermine is a white field with black spots. It is NEVER done with silver. It represents white furry tails with black tips. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 4

An ermine tail is an ermine spot without the dots. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 6

ERMINED

Adding a powdering of azure ermine spots does not make the field a fur. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 7. [I.e., a field ermined is not exempt from the rule of tincture.]

ESTOC

An estoc is a sword with a long, narrow, quadrangular blade intended solely for thrusting; earlier ones hung from the saddle or passed through rings on the belt. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 3

ESTOILE

Crossed in estoile means the first [charge] is bendwise sinister, the second is bendwise and the third is palewise, placed one upon the other. This is an SCA convention. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 2

Hereafter suns and estoiles shall have rays and mullets will have points. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 3

EXCEPTION

A person can always use their first name, as long as they difference it properly. Nobody else can use N. as a name unless they also have it as their first name. This is a specific exception to the normal rules, granted only to her. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 5

This is a special exception to the rule against complexity and does not constitute a precedent. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 1

Submissions under a grandfather clause are recognized exception rule and do not constitute precedent for breaking the rule. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

As a reward for their excellent documentation on [charge] I am granting a specific exception to the rule to N. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 2

This is a specific exception to the rule against uneven division violating the rule of tincture. Her mother has the same division in her previously registered device. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 2

N. is a variant of her first name, M., so she can have it. N. seems to be out of period, so this is a specific and not a general approval of the name. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 4

You may not have a name consisting only of one word. I have therefore added N. to the currently registered name, as a nickname. Normally we do not register nicknames but since he was knighted with the name, I will allow it. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 4

EYE

The use of human eyes proper was very rare in period, if they were used at all. WVS [70] [LoAR 24 May 82], p. 7

FACE

In the SCA we use heads caboshed instead of faces. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 6

FESS

A single bar and a fess are not really visually different. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 10

The three diminutives of the fesse are the bar, the closet and the barrulet in decreasing order of size. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 4

You can specify one bar in the blazon, and it will be drawn that way, but it will be no different than if it were a fess for the purpose of conflicts. WVS [54] [CL 27 Oct 81], p. 1

FIELD

Badges for territorial branches should either obey the rule of tincture or have no specified field. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 3

The field is blazoned completely first, then come the charges. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 2

Fields and tinctures of charges need not all be specified in a badge. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 1

This is not an inescutcheon of pretence because there is no device behind it. The College of Arms does not consider a single tincture field to be a protected entity. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 10

This was passed with an argent field for Society use on scrolls. She may drop the field for personal use as a mon. A device must have a field. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 4

The College will not register a badge without a field that has a division of the field or an ordinary or subordinary that depends on the shape of the field for its own shape. This means you cannot register a fieldless badge with a pale, because if a pale is on a lozenge it is pointed at both ends, while on a heater it is straight at both ends. A badge with a field has the field in the shape of a roundel. A badge without a field is just the charges it contains. If you want just a mullet on a pale for a badge, blazon it as a mullet on a billet. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 5

You cannot have an ordinary or subordinary without a field unless it can be couped. In order for a charge to be used in a badge without a field, its shape must not depend upon the shape of the field. A gore's shape does depend on the shape of the field (heater, lozenge, roundel, etc.) and so cannot be used by itself, without a field. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 10

There [are] ZERO point(s) of difference for having a fieldless badge versus having a field. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 8

Normally we do not worry about mundane arms consisting only of fields, but you cannot have a device consisting of one of them plus a mark of cadency. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 13

A person cannot register a single abstract symbol without a field as a badge. If we allowed such a practice, people would register the symbols they liked and deny their use to others. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 11

Semy is a treatment of the field ... This means that an SCA device which consists of a field, semy of something, plus one or more charges is automatically sufficiently different by the complete-difference-of-charge rule from a mundane arms consisting of just that field semy of something. This is equivalent to saying that we do not worry about conflicts between mundane arms consisting only of a field or a field semy and an SCA submission which adds a major charge to that field or field semy. An exception is ... France Ancien (Azure, semy-de-lis Or), which may not be used as a field in the SCA. Inasmuch as only unusual cases will allow an SCA member to register a device consisting of only a field or only a field semy, I feel the complete-difference rule should not apply for conflicts between these and other SCA devices. If somebody added a major charge to the arms of Raymond the Mild (Bendy pily sable and Or), I would say that is only one point and another is needed (such as changing the sable to azure) because, as Master Raymond's arms are so distinctive and unusual, there would be a visual conflict with any device that added just a charge. The same is true for an SCA device consisting solely of a field semy. one must change one of the colors of the field or semy or the type of semy as well as add a charge. WVS [66] [CL 21 Apr 82], p. 3

The Rule of Tincture applies to fieldless badges. While the field is not specified, the understanding is that the badge will only be borne on contrasting backgrounds. This means that, if the badge consists of separated charges, they must be all metals or all colors. WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 8

FIGUREHEAD

Redraw the badge so that it is not an exact copy of the Oseburg vessel's figurehead. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 15

FIMBRIATION

Fimbriation is a makeshift way of avoiding violations of the Rule of Tincture. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 14

Normally the fimbriation would not suffice to avoid lack of contrast, but the semy adds enough extra contrast to make it work. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 1

This is blatant fimbriation to foil the rule of tincture. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 7

Wherever possible, use voided rather than fimbriated. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 4

Fimbriating a living charge generally adds too much complexity. Fimbriation should be reserved for simple charges. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 11

This is excessive use of fimbriation, used solely to get around the Rule of Tincture. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 10

You cannot void complex charges like a tyger. Voiding and fimbriation should only be used with simple charges. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 6

Use of fimbriation becomes excessive when it is used on a complex outline, such as a flower or a bird, or on multiple charges. You should only use fimbriation on a single simple charge. Sometimes you can get away with fimbriating a group of identical simple charges. Fimbriating a number of different charges is excessive fimbriation. WVS [71] [CL 18 Jun 82], p. 2

FIN

Any creature with four limbs can be rampant if the limbs are arranged in that specific artificial position. Wings count as limbs, as do fins. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 6

FIR

On this scale it is impossible to tell which fir tree they are, so one does not have to give genus and species. Calling it a fir tree does give the fact that it is a conical evergreen. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 7

FIRE

A ball of flames differs from a sun in that it is irregular. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 8

Flames proper on a colored field are gules on the inside and Or on the outside. On a metal, it is the opposite. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 1

FIREBALL

A fireball Or is a bezant with four flames issuant from it in cross. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 12

FLAG

The arms of branches must have at least one laurel wreath as a major charge. Nothing else may, including badges and flags of branches. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 14

Flags must obey the rule of tincture. They count as devices. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 3

While I do not like putting banners on banners, I cannot construe this as a form of augmentation. Any other such use must, however, avoid conflicts both with the whole blazon, and with the blazon of the device on the gonfanon. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 1

The terms ensign and flag are out of period but standard is not. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 3

By default, pennons stream to dexter. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 1

FLAMES

see FIRE

FLAUNCHES

It is now acceptable to have flaunches of different colors. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 12

This is color on color. A chief and a flank are charges, not divisions. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

Flaunches voided and flaunches cotised are both non-period. WVS 152], p. 4

FLEUR-DE-LYS

[Azure, semy-de-lys Or.] This color-semy combination may not be used in the SCA. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 5. [Azure, semy-de-lys Or, also known as France Ancient, is the early form of the royal arms of France.]

FLORETTY

Floretty means there is a fleur-de-lys head emerging from each of the points of the indented line on the chief side. If they emerged from both sides it would be floretty counter-floretty. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 3

FLOWER

A Kendal flower is defined to be a rose of six petals gyronny of six argent and gules, barbed vert, seeded Or. The result is a six petaled rose with alternately colored petals. You can have a rose of other than five petals as a rose petal is a well-defined shape, and a rose of N-petals is clear. WVS [2] [LoAR 16 Jul 76], p. 1

The difference between a rose and a dogwood blossom is basically five instead of four petals, plus barbs. There is thus not enough difference. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 7

FOOT

Whether the feet are hooved or webbed is a matter for the scribe. It's still a sea horse. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 3

FOOTPRINT

Human footprints were, to my knowledge, not used in period. Try using actual feet. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 8

FORCENY

From now on people should not use forceny, as it is ambiguous, but rather rampant or salient. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 10

Salient means leaping bendwise up, forelegs together. Forceny means rearing up bendwise, forelegs separate, as if to strike furiously. Rampant means to have the body palewise with the limbs in the classic rampant position, and the mouth open. In the latter two cases the horse is drawn in a fierce aspect as in combat, while in the former it is drawn in a calm aspect, as if jumping playfully. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 3

FORD

A ford is a base barry wavy argent and azure, representing water ... If the ford were placed upon a metal field the colors would be reversed to azure and argent. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 2

FORK

Medieval forks had two tines. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 3

FRACTED

A chevronel fracted is like a chevronel rompu but the point section is lowered instead of raised. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 1

A broken sword is the hilt and stub of blade. A sword fracted is both pieces. WVS [70] [LoAR 24 May 82], p. 4

FUR

You cannot place argent upon ermine, as there is insufficient contrast. Similarly you could not place Or on erminois, nor sable on counter-ermine or pean. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 4

Papelonny of one tincture is a form of diapering. Papelonny of two tinctures is an allowed fur. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 9

Adding a powdering of azure ermine spots does not make the field a fur. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 7. [I.e., a field ermined is not exempt from the rule of tincture.]

FUSILY

[Fusily bendwise sinister.] This division of the field doesn't exist. Try paly bendy sinister. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 10

GALLEY

A lymphad is a stylized galley. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 4

GARDANT

Guardant means looking out towards the viewer, no matter how the body is positioned. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 1

GARGOYLE

A gargoyle is a water spout. The [charge] drawn has its mouth shut and shows no other opening for the spout, so I have blazoned it as a demon. Gargoyle is a class of object, and so you must say a gargoyle in the shape of something. If they wish to redraw it to make it an obvious water spout off the side of a building I will be happy to reblazon it a a gargoyle in the shape of the demon described. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 2

GARNISHED

"Garnished" means all minor details are of the second tincture. This applies to animals, swords, and any other charges with minor details of a second tincture. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 3

GATE

[Iron grill gate.] The gate is similar to those at Buckingham Palace -- vertical spear-like rods with horizontal bars at top and bottom, with the fleury spearheads rising in an arc above the top bar. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 2

A gate proper is brown, as is any other wooden object. A corral gate is the type you see in a corral, consisting of three horizontal and one or two diagonal bars. WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 2

GENUS AND SPECIES

These are the stylized trilliums used by Ontario, and hence they are blazoned piecewise, rather than as proper. This way no genus and species are needed. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 10

There are many species of angelfish but they all have the same basic outline and this is just a single specified tincture so there is no need for listing the genus and species. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 1

This is your basic ivy. Genus and species is not needed. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 1

Sp. stands for species, i.e. any species. They all look alike to the untrained eye. If you can easily specify the appearance just by specifying the genus, use this form. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 2

When the intent is just to have small standard charges in the default colors the genus and species need not be specified, as in this case. WVS [131, p. 1

Whenever a common name for a plant or animal has only one species associated with it, the genus and species need not be given. If there are variations within the species then the breed must be specified. When the charge is a specified tincture the only question is whether or not there is more than one possible outline for the data given. When the charge is proper the question is whether the outline and/or the coloring is completely specified. Here the [charge] has only one species, only one outline, and is of a specified tincture, so genus and species need not be specified. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 1

When a living thing is termed proper and only the standard coloration is desired, not any particular species, then the Linnean name is not necessary. An example here is the basic fir tree proper. It shows a green conical top and a brown trunk. If you specifically want a Douglas Fir Tree, then you must give the genus and species for it. In those cases where there is no standard coloration for a living thing, such as for butterflies, the Linnean name must always be given if the charge is termed proper. Where necessary to properly identify the coloration the breed and color phase must also be identified. When a charge is not termed proper the Linnean name is optional. If it is specified we know that a particular species is meant, and the correct outline is determined, with the tincture specified. If the Linnean name is not specified then we know that the owner of the arms does not care which species is used. This is often the case when a stylized form is used. If the horse is the basic heraldic horse, then to have a red horse one just says a horse gules. If you want a Shetland pony gules then the breed must be specified, even though it isn't proper. If you want an owl sable you either settle for the standard heraldic owl, which is the great horned owl, or else you specify the Linnean name so that the correct outline is used, even though the owl is not proper. WVS [26] [CL 20 Oct 80], pp. 2-3

Genus and species need not be given for common animals adhere there is only one species involved. There is only one species of domestic cat. The same is true of dogs and horses. There are, however, many breeds, and these are what must be specified. WVS 130], p. 2

The genus and species need not be specified if the common name for a well-known species is given. If you want a different species, you must so specify. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 5

Star has requested, and I agree, that the genus and species for plants and animals in the device be listed in parentheses after the blazon. They are not part of the heraldic blazon, but are instead a note to the scribe or artist. I would also like to request that, whenever possible, the common name for plants and animals be put into the blazon (with the genus and species after the blazon). When there is a choice of common names, pick the one that is most in period. If you want a Holly Blue butterfly, then say so, don't just say a butterfly, and then list "(Celastrina argiolus)" at the end. If you do not want a specific species, then the lack of such a name can indicate this. If you list a pine tree proper without common name or genus and species, then you are saying you want a brown-trunked, green-needled conifer and you don't care which pine the artist uses as a model. Another method is to list the genus and, instead of the species, use "sp.," which means any species of that genus. WVS [39] [CL 24 Apr 81], pp. 2-3

Give the common names for plants and animals as well as the genus and species. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 7

GONFANON

see FLAG

GORE

A gore is by default a gore dexter. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 6

GOUTTE

The individual names for roundels and goutt[e]s are optional. Use them or not, as you please. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 5

GRAMINY

A chaplet graminy is made of grass. WVS [2] [LoAR 16 Jul 76], p. 1

GRANDFATHER CLAUSE

All submissions passed by the College before a rule change are considered to be exempted from that change by a grandfather clause, namely that they were there first. The first effect of this is that they are not then rejected by the rule change after having been previously accepted. This is what is stated in the Corpora. The second effect is that they continue to be exempted. If N., whose arms violate the rule of tincture and were accepted before the rule of tincture was applied to SCA arms, decided to add a charge to his arms which itself obeyed the rule of tincture then he could do so. His new altered arms would still be immune to the rule of tincture with regards to the specific violation previously held. He could not add a charge which itself also violated the rule of tincture. This is the effect of a grandfather clause. Submissions under a grandfather clause are recognized exceptions to a rule and do not constitute precedent for breaking the rule. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

The grandfather clause means that N. has the use of his previously registered arms, even though it would be rejected today. The grandfather clause does not extend to further submissions. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 11

This [name] is not acceptable under current rules. If he can show that this submission was submitted several years ago and was lost by the [kingdom] College of Heralds, then I will accept the name under a grandfather clause. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 5

GRANITE

You cannot have a granite tower proper. There is pink granite, white granite, gray granite, etc. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

GRASS

A chaplet graminy is made of grass. WVS [2] [LoAR 16 Jul 76], p. 1

GRIFFIN

The Opinicus is out of period. What you drew is a winged griffin. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 4

It has been brought to my attention that the opinicus is actually in period, having been invented as a separate type of griffin in the 1500s. It may therefore be used. WVS [54] [CL 27 Oct 81], p. 1

GURGES

[Sable, gurges Or.] The gurges is a charge. This is because you have drawn the gurges so that all three corners of the escutcheon are sable. If you draw it so that the base point is Or then it will not be possible to say which is the field and which is the spiral. Then you would have a divided field gurges sable and Or, and you would no longer have color on color. This is similar to the problem of barry of an odd number. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 6

GYRONNY

[Gyronny of sixteen vert and azure.] The excessive division of the field into green and blue pieces is a bad idea given the lack of contrast between the two. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 9

All gyronnies have one line of division on the fess line. The others are spaced out at the appropriate angles. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 4

The [charges] must be specified as being on the gyrons, since the default position for eight [charges] would be on the lines of division, as if the [charges] formed a mullet of eight points. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 5

Gyronny in cross means the gyronny is rotated one-half notch so the gyrons are in cross. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 6

[Gyronny of twelve from the center of the dexter chief.] This sort of division is not heraldic. You can't have gyronny of two colors. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 9

I have decided to add gyronny of 6 and 8 to the list of divisions of the field that may be of two colors. WVS [64] [CL 18 Mar 82], p. 2

HAIR

Beards, mustaches, hairdos, etc., are not period usage. A braid of hair or a lock of hair is a physical charge you could cut off and hold, and thus mount on a shield. A mustache or beard, if cut off, just gets you a pile of short hairs. I also note that the mustache you use has pointed ends, indicating the use of wax. This style is out of period. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 7

Crined applies to all hair parts, not just the mane. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 2

A mustache on a cross was used in 1671 in France. That is close enough to indicate that they did use that sort of thing in period. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 1

HAMMER

I have called the charge a mallet, because that is what it really is. When you say hammer in heraldry most think of a war hammer or Thor's hammer. If you want the canting term redraw the mallet to be like a Thor's hammer. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 6

A raising-hammer is a special metalworker's hammer that looks like a ball-peen hammer with a rounded front. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 5

HAND OF GLORY

Too close to the Hand of Glory. This smacks so much of Satanism that it would be offensive to a large fraction of the populace. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 7

HARDSHIP CASE

Name approved as a hardship case. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 3. [No additional explanation was provided.]

