Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.

The List of Alternate Titles

as approved by the College of Arms October 2017

Title Table Index:
Arabic Language Group Arabic
Baltic Language Group Estonian
Dutch Language Group Dutch
East and South Asian Languages Sanskrit, Chinese, Japanese
English/Welsh Language Group English, Old English, Welsh
French Language Group French
Gaelic Language Group Irish Gaelic, Scots Gaelic
German Language Group German
Greek Language Group Greek
Hungarian/Romanian Language Group Hungarian, Romanian
Iberian Language Group Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan
Italian Language Group Italian
Jewish Language Group Hebrew
Latin Medieval Latin
Mongol Language Group Mongol
North Slavic Language Group Polish, Czech
Russian/East Slavic Language Group Russian
Scandinavian (Early) Language Group Viking Norwegian, Viking Danish, Viking Swedish, Viking Icelandic
Scandinavian (Late) Language Group Medieval Norwegian, Medieval Danish, Medieval Swedish, Finnish
South Slavic Language Group Albanian
Turkish Language Group Turkish

The Society Governing Documents provide a list of standard titles in Section VIII, Subsection D, "Titles", and grant the College of Arms full authority to approve alternative titles. The alternate titles approved by the College of Arms are listed in the tables below.

Explanatory notes:

Sometimes more than one form of alternate title has been found to be acceptable. Where more than one form exists, in the tables below the alternates have been separated by a slash ("/"). For example, the masculine listing for "Award or Grant of Arms" in Welsh has "Arglwydd/Boneddig/Bonheddwr". If someone with a Welsh persona named Owain had been given an Award of Arms, he could be Arglwydd Owain, Boneddig Owain, or Bonheddwr Owain.

Forms which are preceded by a hyphen ("-") are appended to the given name, in the form "[Name]- [title/form of address]".

Arabic Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Malik/Sultan Malika/Sultana
Coronet Amir Amira
Duchy Mushir/Musaitir Mushira/Musaitira
Viscounty Naqib Naqiba
Peerage Order Mu'allim Mu'allima
Knight (title)
Knight (noun) Faris Farisa
Barony Shayk/Sheik Shayka/Sheika
Award or Grant of Arms Sayyid Sayyida

Baltic Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Kuningas, Kunningas, Kunninkas Kunninga Prawwa
Coronet Först (territorial), Perris Würst (heir), Würst (territorial) Perris Würsti Prawwa (heir), Würsti Prawwa (territorial)
Duchy Erzog Erzogi Prawwa
Peerage Order Issand Emmand
Knight (title)
Knight (noun) Rutl
Award or Grant of Arms Issand Prawwa

Dutch Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Koning Koningin
Coronet Prins Prenses
Duchy Hertog Hertogin
County Graaf Gravin
Viscounty Burggraaf Burggravin
Peerage Order Meester Meesteres
Knight (title) Ser Ser
Knight (noun) Ridder Ridder
Barony Baron Barones
Award or Grant of Arms her/heer Vrouwe/Joncvrouwe

East and South Asian Languages


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Rajan Rajni
Coronet Kumarah Raja-putri
Peerage Order Svamin Svamini
Knight (title)
Knight (noun) Ksatriyah
Award or Grant of Arms Arya Adhipati


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Coronet Wang Kuêi Chu
Duchy Kung Chüeh Nü Kung
County T'a Hóu Nu T'a Pó
Viscounty T'a Pó Nu T'a Pó
Peerage Order Tzê Nü Tzê
Knight (title) -chi-sh h
Knight (noun) Chi-sh h
Barony Nanchüeh Nü Nan
Award or Grant of Arms Chu Chu Fu


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Ô Jo-Ô
Coronet Denka/Ô-ji Hi-denka/Ô-jo
Duchy Kô-shaku Kô-shaku-fujin
County Haku-shaku Haku-shaku-fujin
Viscounty Shi-shaku Shi-shaku-fujin
Peerage Order Sensei Sensei Sensei
Knight (title)
Knight (noun) Sensei Sensei Sensei
Barony Dan-shaku Dan-shaku-fujin
Award or Grant of Arms -san -san -san

