Aislinn de Douglas. Name and device. Azure, a thistle, slipped and leaved, Or between three hearts argent.

Bran of Lough Derg. Name only. The name was submitted as Bran bho Lough Derg with the notation that "bho" means from in Gaelic. While this is true, it does not have quite the meaning the submittor intended. Moreover, "Lough Derg" is the Anglicized form of the Irish name and "bho" is Scots Gaelic. To resolve the linguistic and grammatical problems with the least change to the sound of the name, we have substituted the English preposition "of" for the "bho".

Douglas Starwolf. Device. Purpure, two chevronels between two wolves combattant, collared and chained, and a compass star elongated to base within a bordure, all argent.

Edward Longtooth. Name and device. Argent, a stag at gaze to sinister sable and a chief embattled azure. The name was submitted as Edward of Longtooth. There was virtually unanimous feeling in the College that "Longtooth" made an acceptable epithet, but an unacceptable place name. We have therefore dropped the "of" as his paperwork allowed.

Fynnon Gath, Canton of. Name and device. Argent, a domestic cat salient to sinister sable within a laurel wreath vert, all between three roundels barry wavy Or and azure.

Orric Longtooth. Device. Azure, a fess argent, ermined azure, between a ferret statant argent and a demi-sun issuant from base Or.

Padraig Cosfhota o hUlad. Name and device. Vert, in bend three wands bendwise sinister Or, overall in bend sinister three fish bendwise argent. "Cosfhota" is Old Irish for "Longfoot".

Philomela of Phoenicia. Name and device. Purpure, a peacock feather between three gouttes, all within a bordure Or. The given name appeared on the letter of intent as "Philomeela", but the forms had the usual spelling given above. Please ask the submittor to draw the gouttes a lot larger.

Regina Gunnvor Morgenstjerne. Device. Argent, ermined gules, a morningstar bendwise sinister within a bordure sable.

Robert of Douglas. Change of device. Azure, two lions combattant and on a plate a cross moline gules, all within an orle Or. This pushes the limits of complexity under both the old and the new rules. [General comment from Laurel staff: "But the old arms ("Argent, a heart sable between three thistles gules.") were so much better!"]

Suzanna the Herbalist. Name only.

Talek Rynstr. Or, a sea lion and on a chief vert, three serpents involved Or.

Thri Mylenas, Shire of. Name only. The name was submitted as Thrimylenas. While the morphology and syntax seem correct for "Three Mills" in Old English, the evidence suggests that the numeral would not coalesce in this manner with the noun. We have therefore separated the two components, as the forms allowed.

Wulfwyn of Longtooth. Name only. The name was submitted as Wulfwyn of Longtooth. There was virtually unanimous feeling in the College that "Longtooth" made an acceptable epithet, but an unacceptable place name. We have therefore dropped the "of" as his paperwork allowed. (Latimer is correct: the copy command is very useful!)


Ædrik Thorulfsson. Device. Per bend sinister sable and gules, three tau crosses within a bordure argent.

Ælfric the Archivist. Name and device. Per bend sinister gules and argent, a crane, wings elevated and addorsed, sinister facing and maintaining in the sinister claw a rolled scroll argent and a Bengal tiger rampant gules, marked sable.

Ælfwynn Fiske. Name only.

An Tir, Kingdom of. Title for Löwenmähne Herald. The title was submitted with the three elements coalesced into a single word. While it is true that German does perform some amazing feats with regard to word formation, Badger is quite correct in noting that the title ("Lion's Mane") and the designation should be separated, as is both mundane and Society custom. (The title is registered, but the rank is not: "Lion's Mane" could be applied to one with the rank of Pursuivant, Herald Extraordinary, etc., but the title would remain the same.) Therefore, we have broken the title and rank out into two words. Note that this will not materially affect the pronunciation of the title.

Arioch of Messina. Name only. This name caused a great deal of controversy in the College due to the close association of the name of Arioch with the patron deity of Elric of Melnibone. While many Society members will see an allusion to this deity of Chaos in the most famous of Michael Moorcock's universes, the name does appear in the Old Testament for several different humans. These include two separate kings and the head of King Nebuchadnezzar's executioners (the latter probably being the associative source for Moorcock's use of the name). As such, the name may be used in the Society, although it would be kind to discuss the negative connotations of the Moorcock association with the submittor in case the allusion was not intentional. Note that Messina is in Sicily not in France, as stated on the letter of intent.

Barbara de Bayard de Montchesne. Name only. The surname appeared as "de Baynard" on the original letter of intent, but was corrected on the letter of intent of 15 June. As solid documentation of "de Bayard" from the was provided from the Encyclopedia Brittanica (s.v. "Bayard"), it seems pedantic to pend the submission for further comment.

Charles Kurz Klein. Name only. Although the name appeared on the letter of intent with the second surname incorrectly spelled ("Klien"), the forms have the correct spelling of the German word for "small". Note that the "documentation" showing that "Charles" in that form was a German name was taken from an English history and referred to the son of Philip and Joanna of Spain who became Emperor as Charles V. In point of fact, Charles may never have been known in that precise form of the name in any of the territories he ruled since it is a French and English form of the name. As we allow multilingual names, this is still a legitimate name, but "Charles" is not a German form: that would usually be "Karl".

Daniello il Suonatore da Ferrara. Change of name from David the Undecided.

Deirdre ní Phádraig mac Griogair. Name only (see PENDING for device). The name was submitted as Deirdre ni Patrick MacGregory. As the submittor allowed changes but wished to retain the sound of the name, we have used the closest forms that preserved the requirements of Irish/Gaelic grammar. In particular, we have substituted a properly aspirated form of the Irish for "Patrick" and a Gaelic form of the MacGregor name. (The form "Gregory" with the final noun, as noted by Habicht, seems to have been used in Ireland only after our period and is dicey in the extreme in Scotland as Black cites it only from out-of-period sources.)

Enid ferch Rhodri. Change of name from Enid de Bohun.

Garick Köpke. Addition of designation of House Wülfslager to previously registered badge. Or, two wolves salient respectant and a chief dancetty sable. Several commentors noted that the English translation of this designation ("Wolf's Lair") was identical to the usual English translation for Hitler's field headquarters. In point of fact, the name associated with Hitler was "Wolfsschanze". As Badger noted, the two terms are quite distinct in German and so may be registered in the German form. Note that the English form "Wolf's Lair" could not be registered under the old rules or the new rules since the form does appear commonly in contemporary and historical English sources for Hitler's headquarters and thus would be protected as an actually used name. For an analogue, see the example of Karl der Grosse and Charlemagne in the new rules (V.4.b, p.6).

James Graham of Gartmór. Name and device. Per fess azure and vert, in chief a bull dormant to sinister argent. Under the old rules, the name would definitely conflict with that of James Graham, known in some histories as Marquis of Montrose, in some as "Graham of Claverhouse". To anyone with an interest in the English Civil War, particularly in its Scots manifestations, this is a major conflict. However, the new rules are quite specific in stating that addition of one phrase when the names consist of three or fewer phrases do not conflict (V.2, p.5). While the name certainly will be considered presumptuous by some, the elements in the name are common enough that we cannot say that it "unmistakably" claims identity with the most famous Graham of all (V.5, p.6). [Ed. Note: This is the sort of case that gives Laurel heartburn. There is no doubt that the submittor is aware of Montrose since his documentation includes a great many highlighted references to him and the forms indicate that the original form of the name returned at kingdom level was James Graham. When debating the line where name difference should be drawn, Badger and Laurel pounded on this one --- on long distance phone --- for nearly an hour precisely because of Laurel's fear concerning names like Richard Plantagenet of Edinburgh. Persuaded that such situations would be the exception rather than the rule, it is painful to see one like this the very first month that the new rules are in force. And, yes, for those who wonder, in Scots terms that James Graham is as famous as Richard the Lionheart!].

Kelly the Incoherent. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Vert, in pale two lozenges argent between a pair of flaunches erminois. The submission was made under the name Kelda the Incoherent.

Quirin von Strassburg. Name and device. Per pale azure and bendy sinister Or and sable, a chief wavy counterchanged. Although the submittor's documentation showed the given name in this form only from the seventeenth century, both Badger provided documentation from Brechenmacher (Vol. II, p. 362) and Shofar from Socin Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch, pp. 79. 159,639).

Rioghbhardan MacInnes the Lame. Device. Or, on a shamrock slipped vert a flute fesswise Or, all within a bordure vert. Although the letter of intent blazoned the musical instrument as a recorder, what is in fact depicted is a flute with a separate mouthpiece (similar to some pennywhistles). As the mouthpiece is to sinister, this is not reversed, although the depiction on the mini-emblazon made it appear to be.

Rioghbhardan MacInnes the Lame. Badge. Vert, a flute fesswise between in pale two semi-quavers, all within a bordure Or. The submittor should draw the notes in a more squared period manner. Note that the conjoined notes appear in a number of sixteenth-century musical works (for example, the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, cited by Green Anchor). While these may not have been called semi-quavers in period, we have retained this terminology for clarity.

Rose Mary Fleury FitzHugh. Device. Per fess azure and argent, a portative organ Or and a cross fleury gules.

Rukan the Berber. Name only. The given name was only documented by the submittor from a rather dicey baby name book. While Star was unable to document the given name, Badger was able to find one "Rukn al-Dawiah" who died in 906. "Rukan" would seem to be an acceptable variant of "Rukn".

Sunniva Ragnvald. Name and device. Or, an owl's head cabossed proper within a bordure vert (Bubo bubo). The given name is copiously documented as a period Norse feminine name derived from the Old English "Sunngifu". While most of the citations show the name as "Sunnifa", there are ample analogues for the period use of "v" as a variant for "f" in this context. Note that the head of the owl is dark brown marked with light brown and white.

Wyll Mac Conachie. Device. Quarterly Or and gules, a tower sable, enflamed, within a double tressure counterchanged. Some commentors wondered about the actual tinctures of the submission: both the tressure and the flames are counterchanged.


Adelgar von Speyer. Name only (see PENDING for device).

Adriana Chiara da Fiesole. Name only (see PENDING for device).

Alwyn von Breitscheid. Name only. The name was pended in July, 1989, for technical reasons (there was some doubt as to the mundane identity of the individual to whom this should be registered and hence whether this was a new name or a name change.) This confusion has now been cleared up.

Amice d'Orange. Name and device. Per chevron vert and argent, in pale an eagle displayed, head to sinister and wings inverted, Or and an orange branch sable, fructed proper. The name was submitted as Amice del Orange. As the submittor requested, we have corrected the name to the appropriate French form.

Anna Sigridsdotter. Name only. Brigantia has been able to document the feminine patronymic in this form as early as 1493.

Arthur O'Flaherty. Name only.

Atenveldt, Kingdom of. Title for Golden Wing Herald.

Bradan Burleigh. Name and device. Azure, a garb Or issuant from a base enarched, on a chief argent a cross fleury sable between two roses azure. Note that the five types of charges and four tinctures are marginal under the old rules and clearly violate the Tincture and Charge Limit of the new (VIII.1.a, p. 9).

Edmond Aubrey of Glastonbury. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Eldred Sharptooth. Device. Per pale nebuly azure and Or, a Bengal tiger argent and a three-headed dog gules combattant. The letter called the beastie to sinister a "cerebus" which two-thirds of the College pointed out was an aardvark, not a canine. (Nothing like a blazon like that to ferret out all the people who read low and disgusting adult comics . . . [Yes, all the Laurel staff caught it too!]).

Eldrid Wolfsguard. Badge for Clan Blue Bear. Argent, a bear passant azure, its dexter forepaw imbrued and distilling gouttes de sang, its sinister forepaw atop a sword fracted in chevron inverted sable, all within a bordure azure. While we are sure that the little details have great meaning for the submittor, the badge would be much better with just the bear and the bordure.

Eleanora Valentina Beata. Badge for Casa del Colibri. Azure, in bend a two open fans, bendwise sinister and handles to center, that to chief Or and that to base argent.

Emrys Bethoc. Badge. Quarterly azure and gules, six ermine tails in annulo, tails outwards, argent.

Erik of Burning Sands. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Gules, a pithon displayed, head to sinister, in chief three compass stars, elongated to base, one and two, all argent. The submission was made under the name Erik Orinsson. Note that this is clear of Karl Bakken ("Gules, a winged serpent tergiant bendwise, tail wreathed, wings erect and addorsed argent."): Karl's monster is in a peculiarly contorted position with the upper portion of the body facing dexter, the bulk of the middle tergiant and the lower portion of the tail nowed in annulo!

Fiona Gwyllt Wynne. Name only. While it would appear unusual to have the adjectival surnames appear with an unmutated and mutated form together, both forms are documented in period for these names.

Gunther Kriegsmann von Braunschweig. Name and device. Or, two panthers combattant sable, incensed, in chief a sun gules, all within a bordure sable.

Guthrum Ivarsson. Name only.

Iain Gillecriosd mac Donnachaidh. Device. Per bend sinister Or and gules, in bend a sword and a battle axe in saltire sable and two roses in bend sinister argent.

Ilsa von Sonnenburg. Name and device. Or, semy of annulets vert, a swan rising, wings elevated and addorsed, sable within a bordure dovetailed vert. While Badger is correct in noting that "Ilse" or "Ilsa" is a diminutive form of Elisabeth and we have been able to find no documentation for its independent use in period, diminutives are permitted under the new rules.

Isabeau Sainte-Marie D'Aigneux. Name and device. Azure, ermined argent, a doe passant reguardant argent and a point pointed ermine. Please ask the submittor to depict the doe in a more clearly argent argent: the greyish tincture on the emblazon sheet came perilously close to azure!.

Jean Guy Talbot Du Lac. Name and device. Or, on a cross couped azure a decrescent Or, on a chief embattled azure, three mullets Or.

Kenelm Reimund of the Plains. Device. Argent, a fess engrailed to chief azure between two dolphins vert, finned and spined gules, and a wolf rampant sable.

Liam MacFarlane. Name and device. Per bend gules and vert, a bend between an arm, issuant from the bend and embowed in chevron inverted maintaining a sword inverted, argent and a two wheels in bend Or. As "Liam" is a diminutive of "Uilliam", the name would not be registerable under the old rules (especially since the submittor allowed not changes to the name!). However, under the new rules, diminutives may be registered.

Malcolm of Ered Sul. Badge. In fess two pennons, flys to center, argent.

Morgan ferch Cennydd. Name only.

Morgwen Niger. Name only (see PENDING for device).

Ninian Ende. Name only. While not all family names from Rietstap are acceptable (many are very much post-period), this one is.

Percival Scotus Peregrinus. Name and device. Per bend sinister embattled argent and vert, three oak trees, two and one, and a falcon displayed, all counterchanged. While this name caused a few twinges (Sir Percival did a lot of wandering so the epithet "Peregrinus" would be appropriate!), the Percival of Arthurian legend tends to be associated with Wales, not Ireland or Scotland.

Pierrine la Tapissière de la Fôret. Name only.

Rhodri Longshanks. Azure, a bezant between eight ermine tails in annulo, tails to center, argent. This came clear to several bearings under both rules, most notably Wendryn Townsend ("Azure, a sun Or."), the badge of Vergil William de Comyn ("A bezant between in estoile six lozenges Or.") and the mundane arms of Bassingford ("Azure, a bezant.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1046), but squeaks clear of them all under the old rules. Under the new rules this would conflict with Bassingford since the addition of the ermine tails creates only one difference.

Signy Jensdottir of Hedeby. Device. Vert, in pale a horse passant to sinister argent and a fret, all within a bordure rayonny Or.

Sun, Principality of. Badge for Keeper of the Regalia of the Principality of the Sun. Azure, on a chest argent, a fireball sable, enflamed proper. The problem of the generic nature of the title was resolved by adding the name of the Principality to the title: under the new rules, this is enough to clear the title from a similar title from another group.

Sun, Principality of. Order of the Eye of the Eagle.

Taliesin of the Clan Furlong. Device. Argent, a chevron cotised azure between two dragons passant respectant gules, maintaining between them a sword palewise sable, and a fret gules.

Toni of Graywood. Name and device. Azure, an iris, slipped and leaved, within a chaplet of oak leaves, lying as on an orle, Or. Toni is the submittor's mundane given name.