HASP

Musical instruments with strings like a rebec are affronty palewise by default. Harps are sideways. If it has strings, the strings are shown, and so the instrument is turned to show the strings. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 5

HAURIENT

[Embowed counter-embowed.] This is the opposite curvature from haurient. This looks like a question mark while haurient looks like a capital C with the head at the top turned to dexter. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 4

HEAD

Displayed has the head facing to dexter. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 1

There is no way of distinguishing the breed of a blue horse's head. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 2

In the SCA we use heads caboshed instead of faces. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 6

HEART

There is no such thing as a heart proper. That is a conventional charge, and can be borne in any tincture. A true human heart would have the aorta showing, and would be basically white. It's the blood in it that is red. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 9

HEDGEHOG

A hedgehog and a porcupine are almost identical in appearance. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 10

HERALDS

Badges for subsidiary offices are forbidden, especially within the heralds. Seals may be used, but it is the opinion of myself and my staff that there is no need or justification for registering a seal to a heraldic office below the level of Principality Herald. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 3

With regard to conflicts between ... heraldic titles, the feeling was that the addition of an adjective was too close. Thus ... Golden Trumpet Herald would conflict with Trumpet Herald. The difference of an adjective was marginally acceptable depending on the case involved. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 3

I hereby restrict the registration of seals for use as official heraldic seals to titled Heralds and Principal Heralds. WVS [37] [CL 10 Mar 81], p. 1

Individual kingdom offices may register tinctureless seals but not tinctured badges. All heralds use the heralds' badge. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 2

As a member of the College of Arms, you should observe spelling accuracy. WVS [70] [LoAR 24 May 82], p. 5

HERISSONY

Herissony means back arched and spitting, a very catty position. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 3

HIEROGLYPHIC

see ABSTRACT SYMBOL

HILL

A hill is a triple mount. A hill proper is grass covered, and therefore green. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 2

HOOVED

Whether the feet are hooved or webbed is a matter for the scribe. It's still a sea horse. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 3

HORN

[Horned pegasus.] This is by default a unicornate horn. If you ever want a pegasus with some other type of horn you must specify. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 1

HORSE

There is no way of distinguishing the breed of a blue horse's head. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 2

Salient means leaping bendwise up, forelegs together. Forceny means rearing up bendwise, forelegs separate, as if to strike furiously. Rampant means to have the body palewise with the limbs in the classic rampant position, and the mouth open. In the latter two cases the horse is drawn in a fierce aspect as in combat, while in the former it is drawn in a calm aspect, as if jumping playfully. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 3

Genus and species need not be given for common animals where there is only one species involved. There is only one species of domestic cat. The same is true of dogs and horses. There are, however, many breeds, and these are what must be specified. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 2

Crined applies to all hair parts, not just the mane. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 2

All breeds of the species Equus equus are horses, as far as heraldry is concerned. The difference of breed comes in the coloration. Minor bodily differences are matters for the artist. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 6

HOUSEHOLD

A badge cannot be registered to two people at once. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 7

Clan N. spans several kingdoms and so is registered under its own name. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 3

The badge is OK, but it cannot be a badge for use by a household, as only Duke N. has the right to display the crowns. His household members do not have this right. Therefore, I have registered this as a personal badge. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 5

A lord and lady may jointly register a household badge consisting of a combination of their devices. The blazon must appear under only one name, so it doesn't appear twice in the Ordinary. In keeping with period practice the default practice shall be to list the blazon under the lord's name and have a reference to it under the lady's name, unless otherwise specified in the submission. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 9

One may not place the badge of one's household as an augmentation on one's device. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 8

HYGEIA

Only a pharmacist can use a Bowl of Hygeia, which is a chalice encircled by a serpent. WVS [70] [LoAR 24 May 82], p. 6

IMPALING

see MARSHALLING

INCENSED

[Incensed of icy breath.] The dragon's breath has icicles hanging down. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 3

INCRESCENT

An increscent moon is an increscent with a face and is in period as it was used in statuary in our period. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 2

INDENTED

Dancetty is indented of three points. Since you have six it is Just indented. Your large indents are actually the correct way to draw indented, instead of the modern fine-scale sawtooth form. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 5

Dancetty is not a line of division at all, but is a treatment of an ordinary. Indented is the line of divisional If you want three points call it indented of three points. [Indented] means to indent the chief part of an ordinary and to counter-indent the base part, yielding a series of conjoined lozenges. An ordinary [dancetty] is indented on both sides unless otherwise specified, yielding a sawtooth line effect. The small scale indenting is out of period and I would rather not see it, although I will not reject a device for using it. Note that dancetty can only be used on an ordinary that has two sides. You cannot have a chief or a base or a bordure dancetty. WVS [22] [CL 27 Aug 80], p. 1. [N.B. The definitions of "indented" and "dancetty" were interchanged in the original quotation. This error was corrected in a subsequent letter, and the above text has been amended appropriately.]

A chief of one indent is out of period. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 10

INESCUTCHEON

This is an inescutcheon of pretense, which is not allowed in the SCA. In the mundane world it represents the fact that the husband is the custodian of the wife's arms. A woman never owns her own arms, they merely pass through her. Only a male can own arms. Whenever a woman marries her husband assumes control of her arms and displays this by either impaling the arms or by using an inescutcheon of pretense, depending on the relative ranks of the two. The use of the inescutcheon of pretense means that the wife outranks the husband. In the SCA men and women are equal. When a Lord and Lady marry they still each retain their arms. Therefore the College does not allow marshalling in this fashion. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 7

see also SHIELDS ON SHIELDS

INFINITY SYMBOL

The infinity symbol is out of period and inappropriate for registration as a tinctureless charge. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 11

INVOLVED

A snake involved by default is clockwise biting its tail, head to chief. WVS [21].

ISLAM

Your [submission] is in violation of the edict prohibiting all followers of Islam from bearing or making representations of living objects ... The edict versus representation of living things is part of Islam, not a made up rule of the College, but we follow it for personas claiming to be of Islam. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 9

The appeal is granted concerning the bearing of representations of living things by Islamic persona[e]. The Shiites, among other Islamic sects, do not follow the rule. The College is not in the business of determining which Islamic sect's rules a follower of Islam must follow. Since some can display such symbols, in the SCA all can. If they want to violate the Koran that's up to them. The Principal Herald receiving such a device should, however, inform the submitter of the rule so that they are not acting in ignorance of it. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 1

IVY

This is your basic ivy. Genus and species is not needed. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 1

KELPIE

A water-kelpie is a heraldic sea-horse with batwings. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 5

There is no heraldic rendition of a kelpie. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 10

KEYSTONE

A chief triangular truncated doesn't exist. That's a keystone issuant from chief. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 7

KNOT

The ligature knot is period and reasonable for a surgeon to register. WVS [19] [LoAR 5 Jun 80], p. 2. [The ligature knot is also known as a surgeon's knot.]

A Bowen cross is a Bowen knot rotated 45 degrees to be in cross, with the loops straightened into straight lines and right angle bends. It looks like five mascles conjoined in cross. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 3

A Fidelis knot is a square knot opened into a heart shape. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 4

LABEL

N. may register his father's device with a label added as one point of difference. WVS [2] [LoAR 16 Jul 76], p. 2

A label is a charge just like any other, and may be so used. In the SCA it is NOT a mark of cadency, as THERE IS NO CADENCY IN THE SCA! WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 11

As we are not using cadency per se it is acceptable to put a label on the mother's arms as well as the father's. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 13

Virgule has convinced me that I erred in restricting the argent label as a charge reserved for the British royal family. I henceforth release argent labels to general use. I would ask that people not use an argent label charged with small charges, as I feel that would be too close to the royal usage. WVS [64] [CL 18 Mar 82], p. 2. [The argent label was reserved in the Submission Rules of 01 Oct 81 [53], p. 11]

LANDSCAPE

This is heraldic, but it is as close to a landscape as I will accept. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 6

This is a landscape. It looks like a picture of [a] bird against a hazy sunrise next to a mountain. This is not medieval heraldry, which deals in abstract charges arranged in conventional patterns. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 5

LANGUAGE

The badge itself is OK, but the household name is not. Baldly placing two words from two different languages together like this is non-period usage. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 7

This name uses four langu[ag]es ... The limit is three languages per name. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 9

By requiring that all names be in keeping with period usage, we automatically must restrict the number of languages in a personal name to two, as the use of more than two languages in a name would have been unheard of in our period. WVS [41] [CL 12 May 81], p. 5

You may not combine two languages in a single word. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 12

LANGUAGE - ARABIC

The correct word for "daughter of" is "bint," not "ibn." WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 7

LANGUAGE - ELDARIN

[Aramir Elatar.] Your name consists entirely.of royal prefixes. Ara is a prefix attached to the royal names of the rulers of Numenor and the chiefs of the Dunedain in Arnor, who took their names in Adunaic. (Aragorn, Arathorn, etc.) Mir does mean jewel. It was used as a royal prefix by the Dunedain kings in Gondor and Arnor, and by many of the Elven nobility (Eldacar, Eldarion, Elendil ...). Tar was Quenya for royal king and was used as a royal prefix for kings of Numenor who took their names in Quenya. Start over and try something a little less regal. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 10

LANGUAGE - FRENCH

One makes the elision only when one has de followed by a word beginning with a vowel or an unvoiced 'h'. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 4

I have changed this from d'N. to of N. because N. is not French, and therefore the use of d' is not appropriate. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 2. [Reversed on appeal.]

In French, "de" is only used before place names. Therefore I have replaced "de" with "la." WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 2. [Although the correction was right, the explanation was not. The submission used the preposition de 'of' when what was called for was the feminine definite article la 'the'.]

Place names take de in all cases. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 1

Do not use d' before a consonant. The correct term is de. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 2

LANGUAGE - GAELIC

I am informed that Mc is out of period, and that Mac is the proper form. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 16. [George F. Black, in The Surnames of Scotland, states that Mac is "wrongly contracted M', Mc." He also cites a considerable number of manuscripts as using these spellings within our period. The implication is that the forms are frowned upon, and perhaps inaccurate, but historically correct.]

You have a surname, a patronymic, and a place name. It is highly unusual for a Gaelic persona to have all three. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 6

"For the general information of the College, the form O' (with accent and apostrophe) is indeed the form in Irish that means 'grandson of'. It is the abbreviation or condensation over the years of the form Ui or Ua. Thus the old form Ui Neill (grandson(s) of Niall) became O'Neill over the centuries." [EoE] WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 1

"In place-name usage the preposition meaning 'of/from' in both Irish and Welsh -- including Old Irish and Middle Welsh -- is 'o' -- small, no accent, no apostrophe. In Irish it takes the dative, as I recall, and think it aspirates the following consonant." [EoE] WVS [63]

The proper form for "daughter of" before a consonant is "ni," not "nic." WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 7

LANGUAGE - GERMAN

This was submitted as N. von M.[, called the Stupid Peasant]. The use of von indicates nobility. If you want to be of a place but not noble the word is aus. Since she has an illiterate peasant persona I have used aus. If she wants to use von she will have to drop the stupid peasant nickname. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 4

"Von" is acceptable for [use] in SCA names by anybody. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 2

Anyone may use the word "von" in a Society name, as it shall not mean nobility in the SCA. However, the use of "von" instead of "aus" means that the word following cannot be a mundane place name, as in Europe this would have been considered to mean that one was the Lord of that place. WVS [47] [CL 30 Jul 81], pp. 3-4

It would seem from [the preceding documentation] that the use of von plus a place name was the normal usage for an armiger of that place, equivalent to the English form John of London. The actual lords of a place used von und zu. Thus our current policy is incorrect ... I hereby remove the restriction on the use of von and allow its use without restriction. I also hereby restrict the use of von und zu. WVS [56] [CL 30 Nov 81], p. 2

In German, a compound word with a noun and an adjective has the adjective before the noun. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 6

LANGUAGE - JAPANESE

"-no-kami" means the person is armigerous. It is not part of the name and may not be registered. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 2

The given name comes last in a Japanese name. You seem to have literally translated N. the M. word for word into Japanese. This isn't proper practice for Japanese names. They rarely had more than two names. Please consult someone who knows about Japanese names. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 12

The College tries to follow period naming practices. In our period, Japanese names were never inverted this way [with the given name preceding the surname]. That didn't happen until the late 19th century. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 10

LANGUAGE - LATIN

Translating given names into Latin is acceptable. Her given name (N.) means [translation] in Hebrew. Translating [translation] into Latin and then putting it into a female name form produces M. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 1. [Given names do not possess meaning in the conventional sense, and therefore cannot be translated in this manner. The above reasoning is specious.]

