Collected Precedents of the S.C.A.: Documentation


Name Precedents: Documentation

Rulings not yet sorted into a particular category

Administrative Issues:

Issues regarding Submitted Documentation:

Sources: how to use (or how NOT to use) specific sources as documentation:


Laurel: Date: (year.month.date) Precedent:
 
Forms and Petitions
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 This item was listed on the LoI as belonging to Lochac, Kingdom of. Submissions for branches should be listed under the branch name, not the kingdom name. Names and armory of branches within a kingdom are owned by the branch, not by the Kingdom.[Saint Basil the Great, College of, 04/04, A-Lochac]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 A note on the forms indicated that the submitter wished to submit the byname van Zweeloo instead of of Frisia. However, this was not the submitted byname, nor is it a form of the submitted byname. Because the submitter did not actually submit Juliana van Zweeloo, we cannot in good conscience change her name so completely and register it.

Submissions heralds should note that the resources of the College of Arms are at their disposal. If a submitter wishes to submit something when documentation should exist but is not available to the submissions herald, that is the time for the herald to avail themselves of these resources. This can be done informally, by asking someone either in person or on any of the kingdom or SCA-wide heraldic mailing lists, or formally by noting that they were unable to document an item and asking the College for help in the submission. [Juliana of Frisia, 05/04, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2004.03 [Order name L'Ordre du Poignard Noir] No forms were received for this submission. [Caer Galen, Barony of, 03/2004, R-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2003.09 From Laurel: The Standard Forms, Redux

With the April 1998 LoAR, Jaelle Laurel implemented new standardized submissions forms that remain in effect. The forms require a basic set of information and layout to be used. Understanding that kingdoms have some differences in processing needs, specific optional use areas were designated on the standard forms. A copy of the forms was mailed to each Principal Herald and was included with that LoAR.

Since the original implementation of the forms, there has been growth and change in the College. The Society has added a couple of new Kingdoms with another to be added soon, and we have experienced the turnover in offices that comes with time. The effect has been that awareness of the standard forms has faded. To help renew awareness and to set the basis for any future discussion of forms changes, we have included a set of the standard forms with this letter and will be making an electronic version of the forms available from the Laurel web site.

The standard forms are to be the base forms used for any creation or modifications of the submission forms. Laurel Sovereign of Arms must approve all alterations or updates to the submission forms in writing prior to the use of the forms. [Cover Letter to the 09/2003 LoAR]

François la Flamme 2003.08 From Laurel: John Hancock Did Not Use E-Mail

There are several letters used in the submissions process that require a signature. If a signature is required, then the letter must include a copy of the handwritten signature. A text e-mail message does not meet the requirement for a handwritten signature. [Cover Letter to the 08/2003 LoAR]

François la Flamme 2003.08 Listed on the LoI as Besina Daverona, the submission form had the entire name capitalized and it is unclear whether or not there is a space between DA and VERONA. However, the attached Pennsic consultation worksheet clearly showed the byname as da Verona. As this form matches the submitted documentation, we have changed the byname to this form. [Besina da Verona, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2003.07 [Transfer of heraldic title Chagama Herald Extraordinary to Keridwen of Montrose] No letter of transfer from the Outlands was received for this submission. Also, no letter of acceptance of transfer from Keridwen of Montrose was received. [Outlands, Kingdom of the, 07/2003 LoAR, R-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2002.10 [Badge transfer to Artemisia, Kingdom of] The Letter of Intent stated, "The e-mail requesting transfer, and Their Majesties' e-mail accepting transfer, are attached to the submission form". General Laurel policy has been explicit in indicating that official correspondence should be signed and that, while a scanned copy of a signed document is acceptable, e-mail is not. While the section of the Administrative Handbook dealing with transfers does not explicitly reiterate the requirement for a signature, Laurel has stated that a signature is needed in this case as well. The kingdom and Mistress Iduna have provided the College with signed transfer paperwork, so the transfer may be effected. [Iduna Snorrisdottir, 10/2002, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2002.05 [N]o petition was provided supporting this name. Included with the submission were copies of the polling ballots and a listing from the Society registry office showing the paid members in their area. The list from the registry office shows 42 paid members in their area. Of the 11 ballots provided, 6 favored the submitted name. Section IV.C.5 of the Administrative Handbook states that, "Submissions involving the branch name or arms of an active branch must include evidence of support for the action on the part of a majority of the active members of the branch." Six ballots supporting the submitted name does not constitute a majority when there are 42 paid members residing in this group's area. No information was provided to explain why only eleven ballots were included with this submission when there are 42 paid members in the area. Lacking evidence to the contrary, all 42 paid members must be considered active members. As such, six supporting ballots out of 42 paid members is not even close to being a majority and so does not meet the requirements set down in section IV.C.5 cited above.