Trelon of the Wood. Blazon correction. Or, a lion salient queue-forchy gules, gorged of a ducal coronet Or, maintaining in its dexter forepaw a baton sable, within an orle of pine trees couped proper. When the augmented arms were registered in July, 1989, the baton was blazoned as being in the sinister forepaw. When the augmented device was registered in July, 1989, the baton was erroneously placed in the sinister forepaw, but with no sinister intent. While Aten (at least by implication) indicates a belief that the reblazoning of this submission reflected some sort of prejudice, either against His Grace or the Aten Principal Herald, this was not the case. The details of the device (i.e., the colour of the beast's toenails and the number of trees in orle) are simply details that we do not today blazon. Although Aten states that he "pacifies" the submittor for reblazoning which omits details when things are registered by telling the submittor that they can get what they wish through "artistic license" or because it is covered under the default, he is telling them no more than the simple truth. By and large, we blazon no more than is necessary to have a clear representation which will adequately depict the device so as to include all differencing items. The toenails and the difference between eight and nine or nine and ten trees are not differencing. Therefore, they are not blazoned.

Uchdred of Danglemire. Change of device. Argent, a turtle tergiant vert within a bordure gyronny Or and sable.

Ulf Johannas Peter von Greiffenburg. Name only.

William Dunstan of York. Name only.

Ysabeau Marie Juliet de Chartres. Name and device. Gules, a chevron ermine between two eagle's heads argent, armed Or, and a plant of three lilies, slipped and leaved, argent. The name was submitted as Ysabeau Marie Juliet du Chartres. The preposition has been modified to the correct "de" as the submittor allowed.


Avangr Jarnkljufr Ivarsson. Name only.

Barry MacFadyen. Device. Barry gules and argent, three trees eradicated vert within a bordure sable.

Barbara de Chambois. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Purpure, mulletty, a wyvern displayed argent, maintaining at its bosom a plate, within a bordure indented argent. The submission was made under the name Chantal de Chambois. Please note that the plate is almost invisible as drawn on the emblazon sheet: since it clearly has significance to the submittor, we have retained it, but it contributes no difference. Please ask the submittor to draw the wyvern properly with its head clearly away from the wings.

Brian of Hidden Mountain. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Per pale azure and vert, a catamount rampant guardant ermine within a bordure Or. The submission was made under the name Brian O'Briain. Although the posture of the beast was blazoned as "salient" on the letter of intent, the position of both forelegs and hindlegs is more that prescribed for "rampant".

Deidre O'Siodhachain. Change of device. Gules, a stag courant within a bordure embattled argent. Her old device ("Or, a triskelion arrondy within an annulet, a chief vert.") becomes a badge.

Deorsa of Attilium. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for device). Per pale wavy sable and Or, in fess a thistle and a rose, both slipped, leaved and counterchanged. The submission was made under the name Deorsa the Gentle Giant. Note that this does not constitute marshalling under the old rules. While such usage appears strongly to be marshalling to many, we have not yet been presented with the research necessary to rule this marshalling under the standards of the new rules: "with complex lines of partition or charges overall that were not used for marshalling in period heraldry" (XI.3.a, p. 16). Note that, although we have found modern Continental examples of "per pale wavy" being used in Continental heraldry, we have as yet found no period examples. Please ask the submittor to draw the wavy line much more boldly.

Deorsa the Gentle Giant. Badge. Per pale sable and Or, a thistle, slipped, its head environed by its leaves in annulo, counterchanged. The somewhat convoluted blazon was required to get the design that the submittor clearly wishes: were the position of the leaves not specified, a reasonable heraldic artist would assume that the slipping and leaving were not so dominant in the design and draw the thistle like the normal "thistle, slipped and leaved".

Élise Dominique Clairmont. Name and device. Purpure, a sword proper, on a chief argent, three fleurs-de-lys purpure. While Crescent (then Dolphin) was correct in noting that Withycombe implies that the given name is a French diminutive form and does not specifically document its separate existence in period, under the new rules such diminutives are permissible.

Elisabeth of Bedford. Change of name from Elisabetta of Camerino (see RETURNS for device).

Gareth Malcolm. Name and device. Per chevron argent and vert, two thistles, slipped and leaved, proper and a horned great helm affronty Or, within a bordure counterermine. Although the tinctures of the field were reversed on the letter of intent, since virtually every commentor divined the proper tinctures (and presumably checked them for conflict), we see no reason to pend the submission further.

Haarek Stormraven. Name and device. Sable, a drakkar under full sail, oars in action, and on a chief wavy Or, three ravens close sable.

Iestyn ap Rhydderch. Name and device. Per pale argent and sable, a griffin sejant to sinister, sinister forepaw elevated, in base a base enarched indented, all counterchanged.

Jacobus Baudoin. Name only. Under the old rules, Silver Trumpet (then Crescent) would be correct in seeing this as a conflict by exact translation with the famous author James Baldwin. Under the new rules it is not: while "Baudoin" sounds enough like "Baldwin" to conflict by translation, "Jacobus" and "James" are even farther apart than the examples of "Mary" and "Miriam" used in the rules (Translation, V.4.b, p. 6). Note that James Baldwin is, to our knowledge, never referred to by a Latin/French translation of his name, i.e., his name does not regularly appear in different forms in different languages. Were that the case there might be a conflict problem.

Joseph Ealhwine. Name and device. Counterermine, on a pomme between a sword fesswise Or and a base enarched indented argent, a lion sejant guardant Or. The low contrast of the vert on the counterermine is specifically allowed by the old rules (AR1d), but not by the new (Armorial Contrast, VIII.2, p. 10). Note that, while busy, this does not count as "slot machine heraldry" under the old rules since the pomme is not in the same "group" as the secondaries and it falls just inside the complexity rule of thumb of the new rules with four types of charge and four tinctures.

Kurabayashi Hikaru. Name only (see PENDING for badge).

Liam MacIan of the Bloody Foreland. Name and device. Argent, in pale a grenade gules and two battleaxes in saltire sable, a chief dovetailed gules. "Liam" is a diminutive of the Irish name "Uilliam" and thus could not be registered under the old rules. Under the new rules it is permissible.

Oriana of Xylina. Name only (see RETURNS for device). "Xyline" or "Xylina" has been documented as a place name in Pamphylia (no doubt a woody area since the adjective is derived from the Greek "xulon" meaning "wood"). The forms indicated that the lady might in actuality desire the name to be "Oriana Xylina". If that is the case, the epithet, although unusual, would be permissible since the adjective "xulinos" in Greek is not only used in the literal sense for wooden objects but also for things that are stiff or wooden in nature (e.g., it is applied to "nous" to indicate someone with an inflexible mind).

Ruth Parlour. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Serena Verra. Device. Vert, a pine tree and on a chief urdy argent, three quatrefoils vert.

Shoshanna d'Oliphant. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Stephen of Abbey Blackrose. Name and device. Argent, a garden rose affronty sable, leaved vert, on a chief sable three Latin crosses Or.

Taliesin of Carreg Cennen. Name only. Carreg Cennen Castle is near Llandeilo in Wales and according to legend was supposed to have been originally built by the Urien of Arthurian fame. (The ruins are actually quite late.) The submittor might be interested to know that the castle was eventually slighted in the mid-fifteenth century after it became a notorious hideout for bandits!.

Tangwen Ffraeth. Name and device. Argent, on a chevron purpure between three oak leaves in pall, stems outwards, vert, a hind courant fesswise argent.

Tárlach Dalmuir. Name only.

Tyger's Keep, Canton of. Name only.

Winifred Corbet de Wynterwood. Change of name from Winifred Corbeaunoir (see RETURNS for badge).


Alexander Baird. Sable, three Wake knots conjoined in pall throughout Or. A previous submission with more knots drawn smaller and some fimbriated torteaux had been returned for non-period style. The submittor has dropped the secondaries, decreased the number of knots and increased their size and identifiability. As several commentors noted, the original ban on knotwork was based as much on the problem of its irreproducibility and identifiability as on any question of its use in period. In this case, the submittor's argument that the three knots would be identifiable and reproducible were they not conjoined is absolutely correct. The Wake knot is a distinct heraldic charge (if used more in badges in period than in devices) and, as Mistress Marta noted, its open-ended form lends itself to this construction. The question is whether the conjunction of the knots diminishes their identifiability to the point where they should not be allowed. In this case, the answer seems to be "no". Note, however, that this would not be the case were the knots were not of themselves clearly defined period heraldic charges, were the knot itself complex or requiring modification in shape to produce the conjunction (as would be the case with a Lacy knot) or were the numbers so increased in size as to diminish the size seriously.

Arianna Teresa de Marchena. Name only.

Aurora Miranda Reynardine. Name only.

Bébhinn le Cuilter. Name and device. Vert, a sewing needle bendwise sinister, eye to base, argent, overall a quilted jerkin Or, all within a bordure argent.

Brianna la Franceise. Device. Azure, three weaver's sleas in pall between three hawk's bells Or.

Caid, Kingdom of. Change of badge for Kingdom Master of Archers. Azure, two arrows in saltire between four crescents, horns outwards, all within a bordure embattled argent.

Caid, Kingdom of. Name for Order of the Acorn.

Catarina de Liguria. Name and device. Vert, three annulets interlaced, two and one, Or, on a chief argent three pellets.

Collawyn Lughaidh O Cearbhaill. Device. Per fess argent and gules, in pale a lion statant erect to sinister, its sinister hind leg extended to sinister, playing an Irish harp, and a two tablets conjoined, all counterchanged. We have gone to some lengths to blazon the peculiar posture of the beast correctly. What the lion appears to be trying to do is not to ramp but to dance and play the harp at the same time. In any case, both "feet" are firmly on the "ground" so this cannot be "rampant".

Daniel ben Abraham. Name and device. Vert, a sword inverted proper surmounted by a sun Or, all between two flaunches counterermine. The low contrast of the counterermine on the vert is specifically allowed by the old rules (AR1d), but not by the new (Armorial Contrast, VIII.2, p.

Déshivé Luciana d'Avignon. Badge. Purpure, an ostrich plume Or. Although Latimer and the Pursuivant at Large from the West called conflict between this and the device of Anton de Breton ("Quarterly gules and purpure, a peacock feather bendwise Or.") under both rules, this appears to us to be incorrect. Under the old rules, this differs by a minor for the field and a major for position (palewise versus bendwise) which is enough for a badge. Under the new rules, there is a clear difference for the field and another for the posture of the feather (Posture Changes, X.4.h, p. 15).

Donald Cathchern. Device. Sable, on a plate a bear rampant sable, all within a bordure argent, semy of death's heads sable.

Douglas of Sarkel. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Per fess Or, masoned sable, and argent, in pale a lion passant guardant vert and a menorah sable, enflamed gules. The name was submitted as Tur of Sarkel.

Elspeth ferch Caradoc. Name and device. Lozengy sable and argent, a griffin segreant to sinister vert, its wings and forelegs Or. The name was submitted as Elspeth ferch Caradoc Gwynedd. Unfortunately, under both rules that appears to be a claim to be the daughter of the Caradoc, king of Gwynedd, mentioned under "Caradog" in Gruffudd (p.20). This particular Welsh king played a fairly notable role in wars with the English and was killed by them in 798 (Fisher, The Anglo-Saxon Age, p. 199). We have therefore dropped the locative byname from her father's name to register the remainder of the submission.

Eric von Wald. Name only.

Gareth Marcellus of Camalodunum. Change of name from Gareth Morgan Tyrius. Whatever the submittor may intend, Camalodunum cannot be associated with Arthur. Now known as Colchester, it can be associated with Cymbeline who moved the capital of the Trinovantes here from Saint Albans, with the Emperor Claudius who captured it and founded the Roman colony there, with Boadicea who attacked it some years later. It can even be associated with Constantine the Great whom legend says was born at Camalodunum. But it cannot be associated with Gareth or Arthur.

Huette Aliza von und zu Ahrens und Mechthildberg. Badge. Chequy purpure, crusilly Or, and Or.

Isles, Shire of the. Badge. Barry wavy argent and azure, a tower gules. This was a very difficult problem, involving not only the "ethics of hardship" as one staff member put it, but a lot of research amongst the onionskin carbons of Mistress Karina's tenure. Crescent discovered that the above bearing, the "ancient arms" of Calafia, thought by Crescent staff to have been registered as a badge, was "in the files". It does not, however, appear in the Armorial and Ordinary Originally registered in 1971, prior to the Laurel wreath requirement, a modified form with the laurel wreath was registered during Heraldicon. Master Bruce indicated a belief that it was the intent of the Barony to retain the original arms as a badge and that a query as to the omission of this action at Heraldicon was forwarded to Laurel by Master Conrad von Regensburg, then Crescent. On these grounds, he appealed for a hardship exemption. Normally, of course, the hardship exemption cannot be used to allow conflicts occurring as a result of delay. The issue here, however, if the information is correct, is rather a "misfeasance", i.e., a release of armoury that Laurel was not authorised to release. In this case, the only ethical remedy must be to go back and restore that armoury. Whether the information is correct is the key. This is where the "Public Record Office" nature of the Laurel files comes in. The actual folder for the Barony of the Isles (still labelled as a Shire!) contains no picture of the original registered arms. There is a picture of the armoury (with nine gold crosses formy in base!) that was returned for poor style in March, 1971 (even then!) and a carbon of a communication from Boncoeur to the Seraphim Pursuivant dated 28 March, 1971, indicating that the crosses had to go but a written notification of the agreement to do so was required ("Semper scriptum capere" is quoted --- even then!). There is also a carbon of a notice dated 20 September to Seraphim that the arms "Barry wavy argent and azure, a tower gules." had been passed. There is a set of Caidan forms with the date April 9, 1978 that contain a sort of scribbled emblazon of the current device with an information sheet on which only the group name, the blazon and the note "resubmission to add laurel wreath to Baronial arms" have been noted. Attached to the manila folder is a typed card date-stamped June 18, 1979 where the blazon of the new armoury is given with the notation "Resubmission ordered by Laurel". So far there is no appearance of misfeasance, although some confusion. A clearer picture starts to appear from the Laurel correspondence files. The whole difficulty seems to stem from a desire on Laurel's part to enforce the mandate requiring the appearance of a laurel wreath on all group arms. On 10 February, 1978, Karina wrote Conrad with regard to Caidan group armoury. As this letter is critical to one of the primary issues (i.e., who initiated the change), it is worth quoting at length: It has since slowly dawned on me that the Laurel's Office has not been nearly diligent enough about enforcing the ruling of several years' standing that the arms of branches of the Society should have a laurel wreath. I couldn't have done anything about Angels Ancient, but I should have put a laurel wreath on Angels Modern before submitting it to Lord Locksley. Do you suppose you could do anything about it at this time of day? I will gladly pass the resubmitted version without fee, if you can only talk the Barony into adding a suitably tinctured laurel wreath to their seraph. Please give it a try. The same goes for the Barony of the Isles; they have Barry wavy argent and azure, a tower gules, with no laurel wreath. Would you please try to get them to add a laurel wreath? The letter then goes on to discuss the arms of Calafia and Calafia's desire to stay wreathless, soliciting assistance in designing a change. In a letter dated on 6 March of that year, Conrad replied: Changing the Isles arms never crossed my mind until your letter; I will broach the subject with Her Excellency and the Red Tower Pursuivant. This is followed immediately by a discussion of Calafia's position (including Grandfather Clause) and a request for the rationale behind requiring the laurel wreaths. In a letter of 9 March Karina discusses the Calafia situation in terms which come close to accusing the Calafians of cheating on their armorial submissions without laurel wreath and then asks Conrad if he can "talk Isles into a revision with a laurel wreath. There will be no charge for that either." On 2 May of that same year, Conrad wrote Karina, noting: "As to the question of adding laurel wreaths to the arms of the Baronies of Calafia and the Isles; some interesting notes. Baroness Jessica (Isles) says that they will probably be registering an entirely new set of arms for the Barony, since she could see no acceptable way of adding a laurel wreath to the present arms and since she never really liked them anyway (and only kept them for tradition's sake). [Ed. Note: Laurel staff was puzzled over this statement since the tower lent itself to the addition of the wreath, but. . .] The critical phrases from this letter, however, refer to a query on the Calafian arms: "If he proves uncooperative. . ., what is the likelihood of simply registering the arms plus the Laurel wreath anyway and leaving him the present device as a badge for the Barony?" Note that this specifically anticipates a registration of armoury with laurel wreath over the specifically stated objections of the Baron and populace with the old arms being made a badge as a "sop to Cerberus". This query/suggestion was repeated in almost the same words in a letter of 17 June. To this query, Laurel responded on 18 July :"Yes, we can allow the design without the laurel wreath, as a badge. Calafia's flag, however, must be the version with the laurel. They can sew the leaves onto their existing flag." Finally, in the minutes of the College of Heralds of Caid dated 12 March, 1978, item 8 notes: Isles: Barry wavy argent and azure, a tower within a laurel wreath gules. (The College of Heralds added the laurel wreath to the device.) Note that the implication was that this was not a response to a submission by the Barony, but rather an action on the part of the Caidan College of Heralds, a supposition that appears to be supported by the rather hasty nature of the forms and the fact that no contact person is indicated on the forms. As near as we can determine, Master Conrad must have submitted these minutes in lieu of a letter of intent (although separate letters of intent do show up in the files). The next letter of intent thereafter in the files was from February, 1979, and no letter of intent ever actually mentioned the change prior to Heraldicon so there does not seem to have been any actual request for action, one way or another, about the old armoury. (Nor is there any trace in the files of the letter of enquiry about the situation from Master Conrad alluded to in Crescent's letter ---this might explain why a reply was not forthcoming.) To summarize the situation: 1. The initiative for the change came from the Laurel Office, not from the Barony. 2. There is no positive indication in the files that properly constituted representatives of the Barony (i.e., the ruling nobles) ever "signed off" on the change. On the contrary, the comments from Baroness Jessica indicate that that particular change might not have been fully approved. 3. The minutes of the meeting imply that the College of Heralds took the action in response to multiple prods from above to add the laurel wreath, not the Barony (the attendance list does not appear to show attendance from the Baronial Pursuivant). Moreover, this action came after a direct query from the Principal Herald whether such action could be taken (granted, with respect to Calafia) with the old armoury being relegated to badge status. Note that the Crescent office in its June and November reports to the Crown that year regard the heraldic situation of the Barony precarious (the latter report refers to it as "dormant"). 4. No proper letter of intent with instructions for disposal of the old armoury was ever circulated to the College of Arms. Given all these extraordinary circumstances, we feel justified in taking the extraordinary action of restoring the "old arms" of the Isles to them as a badge even though this badge would have multiple mundane conflicts under the both "current" sets of rules.

