Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.

The List of Alternate Titles

as approved by the College of Arms August 2015

Title Table Index:
Table 1: Romanian, Latin, Italian and French.
Table 2: Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan and Greek.
Table 3: Irish and Scots Gaelic, and Welsh.
Table 4: Old English, German, and Dutch.
Table 5: Viking Norwegian, Danish, Swedish and Icelandic.
Table 6: Medieval Norwegian, Danish and Swedish.
Table 7: Polish, Czech, Russian and Finnish.
Table 8: Estonian, Hungarian, Albanian and Turkish.
Table 9: Hebrew and Arabic.
Table 10: Sanskrit, Mongol, Chinese, Japanese.

The Corpora of the Society in Appendix C (copied in full below) lists the standard titles of rank to be used by those having "earned or been granted the appropriate rank or award" in the Society. Corpora also grants to the College of Arms the responsibility for researching, compiling, and releasing for use by members of the Society "alternate" titles, which are equivalent titles in different languages. Such alternate titles allow those in the Society with various personae to use titles appropriate to those personae.

What follows is the current list of alternate titles, arranged more or less geographically.

Explanatory notes:

Sometimes more than one form of alternate title has been found to be acceptable. Where more than one form exists, in the tables below the alternates have been separated by a slash ("/"). For example, the listing for "Lord" in Welsh has "Arglwydd/Boneddig/Bonheddwr". If someone with a Welsh persona named Owain had been given an Award of Arms, he could be Arglwydd Owain, Boneddig Owain, or Bonheddwr Owain.

Where the feminine form of a title (most commonly Knight or Sir) is different than the masculine form, the feminine suffix or the feminine form has been placed in brackets ("[" "]"). For example, the Hebrew alternate title for Knight is Parash; the feminine form is Parasha. The two are listed as "Parash[a]". Where the entire feminine form is spelled or pronounced sufficiently different from the masculine form, it has been written out in its entirety (e.g., "Don [Doña]" for Lord [Lady] in Spanish).

Forms which are preceded by a hyphen ("-") are appended to the given name, in the form "[Name]- [title/form of address]".

Corpora Appendix C: Titles of Rank

The titles listed here are considered standard, and may be used by those who have earned or been granted the appropriate rank or award within the Society. The College of Arms publishes a more extensive list of titles and alternate forms, which may also be used freely by qualified persons. In addition, the College of Arms has full approval authority over new alternative titles, which must be added to their list before being released for use in the Society.

TITLE (m./f./collective):

Rank or Award
Rulers of a kingdom.
Crown Prince/Crown Princess/(Royal)Coronet:
Heirs to the Crown.
Rulers of a principality.
Persons who have reigned over a kingdom 2 or more times. The title is assumed at the end of the second complete reign.
Persons who have once reigned over a kingdom. The title is assumed at the end of the first complete reign.
Persons who have reigned over a principality. The title is assumed at the end of the first complete reign.
Members of the Order of the Laurel, the Pelican, and Mastery of Arms.
Members of the Order of Knighthood. Note that most women who are members of the order have chosen to use "Sir".
Baron (of Placename)/Baroness (of placename)/-:
Ceremonial heads of a barony.
(Court) Baron/(Court)Baroness/-:
Armigerous titles awarded at the discretion of the Crown. The word "Court" is often left out when referring to this title.
Basic title for persons who hold Arms by Award or Grant.
"my lord"/"my lady"/"good gentles":
These are general forms of address rather than titles. They are properly used informally, or any time the speaker does not know another form that would be more appropriate for the listener.
Master of (jobname)/Mistress of (jobname)/-:
Alternates for "Minister of (jobname)". As with the standard designations for an office, these are not personal titles, and should in no case be abbreviated or prefixed to the officer's personal name.
In addition to the standard titles listed in Appendix C, the title Dame may be used instead of Mistress by any female member of the Orders of the Laurel, Pelican, or Chivalry.