English/Welsh Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown King Queen
Coronet Prince Princess
Duchy Duke Duchess
County Count Countess
Viscounty Viscount Viscountess
Peerage Order Master Master Mistress/Dame
Knight (title) Sir Sir Sir
Knight (noun) Knight Knight Knight
Barony Baron Baroness
Award or Grant of Arms Noble; (Name), Armiger; (Given name), Armiger Lord Lady

Old English

RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Cyning/Kyng Cwene
Coronet Ætheling Hlaefdige
Duchy Eorl Hlaefdige
County Eorl Hlaefdige
Viscounty Thegn Hlaefdige
Peerage Order Magister Hlaefdige
Knight (title)
Knight (noun) Cniht/Ridda Cniht/Ridda Cniht/Ridda
Barony Thegn Hlaefdige
Award or Grant of Arms Hlaford Hlaefdige


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Teyrn Brenin Brenhines
Coronet Teyrn/ Edling/ Gwrthrychiad Tywysog Tywysoges
Duchy Gwledig Dug Duges
County Gwledig Iarll Iarlles
Viscounty Gwledig Isiarll Isiarlles
Peerage Order Cyfurdd/ Dyl(y)edog/ Pendefig Meistr Meistres
Knight (title) Syr Syr Syr
Knight (noun) Cyfurdd/ Dyl(y)edog/ Pendefig Marchog Marchoges
Barony Barwn/Bre(h)yr Barwnes/Bre(h)yres
Award or Grant of Arms Arglwydd/Boneddig/Bonheddwr Arglwyddes/Bonesig/Boneddiges

French Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Roi Reine
Coronet Prince Princesse
Duchy Duc Duchesse
County Comte Comtesse
Viscounty Vicomte Vicomtesse
Peerage Order Maistre/Mestre Maistresse/Mestresse
Knight (title) Sieur
Knight (noun) Chevalier
Barony Baron Baronne
Award or Grant of Arms Seigneur Madame

Gaelic Language Group

Irish Gaelic

RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Ri/Righ Banrion/Bean-righ
Coronet Prionsa/Flaith Beanphrionsa/Banfhlaith
Duchy Diuc/Righ-cuicidh Bandiuc
County Cunta/Iarla Cuntaois
Viscounty Biocunta Biocuntaois
Peerage Order Maistir Maistreas
Knight (title) Sior/An ridire
Knight (noun) Ridire
Barony Barun/Righ-tuatha Banbharun
Award or Grant of Arms Tiarna Bantiarna

Scots Gaelic

RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Righ Bannrigh/Banrinn
Coronet Prionnsa Bannaphrionnsa
Duchy Diuc Bandiuc
County Iarla Baniarla
Viscounty Biocas Bana bhiocas
Peerage Order Maighstir Banamhaighstir
Knight (title) a Shir/Shair
Knight (noun) Ridire
Barony Thegn Bannthegn
Award or Grant of Arms Tighearn(a) Baintighearn(a)

German Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown König Königin
Coronet Prinz Prinzessin
Duchy Herzog Herzogin
County Graf Gräfin
Viscounty Landgraf Landgräfin
Peerage Order Meister Meisterin
Knight (title) Sir Sir
Knight (noun) Ritter Ritter
Barony Barun/Freiherr Barunin/Freiherrin
Award or Grant of Arms Herr Herrin

Greek Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Basiléus Basilissa
Coronet Pringkepas Pringképissa
Duchy Kómes tou stáblou Komitissa tou stáblou
County Komes Komitissa
Peerage Order Despotes Despôtissa
Knight (title) Hippôtes/Kûrios
Knight (noun) Strâtiotes
Barony Barônos Baronôssa
Award or Grant of Arms Kûrios Kuria

Hungarian/Romanian Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Kiraly Kiralynö
Coronet Fejedelem Fejedelemnö
Duchy Ban/Herceg Banno/Hercegnö
County Foispan/Grof Föispanno/Grofnö
Viscounty Vicomte Vicomte felesége
Peerage Order Mester/Tanár Mesternö/Tanárnö
Knight (title) Úr Uram
Knight (noun) Lovag
Barony Baro Baronö
Award or Grant of Arms Gyula Asszony