Jana Aoibeall. Badge for House of the Blackened Pot. Or, a cauldron suspended from a tripod sable. Under the old rules this is definitely clear of the badge of the Atenveldt Cooks' Guild ("Or, above a base rayonny gules a cauldron sable."). The existence of the base at the bottom of the field provides the difference, whether one calls it addition of a secondary or change of secondary (if you consider the tripod separate from the pot). Under the new rules, things are dicier, as they really should be considering the relatively strong visual resemblance between the two. If we consider the pot and the tripod to be a single charge, the two would be in conflict since the addition of the base would contribute only one difference. In some designs, the trivet could be diminished in importance to a degree that it would not contribute difference. However, in this particular design the tripod has nearly equal weight with the pot and, were it not for the back leg of the tripod, the pot could as well be blazoned "between the legs of and suspended from a chevronel couped and inverted". This being the case, we feel that the new rules would allow the tripod to be treated as a secondary charge, with one difference for the difference in type and another for the difference in colour. However, it is a rather closer call under the new rules than under the old. (This probably should be the case: a comparison of the two emblazon sheets made the Laurel staff twitchy in the extreme. . .).

Jean Grondin the Basque. Name and device. Per pale purpure and sable, two goat's heads, couped and respectant, between in pale an arrow fesswise, barb to dexter, Or and a lozenge argent. Silver Trumpet (then Crescent) was absolutely correct in stating that this is not "slot machine heraldry" under the old rules because the heads are primaries and the remaining charges are secondaries. Would it be possible to persuade the gentle to draw the heads larger to emphasize their primary nature?

Jean Grondin the Basque. Badge. Sable, a Boreas blowing bendwise from sinister base argent. Under both old and new rules this is clear of Cassandra de la Mistral ("Azure, a Boreas affronty argent.") as cited by Latimer and the Pursuivant at Large from the West. Under the old rules there is a major point for the tincture of the field and another for the orientation and posture of the. Each of these also contributes a "clear visual difference" under the new rules: one for field tincture (X.4.a, p. 13) and one for posture of the head (X.h, p. 15).

Jean Grondin the Basque. Badge for the Jewel Casket Guild. Sable, two lighting bolts in pile Or, in chief a lozenge argent. Latimer and the Pursuivant at Large from the West raised the issue of the arms of the Barony of Andelcrag ("Sable, on a pile inverted throughout argent between two lightning bolts in chevron inverted Or, a laurel wreath vert."): were this not a badge it would be a conflict under the old rules: one point for change of type of argent charge and a minor for addition of the laurel wreath. Under the new rules, it would be clear even as a device: one difference for the change of charge and another difference for the addition of the laurel wreath.

Johannes von Bern. Badge. A bear passant Or, breathing flames of fire proper, atop a halberd fesswise, blade to chief, Or. As the halberd here is clearly a separate charge on which the bear walks rather than a charge maintained by the bear, this is clear of the badge of Gunwaldt Gullbjorn ("A bear passant reguardant Or, maintaining in his dexter forepaw a torch gules enflamed Or.": while the flames of the bear here and the torch there have equal weight, the halberd is an added secondary which carries this clear (one major point suffices between badges under the old rules). Note that this would also clear under the new rules: there is a point for addition of the halberd (Addition of Charges on the Field, X.4.b, p. 13) and the automatic field difference since this is fieldless badge (Fieldless Difference, X.4.a.i, p. 13).

John Kirk Bayard. Device. Purpure, a cross couped and pierced argent between four bezants.

John of the Pines. Badge. Argent, a cloud within a bordure sable. Please ask the submittor to try and draw the cloud more identifiably as a cloud (Laurel staff was very hungry by the time we got to this and shared the perception of the primary charge as baked goods that threw some of the College!). The letter of intent was correct in noting that this charge is on his registered device and therefore covered by the Grandfather Clause, even under the new rules (Registered Armorial Elements, VII.8, p. 9). Note that Latimer and the Pursuivant from the West are incorrect in calling conflict here with Angharad Severn o Glamorgan ("Argent, a natural panther's head couped affronty within a bordure sable.") under the new rules: even if you called this a loaf of bread rather than a cloud, it is clearly completely different from a beast's head affronty (Difference of Primary Charges, X.2, p. 13).

Jonathon Hawke of Rivenoak. Device. Per pale indented vert and Or, an oak tree couped counterchanged.

Karol Gartenheit. Name and device. Azure, in fess four jonquil blossoms Or.

Luc le Noir. Name and device. Quarterly sable and gules, a fleur-de-lys within a bordure dovetailed argent.

Lyrel-Phillipa of Eden's Hall. Badge. Azure, a martlet voided argent. Under both old and new rules, martlets are too complex to be voided or fimbriated. Under both old and new rules, this charge is "grandfathered" since it derives directly from her registered device.

Madawc Seumus Caradawg. Device. Argent, a dragon's head, erased and sinister facing, gules, within a bordure vert.

Madelein Ceréis de Toulouse. Name and device. Argent, on a bend azure between two sprigs of rosemary bendwise vert, three thimbles palewise argent. For purposes of conflict with Mirrie, cited on the letter of intent ("Argent, on a bend azure between two sprigs vert each of three roses gules, a crescent enclosed by a pair of mullets as of the first.", cited in Papworth, p. 5), the key question is the nature of the primary charges. If they are in fact sprigs decorated minimally with red garden roses then there it will be difficult to derive from them the difference required to carry this clear under either set of rules. However, to judge from the blazon in Papworth, this is not the case, since it is listed with bends between roses rather than with bends between trees, where lie the ivy, oak branch, hop vine, etc. It would appear that an alternate blazon for each of the secondary charges in the arms of Mirrie would be "Three roses gules, each slipped, leaved and conjoined at the slip, vert". This being the case under the old rules there would be a minor for the difference in tertiaries and a major and minor for the multiple changes to the secondaries (per the secondary limit). Under the new rules the separate differences for type and predominant tincture of the secondaries would carry it clear, even without considering any differences of orientation (depictions of such sprigs of three heraldic roses that the Laurel staff have encountered have all had the primary orientation palewise).

Meadhbh ni Chléirigh. Name only. The name was submitted as Meidhbhe ni Cléirigh. Unfortunately, the given name is, by the submittor's own documentation, the genitive form (the "g." in Roman letters preceding the Irish of "Meidhe"). After the feminine form of the patronymic particle aspiration is required: "Chléirigh".

Morgan Tryggvisson. Device. Gules, three wolf's teeth issuant from dexter, in sinister chief a hammer inverted argent.

Mori Masashige. Name only.

Naevehjem, Shire of. Device. Quarterly argent, ermined gules, and sable, in bend sinister two annulets Or, overall a laurel wreath vert. While still not great style, this is now "legal".

Naevehjem, Shire of. Badge for Naevehjem Elite Military Guard. Sable, on a plate within an annulet Or, an ermine spot gules. After considering it at great length, comparing the emblazons and imagining the ermine spot drawn with a longer tail, we decided that this squeaked clear of Cassandra of the East Winds ("Sable, on a plate a flame gules.") under the current rules. (The strength of the visual echo led a part of the Laurel staff to push strongly for a "visual conflict" ruling.) In this case, Latimer and the Pursuivant from the West are correct in calling this a conflict under the new rules.

Patrice Clement. Name only.

Peter Francis Christopher Michaels. Name and device. Gules, three pairs of wings conjoined in lure Or within a bordure compony Or and sable. Again, the determination of the precise relation to the arms of Walter de la Baud ("Gules, three pairs of wings Or.", cited in Papworth, p. 1124) was very tricky. There were two distinct questions: what was the orientation of the wings in the de la Baud arms and, if they were different from that here, what was the weight that should be granted to the difference? The manuscript tradition as to defaults is somewhat mixed and the confusion between a "vol" and a "lure" in many rolls where coats without emblazons have been copied from foreign armoury suggests that the default differed between Britain and the Continent in accordance with the differing defaults for the eagles displayed whence the wings were derived. After examining the evidence, we are compelled to agree with Master Bruce that the prevalent default for England, where Sir Walter de la Baud apparently resided, was wings displayed "in vol". The issue then becomes the amount of visual difference between wings "in lure" and wings "in lure". A simpler approach than the "comparative mathematics" used in Master Bruce's letter of response appealed to the Laurel staff. This is to look at the visual weight of the change in "posture" and "orientation" of the charge in each case, rather than try to judge them qualitatively as separate, albeit related, charges as some commentors did. Under both the old rules and the new rules, there is a clear difference between a hammer and a hammer inverted, between a pheon and a pheon inverted, etc. By the simple expedient of taking several standard depictions of wings in lure and wings in vol and inverting them, we came to the conclusion that the difference between the lure and the vol is essentially an inversion of the other charge. Therefore, it is our feeling that a clear difference exists between a wing and a vol and this armoury is clear of the cited arms of de la Baud under both rules.

Phillip of Glastonbury. Name and device. Per bend sinister argent and sable, a goblet gules and a sword bendwise sinister inverted argent.

Roark Wulfkynde the Peacock. Device. Per pale Or and gules, a wolf statant sable and a peacock close to sinister Or, a point pointed counterchanged.

Robynne the Grey. Name only.

Todd MacMaghnuis. Name and device. Per chevron argent and vert, a chevron chequy argent and sable, cotised to chief, between two crescents vert and a griffin segreant argent. "Todd" is the submittor's mundane given name.

Todd MacMaghnuis. Badge. Argent, a sword inverted gules, hilted, its blade surmounted by an ounce statant sable.

Tristan of Westermark. Name only.

Ulfric Halvdansk. Name and device. Vert, a chevron embattled counter-embattled argent between three wolf's heads erased Or, all within a bordure embattled argent.

Wihtstan Gravenor. Name and device. Argent, five chevronels braced and in chief a hammer fesswise reversed azure.

William of Clyth. Name and device. Argent, a lion sejant sable, on a sinister tierce gules, three mullets of six points argent. In answer to the question from Latimer and the Pursuivant at Large from the West, this is clear of Meggison ("Argent, a lion sejant sable.", as cited in Papworth, p. 69) under both rules. Under the old rules there is a major for adding the tierce and a minor for adding the tertiaries. Under the new rules, there is one difference for the tierce and another for the mullets. Note that this is still very poor style, although in this case the visual weight of the charged tierce and the lion are closer to equal.

Wulfhere Slående Falk. Name only.


Abaigeal Fairchild. Name only. The given name is a period Irish form of Abigail (O Corrain and Maguire, Gaelic Personal Names, p. 11).

Aelfreda o Lyn Ewig. Name only (see RETURNS for device). The name was submitted as Aelfreda o Glyn Ewig. As noted by Brachet, after the preposition "o" the noun "Glyn" mutates to "Lyn".

Afon Ddraig, Shire of. Name and device. Per saltire sable and gules, a wyvern erect within a laurel wreath argent. The name was submitted as Afon Draig. As noted by Brachet, the latter noun mutates since "Afon" is a feminine. As drawn, the beast is too small to make the differences between the seadragon and a wyvern obvious. Please draw it larger and with much more pronounced "sea" attributes (webbed feet, spines, tail fin, etc.).

Aislinn Darkhair. Name and device. Azure, on a fess invected between three church bells argent, a hare couchant to sinister sable.

Algernon Blacklock. Name and device. Sable, a griffin sejant to sinister maintaining a hafted Ukrainian trident bendwise sinister, all within a bordure dovetailed argent.

Alina Meraud Bryte. See Gavin de Haga for badge.

Carantoc of Darkdale. Name only.

Clovis ap Llewellyn Cathmor. Name and device. Argent, a natural panther's head sable, in chief three gouttes d'huile.

Conchobar MacFergus O'Brian. Name only. Under the new rules this is clear of Connor O'Brien (King of Munster) by the addition of the first patronymic under the Addition of One Phrase rule (V.2, p.5).

Cormac MacCumail. Device. Or, a wolverine rampant guardant sable, marked argent, within a bordure vert.

Cristiaern Nichulasson. Name and device. Per fess wavy sable, mulletty argent, and barry wavy argent and azure, in base an annulet Or. The submittor has provided documentation from Islandska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn (col., 718, 792) for the spelling of "Cristiaern" in 1432 for "Christian" and for "Nichulas" in 1405 for "Nicholas".

Daphne Anne Fraser. Name only. Daphne is the submittor's mundane given name.

Elisée dy Lyonnais. Personal name and badge for Chateau du Lion Marin. Per fess vert and Or, a sea-lion within a bordure counterchanged. Note that the documentation does not state that "Elisée" is a form of Elizabeth, as the letter of intent indicated. In fact, it is shown as the feminine form of the French rendition of "Elisha" which is quite a different name, which the documentation says has become popularised because of a confusion with "Elisabeth". As the submittor's mundane name appears to be "Lisa", she might be interested in knowing this so she could opt for an actual derivative of Elisabeth. The household name was submitted as Chateau du Lion-marine. "Lion-marine" is not a French but an English term and is therefore grammatically incorrect. We have therefore substituted a literal French translation for "marine lion" to keep the sound and register the name. Note that the actual French name for a sea-lion is "lion de mer" but this would conflict with the Barony of Lyondemere in Caid.

Emeric of Darkdale. Name only.

Erich von Wulfenstein. Device. Per saltire argent and azure, in fess two pithons erect and respectant, wings addorsed, argent.

Finn Silverquill. Name only.

Gavin de Haga and Alina Meraud Bryte. Badge (see RETURNS for household name). Per pale gules and azure, an oak tree eradicated within an orle of acorns palewise Or. Badge held jointly with Gavin de Haga.

Geneviève de Chambéry. Name only.

Gwynne Wallace de Carlyle. Device. Gules three chevronels engrailed and in chief two frogs salient respectant argent.

Hirsch Ross Eichmann. Name only (see RETURNS for device). While the documentation provided on the letter of intent (a citation of "Hirsch" without context from a surname reference) was not adequate to prove the use of the given name in period, Badger has provided documentation of one "Hirz de Haiderischisdorf" living c. 1200 (Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch nach Oberrheinischen Quellen des Zwölften und Dreizehnten Jahrhunderts, p. 219). Such solid documentation is required under both rule since "Hirsch" (also spelled "Hirz" in period) is a usual German term for a stag.

Isabeau le Fer de Saint Claude. Name and device. Or, an hourglass gules within a bordure dovetailed sable. The name was submitted as Isabeau le Fer de St. Claude. By long-standing precedent the College registers the full spelling of name, not its scribal abbreviation.

Ivory Keep, Shire of. Name only. Under the old rules this would probably be considered a conflict with the Canton of the Ivory Tower in the East. Under the new rules, this is clear by the Difference of Phrases rule (V.4, p. 6), since the sound changes completely although the meaning does not.