LANGUAGE - OLD NORSE

[Fredasdotter.] The correct Old Norse Patronymic form of Freda would be Fredudottir, since -a becomes -u in the genitive. What you have is a reasonable Anglicized variation, but if you want to be correct for Old Norse, you should use the other form. (We will accept such a change without extra fee.) WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 4

LANGUAGE - RUSSIAN

Your name is in the modern Russian style of three names (given name, patronymic, family name). This is out of period for a Jew. They didn't use three names like that until they were required by law to do so, which occurred after our period. Either be Jewish and drop the [Russian family name] or be Russian and replace [Jewish given name] with a Russian given name. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 8

Russian names always had a given name, a patronymic, and then a surname. WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 10

LANGUAGE - WELSH

In Welsh, the adjective follows the noun. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 1

You can have a Welsh name, or an Anglicized Welsh name, but not something halfway in between. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 11

Merch is the proper term for daughter of." WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 1

"In place-name usage the preposition meaning 'of/from' in both Irish and Welsh -- including Old Irish and Middle Welsh -- is 'o' -- small, no accent, no apostrophe. In Irish it takes the dative, as I recall, and I think it aspirates the following consonant." [EoE] WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 1

LAUREL WREATH

The arms of branches must have at least one laurel wreath as a major charge. Nothing else may, including badges and flags of branches. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 14

The arms of a branch must have the standard laurel wreath. No substitutions. Laurel leaves are long and pointed with no curves like an oak wreath. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 16

You cannot place a laurel wreath proper on azure or vert, as there is not sufficient contrast. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 5

[Acorn wreath fructed.] The acorns must be enlarged by a factor of two to three to be in keeping with medieval practice and to remove the similarity to a laurel wreath. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 4

The laurel wreath must be a major charge on the shield, not a little crown. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

This looks too much like a branch device, as the two sprigs are too close to a laurel wreath. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 8

The arms have insufficient contrast. Proper is mostly used for charges with non-heraldic tinctures. A laurel wreath is vert and should be treated as such. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 8

LEAF

Exactly which kind of oak leaf they are is a matter for the artist, not the blazon. Heraldically, a leaf proper is always green unless otherwise indicated, in which case you might as well say vert. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 1

LEOPARD

We have to differentiate between the heraldic leopard and naturalleopards. If you just want a basic natural leopard, call it a natural leopard in the blazon. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 6

LETTER

see ABSTRACT SYMBOL

LIGHTHOUSE

A pharos is any lighthouse, and is thus not specific enough for use in a blazon. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 1

LIMB

Any creature with four limbs can be rampant if the limbs are arranged in that specific artificial position. Wings count as limbs, as do fins. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 6

LION

[Winged lion.] The default position for the wings of a creature like this is addorsed. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 3

To save space, a cat is a domestic cat. If you want a mountain lion it is a catamount. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 2

What you have is a Lion of St. Mark holding a cross. This symbol is used for sacred purposes to typify St. Mark, such as the arms of a convent. What is your rationale for using it? WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 9

LOZENGE

see SHIELDS ON SHIELDS

LOZENGY

I have decided that lozengy with each lozenge being actually a delf saltirewise (i.e. a diamond with 90 degree angles), which used to be blazoned as checky per saltire to difference it from the lozengy that is normally more elongated palewise, is really just a minor variation of lozengy. If you did the arms on a square banner lozengy would become a diamond pattern. Therefore I consider it a matter of artistic license as to the exact angles of lozengy. A note to the scribe in the file is sufficient, it need not be in the blazon. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 3

LYMPHAD

A lymphad is a stylized galley. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 4

LYNX

There is only one species of lynx (Lynx lynx). WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 1

MAGIC

There is enough ill feeling about the pentagram to keep it out under the offensive[ness] clause. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 10

Too close to the Hand of Glory. This smacks so much of Satanism that it would be offensive to a large fraction of the populace. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 7

The badge [containing an oak leaf and a sickle] is too Druidical in nature. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 5

MAILED

[Gules, mailed Or.] The field is covered with interlaced annulets in a chain-mail pattern. It is a new type of treatment of the field, so we named it for SCA usage. WVS [70] [LoAR 24 May 82], p. 5

MALLET

see HAMMER

MAMLUK ROSETTE

A Mamluk rosette is a charge from Saracenic heraldry. Rosettes come in various numbers of petals, with the Mamluk rosette having six petals and the Rasulid rosette having five. The Mamluk rosette looks like a variant of a sexfoil. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 7

MARINER'S ROSE

see COMPASS ROSE

MARKED

[Fox sable, marked argent.] Marked means it has white markings, in this case on the tip of the tail and the chest under the chin. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 2

MARSHALLING

The device is a form of dimidiation by quartering. No [marshalling] is allowed. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 14

You have submitted the quartered arms of your parents, N. and M. In the mundane world for you to use such a combination would imply that both of your parents are dead, which they are not. However, in the Society we do not have inheritance of arms, and we do not allow [marshalling]. Each person should register their own personal device. Quartering of Society arms would violate the rule of simplicity in too many cases to allow it. It is the opinion of the College of Arms that quartering of arms in the SCA is not allowed, nor may a device appear to do so. Therefore a device may not be Quarterly or per pale, unless it is obvious that the device is not quartered or impaled arms. Quartering also cannot be used for badges, as impaling is allowed there and that is sufficient. There is nothing to stop you from wearing a costume with the quartered arms of your parents. Just do not try to register such as your device with the College. Choose your own device. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 17

see also QUARTERING, SHIELDS ON SHIELDS

MASONED

The only cases for internal lines in heraldry are masoned or chased. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], per 4

MEANDER

The only cases for internal lines in heraldry are masoned or chased. Anything else, such as the Doric meander, is diapering and is not listed in the blazon. Changing the meander to silver on white would be proper diapering. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 4. [The charge, which was submitted as a Doric meander, was eventually registered as an Ionic column.]

MERMAID

Mermaids are affronty by default. They are also Caucasian by default in the SCA. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 6

MON

This was passed with an argent field for Society use on scrolls. She may drop the field for personal use as a mon. A device must have a field. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 4

Japanese mon are consistently shown as either light on dark or dark on light. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 3

In mon color doesn't count, just light on dark or dark on light. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 4

MONSTER

There is no such thing as a Wyvern's head proper, because a Wyvern is a mythical beast, and did not exist. You must specify the tincture. A wyvern's head is an eagle's head with ears. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 6

A made-up monster can be proper if the individual pieces all have a natural coloring. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 4

It was standard practice in period European heraldry to create new monsters by combining pieces of common animals. The College of Arms allows the use of those monsters created before 1601 and allows the creation of new monsters in this fashion by Society members. These monsters must be made from pieces of common animals known to Europe in our period. The use of highly unusual or unknown animals is not allowed. Thus one could not make an animal out of a platypus's head, a gnu's body, a coelacanth's tail, and the legs of a penguin. The College has from time to time allowed the registration of new monsters created out of whole cloth that are not blazonable as parts of common animals. These are exceptions treated on a case-by-case basis. The College often assigns a new name to these new monsters rather than listing then as a long combination of various parts of animals (e.g., the Bog Beast). At this time, the College refuses to register as out of period those monsters which were created between the years 1601 and 1966, even if they are completely in keeping with and compatible with period usage. The College does not allow them either under their actual name or as a list of parts of animals. Thus, if you create a new monster out of pieces of animals that has never been thought of before, it is acceptable, but if it turns out that somebody else thought of it in 1758, then it is not allowed. WVS [37] [CL 10 Mar 81], p. 2

Henceforth there will be a moratorium on the normal registration of out-of-period monsters and of made-up monsters. Instead, we will allow people to petition the College of Arms for acceptance of a particular monster, on a case-by-case basis. Such proposed monsters may be made up or out of period monsters. The question will be whether the monster is in keeping with period practice and whether the College feels it would be a good idea to allow its use in the SCA. Once approved, the monster is available for use by anybody in the SCA. All monsters already registered now are still available for general use. WVS [41] [CL 12 May 81], p. 5

MOON

Moons with faces are now acceptable. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 4

It is best to specify the tincture of moons and suns. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 4

An increscent moon is an increscent with a face and is in period as it was used in statuary in our period. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 2

A moon in her plenitude has a face. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 4

Like a plate, a moon in her complement is argent by default unless otherwise specified, just as a sun in splendor is Or by default. If you wanted a moon in her complement within a bordure, both azure, then you would have to say a moon in her complement azure within a bordure azure. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 3

For the benefit of the scribes, who often must work from blazons and black-and-white photocopies, hereafter we will blazon the tinctures of all charges, including those with default tinctures. This is a reversal from my statement last month. Suns in splendor will be specified as Or and moons in their complement will be specified as argent. If you have Or, a sun in splendor within a bordure azure, this will now mean that the sun is azure. This does not affect the special names of gouttes and roundels. A bezant is still Or and need not be specified as Or. WVS [62] [CL 27 Feb 82], p. 1

MORTANT

Mortant is a term from Outlandish heraldry, and is not acceptable for official use in the SCA. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 6

MOTTO

see ACHIEVEMENT

MOUNT

A hill is a triple mount. A hill proper is grass covered, and therefore green. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 2

Atop means the [charge] is standing on top of the mount. Upon means the [charge] is charged on the mount. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 1

There is no such thing as a mount proper in SCA heraldry. It is vert. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], pp. 5-6

MOUNTAIN

You cannot have a mountain proper, as dirt comes in many colors. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 9

MULLET

Hereafter mullets of any number of points may be voided and interlaced, except for five points, which is still forbidden. They should be blazoned in this manner. There is enough ill feeling about the pentagram to keep it out under the offensive[ness] clause. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 10

A compass star has alternating greater and lesser points, with a greater point to chief. To be proper the number of points should be divisible by four. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 6

A sun is just a mullet of alternating straight and wavy points, usually at least sixteen points. The number of points can be specified as a lesser number, though, as in this case. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 1

Hereafter suns and estoiles shall have rays and mullets will have points. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 3

It is better to call these mullets [of four points] than star-crosses, because that way they are grouped with mullets in the Ordinary rather than crosses. We already have another use for star-cross, anyway. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 5

MUSIC

Musical notes cannot be used in devices, but can be used in badges. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 10

A sheet of music is not an acceptable charge. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 9

The modern treble clef is out of period. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 10

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT

Musical instruments with strings like a rebec are affronty palewise by default. Harps are sideways. If it has strings, the strings are shown, and so the instrument is turned to show the strings. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 5

Musical instruments are invariably shown as they are held, face on, with the strings or holes showing. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 8

Appeal accepted. The College has previously registered ... a lute edge on. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 3

MUSKETOUR

Ermine spots are called musketours [sic] when used as charges. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 8. [Parker lists French hermine, moucheture, and mouchetor as occasional variants of the more common English term ermine spot.]

MUSTACHE

see HAIR

NAIL

Heraldically, both closing nails and passion nails are just nails. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 8

NAME

You cannot have parentheses in a Society name. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 4

N. is out of period and this sort of joke name is not acceptable anyway. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 10

We must have a surname for our records. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

You cannot use a Linnean name as part of a Society name. They are all out of period. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 4

We only allow one name per person in the College files. You can change this official name, but you cannot register two names. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 9

Epithets and sobriquets are words with specific meanings instead of general names, and so will have to be correct for the intended meaning, and the language used will have to be in period. WVS [41] [CL 12 May 81], p. 4

The badge looks OK, but must wait for the name to be approved. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 11

This [name] is not acceptable under current rules. If he can show that this submission was submitted several years ago and was lost by the [kingdom] College of Heralds, then I will accept the name under a grandfather clause. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 5

You may not have a name consisting only of one word. I have therefore added N. to the currently registered name, as a nickname. Normally we do not register nicknames but since he was knighted with the name, I will allow it. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 4

Submitting a device or badge with a Society name known to be unacceptable is a waste of the College's time. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 8

Name approved as a hardship case. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 3. [No additional explanation was provided.]

NAME - CONFLICT

[Merloren the Hermit.] Your name is too similar to Merlin the Hermit, which was one of the names of Merlin Ambrosius, the Druid Magician advisor to King Arthur. Your device heightens this similarity by using many of the symbols associated with druids and Merlin specifically, such as the owl. You can use Merlin if you difference it sufficiently, such as Merlin the Blacksmith, and if your device does not look like that of a druid. If you chose a different name the device would pass. WVS [S], p. 15

[N. Hightower.] The name conflicts with Randall of Hightower, the first Principal Herald in the Society and formerly Clarion King of Arms. You would have to get Lord Randall's permission to have such a similar name. Hightower was the name of his household. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 7

[Melusine N. the M.] She found a historical use of Melusina in 1667. Inasmuch as she submitted three years ago, I am willing to give the benefit of doubt that it might have been used earlier and grant her the use of the name ... Notice that there is both a surname and a modifier to difference the name from the original Melusine. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 4

Names which are not unique may be used so long as the surnames or sobriquets or place names adequately difference the given name from the famous holder of that name. Names which are unique to a famous entity may not be used, particularly if the entity is non-mortal. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 4

If a famous figure is famous only under one name, and has a child name which only scholars have ever heard of, then the child name is not barred while the famous name may be. If the famous name has only been used once in all time, namely by that famous person, then the name is unique and forbidden. If most people will only have heard of this one use, and most people will in fact have heard about it, then, even if there are other obscure uses of it, the name is essentially unit and restricted. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 4

The surname conflicts with the N. household, who protest. Try something that sounds different. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 10

[Macsen.] The name of any mortal can be used so long as it is not a title or absolutely unique, and so long as it is adequately differenced from the famous usage by the rest of the Society name. The names of non-mortal beings may not be used unless they were used by people in the real world in our period ([e.g.] Jesus, Gabriel, and Diana). Examples of titles are Charlemagne and Amenhotep. An absolutely unique name is one that was only used by the one famous person and is not derivable from other common names. Cuchulain is an example. Macsen is the Welsh form of Maximus, a common Roman name. Although there is only one recorded use of Macsen, it could easily have happened more than once if another Maximus had moved to Wales. Macsen is therefore derivable from Maximus. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 6

[Pellinore.] The device is acceptable but the name is not in conjunction with the device. You must either change the word Pellinore or else use a different charge other than the questing beast. The combination of Pellinore and a questing beast is too much of a conflict with King Pellinore. If you want to use a famous name of a mortal you must not only difference from the famous person by the rest of the Society name, but also you must avoid any further reference to the famous person in the device. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 7

[N. Hightower.] You must still get permission from Randall of Hightower to use his household name. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 7

With regard to conflicts between the names of orders ... the feeling was that the addition of an adjective was too close. Thus, the Order of the Green Tree would conflict with the Order of the Tree ... The difference of an adjective was marginally acceptable depending on the case involved. Therefore, the Order of the Rowan Tree and the Order of the Madrone Tree are not in conflict, but the Order of the Red Tree and the Order of the Madrone Tree would conflict, as they refer to the same thing under two different names. One method of avoiding conflicts between similar but not identical orders is to add the name of the branch. Thus, the Order of the Tree of Allyshia (O.T.A.) would be sufficiently different from the Order of the Black Tree (O.B.T.), assuming its full name was always used. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 3

You cannot be the son of Brian Boru. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 10

The household name conflicts with the Order of N. in the Kingdom of the East. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 5

[Merloren the Hermit.] She dropped the druidical symbols she had before (moon and owl). Since she is a woman, this plus the different spelling is now just barely enough difference from Merlin, who was a famous hermit. I would not have allowed a man to have this name. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 2

The Amati were one of the principal artisan families of Cremona, second in fame only to the Stradivarii. While you can be of the family, you are not the head of the family, and so cannot use House Amati. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 6

Household names may not be the names of actual places, as that would imply the head of the household was the ruler of that place. Household names may not be the surnames of actual families or clans, as that would imply that the head of the household was the head of that family or clan. Household names do not have to be registered, but if they are not registered, they are not protected. In order to be registered, a household name must not conflict with any other household names in the SCA or with any SCA Society names. Two household names conflict if they differ only by minor spelling variants or sound essentially the same ... A household name conflicts with a surname or place name of a Society name only when it is identical or a spelling variant ... The reverse is true for Society names conflicting with household names ... The principle is that there should be more difference between two household names than between a household name and somebody's last name. WVS [71] [CL 18 Jun 82], pp. 2-3

NAME - DESCRIPTIVE

Only a mundane M.D. [can be] "the Healer." WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 3

Halftrollson is an accepted Viking nickname indicating fierceness, and not parentage. Halfelfson would not be acceptable. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 5

You cannot be of Evenstar as you can no longer be of a planet or star. In the case of Evenstar it can be used as a descriptive, so it would be acceptable to use N. Evenstar. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 3

He cannot be De Cruce de Rosas, as he is not a member of the Rosicrucians. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 4

You cannot be N. Starfarer as that does come too close to implying non-mortal abilities ... I suggest that you consider the name N. Starfollower. which sounds similar, means essentially what you want your name to mean, and is acceptable to the College. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 14

You cannot be a centaur. You cannot use centaur as a surname. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 7

Clovenhoof is not an acceptable sobriquet, implying one is a satyr or devil. You cannot justify unacceptable sobriquets by saying your enemies gave it to you. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 10

NAME - DOCUMENTATION

[Melusine N. the M.] She found a historical use of Melusina in 1667. Inasmuch as she submitted three years ago, I am willing to give the benefit of doubt that it might have been used earlier and grant her the use of the name ... Notice that there is both a surname and a modifier to difference the name from the original Melusine. WVS 113], p. 4

The N. is a famous thing, and cannot be used as a given name, unless she can provide documentation showing that it was used as a given name in our period. WVS [19] [LoAR 5 Jun 80], p. 4

I need the language, translation, and/or source for the name. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 10

If I followed your form of reasoning I could not reject any place name, as the person could then just say that that was the name of the mythical estate they had just made up for their persona. Or they could hang a sign on their doorstep with that name and say that was the name of their household. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 14