Title Tables

Table 1
SCA Romanian Latin Italian French
King Rege Rex Re Roi
Queen Reginâ Regina Regina Reine
Prince Principe Princeps Principe Prince
Princess Principesâ Princepissa Principessa Princesse
Duke Duce Dux Duca Duc
Duchess Ducesâ Ducessa Duchessa Duchesse
Count Conte Comes Conte Comte
Countess Contesâ Comitessa Contessa Comtesse
Viscount Viconte Viscomes Visconte Vicomte
Viscountess Vicontesâ Viscomitessa Viscontessa Vicomtesse
Master Stâpan Magister Maestro/Messer Maistre/Mestre
Mistress Stâpanâ Magistra Maestra Maistresse/Mestresse
Knight Cavaler Miles Cavaliere Chevalier
Sir Domnule Eques Sir Sieur
Baron Baron Bâro Barone Baron
Baroness Baroneasâ Bâronessa Baronessa Baronne
Lord Domn Dominus Signore Seigneur
Lady Doamnâ Domina Signora Madame

Table 2
SCA Spanish Portuguese Catalan Greek
King Rey Rei Rei Basiléus
Queen Reina Raihna Reina Basilissa
Prince Principe Principe Princep Pringkepas
Princess Princesa Princesa Princesa Pringképissa
Duke Duque Duque Duc Kómes tou stáblou
Duchess Duquesa Duquesa Duquessa Komitissa tou stáblou
Count Conde Conde Comte Komes
Countess Condesa Condêssa Comtessa Komitissa
Viscount Visconde Visconde Vescomte ---
Viscountess Viscondesa Viscondêssa Vescomtessa ---
Master Maestro Mestre Mestre Despotes
Mistress Dueña Mestra Mestressa Despôtissa
Knight Caballero Cavaleiro Cavaller Strâtiotes
Sir Don [Doña] Cavaleiro Senyor Hippôtes/Kûrios
Baron Baron Barão Barô Barônos
Baroness Baronesa Baronesa Baronessa Baronôssa
Lord Señor/Don Senhor Senyor Kûrios
Lady Señora/Doña Senhora Senyora Kuria

Table 3
SCA Irish Gaelic Scots Gaelic Welsh
King Ri/Righ Righ Brenin/Teyrn
Queen Banrion/Bean-righ Bannrigh/Banrinn Brenhines/Teyrn
Prince Prionsa/Flaith Prionnsa Tywysog/Teyrn/Edling/Gwrthrychiad
Princess Beanphrionsa/Banfhlaith Bannaphrionnsa Tywysoges/Teyrn/Edling/Gwrthrychiad
Duke Diuc/Righ-cuicidh Diuc Dug/Gwledig
Duchess Bandiuc Bandiuc Duges/Gwledig
Count Cunta/Iarla Iarla Iarll/Gwledig
Countess Cuntaois Baniarla Iarlles/Gwledig
Viscount Biocunta Biocas Isiarll/Gwledig
Viscountess Biocuntaois Bana bhiocas Isiarlles/Gwledig
Master Maistir Maighstir Meistr/Cyfurdd/Dyl(y)edog/Pendefig
Mistress Maistreas Banamhaighstir Meistres/Cyfurdd/Dyl(y)edog/Pendefig
Knight Ridire Ridire Marchog[es]/Cyfurdd/Dyl(y)edog/Pendefig
Sir Sior/An ridire a Shir/Shair Syr
Baron Barun/Righ-tuatha Thegn Barwn/Bre(h)yr
Baroness Banbharun Bannthegn Barwnes/Bre(h)yres
Lord Tiarna Tighearn(a) Arglwydd/Boneddig/Bonheddwr
Lady Bantiarna Baintighearn(a) Arglwyddes/Bonesig/Boneddiges