Johanna von Schoenberg. Name and device. Ermine, on a lozenge sable a daisy, slipped and leaved, argent, all within a bordure sable.

Juelda of Salisbury. Device. Azure, a dolmen Or and a ford proper. [Ed. Comment: There was a strong push on the part of Laurel staff to blazon this "a Stonehenge Or", but we sat on it.].

Kateryn de Develyn. Name and device. Per saltire argent and vert, in pale two escarbuncles vert and in fess two lions dormant respectant Or.

Kezia von Holzenhaus. Device. Barry argent and azure, a bend counterchanged within a bordure vert.

Lucina Reed. Name only. While the submittor's documentation shows "Lucina" only as a Roman goddess (including the citation from Chaucer which reads: "Your blisful suster, Lucina, the shene, That of the see is chief goddesse and quene. . ."), the documentation from Withcombe cited on the letter of intent (pp. 199­200) notes it, like "Luciana" in the thirteenth century.

Marie Hélène de Montaigne. Name and device. Argent, a peacock in his pride, on a chief enarched azure, three chevronels throughout braced argent.

Matthew Forrester. Name only.

Maura Brighid of Darkwood. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Morgana of Raglan. Name and device. Per bend sinister vert and Or, two melusines counterchanged. Please tell the submittor (or her heraldic artist) that peach is not usually considered a valid variant for Or!.

Odille le Sage. Name and device. Per bend argent and bendy purpure and argent, in sinister chief three roses proper.

Regula Alicia la Placida. Name only.

Richard of Warrior's Gate. Name and device. Sable, a lion's jamb bendwise sinister inverted between two escallops inverted, all argent.

Sebastian Boniface. Name and device. Or, on a pile inverted between two bear's head's erased respectant sable, a rose Or. While the letter of intent blazons the heads as "couped", they are in fact "erased".

Sheelagh O'Kyan. Name and device. Per bend sinister argent and vert, an oak leave palewise and a bottle-nosed dolphin naiant counterchanged.

Thyri Haraldsdottir. Name only (see RETURNS for device). This name made us very uncomfortable, since the only "Thyri" whom we could locate was the famous Viking Queen whom the submittor's xeroxes noted. (The only citation in Geirr Bassi refers to the Heimskringla and almost certainly is to the same woman.) This lady was the wife of Gorm, first of the Jelling kings, and mother of Harald Bluetooth. She was a great lady in her own right and her husband himself raised a runestone in her honour which referred to her as "Danmarker bót" (Denmark's restorer), probably a reflection of the legendary improvement of the Danevirke, Denmark's equivalent of the Great Wall, along its southern borders. She appears equally honoured with Gorm on the monument raised to them both by Harald Bluetooth (known to archaeologists as the "Greater Jelling Stone"):"King Harald had this monument made in memory of his father Gorm and his mother Thyri. Harald who won all Denmark and Norway and made the Danes Christians."


Abhainn Cíach Ghlais, Shire of. Name and device. Azure, a heron close argent within a laurel wreath Or, on a chief argent three oak leaves bendwise sinister inverted gules. The name was submitted as Abhain Ceoghlas. Brigantia's uncertainty about the grammar of this form was well-justified. As the submittor's wished an Irish name meaning "Blue Mist River", we have modified this to the appropriate Irish forms (literally, it means "River of Grey-Blue Mist").

Alana of Carillion. Device. Or, mulletty of six points azure, an owl purpure.

Alisaundre Caledon. Name only (see PENDING for device). More than one herald from Caid noted that, since Caledonia refers not to the north of England, as stated on the letter of intent, but rather to Scotland, that this name was tantamount to that of Alexander the Scot, i.e., was in conflict with the Kings of Scotland so named. Under the old rules on translation that might be held to be true. However, the new rules specifically state that translations which do not echo sound will not be considered unless the name is an actually used name in another language for a person. While "Caledonia" does appear commonly in geographical and historical descriptives in period, Laurel has been unable to find any clear instance from the time of Alexander I on where the king of Scotland was referred to by his given name with "Caledonius" or "Caledoniae" as opposed to "Scotus" (which in an earlier period, we grant you, would have been applied purely to one of Irish origin). This being the case, the name must be considered acceptable, even if it causes twitches among the Laurel staff.

Alonso Díaz. Name only.

Anthea Schönwalder. Device. Per pale azure and vert, a dove rising, wings addorsed, and in chief three mullets of eight points Or. As noted by several commentors, the position of the wings is closer to "addorsed" than "displayed", as it appeared on the letter of intent.

Anwynd Cornwalas of Landes Ende. Name only.

Ar n-Oileán-na, Shire of. Device. Barry wavy azure and argent, a tower conjoined to dexter with a wall, both issuant from a mound, in dexter chief a laurel wreath, all sable.

Balian FitzGilbert. Name and device. Azure, a two-headed lion rampant to sinister, in chief three crosses potent Or. At least one commenting group indicated that they believed this to be in conflict with Leonus de Rotund ("Azure, a lion salient to sinister queue forchy piercing an annulet Or."). This is incorrect since, under the new rules, there is a difference for type of secondaries (crosses versus annulets) and another for number (three versus one). In fact, this can be differenced from Leonus solely by the secondaries under the new rules, which it cannot under the old, which require the addition of minor points derived from the lion.

Brighid Aoibhinn. Name and device. Sable, three chevronels braced argent, on a chief indented Or, a heart gules between two mullets sable. While Brigantia documented the second name as a Gaelic epithet meaning joyful, it is also a perfectly good period Irish feminine name (O Corrain and Maguire, Gaelic Personal Names, p. 15).

Carolingia, Barony. Badge for Carolingian Rapier Company. Azure, on a pall wavy Or, three swords in pall, conjoined at their points, azure.

Cenwulf Bearwes. Name only. The name means "Cenwulf of the Grove" in Old English.

Cuthbad a'Bheithir. Name and device. Per fess rayonny Or and gules, a boar passant and 3 oak leaves conjoined in pall fructed with three acorns in pall inverted, all counterchanged.

Daniel del Cavallo. Name and device. Per fess gules and Or, in pale a horse passant and a sun counterchanged. He has permission to conflict with Caterina del Cavallo ("Per fess gules and Or, in pale a horse passant and a Catherine wheel counterchanged.").

Eric of Coppergate. Device. Argent, a farm gate within an orle engrailed gules.

Felecia of the Debatable Lands. Holding name and device. Quarterly vert and ermine, in bend two horseshoes inverted Or. A holding name is required since the name under which this was submitted (Felecia de Miguelito) was returned in July, 1989. Note that her mundane name is "Felecia". While we sympathise with those who would like to protect forbid plain quarters ermine (as being in conflict with Brittany), long tradition disallows such protection.

George Griffinhart. Name and device. Quarterly gules and sable, a stag Or and a griffin argent combattant.

Hervod of Vatnaskvadstadir. Change of name from Hervod Agate.

Içiar Albarez de Montesinos. Name only (see RETURNS for device). With regard to the name, there were three separate issues: whether the name "de Montesinos" is acceptable, whether the use of the name of the kingdom of Aragon was acceptable and whether the combined use of the names was acceptable (i.e., was the use of the kingdom name in this context a usual period practise for those not in any way affiliated with the royal family of Aragon). The original documentation for the name "Montesinos" cited only Cervantes as a source and, based on that information, the name was returned. The submittor has provided a great deal of information on the Cave of Montesinos and surrounding areas, some of it translated from Spanish, some of it not. It is true that the cave is a place in modern Spain, but there is some doubt as to whether it preceded Don Quixote (visitors to the lower Hudson Valley in New York will be shown many locations associated with such Irvingesque characters as Ichabod Crane and Rip Van Winkle, none of which bore those associations prior to Irving's tales). Indeed, some of the untranslated Spanish material (from Guia de España Magica whose stated intent is to trace myths of magic through the Iberian peninsula) included by the submittor casts the associations into further doubt: it appears to be described, as indeed Cervantes describes it, as similar to the Vergil's Cave of the Sibyl at Cumae (which Laurel can testify is also a grubby little hole!). The submittor also, almost inadvertently, includes further documentation not described in the letter of intent which shows at least one individual bearing the name "de Montesinos" who is undoubtedly of plain human origins and indeed of some fame in his day: Luis de Montesinos, the theologian and clerical administrator who delivered and published the eulogy at the funeral of Philip II of Spain. Therefore, that element of the name should be allowable. The issue of the use of "Aragon" is more difficult and is somewhat difficult at times to separate from its use in the "double-barreled" names. It should be noted that the submittor's evidence does provide some evidence for the occasional use of the locative in simple names (i.e., names not manifesting the paternal/maternal double name), although a majority of these include obviously royal personages. Period individuals from the submittor's documentation with clear links to the Aragonese royal family include Alfonso de Aragón (Bishop of Tortosa and nephew of Ferdinand the Catholic, Alvaro de Aragón (Archbishop of Saragossa and bastard son of Ferdinand the Catholic), Carlos de Aragon (son of Juan II of Aragon and Blanche of Navarre), Enrique de Aragón (Marquis of Villena, who was descended on his father's side from the Aragonese royal family and on his mother's from Henry III of Castile), Juan de Aragón (Archbishop of Tarragon and son of King James II of Aragon), Juan de Aragón (Archbishop of Saragossa and bastard son of King John II of Aragon), Juana de Aragón (who, though described as an Italian poetess, was a bastard daughter of King Ferdinand of Spain), Pedro de Aragón (son of James II of Aragon), Sancho de Aragón (Archbishop of Toledo and son of King James I of Aragon). Among those from period with simple place names of origin whose links to the Aragonese royalty are not certain, if they exist, are Alfonso de Aragón (a Jesuit in the Paraguayan missions), Benito de Aragón (a musician and hermit), Juan Aragón (a Grenadine painter), Pedro de Aragón (an Augustinian theologian), Pedro Gabriel de Aragón (a Franciscan writer), Tullia de Aragón (an Italian poet from Naples whose father was Cardinal Pedro Tagliavia de Aragón who is probably one of the bastard offshoots of Alfonso V of Aragon or his bastard son Ferdinand of Naples). On the other hand, while the submittor indicates that the single use of the name is clearly associated with royalty (which is not obviously clear) and the double usage she wishes to use is not, the period examples given do not support this distinction. Indeed, the biographical encyclopedia references provided by the submittor (in Spanish) show that many of the individuals alluded to have distinctly close associations with the Aragonese royal family, although some derive from a bastard line. Basing the sample solely on the material provided by the submittor, the period names which are in the form "X y Y" where Aragon is an element include Alonso de Aragón y Borja (son of the Duke of Villahermosa, a bastard line descended from a morganatic marriage between Juan II and Leonor de Escobar de Olmedo), Fernando de Aragón y Borja (grandson of Ferdinand the Catholic in a bastard line), Francisco de Aragón y Borja (again a son of the Duke of Villahermosa), Alonso de Aragó y Escobar (son of King Juan II and his morganatic wife Leonor de Escobar de Olmedo), Martín de Aragón y Gurrea Sarmiento (Duke of Villahermosa, descended from Juan II), the master of the Order of Calatrava with the family names of Aragón y López de Gurrea who was a grandson of Alphonso I, Juan de Aragón y Navarra (who is so called because his father Charles, Prince of Viana was both a son of John II of Aragon and Blanche, Queen of Navarre). In other words, of all the "double-barreled" names clearly shown to be in period from the submittor's sample, all had demonstrable links to the Aragonese royal family. While the proposed name would have the Aragonese connection in the maternal position, there is no reason to suppose that the situation would be any different. All this having been said, on the basis of the submittor's own documentation the weight of evidence still points to the use of the Kingdom name in the Spanish patrial/matrial name formation as a claim to descent from the royal family. On the other hand, the locative "de Montesinos" has now been documented. As the submittor's forms now allow omission of part of the name, we have omitted the "Aragón" to register the remainder.

Lucinda de la Bahia. Name and device. Purpure, a horse passant within an orle of mullets of six points argent. Please ask the submittor to draw a proper orle of mullets without the "gaposis", as Crescent (then Dolphin) put it: this may require the horse to be slightly smaller.

Michael Amadan Fitzgerald. Device. Or, a shillelagh fesswise sable, pendant therefrom a palmer's scrip gules, in chief two roses vert. Several commentors noted that this was not a period form of purse (as it was blazoned on the letter of intent). In fact, this is a palmer's scrip, a familiar period charge. It is frequently shown in context with (often pendant from) a palmer's staff, to which this shillelagh is closely related. Indeed, so close is the depiction here to a typical palmer's staff (it even has the rounded head) that one wonders if that was in fact the original intent of the submittor.

Morgan FitzGerald. Name and device. Vert, an angel armoured, hands folded in prayer, argent, winged and haloed, a chief rayonny Or.

Morwen o'r Llyn. Name only.

Orwulf Eikinskjaldi. Name and device. Or, a bend indented pean between two Thor's hammers gules.

Percival l'Eauduce. Name only (see PENDING for device). This alternative spelling of the adjective "douce" follows standard variant spellings for Anglo-Norman dialects of Old French (Einhorn, Old French, p. 137). This is supported by Reaney's citation of the epithet "Duce" applied c 1200 to one Hugo who is also referred to as "le Duz" and "Dulcis".

Rhys FitzGilbert. Badge. Per bend sinister gules and argent, in dexter chief a key cross nowy pierced argent.

Roberto de Jerez. Device. Chequy azure and argent, a chess rook Or within a bordure erminois.

Theodore the Wanderer. Name and device. Azure, two pallets rayonny argent, each charged with a sword azure.

Uilliam Uaine. Device. Or, a Celtic cross purpure, overall a frog salient to sinister vert. While the cross was described as "formy" on the letter of intent, this is the usual depiction of a Celtic cross.

Ursula de Santiago y Galiciano. Device. Argent, a bear rampant between three theatrical masks azure.

Walter de Plympton. Name and device. Gyronny arrondy widdershins azure and ermine, five lozenges palewise in saltire Or.


Anastasia Ssevastjanova of Kiev. Name and device. Or, in pall three roses proper, slips to center and leaved, within an orle engrailed on its inner edge, invected on the outer edge, all within a bordure engrailed vert. The name was submitted as Anastasia Ssevastjanova of Kievov with the notation that "Kievov" was the old spelling of Kiev. However, "Kievov" appears to be a formation of a locative surname meaning "of Kiev", as noted on the submittor's forms. As she allowed modifications of her name, we have used the modern English spelling that is appropriate with the preposition "of". Note that the spelling of the name used for the patronymic was documented from Yonge. Although it is eccentric and somewhat dubious in view of Yonge's lack of familiarity with eastern European languages, we have therefore registered this spelling.

Arianwen ferch Harri. Name only. As the name "Harri" is documented as a separate Welsh form of the name "Henry" in period, the name would be acceptable even under the old rules, although "Harry" is usually thought of as a diminutive of "Henry".

Arwen Meriel ferch Meirich. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Baldric von Adlerberg. Name only (see PENDING for device).

Bearrach Aelwyn the Wolfhead. Change of name from Brieuc Aelwyn the Wolfhead and badge. Argent, in pale a garden rosebud fesswise gules, slipped and leaved vert, and a bear's pawprint sable, all within a bordure engrailed vert. The submittor stated that he wished the Irish form of the name for "Barry", but allowed no changes to the submitted form of the name. As it happens, the masculine name meaning "sharp" or "pointed" is "Berach" or "Bearach" (with one "r"). The form with two "r"'s is a feminine form, the name of the third wife if Finn.

Catharine Tancred. Badge (see RETURNS for change of name). Per pale argent and gules, both semy of roses proper, a thistle, slipped and leaved, proper. The submission was made with the proposed name Sine nic Donnchadh.

Crimson River, Shire of. Device. Azure, a pall wavy gules, fimbriated, in chief a horse's head couped, overall a laurel wreath argent. The combination of the old rules with their wording on "thin-line heraldry" and the standing Laurel precedent indicated that the pall with a complex line should not be fimbriated. To allow comment on this subject, this item was pended from the August meeting. Although little commentary has been elicited, the bulk of commentary on the rules ran to the direction of allowing latitude where identifiability was not unacceptably reduced. This resulted in the wording of the new rules which limit voiding and fimbriation to "simple geometric charges placed in the center of the design" (Armorial Identifiability, VIII.3, p. 11). PRECEDENT: For the purposes of the rule on Armorial Identifiability, any ordinary placed at the center of the shield (e.g., a pale, pall, bend, fess, etc.) may be fimbriated, even if it uses a complex line of division, provided that the identifiability of the charge and the line of division are not significantly reduced by the voiding or fimbriation or any other element of the design (e.g., the placement of superimposed charges).