If a name is in use today or if any source can be found of its use in the real world at some time, then it may be used and assumed allowable unless we can find something wrong with it or prove that it is out of period. Most, but not all, names in use today are in fact period names. Therefore, if you can cite a source for a name, you get the benefit of the doubt on that name. If somebody shows that such a name violates one of our rules, then it shall not be allowed. If it is shown that such a name is out of period, then it shall not be allowed unless it has been previously used and registered by the College more than once. I feel that if a name is otherwise acceptable and is only inadmissible because it is first cited in the late 1600's and if it has been previously registered several times, [then] we should go on using it. Registered use in the SCA is therefore almost as good as use in period. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. [34]

If a person submits a name for which no source is given or can be found, then it is up to that person to convince us that the name is in period or is compatible with period usage if it is a modified name. If someone created a name by translating something in English, then the burden is on them to show that their translation is correct and that the form of the name is period usage. It is quite acceptable to mutate an existing name if you can convince us that the mutation is proper to our period. Some changes were done and some were not. Changes in spelling that do not change the pronunciation are acceptable, as names were a verbal tradition and were spelled phonetically during much of our period. Changes in spelling that change the pronunciation of the name are different. Here one must demonstrate that this sort of change could have been done in our period. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 4

I have dropped the nickname "the N.," as no documentation of meaning was given. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 3

One must provide evidence for the acceptability of a given name. A citation in a name book counts as evidence (but not conclusive evidence). Such a citation is sufficient unless an objection can be found in period, such as use of the name as a surname in period. Then it is up to the submitter to show that the name was used as a given name in period. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 8

I am rejecting the name of the household due to lack of documentation. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 4

NAME - FANTASY

You cannot be of Imladris (also known as Rivendell) as that was a place where only elves dwelt, with the notable exception of Aragorn. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 8

You can be of the Dunedain, as we allow place names from Middle Earth. The Dunedain were the descendants [of] the Numenorians, and this included much of the human population in Arnor and Gondor. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 2

It is the consensus of the College of Arms that we continue to allow the use of names and place names from fiction and mythology. So be it. The fantasy source must be compatible with our period. A culture with post sixteenth century technology is not compatible. The fiction must be about a place where mortals dwelled and the name or place used must not violate the prohibition against claiming to be non-mortal. If the fiction deals with events on Earth it must be using a pre-1600 time period. Barbarian tales of the far future are not compatible. WVS [26] [CL 20 Oct 80], p. 2

You cannot use "of Amber" as a surname, as it implies you are a member of the royal family of the Land of Amber, in the Amber series by Roger Zelazny. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 9

Groups (territorial branches, offices, guilds, clans, brotherhoods, etc.) that are not personal households may not make use of names or words or languages from fantasy sources in the name of the group. Specifically, a group name may not make use of the languages of Middle Earth ... This does not in any way restrict the use of words or names from fantasy for use by individuals or for the names of personal households. WVS [37] [CL 10 Mar 81], p. 1

Este is the name of [one of the] Valar in Middle Earth and thus may not be used. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 7

Names from Darkover are not acceptable. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 11

NAME - GIVEN

Your name isn't a name it's an epithet ... You need a given name. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 17

A person can always use their first name, as long as they difference it properly. Nobody else can use N. as a name unless they also have it as their first name. This is a specific exception to the normal rules, granted only to her. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 5

The N. is a famous thing, and cannot be used as a given name. WVS [19] [LoAR 5 Jun 80], p. 4

It is allowed, although discouraged, for a lady to use a man's given name, and vice versa. The applicant must note on the information sheet the fact that they know that the name is of the opposite gender and that they do desire it that way. Otherwise it will be corrected to the proper gender. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 7

N. is a place, not a given name. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 11

N. is out of period as a given name. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 12

[Macsen.] The name of any mortal can be used so long as it is not a title or absolutely unique, and so long as it is adequately differenced from the famous usage by the rest of the Society name. The names of non-mortal beings may not be used unless they were used by people in the real world in our period ([e.g.] Jesus, Gabriel, and Diana). Examples of titles are Charlemagne and Amenhotep. An absolutely unique name is one that was only used by the one famous person and is not derivable from other common names. Cuchulain is an example. Macsen is the Welsh form of Maximus, a common Roman name. Although there is only one recorded use of Macsen, it could easily have happened more than once if another Maximus had moved to Wales. Macsen is therefore derivable from Maximus. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 6

N. is not a given name, but instead is a soubriquet. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

"Earl" cannot be used with a place name, as it implies the title of Earl. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 11. ["Earl" was being used in this case as a given name.]

Given names and place names may be used as surnames, with or without prepositions or patronymics. However, place names and surnames may not be used as given names. There are some cases where a name is both a given name and a surname, and so may be used as either one. When a name is known to be a surname or a place name and is not known to also be a given name, then it may not be used as a given name unless the submitter proves that it was actually used as a given name in our period. This is one case where the use of the name as a given name in modern times is not sufficient, since we have period evidence of its [use] as a non-given name. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 5

Erin (Erinn) ("from Ireland") could be used as a surname, but its use as a given name is out of period. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 7

N. is a variant of her first name, M., so she can have it. N. seems to be out of period, so this is a specific and not a general approval of the name. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 4

Although the name Fiona is out of period, we have three uses of it already registered. Unless the College objects, I will let three previous registrations of a name in the SCA constitute period usage in the SCA, so long as the name does not violate any of the other rules. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 5

With a few exceptions, it is our opinion that the names of birds were not used as given names in our period. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 9

One must provide evidence for the acceptability of a given name. A citation in a name book counts as evidence (but not conclusive evidence). Such a citation is sufficient unless an objection can be found in period, such as use of the name as a surname in period. Then it is up to the submitter to show that the name was used as a given name in period. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 8

N. is out of period. I have therefore changed it to the period form of M. If his legal name is actually M. ... then he can have M. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 9

[Regina.] You cannot use titles as given names, even if it is your given name. The given-name exception allows names that are otherwise out of period, but does not provide exemption from the other rules on names. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 13

[Regina.] Appeal accepted on the grounds that Regina is her mundane given name. This name is not available for general use, as it is a title. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 7

Translating given names into Latin is acceptable. Her given name (N.) means [translation] in Hebrew. Translating [translation] into Latin and then putting it into a female name form produces M. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 1 [Given names do not possess meaning in the conventional sense, and therefore cannot be translated in this manner. The above reasoning is specious.]

[Regina.] The College is opposed to the use of titles in names. We have received documentation that Regina specifically was a common given name in our period. Therefore, we will allow the use of Regina as a given name so long as there is no indication in the name that a claim to royalty exists. This means that Regina must be the first word of the Society name and that the Society name may not be in Latin, and that the word Regina may not be followed by any translation of "of X," where X is a place name, as that could indicate that the person was queen of that place. This use of Regina does not imply permission to use any other titles as names (e.g., you still can't have Earl or Rex). WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 7

The name has no given name, only two sobriquets. (This would not even have been acceptable in 1979.) WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 10

It is acceptable to have an adjective precede the given name, so long as you do not try to use an adjective as the given name. WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 4

NAME - HOUSEHOLD

The surname conflicts with the N. household, who protest. Try something that sounds different. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 10

[N. Hightower.] You must still get permission from Randall of Hightower to use his household name. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 7

The badge itself is OK, but the household name is not. Baldly placing two words from two different languages together like this is non-period usage. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 7

The household name conflicts with the Order of N. in the Kingdom of the East. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 5

The Amati were one of the principal artisan families of Cremona, second in fame only to the Stradivarii. While you can be of the family, you are not the head of the family, and so cannot use House Amati. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 6

The name is a joke name and is thus not acceptable for registration. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 3

I am rejecting the name of the household due to lack of documentation. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 4

Household names may not be the names of actual places, as that would imply the head of the household was the ruler of that place. Household names may not be the surnames of actual families or clans, as that would imply that the head of the household was the head of that family or clan. Household names do not have to be registered, but if they are not registered, they are not protected. In order to be registered, a household name must not conflict with any other household names in the SCA or with any SCA Society names. Two household names conflict if they differ only by minor spelling variants or sound essentially the same ... A household name conflicts with a surname or place name of a Society name only when it is identical or a spelling variant ... The reverse is true for Society names conflicting with household names ... The principle is that there should be more difference between two household names than between a household name and somebody's last name. WVS [71] [CL 18 Jun 82], pp. 2-3

NAME - MADE-UP

It is acceptable to make up a name. you don't have to contrive derivations for made-up names, just say that it is a made-up name. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 6

Society names must either be made of names that were used by mortals in our period or that are created names that are acceptable variants of period names or are in keeping with period name construction. Names were coined in period, and so they may be coined now, but only in keeping with period practices. Names from fictional sources may be used if they satisfy the requirement of being in keeping with period practices. Names which are out of period but are in keeping with period practices should also be allowed, as the date of creation shouldn't matter if the name is in keeping. WVS [41] [CL 12 May 81], p. 4

Made-up names must now be consistent with period naming practices and must satisfy all of the other rules on names. Therefore, if a person makes up a name and it turns out that, quite by coincidence, it is also the name of a god, a place, or a surname, then the made-up name will not be acceptable. It doesn't matter how you arrived at the name: it still must pass all of the other rules. WVS [49] [CL 13 Aug 81], p. 3

NAME - MIDDLE

I believe that the use of middle names like that in English is out of period. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 2

The use of four names like this would have been very rare in period, especially since N. is not a saint's name and so would not have been confirmation name. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 10

A person may use her mundane given name, but is not guaranteed use of her middle name. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 2

NAME - NICKNAME

[N., called M.] If M. is a nickname this is acceptable usage, but if M. is an alternate persona it should not appear in the name. Personally don't like the [use] of "called" and "known as" as it clutters the formal name with nicknames, but I'm not ruling on personal likes and dislikes. I think it would have been better to have said "called the M.," as that is more proper usage. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 1

I have omitted the words "called N." The College of Arms is only interested in registering the formal Society name of a person. We are not interested in nicknames and do not register them. To do so would be to give official approval for the use of a nickname, which is a separate name in itself. N. is called M., which means that he is addressed at times as "M." A person may have many nicknames, but these do not belong in the formal name unless they are to become a fixed part of the name itself. One's formal Society name is a complete unit. This is what will be used for scrolls and other official uses. One's nickname is what can be used by acquaintances in informal usage. Therefore the forms "called X" or "known as X" may not appear in a name submitted to the College. It is nice to have them in the file, which is why there is a line for them [on] the form, but they are not a part of the formal name. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 4

Nicknames are not part of the formal name and should not be submitted. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 6

You may not have a name consisting only of one word. I have therefore added N. to the currently registered name, as a nickname. Normally we do not register nicknames but since he was knighted with the name, I will allow it. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 4

NAME - NONHUMAN

You cannot be of Imladris (also known as Rivendell) as that was a place where only elves dwelt, with the notable exception of Aragorn. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 8

[Melusine N. the M.] She found a historical use of Melusina in 1667. Inasmuch as she submitted three years ago, I am willing to give the benefit of doubt that it might have been used earlier and grant her the use of the name ... Notice that there is both a surname and a modifier to difference the name from the original Melusine. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 4

Be cannot be of N., because the N. was a creature and you cannot be of a creature unless you are an offspring of it, which I do not think M. is claiming to be. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 1

You cannot claim to be a non-mortal, and the wraith of an elf is definitely non-mortal. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 11

You cannot be N. Starfarer as that does come too close to implying non-mortal abilities ... I suggest that you consider the name N. Starfollower, which sounds similar, means essentially what you want your name to mean, and is acceptable to the College. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 14

The rule of the College is that a place name must be a place primarily inhabited by ordinary mortals, not a place where occasionally a mortal was invited to visit. I point out that Dante visited Hades and Arthur dwells on Avalon, and yet neither is acceptable. Caer Pedryvan is a famous Castle of the Otherworld, and so is not acceptable as a place name in the SCA. The claim to come from such a place would be to imply either that you were non-mortal, or that you were a hero, since in Celtic mythology anyone coming from such a place would be treated as an extra-ordinary person worthy of great respect. This is too presumptuous. Please take the name of a real place. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 7

You cannot be a centaur. You cannot use centaur as a surname. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 7

You cannot use the name of a Norse god or goddess. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 8

You cannot use names of Middle Earth or Norse dwarves. They were not human. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 9

Este is the name of [one of the] Valar in Middle Earth and thus may not be used. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 7

Diana was the goddess of the moon and of wild animals (including the horse). Rhiannon was a Celtic goddess also linked to the moon and specifically to a white horse. Coupled with the white horse's head, crescent and stars, this is a clear claim to divinity, and is thus not allowed. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 11

Pryderi was a demi-god, the son of Rhiannon and either Pwyll or Manawyddan, all of whom were immortals. You cannot use Pryderi unless you can show that it was used as a given name in period. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 12

Clovenhoof is not an acceptable sobriquet, implying one is a satyr or devil. You cannot justify unacceptable sobriquets by saying your enemies gave it to you. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 10

You may not use the name of a deity unless it passed into common use as a given name in period. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 7

Rhiannon is the name of a goddess and does not seem to have been used as a given name in period. Therefore, it may not be used under the new rules. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 10

[Rhiannon.] A Book of Welsh Names, by Trefor Rendell Davies (London: Sheppard Press, 1952), lists Rhiannon as a common Welsh given name. Therefore, even though it is the name of a goddess, it may be used so long as the name and the device sufficiently differentiate the person from the goddess. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 6

NAME - OFFENSIVENESS

[Michael Maggotslayer.] This is as close as I have come to rejecting a name as offensive and still letting it go through in the end, on the basis that at least that's the right thing to do to maggots. Please try to keep people from registering names like this, as it causes indigestion to anyone else hearing it. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 4

Melkor was the Middle Earth version of Satan. This name may not be used. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 7

The name is too offensive for formal registration. Just register a badge for the household. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 8

NAME - ORDER

With regard to conflicts between the names of orders ... the feeling was that the addition of an adjective was too close. Thus, the Order of the Green Tree would conflict with the Order of the Tree ... The difference of an adjective was marginally acceptable depending on the case involved. Therefore, the Order of the Rowan Tree and the Order of the Madrone Tree are not in conflict, but the Order of the Red Tree and the Order of the Madrone Tree would conflict, as they refer to the same thing under two different names. One method of avoiding conflicts between similar but not Identical orders is to add the name of the branch. Thus, the Order of the Tree of Allyshia (O.T.A.) would be sufficiently different from the Order of the Black Tree (O.B.T.) r assuming its full name was always used. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 3

The household name conflicts with the Order of N. in the Kingdom of the East. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 5

NAME - PATRONYMIC

Halftrollson is an accepted Viking nickname indicating fierceness, and not parentage. Halfelfson would not be acceptable. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 5

N. is a surname. You are not the son of the father's surname, but the son of the father's given name. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 11

You cannot use two given names in a patronymic. You can be "nic M." or "nic N.," but not "nic M. N." WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 6

Patronymics must use a period patronymic form and the father's name must itself be in keeping with period practice. WVS [41] [CL 12 May 81], p. 4

Having a surname and a patronymic is improper in English usage. In particular, the patronymic uses only the father's given name. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 4

You do not use your father's epithet as a patronymic. You use his given name. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 10

"You can be daughter of someone, you can be of or from a place, [but] you cannot be daughter of a place. Period. It is poetic and wrong." [EoE] WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 1

To use a surname to form a patronymic can indicate bastardy. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 7. [I am not aware of any reputable source that bears out this claim.]

NAME - PLACE

You cannot be of Imladris (also known as Rivendell) as that was a place where only elves dwelt, with the notable exception of Aragorn. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 8

You cannot be of Evenstar as you can no longer be of a planet or star. In the case of Evenstar it can be used as a descriptive, so it would be acceptable to use N. Evenstar. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 3

I have changed this from d'N. to of N. because N. is not French, and therefore the use of d' is not appropriate. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 2. [Reversed on appeal.]