Table 4
SCA Old English German Dutch
King Cyning/Kyng König Koning
Queen Cwene Königin Koningin
Prince Ætheling Prinz Prins
Princess Hlaefdige Prinzessin Prenses
Duke Eorl Herzog Hertog
Duchess Hlaefdige Herzogin Hertogin
Count Eorl Graf Graaf
Countess Hlaefdige Gräfin Gravin
Viscount Thegn Landgraf Burggraaf
Viscountess Hlaefdige Landgräfin Burggravin
Master Magister Meister Meester
Mistress Hlaefdige Meisterin Meesteres
Knight Cniht/Ridda Ritter Ridder
Sir --- Sir Ser
Baron Thegn Barun/Freiherr Baron
Baroness Hlaefdige Barunin/Freiherrin Barones
Lord Hlaford Herr her/heer
Lady Hlaefdige Herrin Vrouwe/Joncvrouwe

These titles were generally used as bynames and usually appeared in lower case.

Table 5
SCA Viking Norwegian Viking Danish Viking Swedish Viking Icelandic
King Konungr Konungr/Konung Konungr ---
Queen Dróttning
Queen Regnant: Hofuðdróttning/Meykongr
Dróttning Dróttning ---
Prince Oðlingr --- --- ---
Princess --- --- --- ---
Duke Hertogi --- --- ---
Duchess Hertogakona --- --- ---
Count Jarl --- Jarl ---
Countess Jarlkona/Jarlskona --- --- ---
Viscount --- --- --- ---
Viscountess --- --- --- ---
Master Meistari/Íþróttamaðr/Kennari/Lærifaðir --- --- Meistari/Íþróttamaðr/Kennari/Lærifaðir
Mistress Íþróttakona/Lærimoðir --- --- Íþróttakona/Lærimoðir
Knight --- --- --- Kappi
Sir --- --- --- ---
Baron Hersir Landmanna --- Goði/Hofðingi/Ágætr maðr
Baroness Hersirkona/Hersiskona/Ágætr kona --- --- Ágætr kona
Lord Drót(t)in Drot(t)in Drotin ---
Lady Frú/Frauva/Frouva/Frou Fruha --- ---

These titles were generally used as bynames and usually appeared in lower case. An exception is Herra ("Sir" or "Lord") and its variants, which was borne before the individual's name.

Table 6
SCA Medieval Norwegian Medieval Danish Medieval Swedish
King Konungr/Konung(h) Konung(h)/Koning(h)/Konig Kununger/Konung(h)/Konung(e)r
Queen Drotning(h)/Drotingenne/Drotnigh/Dronning Drotning Drotning
Prince Jungherra/Junc(k)her/Junkher/Forste/F(f)ørste/Furst(e) Furst Först
Princess Jung-/Junc-/Jun(c)k- + -frú/-fru/-frw/-fraw Jungfrauwe/Junckfruw/Juncvrow Junc(k)fru(e)
Duke Hertogi/Hertug(h)/Hertog(h) Hertug/Hertig/Herteghe/Hertoge/Hertogh(e) Hertugh/Hætogher
Duchess Hertug(h)inna/Hertog(h)inna Hertoghinne Hertoghinne
Count Jarl/Greifi/Greffue/Gre(ff)we/Greff Jarl/Greue/Greffue Jarl/Greifi
Countess Grevinne/Grefinne/Greffinne Grevinne Grevinne
Viscount --- --- ---
Viscountess --- --- ---
Master Meistare/Mester/Meister/Magister/Lærer Mesteri/Mæster Mæistari/Mæstare/Mæster
Mistress Mesterinde/Lærerinde/Læremoder Læremoder Läremoder/Mästarinna
Knight Riddari/Ridd(h)are/Ridd(h)ere/Ridder Ridd(h)er(e) Riddare/Riddere/Ryttare
Sir Herra Her Her/Herra/Hærre
Baron Lendr maðr/Barún Landmannr Barun
Baroness --- --- ---
Lord Herra/Herre/Her Her/Drót(t)in(n) Drotin
Lady Fru(e)/Frw(e)/Frv(e)/Fruwe/Ffrve/Ffrw/Ffrue Frue/Fruæ/Frughæ/Frowe Fru/Fruæ/Frw(e)/Frwæ/Fru(u)a/Frugha