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Rege Reginâ
Coronet Principe Principesâ
Duchy Duce Ducesâ
County Conte Contesâ
Viscounty Viconte Vicontesâ
Peerage Order Stâpan Stâpanâ
Knight (title) Domnule
Knight (noun) Cavaler
Barony Baron Baroneasâ
Award or Grant of Arms Domn Doamnâ

Iberian Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Rey Reina
Coronet Principe Princesa
Duchy Duque Duquesa
County Conde Condesa
Viscounty Visconde Viscondesa
Peerage Order Maestro Dueña
Knight (title) Don Doña
Knight (noun) Caballero
Barony Baron Baronesa
Award or Grant of Arms Señor/Don Señora/Doña


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Rei Raihna
Coronet Principe Princesa
Duchy Duque Duquesa
County Conde Condêssa
Viscounty Visconde Viscondêssa
Peerage Order Mestre Mestra
Knight (title) Cavaleiro
Knight (noun) Cavaleiro
Barony Barão Baronesa
Award or Grant of Arms Senhor Senhora


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Rei Reina
Coronet Princep Princesa
Duchy Duc Duquessa
County Comte Comtessa
Viscounty Vescomte Vescomtessa
Peerage Order Mestre Mestressa
Knight (title) Senyor
Knight (noun) Cavaller
Barony Barô Baronessa
Award or Grant of Arms Senyor Senyora

Italian Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Re Regina
Coronet Principe Principessa
Duchy Duca/Doge/Doxe Duchessa/Dogaressa
County Conte Contessa
Viscounty Visconte Viscontessa
Peerage Order Maestro/Messer/Magnifico Maestra/Magnifica
Knight (title) Sir
Knight (noun) Cavaliere
Barony Barone Baronessa
Award or Grant of Arms Signore Signora

Jewish Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Melech Malchah
Coronet Nasi Nasichah
Duchy Alluf Allufah
County Shilton Shiltanah
Peerage Order
Knight (title) Sair Sairah
Knight (noun) Parash Parasha
Barony Nagid Nagidah
Award or Grant of Arms Reb Rebbah


Medieval Latin

RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Rex Regina
Coronet Princeps Princepissa
Duchy Dux Ducessa
County Comes Comitessa
Viscounty Viscomes Viscomitessa
Peerage Order Magister Magistra
Knight (title) Eques Eques Eques
Knight (noun) Miles Miles Miles
Barony Bâro Bâronessa
Award or Grant of Arms (Name) nobilis Dominus Domina

Mongol Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Peerage Order
Knight (title)
Knight (noun) Bahadur
Award or Grant of Arms

North Slavic Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Krõl Krõlowa
Coronet Ksiaze Ksiezna
Duchy Ksiaze Ksiezna
County Hrabia Hrabina
Viscounty Wicehrabia Wicehrabina
Peerage Order Majster Metressa
Knight (title) Pan Pani
Knight (noun) Rycerz
Barony Baron Baronowa
Award or Grant of Arms Pan Pani


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Kral Kralovna
Coronet Knize/Princ Knezna/Princezna
Duchy Vévoda Vévodkyn
County Hrab Hraběnka
Viscounty Vikomt Vikomta
Peerage Order Pan Pani
Knight (title) Ryti
Knight (noun) Lord
Barony Baron Baronka
Award or Grant of Arms Lord Dáma

Russian/East Slavic Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Tsar/Velikii Kniaz Tsaritsa/Velikaia Kniaginia
Coronet Tsarevich/Kniazhich (Heir)/Kniaz (Territorial) Tsarevna/Kniazna (Heir)/Kniaginia (Territorial)
Duchy Kniaz Kniaginia
County Kniaz Kniaginia
Viscounty Kniaz Kniaginia
Peerage Order Master Master/Boiarin Master/Masteritsa/Boiarynia
Knight (title)
Knight (noun) Rytsar Boiarin Boiarynia
Barony Posadnik/Voevoda Posadnitsa/Voevodsha
Award or Grant of Arms Pomestnik/Dvorianin/Boiarin Pomestnitsa/Dvorianka/Boiarynia