You cannot be of a letter, and you cannot say that that is an estate because it would not be obvious to anyone else that that is the case. However, what you can do is to make it clear in your name. I will accept N. of [letter] Island, but not N. of [letter]. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 12

If I followed your form of reasoning I could not reject any place name, as the person could then just say that that was the name of the mythical estate they had just made up for their persona. Or they could hang a sign on their doorstep with that name and say that was the name of their household. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 14

N. is a place and so cannot be used as a surname. I have added "of". WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 2. [The above statement is completely contrary to medieval practice. Place names were commonly used as surnames.]

The rule of the College is that a place name must be a place primarily inhabited by ordinary mortals, not a place where occasionally a mortal was invited to visit. I point out that Dante visited Hades and Arthur dwells on Avalon, and yet neither is acceptable. Caer Pedryvan is a famous Castle of the Otherworld, and so is not acceptable as a place name in the SCA. The claim to come from such a place would be to imply either that you were non-mortal, or that you were a hero, since in Celtic mythology anyone coming from such a place would be treated as an extra-ordinary person worthy of great respect. This is too presumptuous. Please take the name of a real place. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 7

Do not misspell a place name just for the fun of misspelling it ... While spellings were somewhat variable in our period, this is not one of those cases. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 8. [Reversed on appeal. According to P. H. Reaney, in The Origin of English Surnames, the spelling of place names varied even more when they were used as surnames, because they were "just names," with no special significance.]

You cannot use "of Amber" as a surname, as it implies you are a member of the royal family of the Land of Amber, in the Amber series by Roger Zelazny. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 9

Tir Mell is the same land as Tir na n'Og, the Celtic paradise. You cannot use that as a place name or surname. WVS t38], p. 7

Skorch is the land of Blackwolf the Wizard in the film "Wizards," and being technological, it is out of period. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 10

NAME - ROYAL

N. is the Ducal House of M. You will need to pick a different surname which is not a royal or high noble house. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 6

From now on, surnames of royal households may not be used, but those of noble households without claim to thrones may be used. Thus although N. is the Ducal House of M., it is not a Royal House, having no claim to the throne. In using a name of a noble house one must be careful to avoid using any of the given names used by known members of that house. One still cannot be a Hapsburg or a Tudor, but Dever[eu]x is acceptable so long as you aren't also a Robert. These houses are generally large, and contain a number of non-noble members. Royal Houses contain only noble members in that everyone has some claim to the throne. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 3

Stuart is a very large clan in Scotland, and we have already allowed some people to use the name, so Stuart is a specific exception to the rule against using the surnames of royal families and clans. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 4

The Tokugawa Shogunate was a special case where the warrant and the title of Shogun became hereditary. Only the Tokugawa shoguns could be considered kings. The clan name of Tokugawa, therefore, qualifies as a royal house name and may not be used. While the Minamotos and Fujiwaras do not really qualify as royal houses, they are close enough to it that, as a special case, they are also restricted. The surname of Minowara used in the novel Shogun by James Clavell is a step removed from reality and does not have the reference in the real world given to the three shogunate families. Therefore it is not restricted. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 3

I have learned that the surname for the imperial clan in Japan is Yamato. I therefore restrict its use as a surname in the SCA, along with that of Taira, a clan which briefly achieved the shogunate. WVS [33] [CL 27 Jan 81], p. 3

The rule is that the surname of a royal family or clan, membership in which means one has a claim to the throne, however tenuous, is not to be used in the SCA. An example is Yngling, the royal house of Norway. WVS [33] [CL 27 Jan 81], p. 3

You cannot use "of Amber" as a surname, as it implies you are a member of the royal family of the Land of Amber, in the Amber series by Roger Zelazny. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 9

While O'Neill was the surname of many Irish kings, like Stuart it is also an extremely large clan name, and it has already been registered to N.'s mother. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 2

The prohibition against the use of royal surnames applies to the surnames of all royal houses that ruled an independent territorial entity. Thus empires, kingdoms, and independent principalities (such as Monaco) are covered, but not duchies within kingdoms or principalities within empires. The shogunate families are specifically added to the protected list because they were the de facto rulers of Japan. Certain of these protected names, such as Stuart, are allowed for use on the grounds that they are also the name of very large clans, so to use the name does not constitute a statement of royal descent. WVS [47] [CL 30 Jul 81], p. 4

NAME - SCA BRANCH

Groups (territorial branches, offices, guilds, clans, brotherhoods, etc.) that are not personal households may not make use of names or words or languages from fantasy sources in the name of the group. Specifically, a group name may not make use of the languages of Middle Earth ... This does not in any way restrict the use of words or names from fantasy for use by individuals or for the names of personal households. WVS [37] [CL 10 Mar 81], p. 1

It is more period to put shire at the end of a name, like Rieslingshire, than to have a Shire of something. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 6

You cannot use the name of a mundane city as part or all of a branch name. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 8. [Reversed on appeal.]

NAME - SPELLING

"N." is a modern spelling. The period spelling is "M." WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 7. [The name was registered using the period spelling.]

The sound "N." may not be used as a name, regardless of spelling, as spelling was variable in our period. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 8

Do not misspell a place name just for the fun of misspelling it ... While spellings were somewhat variable in our period, this is not one of those cases. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 8. [Reversed on appeal. According to P. H. Reaney, in The Origin of English Surnames, the spelling of place names varied even more when they were used as surnames, because they were "just names," with no special significance.]

Changes in spelling that do not change the pronunciation are acceptable, as names were a verbal tradition and were spelled phonetically during much of our period. Changes in spelling that change the pronunciation of the name are different. Here one must demonstrate that this sort of change could have been done in our period. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 4

N. was the one spelling that was not used in period. I suggest you use one of the period forms, if you care about authenticity. WVS [611, p. 1

As a member of the College of Arms, you should observe spelling accuracy. WVS [70] [LoAR 24 May 82], p. 5

NAME - SURNAME

N. is the Ducal House of M. You will need to pick a different surname which is not a royal or high noble house. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 6

[N. Hightower.] The name conflicts with Randall of Hightower, the first Principal Herald in the Society and formerly Clarion King of Arms. You would have to get Lord Randall's permission to have such a similar name. Hightower was the name of his household. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 7

The word N. was coined in 1853, and is thus out of period. Please choose a different surname. WVS [19] [LoAR 5 Jun 80], p. 4

The surname conflicts with the N. household, who protest. Try Something that sounds different. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 10

N. is a place and so cannot be used as a surname. I have added "of." WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 2. [The above statement is completely contrary to medieval practice. Place names were commonly used as surnames.]

You cannot be a Saint. You cannot use the word Saint in a name except for the case of a place name. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 7. [Names of the form N. Saint M. can be found in period. M. in each case represents the name of an actual Christian saint. It does not imply sanctity on the part of the bearer of the name. The form is probably derived from the use of place names as surnames, a common medieval practice.]

We must have a surname for our records. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

Given names and place names may be used as surnames, with or without prepositions or patronymics. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 5

Appeal accepted. Place names can be used as surnames without the word "of." WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 1

You do not put a surname between two given names. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 6

Having a surname and a patronymic is improper in English usage. In particular, the patronymic uses only the father's given name. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 4

You cannot have two clan names. Pick one and drop the other. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 10

NAME - TITLE

"Earl" cannot be used with a place name, as it implies the title of Earl. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 11. ["Earl" was being used in this case as a given name.]

Titles such as Rex, Regina, or Sir cannot be used, even if they are given names. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 8

[Regina.] You cannot use titles as given names, even if it is your given name. The given-name exception allows names that are otherwise out of period, but does not provide exemption from the other rules on names. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 13

The College of Arms does not register titles of any sort along with the Society name. WVS [49] [CL 13 Aug 81], p. 3

The word khan was omitted, as it is a title and may not be used in a name. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 3

[Regina.] Appeal accepted on the grounds that Regina is her mundane given name. This name is not available for general use, as it is a title. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], par 7

I have deleted Thaine because Thaine is a title, not a name. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 4

[Regina.] The College is opposed to the use of titles in names. We have received documentation that Regina specifically was a common given name in our period. Therefore, we will allow the use of Regina as a given name so long as there is no indication in the name that a claim to royalty exists. This means that Regina must be the first word of the Society name and that the Society name may not be in Latin, and that the word Regina may not be followed by any translation of "of X," where X is a place name, as that could indicate that the person was queen of that place. This use of Regina does not imply permission to use any other titles as names (e.g., you still can't have Earl or Rex). WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 7

NEWT

You cannot differentiate a newt's arm from any other reptilian arms ... Resubmit ... as a reptile's arm. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 6

NUMBER

To the medieval herald more than six of anything is many, and so there is no difference heraldically between seven charges and semy of those charges. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 4

Heraldry does not count beyond ten. Hence, this is barruly instead of barry of fourteen. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 5

More than ten charges is semy of those charges. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 6

see also ABSTRACT SYMBOL

OFFENSIVENESS

There is enough ill feeling about the pentagram to keep it out under the offensive[ness] clause. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 10

The bonacon was considered too offensive by a significant fraction of the College and is therefore not allowed for use in the SCA. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 12

Too close to the Hand of Glory. This smacks so much of Satanism that it would be offensive to a large fraction of the populace. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 7

The use of combinations of charges to form a representation of the male organ is very poor taste, although legal. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 1

N.'s own documentation lists the brideskold as an instrument of punishment that was intended to be degrading. In the SCA we are trying to re-create the Middle Ages as they should have been, without such evils as endemic disease, illiteracy, religious persecution, and sexual discrimination. Through SCA decisions to allow women to fight, to hold office, and to otherwise have an equal role in the SCA, we have affirmed our intention to avoid the subjugation of women practiced in the Middle Ages. Heraldic arms are supposed to be serious, honorable emblems. Therefore, in the SCA we shall not use as charges such offensive items as the brideskold, the chastity belt, the dunking stool, the burning stake, or any other symbol of female degradation. These charges are forbidden under the offensive[ness] clause. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 9. [It should be noted that the brideskold, the dunking stool, and the burning stake are symbols of HUMAN degradation, not necessarily reserved to women.]

OFFICE

Badges for subsidiary offices are forbidden, especially within the heralds. Seals may be used, but it is the opinion of myself and my staff that there is no need or justification for registering a seal to a heraldic office below the level of Principality Herald. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 3

All members of an office use the national badge for that office. Badges for subsidiary offices are forbidden. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 7

Individual kingdom offices may register tinctureless seals but not tinctured badges. All heralds use the heralds' badge. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 2

OPAL

Opals come in all colors, and so the color must be specified. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 4

OPINICUS

The Opinicus is out of period. What you drew is a winged griffin. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 4

It has been brought to my attention that the opinicus is actually in period, having been invented as a separate type of griffin in the 1500s. It may therefore be used. WVS [54] [CL 27 Oct 81], p. 1

ORANGE

Mandarin oranges are out of period. [These] are roundels tenne, not oranges, because there is no texturing as found on an orange. Tenne is forbidden. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 9

ORDINARY

In the case where one has mundane arms which [are] not the arms of a royal house [and] which consist of a simple field plus a simple ordinary, the addition of a major overall charge ... is sufficient difference. The overall charge must be drawn large enough to make it the primary visual charge. The relegation of the ordinary to secondary status will constitute the extra half point needed. These simple combinations of field plus ordinary are usually held by many mundane families and this multiplicity allows us to be a little more lenient. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 6

The difference between an ordinary and its subordinary [diminutive] is one-half point. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 1

In line with the decision on ordinaries and their diminutives having no points of difference, henceforth we will not use bordurelets. The size of a bordure shall be a matter for the artist. A single bar will be no different from a fess. For the benefit of the scribes, the first diminutive of an ordinary may be used singly and so specified to indicate that a smaller size is wanted, but no points of difference will result. Thus, you can specify one bar in the blazon, and it will be drawn that way, but it will be no different than if it were a fess for the purpose of conflicts. WVS [54] [CL 27 Oct 81], p. 1

Having an ordinary covering other charges is highly unusual. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 7

ORLE

One is an orle and two or more are tressures, by SCA convention. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 2

In accordance with many urgings, I will allow a single tressure (a diminutive of an orle) to be used. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 5

OUNCE

[Ounce-dragon.] This monster is the front half of an ounce (snow leopard) and the back half of a dragon. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 2

OUTLANDISH HERALDRY

Mortant is a term from Outlandish heraldry, and is not acceptable for official use in the SCA. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 6

OVERALL

A charge overall upon both metal and color need not conform to the rule of tincture. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 8

Placing charges on top of overall charges is contrary to period practice. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 8

Chiefs overall were generally only used for augmentations. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 7

OWL

By default owls are close guardant. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 2

PAIL

For per pall, three charges are by default one and two. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 4

PANTHEON

These are beasts, not groups of gods. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 7

PANTHER

This is the heraldic panther. The natural [panther] must be so specified. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 6

PAPELONNY

Papelonny of one tincture is a form of diapering. Papelonny of two tinctures is an allowed fur. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 9

PAPILLON

Papillons are butterflies. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 1

PARTED FIELD

Any combination of standard divisions of the field that can be blazoned and recognized from a distance is acceptable. WVS [2] [LoAR 16 Jul 76], p. 1

Checky, like all divided tinctures, can be of any combinations of colors or metals (even ermine variations). If it is of two colors or two metals then it is treated as a color or metal, respectively, with regard to the rule of tincture. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 7

There is no such thing as bendy sinister of five sable and gules. This is sable, two scarpes gules, which is color on color. If you must have black and red diagonals, make it bendy sinister sable and gules by adding a third gules scarpe at the bottom, giving six stripes. All divided fields must be divided into an even number of pieces, if only two tinctures are used. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 14

[Gyronny of sixteen vert and azure.] The excessive division of the field into green and blue pieces is a bad idea given the lack of contrast between the two. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 9

This is color on color. A chief and a flank are charges, not divisions. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

Chausse is a division of the field formed by two lines from dexter chief and sinister chief meeting at the base point. As it is not an even division of the field, it may not be of two metals or two colors. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 1

[Per chevron inverted enhanced This is properly called a chief point pointed, or mantely inverted. This is a charge, not a field division, and so the device is color on color. Per chevron inverted is an even division of the field and is, therefore, exempt from the Rule of Tincture. There is no field division called per chevron inverted enhanced, as it is not an even division of the field. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 7

[Fusily bendwise sinister.] This division of the field doesn't exist. Try paly bendy sinister. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 10

You cannot have a division into more than four parts that consists of only colors or only metals. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 7

Pierced per bend sinister.] We do not tierce of three colors in this fashion. Only tierced per pall and tierced per pall inverted are allowed to be of three colors. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 7

[Gyronny of twelve from the center of the dexter chief.] This sort of division is not heraldic. You can't have gyronny of two colors. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 9

I have decided to add gyronny of 6 and 8 to the list of divisions of the field that may be of two colors. WVS [64] [CL 18 Mar 82], p. 2

You cannot have barry wavy of two colors. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 5

Inasmuch as the [charge] really is not Or, charged with three pallets gules, paly of seven is the only way to describe it. This is a special exception to the ban on odd-numbered divisions. WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 5

PARTITION

By default charges are placed symmetrically around a field division. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 3

All divisions in our period tended to be symmetrical. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 7

Differences in lines of division are one-half point. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 8

[Per bend sinister rayonny palewise.] The use of lines of division shifted to other directions like this is out of period. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 7

You cannot have wavy of two. The minimum is three, and the numbers should not be specified. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 8

PAVANATED

see PEACOCK

PEACOCK

[Peacock pavanated.] Document pavanated as a period heraldic term. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 13

[Peacock pavanated.] Pavanated means the tail feathers are closed and lowered in a smooth curve. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 6

PEAN

The College has ruled that out-of-period names for charges that themselves are in period may be used if those names are the ones the charges are commonly known by. An example of this is the fur, pean. WVS [37] [CL 10 Mar 81], p. 2

PEGASUS

The differences between a winged unicorn and a horned pegasus are the beard and the cloven hooves, very tiny differences indeed. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 9

[Horned pegasus.] This is by default a unicornate horn. If you ever want a pegasus with some other type of horn you must specify. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 1

[Horned pegasus.] The creature has no beard and a horse's tail, instead of the unicorn's fancy heraldic tail. If you want to call something a unicorn, it has to have a beard, cloven hooves, and the heraldic unicorn's tail. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 2

By default, the wings are elevated and addorsed. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 5

A demi-pegasus affronty is out of period. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 6

PENDANT

I prefer crescent inverted to crescent pendant. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 5

Vesper has convinced me that a crescent pendant is a proper period version of a crescent inverted and so I allow it. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 6

PENNON

By default, pennons stream to dexter. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 1

PENTAGRAM

Hereafter mullets of any number of points may be voided and interlaced, except for five points, which is still forbidden. They should be blazoned in this manner. There is enough ill feeling about the pentagram to keep it out under the offensive[ness] clause. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 10

PERIOD

The thylacine existed in period and so it can be used, even though it wasn't named until after our period. Since we of course must use the proper but out-of-period name in the blazon, I see no reason that it can't be used as his name, for the sake of canting, so long as it looks like a name and passes the other rules. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 8. [The thylacine is also known as the Tasmanian wolf."]