Table 7
* [Some of the Polish and Czech titles contained characters that couldn't be recreated in HTML]
SCA Polish Czech Russian Finnish
King Krõl Kral Tsar/Velikii Kniaz Kuningas
Queen Krõlowa Kralovna Tsaritsa/Velikaia Kniaginia Kuningatar
Prince Ksiaze * Knize/Princ * Tsarevich/Kniazhich (Heir)/Kniaz (Territorial) Ruhtinas/Prinssi
Princess Ksiezna * Knezna/Princezna * Tsarevna/Kniazna (Heir)/Kniaginia (Territorial) Ruhtinatar/Prinsessa
Duke Ksiaze * Vévoda Kniaz Herttua
Duchess Ksiezna * Vévodkyn Kniaginia Herttuatar
Count Hrabia Hrab Kniaz Kreivi, Jaarli
Countess Hrabina Hrab nka Kniaginia Kreivitär
Viscount Wicehrabia Vikomt Kniaz Varakreivi
Viscountess Wicehrabina Vikomta Kniaginia Varakreivitär
Master Majster Pan Master/Boiarin Mestari/Maisteri
Mistress Metressa Pani Master/Masteritsa/Boiarynia Mestari/Maisteri
Knight Rycerz Ryti Rytsar/Boiarin [Boiarynia] Ritari
Sir Pan[i] Lord --- Ritari
Baron Baron Baron Posadnik/Voevoda Vapaaherra/Paroni
Baroness Baronowa Baronka Posadnitsa/Voevodsha Vapaaherratar/Paronitar
Lord Pan Lord Pomestnik/Dvorianin/Boiarin Herra
Lady Pani Dáma Pomestnitsa/Dvorianka/Boiarynia Rouva

Table 8
SCA Estonian Hungarian Albanian Turkish
King Kuningas Kiraly Mbret Sultan (given name) Khan/Sultan (given name) Shah
Queen Kuninganna Kiralynö Mbretëreshë (given name) Sultan
Prince Prints Fejedelem Princ/Bir Mbreti Sultan/Shahzade
Princess Printsess Fejedelemnö Princeshë/Bijë Mreti (Given name) Sultan/Shahzade
Duke Hertsog Ban/Herceg Dukë (Given name) Pasha
Duchess Hertsoginna Banno/Hercegnö Dukeshë (Given name) Hatun
Count Krahv Foispan/Grof Kont (Given name) Pasha
Countess Kravinna Föispanno/Grofnö Konteshë (Given name) Hatun
Viscount Vikont Vicomte --- (Given name) Pasha
Viscountess Vikontess Vicomte felesége --- (Given name) Hatun
Master Meister Mester/Tanár Kryetar Üstat
Mistress Naismeister Mesternö/Tanárnö Kryetare Hanim
Knight Rüütel Lovag Kreshnik Sövalye
Sir Söör Úr [Uram] Zotni Sör
Baron Parun Baro --- Bey
Baroness Paruness Baronö --- (Given name) Hatun
Lord Lord Gyula Zoti/Bujar Efendi
Lady Leedi Asszony Zönjë/Bujare (Given name) Hatun

Table 9
* Master [Mistress] of Arms:
Ba'al[ah] Nshek
Master [Mistress] of the Laurel:
Ba'al[ah] Dafneh/Ba'al[ah] Meekzoh-ah
Master [Mistress] of the Pelican:
Ba'al[ah] Shaknah-ee/ Ba'al[ah] Chasidah/Nadiv[ah]
SCA Hebrew Arabic
King Melech Malik/Sultan
Queen Malchah Malika/Sultana
Prince Nasi Amir
Princess Nasichah Amira
Duke Alluf Mushir/Musaitir
Duchess Allufah Mushira/Musaitira
Count Shilton Qadi
Countess Shiltanah Qadiya
Viscount --- Naquib/Naqib
Viscountess --- Naquiba/Naqiba
Master * Mu'allim/Maulan
Mistress * Mu'allima/Maulana
Knight Parash[a] Faris[a]
Sir Sair[ah] ---
Baron Nagid Shayk/Sheik
Baroness Nagidah Shayka/Sheika
Lord Reb Sayyid
Lady Rebbah Sayyida