Diego Rodrigo Espada de la Fenix. Device. Azure, a chevron gules, fimbriated argent, overall a demi-eagle erased displayed Or, all within a bordure rayonny argent.

Einar Myrunarson. Device. Per fess argent and sable, in pale a phoenix sable rising from flames gules issuant from the line of division and a demi-sun issuant from base Or. The flames/phoenix issuing from the line of division is marginal style at best under both rules.

Fabiano Figlio degli Due Sacchi. Name and device. Per pale embattled Or and gules, two sacks, their necks tied with cords, counterchanged. The name was submitted as Fabianus Figlio de due sacs. The submittor's device forms indicated that he wished the Italian form of the given name so we have used that. Note that the Italian form for "of the two sacks" is "degli Due Sacchi" and so we have used that as the submittor's forms allowed.

Finnabhair M'Corrain. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Fiona Mairi MacQuarrie. Device. Azure, on a pale between two mullets of eight points elongated to base argent, in saltire a garden rosebud and a garden rosebud inverted azure, slipped and leaved vert, overall a bordure counterchanged.

Jordan Ceridwen of Thorngill. Name only. The name was submitted as Jordan ni Ceridwyn of Thorngill. However, "Ceridwen" is a Welsh given name which should not be used with the Irish and Gaelic patronymic particle "ni". Therefore, we have dropped the particle and changed the spelling to the documented form to register then name.

Katerina Buonnarroti di Firenze. Name and device. Azure, in pale three escallops between two flaunches fleury argent. She had permission to conflict with Costanza di Firenza (Katherine de Firenza). Note that the flaunches were blazoned "flory Florencee" on the letter of intent: this is merely an artistic variant of the more usual "fleury" and need not be blazoned.

Marie de Sinistre. Name only. The name appeared on the letter of intent as Marie de Sinistra. However, the submittor's forms had the equally acceptable French form "de Sinistre".

Meghan Oriana Lauder. Device. Per saltire Or and gules, a sun in splendour within a bordure rayonny counterchanged.

Melissa Greentree. Name and device. Azure, a fox sejant erect within a bordure argent, charged with a morning glory vine vert, flowered purpure. Note that the name "Melissa" was used as a human personal name in classical Greece. It was from this source that it came into poetic use in the sixteenth century.

South Downs, Barony of. Badge. Per pale sable and azure, on a pale bretassy argent, a tower gules.

Uilleam MacUilleam of Gairloch. Name and badge. Sable, a thistle, slipped and leaved, between in fess two equal-armed Celtic crosses potent Or.


Aoibheann Caoilfhionn Muirinn O'Domhnaill. Device. Vert, on a lozenge between in chief two trefoils slipped argent, a gryphon sejant sable. The tincture of the trefoils was misblazoned as "vert" on the letter of intent. The device was therefore pended from the August meeting for further conflict checking.

Corinne Donata Laurent. Device. Per chevron azure and gules, semy of fir trees couped Or, a St. Hubert's hound's head erased argent. The blazon was omitted from the letter of intent so that the commentors could not check for conflict. The submission was therefore pended from the August meeting for conflict checking.

Ealdormere, Crown Principality of. Name and device. Gules, a trillium flower affronty argent, barbed vert, within a laurel wreath, in chief a coronet argent.

Geoffrey of Coldingham. Device. Per bend Or and gules, crusilly patoncy Or, in sinister chief a demi-lion sable, collared Or. The tincture of the beast was omitted on the letter of intent. The submission was therefore pended from the August meeting for conflict checking.

Maria Luisa García y de Madrid. Device. Per pale sable and Or, a cross of Jerusalem set saltirewise within a bordure counterchanged. The tinctures of the device were reversed on the letter of intent. The submission was therefore pended from the August meeting for conflict checking.

Middle Kingdom. Title for Afon Fawr Herald. The title was submitted as Afon Mawr Herald. As Brachet has noted, the adjective mutates since "Afon" is a feminine noun.

Middle Kingdom. Title for Gopher Pursuivant. While tradition has (up to a point) protected IPOCery, under the new rules there is no conflict with the Order of the Mordant Gopher by the Addition of One Phrase Rule (V.2, p. 5).

Middle Kingdom. Title for Pentland Herald.

Middle Kingdom. Title for Seeblatt Herald.


Agharet Aethnen filia Cuneda. Change of name from Agharet Aethnen filia Cuneddae and device. Azure, an aspen tree eradicated argent, leaved, within a bordure raguly Or. Although the submittor's original documentation did not support the usage of Cuneda as an indeclinable noun, Brachet has provided some instances from Bartrum which appear to show that the Welsh did at least occasionally use it as an indeclinable form in Latin contexts.

Andrew MacKay. Name and device. Sable, mulletty pierced, an eagle striking argent, wings elevated and addorsed, armed Or, in chief a decrescent argent.

Andrew MacKay. Badge for West Wind Farm. A cornucopia in annulo Or, fructed proper, surmounted by a duck, wings displayed, argent, membered Or, statant atop the fruit. While this badge pushes at the limits of acceptable complexity, the basic design is within the spirit of such period badges as the bear and ragged staff.

Avram the Jew. Change of name from Avram of Caerthe. The name was modified at the time his submission was accepted due to a distinct feeling that the name was in conflict with the patriarch Abraham. Master Erasmierz argued eloquently that the use of a generic epithet for a Jew with a common Jewish name should not be considered presumptuous. His arguments have persuaded the bulk of the College to support this appeal and we can only accede to "prevailing community standards".

Aziza al-Kashani. Name only.

Beatrix von Wertenberg. Blazon correction. Sable, a saltire chequy argent and gules, overall a lion queue forchy rampant to sinister Or. When the device was registered, the detailing of the tail was omitted. In deference to the wishes of the submittor and Master Erasmierz, we have restored the forked tail.

Berold Blackwolf de Gilbert. Addition of designation House Gilbert to already registered badge. A palm tree couped argent. Silver Trumpet (then Crescent) may or may not be correct in citing "Gilbert" as a "well-known surname" in the meaning of the old rules. However, in response to popular demand, the new rules have dropped the specification of conflict where no presumption is involved, a step that made sense when the household name no longer affected use of personal names. In this case, presumption does not seem to apply.

Bjorn Lochlannac. Name and device. Argent, two spears in saltire gules surmounted by a bear's head, erased and affronty, sable, within a bordure sable, platy. The submission was depicted on the emblazon forms and in the letter of intent on a round shield, causing much confusion to the commentors. While the submittor may display his submission on any shape shield he likes, the processing heralds should be sure to use the standard heater or lozenge for all device submissions to avoid such problems.

Brilliana de Montreau. Name and device. Per fess purpure and Or, on a fess counterchanged between in chief two fleurs-de-lys, a fleur-de-lys Or.

Catriona Sterling de Liston. Name and device. Vert, a badger's head cabossed, argent, marked sable, on a chief nebuly Or, a cross urdy gules between two trefoils slipped vert. Note that this pushes the outside limits of complexity as defined by the "rule of thumb" used in the new rules. There are four types of charges and either four tinctures (if one counts "proper" as a single tincture) or five (if one breaks out the head into its component black and white).

Dominique Charité d'Angleterre. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Elizabeth Rebecca MacLeod. Name and device. Vert, semy of mice rampant Or, a domestic cat rampant to sinister argent. Although strongly reminiscent of the famous arms of Peter Wimsey, these are technically clear. [Ed. Note: No, we are not going to give you the blazon for that one: if you don't know them, it will make a nice holiday research problem. . .].

Erasmierz Waspanieski. Change of device. Gules, a leg, embowed, inverted and transfixed by an arrow palewise Or. While a couple of heralds mentioned "morbidity", we felt this was well within period parameters and the Society limits on morbid depictions, even under the old rules.

Erasmierz Waspanieski. Badge. A brunette demi-maiden proper vested chevronelly argent and azure, maintaining above her head in both hands a strung bow Or.

Francesca di Pavia. Name and device. Argent, on a pile bendwise sinister issuant from base between two crescents azure, an owl statant to sinister argent.

Francis Owen Roderick Keith. Name and device. Vert. a shakefork argent, on a chief nebuly Or three pallets gules.

Francis Owen Roderick Keith. Badge (see PENDING for second badge). A table fork palewise argent. Although the tincture of the fork was missing from the original letter, a correction was issued in good time to correct the problem.

Gabriella Weiswulf. Name only.

Glen Ora, Shire of. Name and device. Per fess nebuly azure and Or, a wingless wivern statant argent, armed and maintaining in its tail a stalk of wheat Or, and a laurel wreath vert. While the letter of intent blazoned this as a "lindwurm", Society tradition depicts the German "lindwurm" as having four feet like the English dragon. While Master Erasmierz indicates a period depiction of the "lindwurm" after which this has been modelled, some period depictions of dragons do not have four feet and yet the terminology is set to standardize so that heraldic artists can depict what the submittors desire. Here the design almost demands the wingless wyvern. Note that the submittors desire for a cant on "landworm", recounted by Master Erasmierz, is understandable and quite harmless, but is not fulfilled by blazoning this as a "lindwurm" since "lind" does not mean "land". In fact, there is some argument amonst scholars as to its origins ("lind" = "gentle", "Linde" = "linden tree" or what?).

Grania Eórann MacBride. Name and device. Gyronny purpure and Or, a dove volant argent within a bordure semy-de-lys counterchanged. The name was submitted as Grania Arin MacBride. Although the element "Arin" does appear as a protheme in German names, no clear evidence was adduced for its independent use. As the lady clearly was trying for an Irish name, we have substituted the nearly identically pronounced period feminine name "Eórann" (O Corrain and Maguire, Gaelic Personal Names, p. 88). Note that Master Erasmierz, with his usual scholarship, came up with the very late term "verdoy" for a bordure charged with flora. As Silver Trumpet (then Crescent) noted, this does not demand a specific number or arrangement, may be a decadent usage and is equivalent to the usual Society usage for semy. To avoid any confusion for heraldic artist who may not have libraries as extensive as those of Erasmierz and Bruce, we have used the commoner term.

Gregor von Münchhausen. Name and device. Per pale gules and Or, two dragons combattant and in chief a sword fesswise, all within an orle of roundels counterchanged. The name was submitted as Gregor von Münchausen. As several commentors noted, the proper spelling of the placename has two "h"'s: this preserves the meaning "monk house" in German. The name of the famous Baron von Münchhausen was Karl Friedrich Hieronymus.

Gustavus von Goslar. Name and device. Or, an eagle's dexter wing terminating in an eagle's head sinister facing sable, a chief rayonny gules.

Hathawulf the Spearbreaker. Name and device. Per bend sable and gules, a demi-wolf salient erased maintaining a spear palewise argent, hafted and within a bordure rayonny Or.

Ina Estroboren. Name and device. Per chevron sable and gules, a pall between two dragons combattant and a rose Or. The byname means "born at Easter".

Jeffery Paul Gundwaldtsson. Name only.

Jerimia von Braun. Badge. Sable, estoilly Or, two griffins combattant argent.

John of Blackwood. Badge. An oak tree eradicated chequy sable and Or, overall an estoile vert. Note that his original badge submission ("An oak tree eradicated quarterly Or and sable") which was returned for conflict with the device of Ioseph of Locksley, the Rhymer ("Vert. a tree eradicated argent.") would pass under the new rules. There is a clear difference for tincture and another automatic difference by the "Fieldless Difference" (X.4.a.i, p. 13).

Katrine Stürzenhoffaktor. Name and device. Barry pily Or and azure, a Catherine wheel and on a chief gules, three compass stars, elongated to base, argent. The name was submitted as Katrine von Stürzenhofacker, the documentation being a nineteenth-century citizenship document. Such documents are innately tricky, even for the names used in the nineteenth century, because most clerks filling out the forms did not speak the languages in which the names were generated (anyone who has looked at the immigration records of those coming from Ireland, let alone eastern Europe, will know what we mean!). In this case, we have not been able to find anything like this name as a place name, much less one with the meaning given on the letter of intent ("fallen castle land"). However, when the usual "sound slips" for nineteenth-century transcription are applied, the name does follow a well-known, if late period, occupational format for someone running a farm or estate. In this case, the actual form would combine "Stürze" (meaning a "fall", either literally or in the sense of ruins), "Hof" (meaning a "farm") and "Faktor" (meaning a "factor") for "Stürzenhoffaktor". With such a usage the preposition would naturally be dropped in period usage.

Lydia of the Pines. Device. Argent, a pine branch fructed proper between two squirrels sejant sable, all within an orle vert.

Lynne of Greystone. Name and device. Azure, a boulder between four Celtic crosses in cross argent. Her mundane given name is "Lynne".

Maximillian von Strassburg. Device. Chequy Or and gules, a tower argent atop a mount vert, in chief three gunstones. While the field was blazoned on the letter of intent as "billetty counter billetty", this obscure blazoning usage does not differ from many depictions of "chequy" in period and would seem to be, if documented at all, to be very late.

Minna Miranda of Avebury. Device. Quarterly vert and azure, on a bend sinister Or an ivy vine vert, all within a bordure Or, charged with an orle of ivy vert.

Nahrun Kabirun, Shire of. Name and device. Per fess wavy azure and argent, two bars wavy counterchanged between a decrescent argent and a laurel wreath vert.

Nicole de Saint Clair. Badge. An arm embowed proper, vested and maintaining palewise a rose sable, slipped and leaved vert, seeded and barbed of five crosses crosslet fitchy Or.

Oriana la Fleur de Bruse. Name and device. Azure, a thistle bendwise sinister Or. The name was submitted as Wira Oriana la Fleur de Bruse. The letter of intent indicated that it was a feminine form from the documented masculine name "Wiro". Unfortunately, the formation in a final "a" is not really that plausible with this name since "Wiro" is the third-declension Latinate form of the German name (i.e., its genitive form would be "Wironis"). The feminine names formed with a final "a" are mostly derived from epithets from first-declension nouns or first/second-declension adjectives (i.e., adjectives that end in "-us", "-a", "-um".

Outlands, Kingdom of. Badge for King's Bard. Vert, a harp Or surmounted by a trefoil slipped argent, all within a bordure embattled Or.

Outlands, Kingdom of. Badge for Order of the Stag's Heart. Vert, a heart Or between the attires of a stag's head cabossed argent, attired, within a bordure embattled Or.

Rowan ferch Gwyneth. Name and device. Azure, a phoenix argent, issuant from flames of fire proper, within a bordure ermine. We have modified the submitted form "Rowan merch Gwyneth", as suggested by Brachet.

Tammara Courtenay. Change of device. Azure, a crab tergiant between four quatrefoils in cross Or. This was previously returned for conflict with Lydia Oenothera (Azure, four quatrefoils in cross Or, each charged with a cross couped gules." Lydia has now granted her permission to conflict.

Teska Liepa. Name and device. Per fess sable and sable, goutty d'Or, a cloud throughout argent and in chief a dragon passant Or. The given name is a Polish diminutive of Teresa. Under the old rules, this would not have been registerable. Under the new rules, it is.

Thorman Arvidsson. Name and device. Per bend vert and sable, a bend bevilled fesswise Or between an eagle's head erased argent, armed Or, and a double-bitted axe bendwise inverted argent, hafted Or.

Tiphanie d'Aquitaine. Blazon correction. Azure, on a pile wavy between in base two sets of four pheons conjoined in cross, barbs to center, Or, a praying mantis tergiant vert. When registered in December, 1988, the insect was described as a grasshopper. The submittor wishes the praying mantis as she feels it is more "martial".

Tristian of Hag's Head. Badge for the House of Hag's Head. Per pale Or and sable, a mullet within a bordure counterchanged pean and erminois. Silver Trumpet (then Crescent) may or may not be correct in citing "Gilbert" as a "well-known place" in the meaning of the old rules. However, in response to popular demand, the new rules have dropped the specification of conflict where no presumption is involved, a step that made sense when the household name no longer affected use of personal names. In this case, presumption does not seem to apply.

Tristian of Hag's Head. Badge for Zengi al-Znassi. Per bend argent and sable, mailly counterchanged.

Trystan de Beaumaris. Change of device. Argent, on a fess invected vert between three fireballs sable, enflamed proper, a dragon passant Or.

Ursula die Taube. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Wolfgang von Trier. Name and device. Argent, on the head of a round-headed comet bendwise gules, a demi-wolf Or.


Aelfric of Dorcestre. Device. Per fess Or and argent, a fess embattled sable between three reremice displayed gules and a tower sable.