Scandinavian (Early) Language Group

Viking Norwegian

RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Konungr Consort: Dróttning; Regnant: Hofuðdróttning/Meykongr
Coronet Oðlingr
Duchy Hertogi Hertogakona
County Jarl Jarlkona/Jarlskona
Peerage Order Meistari/Íþróttamaðr/Kennari/Lærifaðir Íþróttakona/Lærimoðir
Knight (title)
Knight (noun)
Barony Hersir Hersirkona/Hersiskona/Ágætr kona
Award or Grant of Arms Drót(t)in Frú/Frauva/Frouva/Frou

Viking Danish

RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Konungr/Konung Dróttning
Peerage Order
Knight (title)
Knight (noun)
Barony Landmanna
Award or Grant of Arms Drot(t)in Fruha

Viking Swedish

RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Konungr Dróttning
County Jarl
Peerage Order
Knight (title)
Knight (noun)
Award or Grant of Arms Drotin

Viking Icelandic

RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Peerage Order Meistari/Íþróttamaðr/Kennari/Lærifaðir Íþróttakona/Lærimoðir
Knight (title)
Knight (noun) Kappi
Barony Goði/Hofðingi/Ágætr maðr Ágætr kona
Award or Grant of Arms

Scandinavian (Late) Language Group

Medieval Norwegian

RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Konungr/Konung(h) Drotning(h)/Drotingenne/Drotnigh/Dronning
Coronet Jungherra/Junc(k)her/Junkher/Forste/F(f)ørste/Furst(e) Jung-/Junc-/Jun(c)k- + -frú/-fru/-frw/-fraw
Duchy Hertogi/Hertug(h)/Hertog(h) Hertug(h)inna/Hertog(h)inna
County Jarl/Greifi/Greffue/Gre(ff)we/Greff Grevinne/Grefinne/Greffinne
Peerage Order Meistare/Mester/Meister/Magister/Lærer Mesterinde/Lærerinde/Læremoder
Knight (title) Herra
Knight (noun) Riddari/Ridd(h)are/Ridd(h)ere/Ridder
Barony Lendr maðr/Barún
Award or Grant of Arms Herra/Herre/Her

Medieval Danish

RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Konung(h)/Koning(h)/Konig Drotning
Coronet Furst Jungfrauwe/Junckfruw/Juncvrow
Duchy Hertug/Hertig/Herteghe/Hertoge/Hertogh(e) Hertoghinne
County Jarl/Greue/Greffue Grevinne
Peerage Order Mesteri/Mæster Læremoder
Knight (title) Her
Knight (noun) Ridd(h)er(e)
Barony Landmannr
Award or Grant of Arms Her/Drót(t)in(n) Frue/Fruæ/Frughæ/Frowe

Medieval Swedish

RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Kununger/Konung(h)/Konung(e)r Drotning
Coronet Först Junc(k)fru(e)
Duchy Hertugh/Hætogher Hertoghinne
County Jarl/Greifi Grevinne
Peerage Order Mæistari/Mæstare/Mæster Läremoder/Mästarinna
Knight (title) Her/Herra/Hærre
Knight (noun) Riddare/Riddere/Ryttare
Barony Barun
Award or Grant of Arms Drotin Fru/Fruæ/Frw(e)/Frwæ/Fru(u)a/Frugha


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Kuningas Kuningatar
Coronet Ruhtinas/Prinssi Ruhtinatar/Prinsessa
Duchy Herttua Herttuatar
County Kreivi, Jaarli Kreivitär
Viscounty Varakreivi Varakreivitär
Peerage Order Mestari/Maisteri
Knight (title) Ritari
Knight (noun) Ritari
Barony Vapaaherra/Paroni Vapaaherratar/Paronitar
Award or Grant of Arms Herra Rouva

South Slavic Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Mbret Mbretëreshë
Coronet Princ/Bir Mbreti Princeshë/Bijë Mreti
Duchy Dukë Dukeshë
County Kont Konteshë
Peerage Order Kryetar Kryetare
Knight (title) Zotni
Knight (noun) Kreshnik
Award or Grant of Arms Zoti/Bujar Zönjë/Bujare

Turkish Language Group


RankGender NeutralMasculineFeminine
Crown Sultan (given name) Khan/Sultan (given name) Shah (given name) Sultan
Coronet Shahzade Sultan (Given name) Sultan
Duchy (Given name) Pasha (Given name) Hatun
County (Given name) Pasha (Given name) Hatun
Viscounty (Given name) Pasha (Given name) Hatun
Peerage Order Üstat Hanim
Knight (title) Sör
Knight (noun) Sövalye
Barony Bey (Given name) Hatun
Award or Grant of Arms Efendi (Given name) Hatun