The anvil must be a period anvil, which is double-pointed, rather than the modern anvil shown in the drawing. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 4

Perspective is out of period. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 6

An increscent moon is an increscent with a face and is in period as it was used in statuary in our period. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 2

The N. is a famous thing, and cannot be used as a given name, unless she can provide documentation showing that it was used as a given name in our period. WVS [19] [LoAR 5 Jun 80], p. 4

In the College we are not duplicating any one heraldic system from our period. This is not possible, since at any one time in history you could not get all of the heraldic authorities in one area to agree on all points of heraldic rules, so how can we therefore make a complete set of rules that duplicate what was never a complete set of rules? What we are doing in the College is practicing a system of heraldry that recreates the style of the fifteenth century English College of Arms usage, but also is adapted for our specific needs and customs. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 3

The College is not bound by what was done in the Middle Ages, but is decidedly influenced [by it]. We are creating a system of heraldry that satisfies our needs and which also is in keeping with the style of the heraldry practiced in fifteenth century England. It is inevitable that difference between our practices and period practices will exist. The question is whether the difference is beneficial or not. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 3

Dovetailed is in fact out of period but has been accepted for use in the SCA as it is compatible with period usage. WVS [22] [CL 27 Aug 80], p. 1

You cannot use a Linnean name as part of a Society name. They are all out of period. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 4

Charges, monsters, and usages created between the years 1601 and 1966 may not be used under any name or description, as they are out of period. An enfield by any other name is still unacceptable. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 10

The College has ruled that out-of-period names for charges that themselves are in period may be used if those names are the ones the charges are commonly known by. An example of this is the fur, pean. WVS [37] [CL 10 Mar 81], p. 2

A mustache on a cross was used in 1671 in France. That is close enough to indicate that they did use that sort of thing in period. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 1

Based upon the opinion of the College of Arms, the enfield is hereby ruled compatible with period usage and is thus allowable for SCA use. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 2

PERSONA

One Society name and one device/arms per body or corporate entity, as far as registration with the College and listing in the Order of Precedence of a kingdom. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 17

The College allows one to register a badge for an alternate persona, but the badge is registered under the name of the main persona. No more than one file per person. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 6

Your [submission] is in violation of the edict prohibiting all followers of Islam from bearing or making representations of living objects ... The edict versus representation of living things is part of Islam, not a made up rule of the College, but we follow it for personas claiming to be of Islam. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 9

[N., called M.] If M. is a nickname this is acceptable usage, but if M. is an alternate persona it should not appear in the name. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 1

This was submitted as N. von M.[, called the Stupid Peasant]. The use of von indicates nobility. If you want to be of a place but not noble the word is aus. Since she has an illiterate peasant persona I have used aus. If she wants to use von she will have to drop the stupid peasant nickname. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 4

The appeal is granted concerning the bearing of representations of living things by Islamic persona[e]. The Shiites, among other Islamic sects, do not follow the rule. The College is not in the business of determining which Islamic sect's rules a follower of Islam must follow. Since some can display such symbols, in the SCA all can. If they want to violate the Koran that's up to them. The Principal Herald receiving such a device should, however, inform the submitter of the rule so that they are not acting in ignorance of it. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 1

Your name is in the modern Russian style of three names (given name, patronymic, family name). This is out of period for a Jew. They didn't use three names like that until they were required by law to do so, which occurred after our period. Either be Jewish and drop the Russian family name] or be Russian and replace Jewish given name] with a Russian given name. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 8

The College of Arms does not restrict the [use] of secondary personae at events by members of the SCA. It does, however, require a single Society name for a given mundane person to register all submissions and awards to, because awards are given to the mundane person, not the persona, and the College deals with the mundane person, but registers submissions under a Society name. If N. wants M. to be his primary persona, then he can change his name to M. The College will not register alternate personae, although it will, as in this case, register badges for them under the primary Society name. This ruling is FINAL!! WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 4

I have also decided to allow everybody the option of registering one, AND ONLY ONE, alias. This can be an alternate persona's name, a nickname, or an alternate legal name. This alias, like a badge, will be registered under the primary Society name. The Order of Precedence will still list the primary Society name, and all scrolls will use the primary Society name. The alias must satisfy the rules for names. The alias will be listed in the Armorial, with a reference to the primary Society name, and will thus be protected. WVS [71] [CL 18 Jun 82], p. 2

PERSPECTIVE

Perspective is out of period. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 6

PETAL

You can have a rose of other than five petals as a rose petal is a well-defined shape, and a rose of N-petals is clear. WVS [2] [LoAR 16 Jul 76], p. 1

PHAROS

A pharos is any lighthouse, and is thus not specific enough for use in a blazon. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 1

PHOENIX

[Egyptian phoenix] This is a real bird, not a classical phoenix. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 6

A phoenix is an eagle rising from flames. The flames need not be specified because if they weren't there it would be an eagle instead of a phoenix. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 2

A phoenix is defined as an eagle rising displayed out of flames. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 13

PILE

Piles are not normally throughout, just almost so. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 1

A pile inverted is actually per chevron unless it is a very narrow pile inverted between other charges. If it's wide enough to put a charge on properly, it's generally per chevron. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 5

Period piles converged to base point by default. Parallel piles must be blazoned as palewise. WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 1

PITHON

The heraldic python is a fanged serpent with bat's wings. If you want the natural python you must say so and give the genus and species. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 3

A pithon is a winged serpent. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 1

We will use the spelling pithon for the heraldic winged serpent and python for the natural beast. If anyone wants a natural python we will require the genus and species, even if it is of a specified tincture. If there is a genus and species, then it is a natural python. Otherwise it is a winged serpent. (There is more than one species of python.) WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 1

We will use "natural python" from now on for the actual snake and "pithon" for the winged serpent. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 2. [Note change from ruling of 27 Aug 80 [23], p. 1]

see also SERPENT

PLENITUDE

see MOON

PLOYE

Vetu is drawn with straight lines and looks like a lozenge throughout. To make something convex like this, one adds the word ploye. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 4

POMEGRANATE

Pomegranates proper are basically gules. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 10

POPINJAY

I will need the genus, species and breed (if any) of the popinjays. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 9. [Popinjay is the heraldic term for a parrot; according to Parker, the "proper" coloring is vert, beaked and membered gules. No genus and species should be necessary unless a specific variety of parrot is desired, in which case the charge would be a "natural popinjay," or (better still) it would be blazoned by its common name.]

PORCUPINE

A hedgehog and a porcupine are almost identical in appearance. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 10

POSITION

In the SCA we do not follow the medieval practice of always showing charges advancing. If a person wishes to register a charge retreating or she may. A lion rampant is one point of difference from a lion counter-rampant. We view what is on the emblazon sheet as the only correct form for the device or badge, subject to artistic license. This is an old custom from the beginning of the College. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

Any time it takes two lines to describe a single charge like [this] it usually means the figure is not in a standard position. Simplify the charge and put it in a standard heraldic position and draw it in a period style. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 5

Heraldry doesn't care what positions a given animal can or cannot [have] in nature. It would be heraldically acceptable to have a seal rampant, even though that is also impossible. An animal sejant erect has the back legs under the body facing in the same direction as the head, even if one must break them to make them do that in nature. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 4

Random positions are not period style. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 7

All creatures must be in a standard heraldic positional WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 11

POTENT

The Heralds' Roll of Arms, ca. 1280, has Philip Basset having Vairy en pointe, argent and gules. It is therefore reasonable to assume that potent en pointe is also in period (Heraldry in England, by Anthony Wagner, Plate III, Penguin Books, 1949). WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 1

POTENTY

Potenty is a line of division as used here. Potenty is also the name of a fur. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 6

PRECEDENT

This is a special exception to the rule against complexity and does not constitute a precedent. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 1

Submissions under a grandfather clause are recognized exceptions to a rule and do not constitute precedent for breaking the rule. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

The rules of the College are those which I recently published and any which I subsequently proclaim. The acceptance of a submission does not in itself constitute a precedent. The College is not bound by anything that it has done or not done in the past, or by anything that it has passed or not passed in the past. It is bound by its published rules and decisions. If a specific charge or usage has been rejected in the past and there has been nothing since then to change that stance then that charge or usage is still rejected. If you are unsure about any change or usage, ask me for an opinion. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

PROPER

You cannot have a sun in splendour proper, unless you can mount an arc lamp on your shield. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 14

There is no such thing as a Wyvern's head proper, because a Wyvern is a mythical beast, and did not exist. You must specify the tincture. A wyvern's head is an eagle's head with ears. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 6

A made-up monster can be proper if the individual pieces all have a natural coloring. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 4

There is no such thing as a heart proper. That is a conventional charge, and can be borne in any tincture. A true human heart would have the aorta showing, and would be basically white. It's the blood in it that is red. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 9

You cannot have vert on azure, even if you try to use proper. Proper only allows one to violate the Rule of Tincture in those cases where there is still sufficient contrast, such as gules on sable, or brown on green. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 10

You cannot have an ocean wave proper, as there is no set color for ocean water. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 12

You cannot have a granite tower proper. There is pink granite, white granite, gray granite, etc. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

You cannot place a red proper charge upon gules or purpure, nor a blue proper charge upon azure or vert, and vice versa. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 4

When a wooden object is termed proper it is shown in shades of brown. The exact shades are up to the artist ... Only if you want wood that is not brown (redwood, ebony, etc.) must you specify the wood used. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 3

Brown is invisible against sable. The rules on proper require sufficient contrast, which this doesn't have. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 10

The arms have insufficient contrast. Proper is mostly used for charges with non-heraldic tinctures. A laurel wreath is vert and should be treated as such. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 8

The use of proper charges was rather rare in our period, and was generally done only to allow some charges to be shown in their natural colorings, which either used colors not normally used in heraldry (such as brown) or which had too complex a coloration to blazon. WVS [60] [CL 19 Jan 82], p. 2

Note that calling an animal proper means it should be drawn in its proper shape, while blazoning it as a specific tincture allows the artist to choose whether to stylize the animal or to draw it in its natural shape. WVS [60] [CL 19 Jan 82], p. 3

Proper should only be used when the coloration is not possible to describe with the heraldic tincture, such as a Monarch butterfly proper. A raven is sable, not proper. The beak and claws are minor details left to the artist and are not sufficient cause to invoke the use of proper. WVS [62] [CL 27 Feb 82], p. 1

PUNCHEON

A puncheon barrel is elliptical in shape, as opposed to the normal round barrel. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 8

PYTHON

see PITHON, SERPENT

QUARTER

You cannot have charged cantons or quarters, either dexter or sinister, with straight lines of division. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 6

QUARTERING

This is a special case exception to the normal rule against quartering of arms. When two of the quarters are a single tincture field and the other two are identical with only one charge then the device is acceptable so long as the two quarters that are charged do not duplicate a known device or arms. The quarters of a single tincture clearly do not duplicate any family's device, as the single tincture fields are allocated to either saints or to extinct families ... [The submission] would also pass if each of the four quarters had an identical [charged again assuming the quarters did not duplicate any known device or arms. This would not work if the [charges] were replaced by ordinaries that [were] cut off at the edges of the quartered division as then it would look like quartering, and would thus be forbidden. This sort of device will be considered on a case by case basis. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 6

Quartering where two quarters are a simple single tincture and the other two have only one charge each is not considered quartered arms, and is therefore acceptable. This has a field plus two charges in bend sinister. Two in bend or four [charges], two and two, counterchanged would also be exceptions to the rule. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 1

see also MARSHALLING

QUESTING BEAST

The device is acceptable but the name is not in conjunction with the device. You must either change the word Pellinore or else use a different charge other than the questing beast. The combination of Pellinore and a questing beast is too much of a conflict with King Pellinore. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 7

QUESTION MARK

The question mark is out of period. What was used in period [was] a wavy hyphen over a period. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 5

RAINBOW

The rainbow ... consists of an even number of alternating bands of color and metals [and so] is exempt from the rule of tincture. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 3

A rainbow normally comes out of clouds, so this is a rainbow couped fesswise. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 3

[Rainbow proper.] This is the heraldic rainbow: banded Or, gules, vert and argent and bridging between two clouds argent. The natural rainbow must be specified as being natural. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 9

I have decided to bring our practice on rainbows into agreement with mundane heraldry. This means that a rainbow proper is an arching band between two white clouds consisting of four bands, from chief to base Or, gules, vert and argent. Like a sword proper, a rainbow proper should be treated as a metal charge. A natural rainbow proper shall consist of the same band between two white clouds but with the natural spectrum, from gules in chief to purpure in base. This type of rainbow would count as a combined metal/color charge and thus be neutral. Any other color combination will have to be specified. A rainbow without clouds is a rainbow couped ... Note that, when blazoning a rainbow with different color bands, the clouds need not be mentioned unless they are other than argent. Thus a rainbow of four stripes red, blue, green and silver would be a rainbow banded gules, azure, vert and argent. WVS [69] [CL 25 May 82], p. 5. [The natural spectrum is red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet.]

RAMPANT

Any creature with four limbs can be rampant if the limbs are arranged in that specific artificial position. Wings count as limbs, as do fins. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 6

From now on people should not use forceny, as it is ambiguous, but rather rampant or salient. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 10

Salient means leaping bendwise up, forelegs together. Forceny means rearing up bendwise, forelegs separate, as if to strike furiously. Rampant means to have the body palewise with the limbs in the classic rampant position, and the mouth open'. In the latter two cases the horse is drawn in a fierce aspect as in combat, while in the former it is drawn in a calm aspect, as if jumping playfully. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 3

RAPIER

During the Renaissance, N.'s arms could well have been drawn with a rapier, as that was the sword in use in those days. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 7. [In other words, a "rapier" is considered to be a special case of the heraldic "sword," and one will conflict with the other.]

REARING

[Tomato worm rearing.] The front third of the worm is raised up. WVS [2] [LoAR 16 Jul 76], p. 2

REBEC

Musical instruments with strings like a rebec are affronty palewise by default. Harps are sideways. If it has strings, the strings are shown, and so the instrument is turned to show the strings. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 5

REPTILE

You cannot differentiate a newt's arm from any other reptilian arms ... Resubmit as a reptile's arm. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 6

RESERVED CHARGES

Only a real doctor can register a caduceus or a staff of Aesculapius in a device. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 13

The arms of branches must have at least one laurel wreath as a major charge. Nothing else may, including badges and flags of branches. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 14

You cannot have charged cantons or quarters, either dexter or sinister, with straight lines of division. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 6

Crowns are reserved for Kingdoms, Principalities, Dukes, Duchesses, Counts, Countesses, Viscounts and Viscountesses. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 3

A Cross of Calatrava gules is the symbol of the Spanish Order of Calatrava, an order of knighthood. A Cross of Calatrava vert is the symbol of the Order of Alcantara, another Spanish order of knighthood. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 8. [The submission was rejected for containing one of these charges.]