Table 10
SCA Sanskrit Mongol Chinese Japanese
King Rajan --- --- Ô
Queen Rajni --- --- Jo-Ô
Prince Kumarah --- Wang Denka/Ô-ji
Princess Raja-putri --- Kuêi Chu Hi-denka/Ô-jo
Duke --- --- Kung Chüeh Kô-shaku
Duchess --- --- Nü Kung Kô-shaku-fujin
Count --- --- T'a Hóu Haku-shaku
Countess --- --- Nu T'a Pó Haku-shaku-fujin
Viscount --- --- T'a Pó Shi-shaku
Viscountess --- --- Nu T'a Pó Shi-shaku-fujin
Master Svamin --- Tzê Sensei
Mistress Svamini --- Nü Tzê Sensei
Knight Ksatriyah Bahadur Chi-sh h Sensei
Sir --- --- -chi-sh h ---
Baron --- --- Nanchüeh Dan-shaku
Baroness --- --- Nü Nan Dan-shaku-fujin
Lord Arya --- Chu -san
Lady Adhipati --- Chu Fu -san

Summary of Changes, 1999-2014

Add "Messer" as alternate titles for Master Laurel or Pelican (March 1999)
Add "Sultan (Given Name) Khan", "Sultan (Given Name) Shah" (July 2006)
Remove "Krall" (July 2006)
Add "(Given Name) Sultan" (March 2007)
Remove "Kralice" (March 2007)
Add "Sultan (Given Name)", "Shahzade" (March 2007)
Remove "Prens", "Emir" (March 2007)
Add "(Given Name) Sultan", "Shahzade" (March 2007)
Remove "Prenses" (March 2007)
Add "(Given Name) Pasha" (November 2007)
Remove "Duk", "Serdar" (November 2007)
Add "(Given Name) Pasha" (November 2007)
Remove "Kont", "Beylerbey" (November 2007)
Add "(Given Name) Pasha" (November 2007)
Remove "Vikont" (November 2007)
Duchess, Countess, Viscountess
No approved change
Remove "Baron" (October 2009)
No change
Add "Maistre", "Mestre" (July 2008)
Remove "Maître" (July 2008)
Add "Maistresse", "Mestresse" (July 2008)
Remove "Maîtresse" (July 2008)
Add "Conte" (July 2008)
Add "Contesse" (July 2008)
Add "Velikii Kniaz" (November 2008)
Add "Velikaia Kniaginia" (September 2009)
Prince (Heir)
Add "Kniazhich" (November 2008)
Prince (Territorial)
Add "Kniaz" (November 2008)
Princess (Heir)
Add "Kniazhna" (November 2008)
Princess (Territorial)
Add "Kniaginia" (September 2009)
Add "Dvorianin" (November 2008)
Add "Boiarin" (September 2009)
Add "Dvorianka" (November 2008)
Add "Boiarynia" (September 2009)
Add "Voevodsha" (November 2008)
Remove "Voevoda" (November 2008)
Add "Boiarin" (September 2009)
Add "Masteritsa" (September 2009)
Add "Boiarynia" (September 2009)
Add "Boiarin" (September 2009)
Add "Ser" (January 2014)
Remove "Mijnheer" (January 2014)
Add "her/heer" (January 2014)
Remove "Gebieder" (January 2014)
Add "Vrouwe/Joncvrouwe" (January 2014)
Remove "Gebiedster" (January 2014)
Various Scandinavian
All Titles
A large overhaul was done of all of the Scandinavian languages, including breaking them into Viking Age and Medieval. The details can be found in the August 2015 LoAR and are effective as of that date.