Amaryllis Alexandrea de Lacey. Name and device. Per pale azure and Or, on a bend sinister cotised, two tassels palewise, all counterchanged.

Andfryd of Trondelag. Name and device. Argent, on a chevron azure between three gouttes de sang, three thimbles palewise argent, on a chief azure, a needle, eye to sinister, argent. This pushes against the limits for complexity under both old rules and new with five types of charges and three tinctures.

Arianwen O'Tighearnain. Name only (see PENDING for device).

Boris of Bedlam. Badge. Or, a wolf's pawprint within a bordure azure.

Darcy Graham. Change of name from William Thomas Darcy of Montrose. In conjunction with the documentation, there were several queries about The Pastons. The volume cited by this name in the letter of intent is in fact the Penguin edition of the Paston letters, a collection of fifteenth correspondence between members of a family of the English minor nobility by the name of Paston. These letters give a fascinating picture of late medieval English life, including the cost of foodstuffs, education, travel, marriage customs, etc.

David of Lockerbie. Device. Per bend sinister indented azure and argent, a horse rampant counterchanged.

David McLeod of Black Mountain. Device. Argent, an eagle displayed barry sable and Or, in chief a label sable.

Eleanor Terrington. Name and device. Or, a blackbird rising, wings elevated and addorsed, purpure, within a bordure sable charged with six mullet heads in orle Or.

Elizabeth Saint Clair. Device. Vert, two goblets between in fess three mullets of eight points Or.

Emelye of the Cuillin Hills. Name and device. Azure, in pale a plate and two chevronels braced, on a chief argent three seeblätter vert.

Gad Waldbär. Badge. Azure, a winged arrow fesswise, wings elevated and addorsed, fletching to sinister.

Geneviève Reymond. Name only.

Hwmffre Hannerdewr. Name only. The name is Welsh for "Humphrey the Half-Brave".

Isolea di Bari. Name only. The letter of intent noted that the submittor had provided documentation for a daughter of Francesco Sforza named "Isolea" or "Isotta:", citing a book from "Facts on File Publications, but complete documentation was not included with the packet. The submission was therefore pended from the August meeting. The requisite documentation has now been provided.

Jonathan Blackshaft. Badge. Three broadarrows conjoined in pall, barbs outwards, sable. Note that this is not in conflict with Robert Hellmanstahl ("Argent, a mullet of three points gyronny of six sable and argent."): the mullet in Robert's device lies "in pall inverted".

Madoc Hawthorne Sinclair. Change of name from Rognvaldr Vigason.

Maredudd Goch ap Llewelyn ap Cadwallon Gwythrynion. Change of device. Per pale and per chevron gules and Or, two horseshoes and a sugarloaf helm affronty, all counterchanged.

Morgan of Huntington. Name and device. Per bend sinister argent and purpure, two swans naiant to sinister counterchanged.

Oksana Vladislavovna Soroka. Blazon correction. Per pale and per bend gules and argent, a sea magpie erect and sinister facing, wings elevated and addorsed, marked argent. When this badge was registered in March, 1989, the orientation of the monster was omitted.

Richard de Montfort of Hastings. Change of name from Ademar d'Excideuil. This name was previously returned for conflict with Richard de Montfort, Count of Etampes who was the son and father of Dukes of Brittany and the grandfather of Anne of Brittany through whom Brittany passed to France. Crux Australis, supported by the College of Heralds of the West, appealed this on the grounds that, although the old rules clearly state that addition of an adjectival phrase is not sufficient difference between names, Richard de Montfort is not "important" enough to be protected. Specifically, Crux Australis refers to a "long-standing ban on names of the form (rules's name) of (place ruled). It is our understanding, however, that this ban is effective only down to the level of territorial duchies. . ." As far as we can determine, no such ban exists. While names implying rule over a sovereign entity are not permitted, importance is not determined sheerly by the rank of the individual in question. In this case, the critical role played by Richard in the later history of Brittany does make him an important personage. However, under the new rules addition of one phrase where both names have three or fewer phrases is sufficient difference and thus this name may now be registered (Addition of Phrase, V.2, p. 5).

Richard of Essex. Name and device. Vert, a pile wavy issuant bendwise from sinister base and in sinister chief a mullet argent.

Roberto de España. Name only (see RETURNS for device).

Sciath O'Breaghdha. Name and device. Quarterly argent and azure, a horse passant reguardant within a bordure embattled counterchanged.

Sean Rose McGreggor. Name only. Under the old rules, this would conflict with John MacGregor, first chieftain of the Children of the Mist after the restoration of the clan name in 1775. Under the new rules, however, since both names have three or fewer phrases, the two names are clear (Addition of One Phrase, V.2, p. 5).

Sharon de Mattos da Silveria. Name and device. Argent, chape ploye azure, a sprig of three Rose of Sharon flowers purpure, slipped and leaved vert. "Sharon" is the submittor's mundane given name. The flora here is distinctly three purple flowers jointly slipped and leaved vert, and thus this submission is clear of the device of Gareth of Crawford, cited by Dolphin (then Silver Trumpet): "Per chevron enhanced vert and argent, in base a branch of holly palewise vert." Not only the tinctures, but the basic shape of the charges in base differ radically to carry the device clear.

Susan of Wight. Name only.

Urban Cheeseshank. Name and device. Per pale gules and Or, three armoured legs in triskelion and on a chief three escallops inverted, all counterchanged.

Ursula of Teufelberg. Name only (see PENDING for device).

Ynys Fawr, Shire of. Name and device. Azure, on a fess between three laurel wreaths Or, a lymphad azure.





Brigit ni Fergus Ua Liatháin. Name only. The submittor indicated that she wished a Gaelic name and she has gone a long way towards producing a solidly Irish name. The given name is fine. However, the form of the primary patronymic is given as an anglicized nominative after the patronymic particle "ní", when what is required is the properly aspirated Irish genitive: "Fhearghuis". By the same token, since the given name in the patronymic is in the genitive, the particle modifying it must be as well ("uí"). Therefore, the name as a whole should be "Brigit ní Fhearghuis uí Liatháin". Unfortunately, as the submittor forbade changes in spelling and grammar, we were unable to make these minor changes to register the name.

Graham MacRuari. Change of name from Theodric MacRuari. As noted by Silver Trumpet (then Crescent), the ban on the use of surnames as given names goes back well into the last decade to the tenure of Mistress Karina and has been reaffirmed by every Laurel since. The submittor has appealed to a citation from Camden to justify this use of the surname "Graham" as a given name to allow registration of the name the submittor apparently actually uses. As noted by a number of commentors, the citation from Camden with regard to the practise "in late years" of giving surnames as given names has been considered on a number of occasions by the College of Arms. The standing precedent was set by Master Baldwin in December, 1984, in the case of Dunham Wycliffe when it was decided that the Camden citation referred to a late and anomalous practise and that the use of surnames as given names should be limited to surnames actually shown to have been used as given names in period. This issue has been discussed on a number of occasions over the last five years, in conjunction with both submissions and the rules revision, and the feeling in the College is that the current policy is the most equitable and reasonable to follow. Note that this name is not precisely an "invented" given name since it is regularly used in modern times. However, granting for the moment that it were considered "invented" for the purposes of our period (since it was not known as a given name in period), it would still be inadmissible since no "strong" pattern for the use of the class of words of "geographical surnames" as given names has been established for Scottish names in period. (cf. II.3.b, p. 3).

Kelda the Incoherent. Name only. By the submittor's own documentation, "kelda" is an Old Norse byname, meaning "well" or "pool". No evidence has been provided for its use as a given name in Old Norse or any other language nor for any pattern of regular use of such bynames as given names in Old Norse (in point of fact, all our evidence indicates they were not so used).

Lakeland, Canton of. Name only. As was the case with the Principality of the Lakes earlier this year, this name conflicts with the Lake District in England.

Sinéad ní Oengus Manach mac Senach Ua Liatháin. Name only. There were some grammatical problems with the name. While the name "Oengus" does appear as the older form of the Irish name more familiar as "Aonghus", after the patronymic particle the genitive form is required: "ní hOengusa". Furthermore the epithet applied to that given name must agree with it in case (i.e., also be in the genitive): "Manaigh". Similar changes are required for the remainder of the name "mac Senaigh uí Liatháin". As the submittor allowed only the formation of a holding name, we could not modify the name appropriately. It should be noted that the submittor's forms indicated that in practise she only uses the given name and the last two words of the byname. If that is the case, she might be better off registering "Sinéad ní Liatháin".


Aneirn Yryn Peaboadie. Name only. The name had previously been submitted as "Aneirin Ynis Peaboadie" and been returned by Laurel because of the use of "Ynis" in an inappropriate manner with the note that the closest period given name form we could find was "Ynyr". This resubmission modifies the first given name unacceptably by dropping the final "i". It also uses a totally undocumented form "Yryn" as its second element. As the submittor again allows no changes to his name, the submission must be returned.

Daphne of Ered Isen. Change of device. Sable, a sword inverted surmounted by a retort fesswise gules, both fimbriated Or, distilling from the retort a goutte d'Or, on a label Or, a ducal coronet sable between two roses gules. Aten appealed at great length the previous return of this submission, citing copious examples of charged labels apparently under the impression that the return in May, 1987, had been for use of an undocumented practise. Unfortunately, that was not the case: the precise wording of the return was as follows: The label charged with two different charges in two tinctures is just too complex. Since her original submission, which had a label gules fimbriated Or, was returned with the suggestion that a plain label would be acceptable, we would feel bound to permit this cadency from her father's device which would undoubtedly be considered overly complex itself by "modern" Society standards. The appeal does not really address the question of complexity: apart from the excessive fimbriation, there are five different types of charges and three different tinctures. Note that too the examples of "non-royal" use of charged labels adduced from period by Aten all were used with extremely simple armoury (the most complex consisted of three identical charges on a plain field) with all charges on the label identical. Moreover, all the examples used the labels as claims of pretense, which is not the case here (and would be questioned were it the case).

Edmond Aubrey of Glastonbury. Name and device. Or, three griffins segreant vert. Under both rules this conflicts with Eeffin ap Gwyddno ("Or, a griffin segreant vert.", as cited in Papworth, p. 782).

Erik Orinsson. Name only. No documentation has been provided in support of the contention that "Orin" is a period given name, much less a period Norse name. (Previous registration is no proof of current acceptability, although documentation used to authenticate a name previously may be reused.).

Eririk Arneir. Name only. The previous name submission ("Erirk Arngeir") was returned because the given name was not a valid variant of Old Norse "Erikr". Neither is this variant. As noted by several commentors, it is not possible to simply reverse consonants and add in vowels on a random basis to make variants of documented names. In this case, the forms do not follow the requirements for name variants in Old Norse or any of its daughter languages. The names "Erikr Arngeir" or "Erik Arngeir" would be fine, but we cannot register either of those since the submittor allows no changes to his name.

Gilda Nootka's Wife. Name and device. Per bend sinister vert and azure, on a bend wavy crested, counter wavy crested argent an octopus palewise gules. The letter of intent presented "Gilda" is a feminine form of the Welsh name "Gildas", but this is not how feminines are formed from Welsh names. (The analogues used were all Latinate and thus regularly formed feminines in "-a".) While there is some evidence for "Gilda" as a diminutive of "Ermengilda", there is none for the use of such a diminutive in period or for the regular formation of such diminutives in period for other German names, which is what is required for the use of the diminutive under the new rules (Documented Names, II.1, p. 2). The descriptive "Nootka's Wife" is not allowable since "Nootka" does not seem to be a period given name. The device must be returned since it uses the line of division "wavy crested" which has specifically been ruled to be modern and not compatible with Society style (as of August, 1980).

James the Wise. Badge for House of the Dragon. Or, a dragon segreant gules within a bordure sable. Under both sets of rules, this name clearly conflicts with the title of the Dragon Principal Herald and with the medieval Order of the Dragon, cited by Brigantia. The badge conflicts with the arms attributed to King Arthur in Fabulous Heraldry (#702: "Or, a dragon rampant gules.").

Malcolm dhe Sgot. Change of name from Malcolm of Ered Sul His name was originally submitted as "Malcolm the Scot" and returned for conflict with the king of Scotland Malcolm. The resubmission claims that "dhe" means "of" in Gaelic and that "sgot" is a "small farm". Unfortunately, the name still looks and sounds virtually identical to "Malcolm the Scot" in its current form which cannot be registered since it is determinedly ungrammatical. "De" is not usually used in this manner in Scots and, if it were, it would have to followed by the appropriate case of the noun which it is not here.

Merewynn Greenwood of Epping. Device. Argent, a bend sinister vert between a fret couped within and conjoined to a heart voided and three gillyflowers in bend sinister azure. While Badger's linguistic notes on the history of the pretzel are interesting, we had to agree that the charge in chief is "pretty weird". In other words, after much consideration we were compelled to the opinion that the charge in chief is just not clearly identifiable enough to be considered period style.

Nootka Karlsefni. Change of name from Ron of Sundragon. The name was returned in January, 1988, because the submittor's documentation gave the given name as the name of an Eskimo tribe rather than as a given name. He has appealed this apparently on the grounds that this was the name of a northwestern Indian tribe (not an Eskimo tribe as previously stated and that the tribe could have been known to Francis Drake who may have landed in the area in his travels. Although this still does not show the use of the name as a given name, he avers that the fact that the name "Nootka" is applied to a fir tree shows that it could have been considered a given name by Norsemen since "Norse used names of vegetation as given names" (as the letter of intent puts it). The support for this statement is that "Linne", from which the name "Linneus" is derived, means "limetree". Unfortunately, this argument does not hold water. In the first place, we have no period documentation for the name "Nootka" even being used for either the tree or the tribe. Even if they were, there is no evidence for the transference and no other examples of a Norse given name being derived from a local clan. Moreover, the example from "Linnaeus" is a false one since the name is not only out of period, but also a surname.

Orlanda merch Lynn. Change of name from Stefanie of Sun Dragon. While the given name now seems acceptable, the byname still has the same problem it did at the time of the original return. "Lynn" is a variant form of the "Llyn" which was returned for meaning "lake" and thus was inappropriate for use with the patronymic particle. You need to have a given name after this particle (which incidentally would usually mutate to "ferch" when used in such a name). Either drop the "ferch/merch" or choose a period Welsh given name to follow it.

Quintasarius Silverstar. Name and device. Per chevron sable and azure, on a chevron sable, fimbriated Or, between two mullets of eight points argent and a demi-sun issuant from base Or, three mullets of eight points argent. The given name was documented on the letter of intent as deriving from Ben Hur. Leaving aside the fact that Lew Wallace's novel is hardly a model of historical research, the closest name in that novel appears to be "Quintus Arrius", the Roman who rescues Ben Hur and whose name he adopts. The device is pushed over the edge of complexity under both rules by use of the four tinctures and four different charges with one type (the chevron) diminished in identifiability because it is defined entirely by its fimbriation and two others because they are almost identical in their shapes (the compass stars and mullets of eight points, which are in fact drawn almost identically).

Raibert Ulfr. Device. Per bend sinister gules and azure, a bend sinister Or, transfixing the neck of a horned wolf's head erased argent. No documentation was provided to indicate that an animate object could be transfixed by an ordinary in this manner in period style. Taken together with the unusual horned wolf, drawn in trian aspect, as is almost required by the design, this just does not seem to be a period design.

Rhodri Longshanks. Badge. Quarterly one azure, two and three ermine and four gules, a cross bretassy Or. No evidence has been provided for simple coats with fields quarterly of three tinctures in period. The strong appearance of marshalling is not diminished by the cross since that is quite commonly used with marshalled arms in German and Scandinavian armoury.

Sentinel's Keep, Shire of. Badge for Bardic Horde of Sentinel's Keep. Or, a chevron azure between two magpies proper and a lyre with broken strings sable, all within a bordure azure. Under Corpora and long-standing Board ruling Shires may not register Order names or armoury. Merely attributing the Shire's Order to the Kingdom on the letter of intent does not change this restriction. It is clear from the forms that this is intended as an order for the use of the Shire. Therefore, for it to be registered as a Kingdom Order, we would have to have some evidence that it was indeed to be reserved to the kingdom and given out by the Crown.

Sun, Principality of. Badge. Or, a phoenix gules within a bordure compony gules and Or. A bordure compony gules and Or may not be placed on a field Or: under both old and new rules, this would reduce the identifiability of the bordure to an unacceptable degree. (Note that the submittors intuitively grasped this problem: the field and the bordure are depicted in radically different shades of Or.)