Wreaths or chaplets of roses are restricted to royalty. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 8

The only reserved treasure is a double tressure flory-counter-flory. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 5

Charged lozenges are acceptable so long as they do not look like arms of pretense or arms within arms. Only charged single cantons, inescutcheons and cartouches are specifically restricted. One could have three inescutcheons, each charged with a mullet, for example, but not just one. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 2

The white rose en soleil was the royal badge of Richard II and Edward IV and may not be used. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 10

The Chinese dragon cannot have five toes, as that is for Imperial use. Try four toes. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 7

What you have is a Lion of St. Mark holding a cross. This symbol is used for sacred purposes to typify St. Mark, such as the arms of a convent. What is your rationale for using it? WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 9

The baton sinister is reserved to the English royal house. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 3

Examples of charges that nobody in the SCA may use are: the Tudor rose, the Red Hand of Ulster, a white label (reserved to the British royal family), a double tressure flory-counter-flory (reserved as an augmentation from the crown of Scotland), a charged inescutcheon (it would look like arms of pretense), a charged canton (it would look like an augmentation of arms), a baton sinister (reserved to the British royal family), a triple eagle (reserved to the Holy Roman Emperor), a papal cross (reserved to the Pope), or a crowned thistle (the badge of Scotland). WVS [53] [RfS 1 Oct 81], p. 11

Only triple-headed eagles are restricted. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 1

Only members of the Order of the Rose may use wreaths of roses. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 2

The arrow and snake combination ... looks too much like a caduceus, which is restricted. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 5

Virgule has convinced me that I erred in restricting the argent label as a charge reserved for the British royal family. I henceforth release argent labels to general use. I would ask that people not use an argent label charged with small charges, as I feel that would be too close to the royal usage. WVS [64] [CL 18 Mar 82], p. 2. [The argent label was reserved in the Submission Rules of 01 Oct 81 [53], p. 11]

[Azure, semy-de-lys Or.] This color-semy combination may not be used in the SCA. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 5. [Azure, semy-de-lys Or, also known as France Ancient, is the early form of the royal arms of France.]

Only a pharmacist can use a Bowl of Hygeia, which is a chalice encircled by a serpent. WVS [70] [LoAR 24 May 82], p. 6

REVERSED

see CONTOURNY

RISING

A bird rising has its wings displayed by default WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 4

A bird rising by default has its wings inverted. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 2

A beast rising means it is rising to its feet, going from sejant to statant. The hind legs are vertical and the front are bent. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 3

RIVER

You cannot have a river proper. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 3

ROACH

I call it a roach fish to difference it from the bug of the same name. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 4

ROMPU

A chevronel fracted is like a chevronel rompu but the point section is lowered instead of raised. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 1

ROSE

A Kendal flower is defined to be a rose of six petals gyronny of six argent and gules, barbed vert, seeded Or. The result is a six petaled rose with alternately colored petals. You can have a rose of other than five petals as a rose petal is a well-defined shape, and a rose of N-petals is clear. WVS [2] [LoAR 16 Jul 76], p. 1

It seems the bicolor rose is in period after all. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 3

The difference between a rose and a dogwood blossom is basically five instead of four petals, plus barbs. There is thus not enough difference. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 7

Wreaths or chaplets of roses are restricted to royalty. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 8

A garden rose is your basic multi-petaled rose you see in your garden, as opposed to the five-petaled heraldic rose. No genus and species need be given. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 8

The white rose en soleil was the royal badge of Richard II and Edward IV and may not be used. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 10

Only members of the Order of the Rose may use wreaths of roses. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 2

ROSETTE

A Mamluk rosette is a charge from Saracenic heraldry. Rosettes come in various numbers of petals, with the Mamluk rosette having six petals and the Rasulid rosette having five. The Mamluk rosette looks like a variant of a sexfoil. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 7

ROTATION

Rotation is not a point of difference. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 4

When a submission is an exact rotation of something else, there is a conflict. WVS [34] [LoAR 23 Jan 81], p. 8

The Rotation Rule applies to badges as well as arms and devices. The rule states: if a submission differs from a badge, device, or arms only by a state of rotation, then the submission is in conflict. WVS [64] [CL 18 Mar 82], p. 2

ROTTWEILER

The Rottweiler can be traced to the 10th century, and its origins lie in the 1st century, in the herd dogs brought from Rome into Germany. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 9

ROUNDEL

There is no such thing as platy-bezanty. You could have a semy of roundels alternately argent and Or, but this would mean a regular pattern of roundels, every other one being argent, with an Or roundel in between. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 9

The individual names for roundels and goutt[e]s are optional. Use them or not, as you please. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 5

RUNE

see ABSTRACT SYMBOL

SAIL

You may not charge a sail if the resulting sail conflicts with existing arms. It would imply a relationship to that family. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 6

Striped sails were period. I would prefer it if an even number of stripes were used so it could be called paly. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 5

SALIENT

From now on people should not use forceny, as it is ambiguous, but rather rampant or salient. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 10

Salient means leaping bendwise up, forelegs together. Forceny means rearing up bendwise, forelegs separate, as if to strike furiously. Rampant means to have the body palewise with the limbs in the classic rampant position, and the mouth open. In the latter two cases the horse is drawn in a fierce aspect as in combat, while in the former it is drawn in a calm aspect, as if jumping playfully. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 3

SALTIRE

When two charges are in saltire you first mention the one in bend, and then that in bend sinister. The default position is for the charge in bend to lie on top of the charge in bend sinister. If not you have to say it is surmounted by the other charge. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 3. [Note contradiction in ruling of 21 Dec 81 [59], p. 1]

A saltire couped has its ends cut off at right angles. A saltorel saltire with its ends cut off fesswise, i.e. the ends are horizontal. WVS [23]

A Latin saltire is a Latin cross bendwise. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 1

When two charges are in saltire, the dexter charge is mentioned before the sinister charge. Normally, the sinister charge is on top of the dexter charge. When it is not, as in this case, the dexter charge is stated to be surmounting the sinister charge. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 1. [This contradicts the ruling of 19 Nov 79 [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 3]

SALTOREL

see SALTIRE

SCA BRANCH

Badges for territorial branches should either obey the rule of tincture or have no specified field. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 3

Branches may register one or more badges which are to be useable by groups or individuals belonging to those branches. A province could register a badge to be used by a provincial mercenary unit, such as a shield wall squad. A kingdom could register a badge to be used by all subjects of the kingdom at wars with another kingdom to show their allegiance. The arms of a branch are reserved to the head of the branch. In the case of a kingdom, principality or barony this is the King, Prince or Baron. In all other cases it is the seneschal. Kings, Princes and Barons may bear the arms of their branch upon a shield in battle as if they were their own personal arms, so long as they hold their office and no longer. Seneschals may not do so. All heads of branches may display the banner of the branch to indicate their presence. At any event held in a branch the arms of the branch may be displayed whether or not the head of the branch is present, to indicate that the branch is hosting the event. In grand marches the arms of branches may be carried by groups marching as those branches. Otherwise nobody can display the arms of a branch as if they were personal arms. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 3

The arms of a branch technically belong to the head of that branch. If the branch wishes to have a war banner which can be carried into battle by several companies of fighters at the same time, it must register a badge for that purpose. WVS [26] [CL 20 Oct 80], p. 2

Barons and baronesses are not allowed to bear the arms of their baronies in any form on their personal arms unless the king has granted them those specific arms as an augmentation, either permanently or for the duration of their office. WVS [37] [CL 10 Mar 81], p. 2

With regard to Baronial Arms, both the Baron and the Baroness may display the Baronial Arms, as they jointly own those arms. WVS [47] [CL 30 Jul 81], p. 3

Do not use the arms of the Barony as a part of a badge of the Barony. The result is a roundel with a laurel wreath too small to make out. Besides, it looks like an augmentation. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 11

see also LAUREL WREATH

SCARPE

see BEND

SCORPION

The default position for a scorpion is tergiant displayed, with the tail pointing to the sinister. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 2

SEA HORSE

By default a natural sea-horse is (Syngnathidae hippocampus). If you want a non-standard natural sea-horse (which do exist) you must specify genus and species, even if the tincture is specified. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 2

If you want a sea-horse that does not have a dorsal fin give the genus and species. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

A water-kelpie is a heraldic sea-horse with batwings. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 5

Whether the feet are hooved or webbed is a matter for the scribe. It's still a sea horse. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 3

SEA OTTER

A sea-monster is by default the heraldic form unless specified as natural. Hence, this is by default the heraldic sea-otter, consisting of the upper half of an otter and a mermaid's tail. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 6

SEAL

Badges for subsidiary offices are forbidden, especially within the heralds. Seals may be used, but it is the opinion of myself and my staff that there is no need or justification for registering a seal to a heraldic office below the level of Principality Herald. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 3

I hereby restrict the registration of seals for use as official heraldic seals to titled Heralds and Principal Heralds. WVS [37] [CL 10 Mar 81], p. 1

Individual kingdom offices may register tinctureless seals but not tinctured badges. All heralds use the heralds' badge. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 2

Tinctureless maker's marks and seals do not have to be entirely heraldic in style. WVS [70] [LoAR 24 May 82], p. 1

SEMY

Normally the fimbriation would not suffice to avoid lack of contrast, but the semy adds enough extra contrast to make it work. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 1

The semy must be drawn in a regular pattern as if the shield were cut from a piece of patterned cloth. Therefore there should be partial [charges] at the edges of the shield. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 4

There is no such thing as platy-bezanty. You could have a semy of roundels alternately argent and Or, but this would mean a regular pattern of roundels, every other one being argent, with an Or roundel in between. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 9

Do not say "a semy of," just "semy of." It is a verb meaning strewn with. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 4

To the medieval herald more than six of anything is many, and so there is no difference heraldically between seven charges and semy of those charges. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 4

A semy does not make the field a neutral field. A semy is a charge. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 6

More than ten charges is semy of those charges. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 6

[Azure, semy-de-lys Or.] This color-semy combination may not be used in g the SCA. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 5. [Azure, semy-de-lys Or, also known as France Ancient, is the early form of the royal arms of France.]

Semy is a treatment of the field ... This means that an SCA device which consists of a field, semy of something, plus one or more charges is automatically sufficiently different by the complete-difference-of-charge rule from a mundane arms consisting of just that field semy of something. This is equivalent to saying that we do not worry about conflicts between mundane arms consisting only of a field or a field semy and an SCA submission which adds a major charge to that field or field sexy. An exception is ... France Ancien (Azure, semy-de-lis Or), which may not be used as a field in the SCA. Inasmuch as only unusual cases will allow an SCA member to register a device consisting of only a field or only a field semy, I feel the complete-difference rule should not apply for conflicts between these and other SCA devices. If somebody added a major charge to the arms of Raymond the Mild (Bendy pily sable and Or), I would say that is only one point and another is needed (such as changing the sable to azure) because, as Master Raymond's arms are so distinctive and unusual, there would be a visual conflict with any device that added just a charge. The same is true for an SCA device consisting solely of a field semy. One must change one of the colors of the field or semy or the type of semy as well as add a charge. WVS [66] [CL 21 Apr 82], p. 3

Making semy a treatment of the field means that now, if you go from Azure, a cross Or to Vert, bezanty, a cross Or, then you have only one point of difference, because that is all you can ever have for difference of the field. Adding the semy does change the outline, which will help when considering the case of conflict through identical outlines. WVS [66] [CL 21 Apr 82], p. 3

SERPENT

A snake involved by default is clockwise biting its tail, head to chief. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p.

A snake ... with its tail looped over its body is debruised. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 1

Do not use debruised for placing one object upon another, as debruised is used in describing serpents. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 4. [The term debruised is roughly synonymous with surmounted; its application to serpents is a special case.]

The arrow and snake combination ... looks too much like a caduceus, which is restricted. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 5

see also PITHON

SHIELDS ON SHIELDS

While I do not like putting banners on banners, I cannot construe this as a form of augmentation. Any other such use must, however, avoid conflicts both with the whole blazon, and with the blazon of the device on the gonfanon. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 1

The pall on the bezant looks like a form of augmentation. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 4

This is not an inescutcheon of pretence because there is no device behind it. The College of Arms does not consider a single tincture field to be a protected entity. Had there been any charge behind the lozenge this device would bounce. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 10

The College does not allow any form of charged shield on the field as a charge. This includes inescutcheons, lozenges, and cartouches. These count as inescutcheons of pretence. Note that even the cartouche is only one point from [mundane arms]. You may have a cartouche ermine, as it is a single tincture, even though one could say that was Brittany, but we do not protect mundane arms consisting only of fields. Here the use of a cartouche instead of an inescutcheon would be sufficient to avoid complaint of pretense, which an actual inescutcheon ermine would raise. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 4

Charged lozenges are acceptable so long as they do not look like arms of pretense or arms within arms. Only charged single cantons, inescutcheons and cartouches are specifically restricted. One could have three inescutcheons, each charged with a mullet, for example, but not just one. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 2

Charged lozenges are not inescutcheons of pretense per se, but this combination looks too much like a full achievement of arms. Specifically, it is [mundane arms] on a lozenge with snake supporters. Drop either the snakes or the [charge on the lozenge], preferably the latter. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 7

Do not use the arms of the Barony as a part of a badge of the Barony. The result is a roundel with a laurel wreath too small to make out. Besides, it looks like an augmentation. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 11

One may not place the badge of one's household as an augmentation on one's device. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 8

The device has what looks like an augmentation or lozenge of pretense. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 5

You may not have a secondary charge (the blanket) that consists of a coat of arms. WVS [70] [LoAR 24 May 82], p. 8

SHIP

see SAIL

SHOE

Period boots did not have heels. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 5

SHURIKEN

A period shuriken is a throwing knife or a simple pierced star, which is better described as a mullet pierced. Choose either a sun, a pierced mullet or a period shuriken (a small knife). WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

Star-shaped shuriken are out of period. The closest they had in period were like mullets of four points. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 3

SKULL

Death's heads or skulls are not proper, but argent. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 1

SNAGGED

Snagged means the tree stump is turned towards the viewer enough to see the top as an ellipse. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 5

SNAKE

see SERPENT

SNOWFLAKE

Snowflakes are now acceptable charges. They must have six-fold symmetry, but the exact details are artistic license. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 6

SPANIEL

The Maltese Toy Spaniel is out of period, but the Maltese spaniel is in period. The only difference is the size. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 5

SPIDER

Spiders, turtles, crabs, etc., are all tergiant displayed by default. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 2

SPIDERWEB

[Spiderweb radiating from base.] This is not a heraldic spiderweb, which shows the entire web. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 9

SPLENDOR

see SUN

SPOON

The default position for a spoon is handle up. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 8

SPRIG

This looks too much like a branch device, as the two sprigs are too close to a laurel wreath. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 8

STANDARD

see FLAG

STAR

A compass star has alternating greater and lesser points, with a greater point to chief. To be proper the number of points should be divisible by four. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 6

It is better to call these mullets [of four points] than star-crosses, because that way they are grouped with mullets in the Ordinary rather than crosses. We already have another use for star-cross, anyway. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 5

see also CONSTELLATION

STONE

You cannot have a granite tower proper. There is pink granite, white granite, gray granite, etc. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

STUMP

Snagged means the tree stump is turned towards the viewer enough to see the top as an ellipse. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 5

STYLE

Right now [this] is op art, not heraldry. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 16

This is heraldic, but it is as close to a landscape as I will accept. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 6

This is a landscape. It looks like a picture of [a] bird against a hazy sunrise next to a mountain. This is not medieval heraldry, which deals in abstract charges arranged in conventional patterns. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 5

This is an art deco painting, and very pretty at that, but it is not medieval heraldry. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 5

This is far too complex and is Victorian. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 5

Five brownie points. This is classic heraldry at its best. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 2

This is not a period style. It is a modern art style more suitable for comic books. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 9

Random positions are not period style. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 7

This is cute, but it isn't heraldic. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 11

We do not use thin lines. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 7

SUN

You cannot have a sun in splendour proper, unless you can mount an arc lamp on your shield. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 14

It is best to specify the tincture of moons and suns. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 4

A ball of flames differs from a sun in that it is irregular. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 8

A sun is just a mullet of alternating straight and wavy points, usually at least sixteen points. The number of points can be specified as a lesser number, though, as in this case. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 1

A rising sun is the Japanese version used before World War II which has a roundel from which emerge diverging rays in all directions, as opposed to the standard heraldic sun, which has alternating straight and wavy points. The rising sun has in fact been used in European heraldry but was described in detail as having rays throughout. Rising sun is a shorter term. This is an SCA convention. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 1

Hereafter suns and estoiles shall have rays and mullets will have points. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 3

Like a plate, a moon in her complement is argent by default unless otherwise specified, just as a sun in splendor is Or by default. If you wanted a moon in her complement within a bordure, both azure, then you would have to say a moon in her complement azure within a bordure azure. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 3

For the benefit of the scribes, who often must work from blazons and black-and-white photocopies, hereafter we will blazon the tinctures of all charges, including those with default tinctures. This is a reversal from my statement last month. Suns in splendor will be specified as Or and moons in their complement will be specified as argent. If you have Or, a sun in splendor within a bordure azure, this will now mean that the sun is azure. This does not affect the special names of gouttes and roundels. A bezant is still Or and need not be specified as Or. WVS [62] [CL 27 Feb 82], p. 1

SUNFLOWER

Sunflowers [proper] are yellow with black centers. You can have sunflowers argent, seeded Or, but not seeded brown. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 7

SUPPORTER

see ACHIEVEMENT

SURMOUNTED

When two charges are in saltire you first mention the one in bend, and then that in bend sinister. The default position is for the charge in bend to lie on top of the charge in bend sinister. If not you have to say it is surmounted by the other charge. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 3. [Note contradiction in ruling of 21 Dec 81 [59], p. 1]

If a charge rests wholly on another it is charged upon the other. If it extends onto the field then the lower charge is surmounted by the upper charge. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 4

When one border surmounts another, the second is one-half the width of the first, effectively producing a bordure divided into two equal-width pieces. WVS [55] [LoAR 26 Oct 81], p. 4

SWAN

A cygnet is a baby swan. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 4

SWORD

During the Renaissance, N.'s arms could well have been drawn with a rapier, as that was the sword in use in those days. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 7. [In other words, a "rapier" is considered to be a special case of the heraldic "sword," and one will conflict with the other.]