Summary of Changes, 1999-2017

Add "Messer" as alternate titles for Master Laurel or Pelican (March 1999)
Add "Sultan (Given Name) Khan", "Sultan (Given Name) Shah" (July 2006)
Remove "Krall" (July 2006)
Add "(Given Name) Sultan" (March 2007)
Remove "Kralice" (March 2007)
Add "Sultan (Given Name)", "Shahzade" (March 2007)
Remove "Prens", "Emir" (March 2007)
Add "(Given Name) Sultan", "Shahzade" (March 2007)
Remove "Prenses" (March 2007)
Add "(Given Name) Pasha" (November 2007)
Remove "Duk", "Serdar" (November 2007)
Add "(Given Name) Pasha" (November 2007)
Remove "Kont", "Beylerbey" (November 2007)
Add "(Given Name) Pasha" (November 2007)
Remove "Vikont" (November 2007)
Duchess, Countess, Viscountess
No approved change
Remove "Baron" (October 2009)
No change
Add "Maistre", "Mestre" (July 2008)
Remove "Maître" (July 2008)
Add "Maistresse", "Mestresse" (July 2008)
Remove "Maîtresse" (July 2008)
Add "Conte" (July 2008)
Add "Contesse" (July 2008)
Add "Velikii Kniaz" (November 2008)
Add "Velikaia Kniaginia" (September 2009)
Prince (Heir)
Add "Kniazhich" (November 2008)
Prince (Territorial)
Add "Kniaz" (November 2008)
Princess (Heir)
Add "Kniazhna" (November 2008)
Princess (Territorial)
Add "Kniaginia" (September 2009)
Add "Dvorianin" (November 2008)
Add "Boiarin" (September 2009)
Add "Dvorianka" (November 2008)
Add "Boiarynia" (September 2009)
Add "Voevodsha" (November 2008)
Remove "Voevoda" (November 2008)
Add "Boiarin" (September 2009)
Add "Masteritsa" (September 2009)
Add "Boiarynia" (September 2009)
Add "Boiarin" (September 2009)
Add "Ser" (January 2014)
Remove "Mijnheer" (January 2014)
Add "her/heer" (January 2014)
Remove "Gebieder" (January 2014)
Add "Vrouwe/Joncvrouwe" (January 2014)
Remove "Gebiedster" (January 2014)
Various Scandinavian
All Titles
A large overhaul was done of all of the Scandinavian languages, including breaking them into Viking Age and Medieval. The details can be found in the August 2015 LoAR and are effective as of that date.
All Languages
A comprehensive revamp of the title tables was done in 2017, separating masculine, feminine and gender neutral forms into distinct columns.
Per the May 2015 LoAR, the following changes have been made:
  • Added "Kunningas" and "Kunninkas" spellings
  • Replaced "Kuninganna" with "Kunninga Prawa"
  • Replaced "Prints" with "Först" and "Würst"
  • Replaced "Printsess" with "Würsti Prawwa"
  • Replaced "Hertsog" with "Erzog"
  • Replaced "Hertsoginna" with "Erzogi Prawa"
  • Replaced "Meister" with "Issand"
  • Replaced "Naismeister" with "Emmand"
  • Replaced "Rüütel" with "Rutl"
  • Replaced "Lord" with "Issand"
  • Replaced "Leedi" with "Prawwa"
Per the May 2018 LoAR, the following changes have been made:
  • Added "nobilis" as gender-neutral Latin title
Per the May 2018 LoAR, the following changes have been made:
  • Added "Perris Würst" and "Perris Wüi Prawwa" for Coronets
  • Released "Krahv", "Krahvinna", "Vikont", "Vikontess", "Parun", "Paruness" and "Söör" due to lack of evidence of period use
Per the July 2018 LoAR, the following changes have been made:
  • Added Noble and Armiger as gender-neutral titles
Added clarifications of the coronet-level titles
Per the March 2019 LoAR, the titles Qadi, Qadiya, Maulan, Maulana, Naquib, and Naquiba have been removed as titles.