Vivian Leonna d'Arcy. Device. Per pale pean and erminois, a unicorn's head erased argent, horned Or, between three roses argent, all within a double tressure per pale Or and sable. Note that the registered form of the name is above not the form "Vivian Leona D'Arcy" given on the letter of intent. Under both the old rules and the new the contrast between the rose which lies entirely on the erminois portion of the field is not acceptable (note that the section on contrasting tinctures in the new rules allows good contrast between an element equally divided of a color and a metal and any other element as long as identifiability is maintained). The back portion of the unicorn and that rose just vanish into the field in an unacceptable manner.

William Griffin Blackthorne. Device. Gules, an ermine spot Or. Under the old rules, this conflicts with the badge of Eleyne de Clermont ("An ermine spot vert.") and the arms of Baysse ("Gules, six ermine spots Or.", as cited in Woodward, p. 68). Under the new rules, the conflict with Eleyne de Clermont is cleared by the Fieldless Difference (X.4.a.i, p. 13), although the conflict with Baysse still exists: there is only one difference for number of ermine spots.

Yonatan von Schwartzuberflek. Name only. While the submittor did allow changes to the spelling of his name, his intent was not clear enough for us to proceed with certainty that we would meet his intent. The name "Jonathan", although pronounced with an initial "y" sound seems always to have been spelled with a "J" or "I" initially in period. It is, however, the place name that causes problems. The submittor indicated that he wished it to mean "Great Black Spot", but the submitted form does not mean that. Badger has been able to document "fleck" (with a variant spelling of "flek") in period place names where it is used for a piece of land (a spot in the sense of place, as it were). However, "über" does not mean what the submittor seems to think it would and would not be likely to be sandwiched between an adjective and a noun in this manner to form a place name. While unlikely, a name like "von Grossschwartzfleck" would mean something like the meaning that the submittor wished ("Big Black Place"), although a simple "Schwartzfleck" would be more likely. Failing a clear sense of the submittor's desires as to sound and sense, we cannot go much farther in suggesting alternatives. . .


Anne Corwin. Device. Per chevron azure and argent, in pale a rainbow and three roses, slipped and leaved, one and two, proper. Unfortunately, the standing precedent in the College (stated by Baldwin of Erebor, February, 1985) dictates that the name Corwin may not be used in conjunction with roses of any tincture. While the submittor almost certainly intends no allusion to Corwin of Amber, this ban does exist and there seems to be no strong feeling in the College in favour of dropping it.

Brian O'Briain. Name only. After much discussion, we determined that the name conflicted with the previously registered name of Brian O'Riain under both sets of rules. Certainly, the two look and sound enough like each other to cause confusion, as required by the old rules. Some felt that the wording of the new rules gave more latitude here but after many repetitions of both names, we determined that the byname was not significantly changed in both sound and appearance: they differ in appearance by only the addition of the "b" and in sound by the plosive which is partially "absorbed" by the following "r".

Chantal de Chambois. Name only. Although the letter of intent noted a usage of "Saint Chantal", the name is in fact a place name: by the submittor's own documentation the name of the saint was "Jeanne Françoise Frémiot, Baronne de Chantal". (Laurel can confirm this since her mother went to convent school with the Order of the Visitation which was founded by the Baronned de Chantal.) Either the name must be documented as a given name in period (its use as a given name appears to be very modern) or a new given name must be adopted.

Deorsa the Gentle Giant. Name only. The term "giant" in and of itself may not lay claim to superhuman powers since the transfer from the non-human Giants of Greek myth to humans large in physical or mental stature seems to have been made in period. However, as several commentors (including C.S.Lewis fans on Laurel staff) pointed out, the "Gentle Giants" are a particular non-human race in the Narnia universe. They are both large and "gentle" in the sense of courteous, but have a fatal (literally!) taste for "human-pie". While we sympathise with the gentle's intent, we cannot consider the epithet appropriate for Society use.

Elisabeth of Bedford. Device. Ermine, on a lozenge throughout azure, a bay piebald horse couchant proper, fimbriated argent. There are several problems with this submission under both sets of rules. The previous submission had been returned for non-period style, most especially for insufficient contrast between the white portions of the beast and the argent field on which it had been previously placed (the legs were and are entirely white). While the fimbriation is virtually invisible on the emblazon sheet (and totally so on the miniature), a horse certainly is too complex an image to fimbriate under either set of rules. If the fimbriation is removed, however, the contrast here becomes extremely dicey as the head of the horse, its hindquarters and much of its lower body is dark brown and the mane and tail are black, both tinctures which have minimal contrast with the azure on which the animal is placed. While the legs would have adequate contrast, thus removing the problem with identification of position of the legs (and hence posture) in the previous submission, that would be the only portion of the animal that would show up. Moreover, the horse is now in a distinctly non-standard heraldic posture, as many commentors noted: it is not running nor walking nor lying couchant in the heraldic sense: what you have here is a naturalistic representation of the way in which a horse lies semi-upright with its legs sprawled. Thus the style still presents problems for low contrast and naturalistic representation (particularly since the horse is proper!) under both sets of rules. Other problems, not previously noted, seem also to exist. The question of the period nature of the "piebald" breed of horse has been raised by Trefoil and is a good one: the pinto pony of which this is a representation was bred from the European horse by the plains dwellers of America, and the first recorded instances of such horses appear to be well after period. Finally, even if these problems were not enough, under the old rules, this would conflict with the II Canadian Corps ("A lozenge azure"), since no difference can be derived for field (this conflict would not exist under the new rules).

Gillian Clayshaper. Device. Azure, a torch Or between and maintained by two hawks rising respectant, wings elevated and addorsed, argent. Under the old rules there is but one major point of difference, derived from addition of the hawks, from the arms of Saint Aidan ("Azure, a torch Or, enflamed proper.", as cited in Fabulous Heraldry, #890). Note that since, the flames in Aidan's torch would be largely Or, the difference in tincture is really negligible. The situation is essentially the same under the new rules, where the addition of the single group of secondaries (the hawks) gives one clear visual difference.

Milo Fitzlyon. Badge. Sable, on a mullet of eight points Or, a cross patty throughout gules. There are problems both of style and conflict with this submission. Visually it does look like a quilt design, as noted by several commentors. While this is not in and of itself a problem, the fact that the cross must not only be throughout but of a precise size to reproduce the design is. Not only can we not guarantee its accurate reproduction by an heraldic artist, but such size-dependent designs are not period style. Note too that this is not really a compass star, since the longer rays are not sufficiently different in length to be clearly identified as such (i.e., this looks like a poorly drawn mullet of eight points). Under both rules, this would conflict with Sven Vandelaven the Fierce ("Sable, on a mullet of two greater and four lesser points Or, a dragon statant reguardant gules pierced through the back by a sword inverted sable.") Under the old rules, this would have to be considered in visual conflict with the badge of Thorvald Rodericksson ("A mullet of eight points concave voided and interlaced Or.") as no difference can be derived from field and it must be considered as if it were on a gules field. Under the new rules, this would conflict with the device of Starhelm Warlocke ("Sable, on a mullet of seven points argent, an arrow point inverted gules."): there is a clear difference for tincture of the primary charge but the single change to the tertiary is not adequate to carry it clear. (Note that Starhelm's arrowhead is drawn virtually throughout so that the visual assonance is quite strong.)

Oriana of Xylina. Device. Gules, a blond mermaid affronty, maintaining a casket in dexter hand and mirror in sinister, all proper, a chief wavy sable, fretty Or. Under both rules, the sable chief on the gules field violates the rules of tincture.

Owain ap Ioan. Badge. A plate charged with a pomme within an annulet sable. Under both the old and the new rules this comes afoul of the restrictions on use of roundels which could appear as arms of pretense: "Such charges may not contain an ordinary that terminates at the edge or more than one charge." (Arms of Pretense, XI.4, p.16). Several conflicts were called against this, e.g., Edwin Bersark ("Gules, a roundel so drawn as to represent a round shield battered in long and honourable service, argent."), Walter De Witte ("Gyronny azure and sable, on a plate a pegasus salient azure."), Sumer Redmaene ("Purpure, on a plate a rose gules, seeded Or.") and Cassandra of the East Winds ("Sable, on a plate a flame gules."). Under the old rules, which exclude difference for fields, these would be conflicts. Under the new rules, these are all clear: one difference for the field and another for either adding the tertiaries (Edwin) or for changing at least two of the attributes of the tertiaries.

Ruth Parlour. Device. Per pale argent and azure, a goblet within a bordure counterchanged. After much soul-searching and a comparison of the emblazons, we decided that the shapes are too similar for complete difference of charge to exist between a goblet and an hourglass and thus this conflicts with Miguel of Southern Shores ("Per pale argent and azure, an hourglass within a bordure counterchanged.") under both the old rules and the new. The visual assonance is very clear: the only difference between the two devices with the hourglass drawn in one of its standard Society depictions (i.e., without the posts) is the balance and "fatness" of the lower portion of the goblet.

Shoshanna d'Oliphant. Device. Purpure, an elephant passant trumpeting, on its back a howdah, argent, maintaining in its trunk an arrow bendwise inverted Or. As Badger has noted, the addition of the howdah is an artistic convention (the Society usually blazons it, older mundane heraldry sometimes did and more often did not). Therefore, this conflicts under both rules with the badge of Hastini Chandra ("Purpure, eight elephants passant in annulo, trunks conjoined to tails, argent."), the arms of Le Fort ("Azure, an elephant argent with a castle on its back proper."), the arms of Elphinstone ("Gules, an elephant passant argent, armed Or.") and Andrew Castlebuilder ("Per chevron purpure and Or, overall an elephant trumpeting passant proper, on its back a carpet purpure, fimbriated Or, supporting a tower argent, masoned sable."). Note that this last conflict is visually very close since an elephant proper is generally light grey, i.e., argent.

Winifred Corbet de Wynterwood. Badge. Azure, on a bend sinister Or, a quill sable. Under both sets of rules, this conflicts with Richard Andreivich of Rus ("Azure, on a bend sinister Or an estoile sable."), Denis Flaxenhelm ("Azure, on a bend sinister Or a goblet upright sable.") and the arms of Fetzer ("Azure, a bend sinister Or."). Under the old rules, there is only a minor point of difference for the modification of the tertiaries while a major and minor are required. Under the new rules these conflicts still exist since the largest difference (from Fetzer) still only gives a single difference.


Madelein Ceréis de Toulouse. Badge. Azure, a thimble within an orle of rosemary argent. After much discussion we decided that the orle of rosemary was visually too close to one of the standard depictions of the required Society laurel wreath. Over many years stylistically aware heralds have struggled to bring a more "bushy laurel wreath into general use, but the usual laurel wreath has small, semi-paired leaves often as small and narrow as those on Madeleine's rosemary. Moreover, after some intensive pawing through the emblazons of group armoury on the part of the Laurel staff, we have come to the conclusion that the "closed" wreath, while unusual, is by no means unprecedented in Society usage, particularly in older coats.

Mark von Salzberg. Device. Gules, a chevron dovetailed to chief between two armourer's hammers respectant and an armourer's anvil Or. After a great deal of soul-searching, we decided that this does conflict with Soame, cited on the letter of intent: "Gules, a chevron between three hammers Or." This was a very difficult decision. Under both sets of rules, the modification of the line of division of the ordinary contributes difference (a major under the old and one difference under the new). The weight to be attributed to the secondaries is more difficult: while both the hammers and anvil are documented charges, they are very close in appearance to one another and the visual effect here is distinctly of three hammers around a chevron, a point raised by Brigantia and others. After much discussion, we determined that the visual resemblance is just too strong.

Thorin of Bexhill. Device. Sable, a hand appaumy argent within a bordure rayonny Or. Under both rules this conflicts with the Servants of Saruman the Wise ("Sable, a hand argent.", as cited in Fabulous Heraldry, #592).

Tur of Sarkel. Name only. Based on Xeroxed documentation from the submittor, the letter of intent noted that "Tur" was a human name from Iranian legend. In point of fact, "Tur" (or "Tuj" as his primary name form seems to have been, was the one of the sons of Afridun, who divided the world among his sons, "Tuj", "Alm" and "Iraj". As was the case in a number of parallel myths from the near East (e.g., from Babylonia), the Persian "hero" had a distinctly superhuman aura. Moreover, in this case the name of "Tur" appears to be derived from the location "Turan" rather than the other way around (a typical euhemeristic personalization!). We would suggest that, if the submittor wishes to commemorate a Jewish background, as his desire for a Khazar persona suggests, he might adopt a similar-sounding name from the Old Testament like "Terah", the name of the father of Abraham. This is precisely the sort of name a member of the Khazr aristocracy would have selected.


Aelfreda o Lyn Ewig. Device. Azure, a stag lodged and in chief a decrescent and increscent, all argent. Under both the old rules, and the new rules, this is a conflict with Downes ("Azure, a stag couchant argent.", cited in Papworth, p. 59). Under the old rules there is a major point for addition of a group of secondaries (the two crescent variants form a single groups of charges). Under the new rules a single difference is derived from the same addition.

Alan of Darkdale. Name only. Under the old rules, this would have been a conflict with the Alan of the Dale (or Alan a'Dale) of the Robin Hood tales, since it adds only an adjective (the difference is precisely that between "Mountain" and "Black Mountain" and between "of the dewy White Rose" and "of the Rose" used as examples of conflict in the old rules). Under the Addition of One Phrase in the new rules, this is still not clear although both names have fewer than three phrases since the only difference is the addition of the adjective before the noun, which is not considered an independent phrase (V.3, p.6) is added by the addition of "Dark", the article and preposition specifically do not create difference. Addition of a surname here would carry it clear under both sets of rules.

Alina Meraud Bryte. See Gavin de Haga for household name.

Gavin de Haga and Alina Meraud Bryte. Household name of House de Haga. While the family name has been registered to one of the submittors, it is also the Latinised form for "from the Hague". Since our period the Hague has been the meeting place of the States general of Holland and the residence of the stadtholders (now the royal family of the Netherlands). Given this, it seems inappropriate to register this as a household name any more than we would register to someone the "House of Paris", "House of Romse", etc.

Hirsch Ross Eichmann. Device. Quarterly sable and Or, in bend sinister an oak tree fructed proper and a stag's head, couped at the shoulders gules. Under both sets of rules this has the appearance of illicit marshalling The old rules forbid quartering where charged quarters are not identical in such designs, specifically noting that marshalling does not exist if "at least two quarters are uncharged fields, and charged quarters use the same charge" (AR11.b.p.5). The same ban holds true under the new rules: "Charged sections must contain all charges of the same type to avoid the appearance of being different from each other" (Marshalling, XI3.b., p.16).

Maura Brighid of Darkwood. Device. Per saltire urdy argent and counter-ermine, a tree eradicated gules. This was incorrectly described on the letter of intent with the counter-ermine portion of the field blazoned as "erminois". This would normally be pended for further conflict checking. However, the checks already run revealed conflcits under both rules which stand despite the change in fields. Under the old rules, this would be in conflict with the fieldless badge of the Barony of Madrone ("A madrone tree proper.") since there is no difference for field and the most that can be derived from the changes to the tree is a minor point. Under the new rules, this conflict is clear since there is one difference for the Fieldless Difference (X.4.i, p.13) and another for the change of tincture to charge since more than have the charge is modified in tincture. However, the conflict with Rosland de Okstede ("Or, an oak tree gules.", as cited in Papworth, p. 1113) still stands under the both rules: there is only a major for field tincture under the old rules and a single difference for field tincture under the new.

Thyri Haraldsdottir. Device. Sable, on a bend Or, three bendlets gules, in sinister chief a lion's head erased Or. Under both the old rules and the new this is a conflict with Paul of Bellatrix ("Sable, on a bend Or, three compass stars palewise gules."). Even under the new rules, two changes to the tertiaries are required to derive difference. Reducing the number of bendlets would clear the conflict as there would then be change of type and one of number.