A broken sword is the hilt and stub of blade. A sword fracted is both pieces. WVS [70] [LoAR 24 May 82], p. 4

TABARD

This is not a proper tabard as there is no hole for the head. The sleeves are not correctly drawn. There is no way to recognize this as a tabard. It looks like a keyhole. A proper drawing of a tabard showing only one side as it is worn would be recognizable and acceptable, although I am leery of registering a herald's tabard to an individual. True there are no trumpets on the tabard, but the colors are vert and Or. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 5

TARTAN

This is the only blazonable tartan I know of and it is not owned by any clan. Only a cloth charge can be blazoned as this form of tartan. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 12. [The tartan, known commonly as Rob Roy, is blazoned as: Compony gules and paly of 20 gules and sable, and compony paly of 20 sable and gules, and gules.]

Tartans are mostly out of period, and so I have left the coloration of the bagpipe to the scribe. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 2. [The bagpipe was blazoned as "proper."]

TENNE

Tenne is forbidden. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 9

TERGIANT

A tergiant beast is by default palewise, with its back to the viewer, with its limbs spread out in a natural position for the creature. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 3

Spiders, turtles, crabs, etc., are all tergiant displayed by default. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 2

THISTLE

The SCA thistle proper is purpure on the top. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 7

Heraldic thistles are straight. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 7

THYLACINE

The thylacine existed in period and so it can be used, even though it wasn't named until after our period. Since we of course must use the proper but out-of-period name in the blazon, I see no reason that it can't be used as his name, for the sake of canting, so long as it looks like a name and passes the other rules. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 8. [The thylacine is also known as the Tasmanian wolf."]

TIERCED

Pierced per bend sinister.] We do not tierce of three colors in this fashion. Only tierced per pall and tierced per pall inverts to be of three colors. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 7

TIGER

A tyger with a "y" is the heraldic beastie without stripes that looks like a wolf-faced lion. A tiger with an "i" is the natural tiger. When blazoned as a Bengal tiger or a natural tiger, it is drawn realistically. When just blazoned as a tiger, it can be stylized. In this case, it has the elaborate heraldic tail seen on lions and unicorns. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 6

TINCTURE

Fimbriation is a makeshift way of avoiding violations of the Rule of Tincture. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 14

Flags must obey the rule of tincture. They count as devices. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 3

Badges for territorial branches should either obey the rule of tincture or have no specified field. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 3

For the last time, bordures in the SCA are on the field and do have to obey the rule of tincture! WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 5

This is blatant fimbriation to foil the rule of tincture. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 7

Fields and tinctures of charges need not all be specified in a badge. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 1

From now on all badges must obey the rule of tincture. Badges need not have any tinctures specified, but if any are specified then they must obey the rule. I have finally decided to eliminate the acceptance of anything violating the rule of tincture because of all of the rules of heraldry [this] is the one that is most known to the populace, and so it is confusing to the populace to see banners which violate this practice. The primary reason for this change is to be more in keeping with period practice. In our period the rule of tincture was applied to both arms and badges. Although exceptions can be found, they were just that, exceptions to an otherwise adamant rule. Since the rule of tincture is one of the most practical rules we have, being based upon reasons of contrast and visibility, I have decided it is best to honor it in all cases. All previously registered badges are of course unaffected, but no longer constitute preceden[t]. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

If N., whose arms violate the rule of tincture and were accepted before the rule of tincture was applied to SCA arms, decided to add a charge to his arms which itself obeyed the rule of tincture then he could do so. His new altered arms would still be immune to the rule of tincture with regards to the specific violation previously held. He could not add a charge which itself also violated the rule of tincture. This is the effect of a grandfather clause. WVS [20] [CL 21 Jul 80], p. 2

A charge overall upon both metal and color need not conform to the rule of tincture. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 8

This is color on color. A chief and a flank are charges, not divisions. WVS [23]

A semy does not make the field a neutral field. A semy is a charge. WVS [25] [LoAR 16 Sep 80], p. 6

You cannot have a tinctureless charge placed upon another tinctureless charge. That's too much. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 8

The rainbow ... consists of an even number of alternating bands of color and metal, [and so] is exempt from the rule of tincture. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 3

If two SCA arms differ only by color (i.e., the outlines are the same), then they conflict. One reason is that, if both were used as tinctureless seals, they would be identical, which is confusing. The other reason is that we remember shapes very well, but colors only somewhat. Thus, two devices differing only in the colors of the charges would be easily confused. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 4

This is excessive use of fimbriation, used solely to get around the Rule of Tincture. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 10

Adding a powdering of azure ermine spots does not make the field a fur. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 7. [I.e., a field ermined is not exempt from the rule of tincture.]

The Rule of Tincture applies to fieldless badges. While the field is not specified, the understanding is that the badge will only be borne on contrasting backgrounds. This means that, if the badge consists of separated charges, they must be all metals or all colors. WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 8

see also PARTED FIELD, PROPER

TITLE

see NAME - TITLE

TOOTH

Teeth are teeth, and only by having the roots showing can one tell that they are teeth. WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 9

TORSE

You can use the torse as a symbol, but it is not appropriate to register it as a charge on a field. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 4

A torse seen as a ring is called a torse in annulo. A edgewise as a line is just called a torse. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 2

TOWER

The siege tower [proper], like all wooden objects, is brown. WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 2

TREBLE CLEF

The modern treble clef is out of period. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 10

TREE

For the benefit of the ordinary, all trees should have the word tree at the end, hence cedar tree instead of just cedar. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 6

On this scale it is impossible to tell which fir tree they are, so one does not have to give genus and species. Calling it a fir tree does give the fact that it is a conical evergreen. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 7

Snagged means the tree stump is turned towards the viewer enough to see the top as an ellipse. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 5

TRESSURE

The only reserved tressure is a double tressure flory-counter-flory. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 5

One is an orle and two or more are treasures, by SCA convention. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 2

In accordance with many urgings, I will allow a single tressure (a diminutive of an orle) to be used. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 5

TRIAN ASPECT

The [charge] is in trian aspect, which is out of period. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

TRICORPORATE

[Beast tricorporate.] By default, each body is rampant. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 3

TRILITHON

The default form of a dolmen is a trilithon, unless otherwise specified. A trilithon is a dolmen composed of one horizontal stone resting on two upright ones. WVS [32] [LoAR 29 Dec 80], p. 2

TRILLIUM

These are the stylized trilliums used by Ontario, and hence they are blazoned piecewise, rather than as proper. This way no genus and species are needed. WVS [5] [LoAR 24 Oct 79], p. 10

TRISKELION

A triskele, or triskelion, is a figure consisting of three legs conjoined (by default). Any other triskele must be of specified objects. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 9

A triskelion is three charges conjoined in pall curving outwards. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 8

TURTLE

Spiders, turtles, crabs, etc., are all tergiant displayed by default. WVS [36]

TYGER

A tyger with a "y" is the heraldic beastie without stripes that looks like a wolf-faced lion. A tiger with an "i" is the natural tiger. When blazoned as a Bengal tiger or a natural tiger, it is drawn realistically. When just blazoned as a tiger, it can be stylized. In this case, it has the elaborate heraldic tail seen on lions and unicorns. WVS [38] [LoAR 10 Mar 81], p. 6

You cannot void complex charges like a tyger. Voiding and fimbriation should only be used with simple charges. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 6

UNICORN

The difference[s] between a winged unicorn and a horned pegasus are the beard and the cloven hooves, very tiny differences indeed. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 9

[Horned pegasus.] This is by default a unicornate horn. If you ever want a pegasus with some other type of horn you must specify. WVS [13] [LoAR 18 Mar 80], p. 1

[Horned pegasus.] The creature has no beard and a horse's tail, instead of the unicorn's fancy heraldic tail. If you want to call something a unicorn, it has to have a beard, cloven hooves, and the heraldic unicorn's tail. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 2

The use of a unicorn's horn without other charges is mundanely reserved for apothecaries. It is also hard to tell what the charge is. WVS [63] [LoAR 26 Feb 82], p. 9

I have found that the unicorn's horn is not an apothecary symbol and therefore it is not reserved. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 5

UPON

Atop means the [charge] is standing on top of the mount. Upon means the [charge] is charged on the mount. WVS [50] [LoAR 13 Aug 81], p. 1

URSA MAJOR

see CONSTELLATION

VAIR

[Gros vairy of one trait.] I have added the word "gros" because there are [fewer] than four traits (rows) of vair. I have defined it to be of one trait because that is the correct word for one row of vair. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 1. [The term "gros" is tautological in this context; a charge vairy of one trait must by definition be gros vair.]

Alternate vair is a German variation of vair wherein each vair bell is divided per pale. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 2

The Heralds' Roll of Arms, ca. 1280, has Philip Basset having Vairy en pointe, argent and gules. It is therefore reasonable to assume that potent en pointe is also in period (Heraldry in England, by Anthony Wagner, Plate III, Penguin Books, 1949). WVS [72] [LoAR 14 Jun 82], p. 1

VASE

I do not like the idea of directly copying an existing vase. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 5

VETU

Vetu is drawn with straight lines and looks like a lozenge throughout. To make something convex like this, one adds the word ploye. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 4

VICTORIAN

This is far too complex and is Victorian. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 5

VIGILANCE

A crane in its vigilance is statant with its dexter foreleg upraised. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 2

VINE

This is your basic nondescript flowering vine. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 7

This is your basic ivy. Genus and species is not needed. WVS [11] [LoAR 13 Feb 80], p. 1

VIRE

Vires are concentric annulets. Thus you have one annulet, two vires, three vires, etc. WVS [57] [LoAR 30 Nov 81], p. 8

VOIDED

Chased means voided but with the interior details and lines still showing as well as the outline. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 3

Wherever possible, use voided rather than fimbriated. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 4

Chased means to void a charge leaving both the outline and the internal lines. Like voiding, you can chase something of a tincture other than the field. If the [charge] was chased Or then it would be voided of the field with the gold lines showing. In that case the [underlying charge] would show through. Since it does not the [charge] is a [charge] Or, chased sable. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 7

A chevron voided has the two chevronels connected by bands along the edge of the shield. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 11

Flaunches voided and flaunches cotised are both non-period. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 4

You cannot void complex charges like a tyger. Voiding and fimbriation should only be used with simple charges. WVS [65] [LoAR 15 Mar 82], p. 6

The College of Arms has decided not to allow complex voiding or chasing because of the lack of contrast. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 7

WATER

A ford is a base barry wavy argent and azure, representing water ... If the ford were placed upon a metal field the colors would be reversed to azure and argent. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 2

You cannot have an ocean wave proper, as there is no set color for ocean water. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 12

You cannot have a river proper. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 3

WAVE

You cannot have an ocean wave proper, as there is no set color for ocean water. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 12

A wave is a standard Japanese charge in mon. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 7

WAVY

You cannot have wavy of two. The minimum is three, and the numbers should not be specified. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 8

Use a period style of wavy with much larger waves. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 2

WAVY CRESTED

Wavy crested is out of period. A properly drawn rayonny or wavy or engrailed would be acceptable instead. WVS [23] [LoAR 27 Aug 80], p. 9

WEBBED

Whether the feet are hooved or webbed is a matter for the scribe. It's still a sea horse. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 3

WIND

Boreas is the North Wind, which has an icy breath. It is therefore argent. This is an Aeolus, i.e., a wind, no direction specified. WVS [42] [LoAR 12 May 81], p. 5

WING

Any creature with four limbs can be rampant if the limbs are arranged in that specific artificial position. Wings count as limbs, as do fins. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 6

[Winged lion.] The default position for the wings of a creature like this is addorsed. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 3

A bird rising has its wings displayed by default WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 4

A bird rising by default has its wings inverted. WVS [27] [LoAR 20 Oct 80], p. 2

WOOD

When a wooden object is termed proper it is shown in shades of brown. The exact shades are up to the artist ... Only if you want wood that is not brown (redwood, ebony, etc.) must you specify the wood used. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 3

WORM

[Tomato worm rearing.] The front third of the worm is raised up. WVS [2] [LoAR 16 Jul 76], p. 2

WREATH

Wreaths or chaplets of roses are restricted to royalty. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 8

Only members of the Order of the Rose may use wreaths of roses. WVS [59] [LoAR 21 Dec 81], p. 2

see also LAUREL WREATH

WYRM

Another word for dragon is wyrm. WVS [52] [LoAR 15 Sep 81], p. 1

WYVERN

There is no such thing as a Wyvern's head proper, because a Wyvern is a mythical beast, and did not exist. You must specify the tincture. A wyvern's head is an eagle's head with ears. WVS [8] [LoAR 19 Nov 79], p. 6


REFERENCE LIST

References from the tenure of Wilhelm von Schlussel:

Letters of 16 July 1976.

[4] Letter to CoA, 15 August 1979.

[5] Acceptances and rejections, 24 October 1979.

Letters of 8 November 1979.

[8] Acceptances and rejections, 19 November 1979.

[9] Acceptances and rejections, 22 January 1980.

Letters of 13 February 1980.

Letters of 18 March 1980.

Letters of 24 April 1980.

Letters of 15 May 1980.

Letters of 5 June 1980.

Letters of 21 July 1980.

Letters of 27 August 1980.

Letters of 16 September 1980.

Letters of 20 October 1980.

Letters of 28 November 1980.

Letters of 29 December 1980.

Letters of 27 January 1981.

Letters of 24 February 1981.

Letters of 10 March 1981.

Letters of 24 April 1981.

Letters of 12 May 1981.

Letters of 27 June 1981.

Letters of 21 July 1981.

Letters of 30 July 1981.

Letters of 13 August 1981.

Letters of 20 September 1981.

[53] Rules for heraldic submissions in the SCA. 1 October 1981.

Letters of 27 October 1981.

Letters of 30 November 1981.

Letters of 25 December 1981.

Letters of 19 January 1982.

Letters of 27 February 1982.

Letters of 18 March 1982.

Letters of 21 April 1982.

Letters of 25 May 1982.

Letters of 18 June 1982.






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