Arwen Evaine ferch Rhys of Gwynedd. Badge for League of Freebooters. Sable, three boots argent. This was originally returned for conflict with the arms of Ellis ("Sable, three legs couped at the thigh argent."). Writing on behalf of the submittor the Dragonship Haven Pursuivant argues that the distinction of terminology supports the view that period heralds made a distinction between legs and boots and that the latter were groped with articles of clothing. He further argues that the fact that the usual depiction of a leg is in the embowed condition guarantees that the leg was viewed as clearly different from a boot which is not usually so depicted. After much consideration (and evaluation of so many pictures of heraldic legs and boots that some accused Laurel of adopting foot fetishism!), we have come to the conclusion that the two cannot be considered adequately different enough to carry this clear of Elis under either set of rules. It is not only Papworth and other "modern" sources that group boots with legs and it is clear that there was a conceptual linkage between the two. Moreover, at least one family (Hussey or Hosy) appears to have depicted the same armoury with and without boots on the feet: Papworth (p. 964) shows the blazon as "Or, three boots sable.") and just below "Or, three legs couped at the thigh sable." (The device almost certainly cants on "hose".) We do not usually allow a full point of difference between a hand couped at the wrist or at the elbow and a gauntlet and that must be considered the analogous situation. Certainly, comparisons of the "heraldic boot" and the "heraldic leg" are similar enough in depiction that the two cannot be considered to be fully distinct charges.

Felding, Borough of. Name only. There is a Catch-22 situation here. When Master Wilhelm approved a badge for the Borough of South Bank (like this group a Carolingian subset), he likened them to a guild, although he did seem to regard them as a "proto-group" as Brigantia noted. If it is considered to be an unofficial group, like a Specialized household, which has been the Carolingian tradition, then they cannot register a name without a badge. IF they wish to register the name as such without armoury, they must meet the standards for a Society group (e.g., a College since they are based at Wellesley) in which case they would have to meet at the administrative requirements for such groups and include a laurel wreath in their armory when they did register it.

Içiar Albarez de Montesinos y Aragón. Name and device. Or, a Catherine wheel an in chief on three piles sable three crosses of Santiago Or. Brigantia argued strongly in favor of the point of view that, while a charge could not be placed beneath one period pile because it would run throughout, that it could be placed beneath three period piles since they could not run so far to base, founding this assumption on the exemplars shown in Papworth. As these are undated (and we do not have the depictions they represent), it is somewhat difficult to weight these properly. On the other hand, we have a considerable body of work from Pye and other indicating that period piles, whether singly or in multiple, tended to go all the way to the other side of the shield. Indeed, this is the very reason that three piles are generally depicted in point in most pre-Victorian rolls (so they'll all fit!). While it is true that Silver Trumpet (then Crescent) cited a reblazon of some Scots armory towards the end of our period (1519) which misinterpreted the chief on the Douglas arms as three piles, it should be noted, however, that this less evidence for normative practise for piles in Scots of English heraldry than it is evidence that the early period form of the chief indented (i.e., with fewer and deeper indents) was by that time virtually defunct and the poor Tudor herald was left with the desperate task of trying to come up with a description for something that did not match any of his ordinaries, although it was clearly trying to be something in the ordinary line. Like many of our Society heralds when confronted with something unblazonable by the normal terms, they started with the nearest approximation and went on from there! (Any herald who has ever been involved in a "blazon the nearest object contest" will know what we mean. . .). This being the case, it does not seem appropriate to modify the current ban on charges beneath piles.


Arwen Meriel ferch Meirich. Device. Vert, on a pale azure, fimbriated, a triquetra argent. Under the old rules, this was clearly in conflict with Elspeth of the Wood ("Vert, on a pale azure, fimbriated, an oak tree Or."). Under the new rules, there is on difference for the type and tincture of the tertiary, but we have to agree with those who felt that the modification of tincture of fimbriation should contribute no difference here. Indeed, in view of the minimal visual impact of fimbriation, even when drawn properly, it is very difficult to imagine a situation where the addition of fimbriation or the change of the tincture of fimbriation should contribute to difference. (In many cases, the addition of fimbriation is secondary to a significant change in category of tincture that already contributes difference.).

Finnabhair M'Corrain. Device. Or, a saltire doubly parted and fretted, the points of intersection fretted with four annulets in cross, all between in pale a demiunicorn to sinister sable and a thistle, slipped and leaved, proper. The diminution in size of the saltire-annulet combination brings it under the ban on "thin-line heraldry" in the old rules and the requirement for identifiability in the new rules ("Armorial Identifiability, X.3, p. 11).

Liam Devlin. Badge. Per pale argent and gules, a lion dormant, overall a bend sinister cotised, all counterchanged. This falls under the prohibition of excessive counterchanging under the old rules and the requirement for identifiability in the new rules (Armorial Identifiability, X.3, p.11). There was a strong consensus on the part of the College that the complex counterchanging rendered the lion virtually unidentifiable.

Robert Wolfheart. Device. Per saltire dovetailed gules and azure, a wolf statant reguardant argent, charged on the breast with a heart gules, in chief three wolf's heads cabossed Or, each maintaining in its mouth a heart argent. Under both the old rules and the new, this is unacceptably complex and generally poor style. Under the old rules, there is the problem of the use of the line dovetailed with a gyronny of two colors which is problematic at best. When added to the four hearts in two tinctures, three heads and whole canine, it is just too complex for period style even without the anomaly of the heads holding the hearts in their mouths. Under the new rules the gyronny of two colours would not be permitted at all, much less with a complex division line, and the four tinctures with three types of charge (four, if you categorize secondary and tertiary charges of the same type as visually different in weight) are just too much.

Sine nic Donnchadh. Change of name from Catharine Tancred. Silver Trumpet (the Crescent) is correct in noting that under the old rules this would be a conflict with the registered name of Sean mac Duncan since this is merely a translation using a similar sounding feminine form. However, under the new rules, since the sounds change significantly in the translation, and there is no evidence that the two are actual alternate forms for the individuals in questions, the two would be clear. Unfortunately, the submittor allowed no changes in spelling and the grammar is incorrect: the aspirated genitive must follow the patronymic particle ("ni Dhonnchaidh").




Conor MacColl. Name and device. Gules, a Celtic cross ermine, its annulet in the form of a serpent, vorant of its own tail, Or. Whether or not this was sufficiently different from the recently passed name of Connor MacNicol caused a considerable amount of soul-searching amongst the Laurel staff. It was our conclusion that this would have not have the criteria of the old rules which specified that a name conflicted if "it looks and sounds enough like the other name to cause confusions": both in spelling and in sound, the two names are very close (only a syllable is added). In considering the new rules, we had to consider the intent of section V.4 (Difference of Phrases) and whether the subsections there should be considered to be restrictive (i.e., define all the types of changes that are insufficient) or merely amplifying (i.e., indicate types of conflict which may not be obvious). Based on both on our intent and the discussions with Badger at the time we thrashed out the various rules, we decided that the notes on spelling variants, translations, etc. were amplifying in nature and not override the primary definition of sufficient difference: "There must be a significant change to both the sound and appearance of one word to be considered significant." In this case, we felt that was not the case, although "MacColl and "MacNicol" device from different first names. Although we have retained the blazon of the letter of intent above, it does not really represent the design submitted. The cross was essentially a cross patty with its inner corners rounded, fretted with a serpent in annulo. A true Celtic cross has the "annulet" clearly conjoined with the limbs of the cross, not fretted with it. Thus this must be considered for conflict as "Gules, a cross patty ermine, fretted with a serpent in annulo Or." As such it conflicts with Norton ("Gules, a cross patty ermine.", as cited in Papworth, o. 613) under both the old and new rules. There is essentially one clear visual difference (or a major point under the old rules) for addition of the serpent. While Master Erasmierz argued manfully that the "engrailing" (i.e., the melon scoop out of the inner corners) should carry this clear under the old rules by a least a minor point of difference: after examining the emblazon sheet and the depictions of crosses patty in various reference works and Society devices, we were forced to the opinion that this modification was well within the boundaries of "artistic license" and did not provide difference under either the new rules or the old.

Dafydd the Silvertongue of Deverell. Device. Azure, in dexter canton a compass star elongated to base, the rays to sinister and in base surmounted by the upper and dexter rays or another compass star elongated to base, on a base wavy argent, a bar wavy azure. Master Erasmierz appealed the previous return of this device for non-period style on several grounds, reblazoning it to emphasize his points ("Azure, a compass star surmounting another in dexter chief, both elongated to base argent, a ford proper.") Apart from the fact that the ford was not actually a ford since the tinctures were not evenly divided, there were some problems with this blazon. As noted by Hund and others, it does not clearly indicate the precise interrelationship of the two stars, which is critical to the design. If the usual Society practices were followed, the stars would be more directly overlying one another (and would probably produce a query from a heraldic artist as to the correctness of the tinctures involved). Ignoring the issue of blazon, however, there was a considerable amount of feeling in the College that the device just did not meet the demands of period style in terms of balance, static design, etc. either under the new rules or the old. While it is true that charges in canton do appear alone on arms, particularly where there is cadency involved, and while it is true that both period and Society armoury allows charges overall, the design as a whole has to be reasonably balanced and static. Seventeen years is a long time for a single individual to have used a device and we understand his attachment to it. However, while we sympathize with the submittor's affection for the design and his long use of it, we cannot feel that long-time unregistered use of a name or device automatically proves its compatibility with the standards of our Society, as Master Erasmierz suggested: that would undermine the very point of registration by the College of Arms and the attempt to create Society-wide standards for armoury. Almost every herald has had experience of long-term use of a name or piece of armoury that is found objectionable by many, but remains in use because the "owner" does not care or is so personally popular that the populace regards it as a forgivable anomaly. Others have encountered names or devices that have been used for long periods in remote or socially anomalous areas of the Society without registration (e.g., KKK insignia, SS insignia, devices almost identical to that of the reigning king or the senior knight, etc.). . . Use alone does not make an item acceptable any more than the rank of the submittor does. If they did, the very underpinnings of equitable registration of submissions, used since the early days of the Society, would be in question.

Dominique Charité d'Angleterre. Device. Per saltire Or and azure, four lilies in cross, bells outward, within an orle flory counterflory, all counterchanged. As noted by several commentors, the orle flory counterflory is visually too close to the reserved tressure of Scotland, a decision reaffirmed as recently as September, 1989 (in the case of Mirielda Grey). While Master Erasmierz is correct in noting this is not identical to the Scots tressure, its "visual weight" is essentially the same and there was a fairly strong feeling at the time this charge first was presented that it was visually tantamount to the reserved charge.

Eric Blaxton. Device. Quarterly argent, scaly sable, and azure, a mullet of four points counterchanged azure and argent. This was originally returned for conflict with the tinctureless badge of Aline the Novatrix ("A mullet of four points distilling a goutte."). Master Erasmierz manfully appealed this return, arguing that the interior lines of the charge should be considered to carry and thus added a major point of difference which was enough to carry this clear under the old rules. Unfortunately, before the original return, we had consulted the emblazon for the tinctureless badge and determined that it was so small as to be an artistic detail, blazoned in the "old days" to please the submittor, but not really a secondary charge. That leaves the issue of the tinctures and interior lines, which gained some support in the College. However, long tradition and the old rules dictate that no difference be allowed for tincture in the case of tinctureless badges (or, more accurately, that tinctureless badges be considered to exist in all tinctures). As notes by Master Bruce, that is precisely why we stopped registering them! Under the new rules, there is still no relief for this device: while there is an automatic difference for the fieldlessness of the badge (X.4.a.i, p. 13), it is specifically noted that tinctures of charges will not be counted when considering tinctureless badges (X.4.d, p. 14).

Stefan Laskowski. Device. Gules, a tau cross, doubly crossed and potent at the foot, argent. This submission was previously returned for conflict with the arms of Crosses) "Gules, a cross potent argent.") and that of Switzerland ("Gules, a cross couped argent."). Master Erazmierz has strongly appealed this return on the grounds that complete difference of charge should apply to the differing types of cross, citing the existence of numerous mundane arms which show "Gules, an X argent." where X is a different type of cross. From this he infers that period armoury would require only a major point to clear the device and argues that this is clearly present from all cited conflicts by virtue of the modification of arms and orientation of the cross. While his eloquence (and a fair amount of sympathy for Trefoil and others trying to espouse regional styles) have swayed a number of those in the College, there are some problems with his arguments. Unfortunately, the arguments from "period practice" is flawed on several counts. In the first, because of the limitations of communications and jurisdiction (at one time England was split into more than one heraldic jurisdiction!), individuals and even learned heralds would not know about and, in some cases, care about those bearing armoury which was identical, even thought they might be only a hundred miles apart. In our Society which transcends time and space (both in its medieval context and its mundane background), we must consider conflicts from a variety of times and culture and have the technology to do so. That the period heralds would have tried to record and avoid such collisions if technology and jurisdiction allowed (and that the distinctions between those who were cadets and those who were not related by blood required were noted) is shown by a series of heraldic "suits" that are recorded from the later portion of our period (the Scrope case being only the most famous of these). Moreover, as Silver Trumpet (then Crescent) pointed out, the argument that complete difference of charge should be applied to crosses, i.e., that modification of crosses cannot indicate cadency, is contravened by the evidence presented in Gayre and other sources which examine cadency practices in detail. Indeed, one of the commonest types of primary differencing was to modify an ordinary (including crosses). Thus, on branch of the Brelegh family used "Argent, a cross bottonny gules"; another used "Argent, a cross potency gules." and a third used "Argent, a cross potent gules." Many other examples of similarly differencing can be adduced. To consider the issue in another light, would we feel comfortable stating that "Or, a fess vert" had a charge completely different from "Or, a fess engrailed vert."? We think not. At any rate, in the recent discussions over differencing in the College, this seemed to be the consensus. In this case, the conflicts cited under the old rules still stand: there is only one major point of difference for difference of type of charge. If you were to stretch a point (literally!) and give the cross a point and a half for type, it would still conflict with the arms of Switzerland, which are particularly famous. Under the new rules, this also still conflicts, since there is only one visual difference: that of type of charge.

Ursula die Taube. Device. Ermine, on a torteau engrailed gules, a dove migrant to base Or. Under the old conflict rules this is in conflict with Murad nasi Muhammed ibn Hakim ("Counterermine, a roundel engrailed gules.") and Aravis Katheryn DelClare ("Ermine, on an ogress engrailed a clarion argent", intentional play since she was affiliated to House Hakim many years ago), and Boncoeur ("Ermine, on a sun gules, a hear Or."). Under the new rules, both the field tincture and addition of the tertiary count as clear visual differences so it clear Murad. From Aravis there are two clear visual difference for the differences in tincture of the primary charge and the changes in type and tincture of the tertiary charge (by X.4.j, p. 15). However, since the new rules demand at least two independent changes in type, tincture, etc. to charges on charges (X.4.j., p. 15) to derive visual difference, this still conflicts with Boncoeur. (A comparison of the emblazons for Boncouer and Ursula indicated that this conflict did reflect a real visual resemblance.).


Elrik Skap-Vargr. Badge. Argent, a caltrap sable. As noted on the letter of intent, this badge is in conflict with the arms of Barak ben David ("Argent, a caltrap within a bordure sable.") which has been submitted the month before and were registered in October, 1989, and the device of Robert Hellmanstahl ("Argent, a mullet of three points gyronny of six sable and argent."). Note that the device of Robert Hellmanstahl is actually sable and argent on an argent field: when it was passed, the view of divided fields and charges as absolutely entitled to "neutrality" with all fields was considered more prevalent than it is today. Note that the shape of the mullet is virtually identical to the caltrap here.

Roberto de España. Device. Gules, on a bend between two crescents argent, three compass stars gules. Under the old rules, this would conflict with Ian Leslie of Lilgairen ("Gules, on a bend between two Celtic crosses patty argent, three thistles proper."), Robyn of Mania ("Gules, on a bend argent a raven displayed palewise, wings inverted, sable grasping in its beak a rose flower to sinister, gules, slipped and leaved vert.") and the mundane arms of Robert Liddell ("Gules, on a bend between a cross crosslet fitchy in chief and a fleur-de-lys in base argent, three spurroweles of the first."). Under the new rules, only the conflict with Liddell still holds.

Zarifah Um-el-Laban al-Bajawi. Name only. There are several problems with this name under both rules. While several commentors deplored Laurel's previous return of "Zarifah" used as a feminine given name on the grounds that it does appear documented as a transliteration of the feminine given name on the grounds that it does appear documented as a transliteration of the feminine title for the wife of a "Sharif", noone has yet provided evidence for it as a period given name. Furthermore, on the basis of the name taken as a whole, the submitter appears to be laying claim to be a very specific claim to be a very specific figure from the history of Arabia in the Victorian era, one Jane Digby on whose life several works of fiction and non-fiction have been based. sometimes called Jane Digby El Mezrab, she married and lived for much of the year with her husband's tribe of Bedouin. This tribe apparently gave her the name "Umm-el-Laban" (Mother of Milk) from her fair complexion and this appears to be a unique title, since the formation of names using "Umm" is, as several commentors noted, generally limited to its use with actual Arabic names to indicate someone's relationship to their first-born child.

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