One of the main purposes of a petition is to demonstrate that the group has come to a consensus on a name or device. Ballots do not serve the same purpose because they do not demonstrate that the members who did not favor the submitted name are aware that a name they did not vote for is being submitted for their group. For this reason, petitions are the preferred form of support for groups whose size makes a petition feasible. (Support for submissions for larger groups, such as kingdoms and principalities, is also addressed in section IV.C.5.) Lacking support for this submission which meets the requirements set down in section IV.C.5, this submission must be returned. [Sandmork, Canton of, 05/2002, R-East]

François la Flamme 2002.03 From Pelican: Updating Information on Submission Forms

There was a submission this month that had sections of the form filled out in pencil. At some point, the submitted spelling of the byname was erased and a new spelling was written in its place. (This change matched changes noted in the LoI as being made at Kingdom.)

Submissions heralds, please note: when you update forms to match the LoI, make all changes so that the changes you made are obvious and the original information is still discernable. For example, one way to make such a change is to draw a line through the originally submitted name element and write the updated form beside it or above it. In any case, please do not erase, Wite-Out(tm), or scratch out the original information to the point that it is not readable. It is important that we can tell what the submitter's original choices were when the form was submitted. [Cover Letter for the 03/2002 LoAR]

François la Flamme 2001.11 Listed on the LoI as Fiodnach Eoghan, Shire of, the petition that accompanied this submission listed the name as Fiach Ogan. The word fiach means 'raven'. It is completely different from Fiodh, which means 'wood'. Additionally, Ogan is a completely different name from Eoghan. Both of these changes are major changes, which are not permitted according to the submission form. The submitters requested authenticity for Irish Gaelic. Fiach Ogan, listed on the petition, does not follow documented examples of place names in Irish Gaelic. As the name listed on the petition is not registerable and it would take more than minor changes to make this name registerable, it must be returned. [Fiodnach Eoghan, Shire of, 11/01, R-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Listed on the LoI as Chrestien de Xavier, the name was originally submitted as Christian de Xavier. The submitter requested an authentic English/French name but allowed no changes. As we have no documentation that the submitter authorized the spelling change to this name, the change was in violation of the submitter's allowed changes and must be returned to the submitted form. Happily the College was able to find documentation for Christian. [Christian de Xavier, 10/01, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2001.08 The Laurel office requires that each copy of a submission form have its own separate copy of the documentation that goes with it. A form + its associated documentation is an indivisible set. For a name, that's the long-standing practice: the Laurel office receives one name form and one set of documentation. An armory submission has two colored copies of the submission form, so if it requires any documentation, we will require two copies of the documentation as well. ...

In particular, in SCA branch submissions which require petitions, please include one copy of the petition for each name or armory form sent to Laurel. (So, for a branch name and device, that's three copies of the petition). This ensures that there's a form for each decision-making sovereign of arms, and for the files, while being a simple rule to remember. [08/01, CL]
Jaelle of Armida 1998.09 [David de Brailes] This is returned for lack of paperwork. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Windale, Shire of] This is being returned for lack of paperwork. No name forms were received and no petition was received. Without a petition showing group support, the submission must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Stefán askmaðr] No forms were received, so this must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.11 First, and most importantly, there was no petition. The name of an official SCA group and it's arms, must have documented support for the submission. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR November 1996, p. 14)
Baldwin of Erebor 1984.12.16 The Rules for Submissions (article VIII.2) state that the name and arms of an SCA branch must have the approval of a majority of its members. With baronies, shires, and other "small" branches, this is usually dealt with by requiring a petition of some sort. There does not appear to be an established procedure for obtaining approval when the branch in question is a Kingdom or Principality. I am therefore promulgating the following: (1) Any planned change to the name or arms of a Kingdom or Principality must be announced in the official branch newsletter, and sufficient time must be allowed for the populace to respond to the proposal. (2) The branch herald (or representative) is responsible for tallying the responses and seeing to it that a summary is transmitted to the Laurel Sovereign of Arms. (3) The proposed change must be subscribed to by the sovereign and consort and their heirs (if any), and it must be ratified by the officers of the branch. Evidence that this has been done should be included with the submission. [BoE, 16 Dec 84, p.1]
 
Photocopies of Documentation
François la Flamme 2004.01 This name is being returned for multiple problems. These include:
  • No photocopies were provided for the submitted documentation. [...]

The documentation provided in the LoI for this name was:

Tomyris - from Herodotas, Book I, Section 20 (page 123). According to the submission paperwork, "'Tomyris' was a scythian Queen's name."

Sauromatae - from Herodotas, page 306, Book IV, Section 105 (page 306). According to the submission paperwork, "The Sauromatae were another tribe (other clan?) that shared same customs, language, etc."

The first problem with this submission was that no photocopies of the sources cited for this documentation were provided with the submission. As this source is not listed in Appendix H of the Administrative Handbook, "Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel", photocopies are required for this documentation. Lacking these photocopies, the submitted documentation may not be used to support this submission. [Tomyris of the Sauromatae, 01/2004, R-East]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Dwynwen of Eldestawe, the byname was documented from O.J. Padel's Cornish Placenames. However, this source is not on the no-photocopy list and no photocopies of this information were included. As the College was unable to confirm that the information was as cited, this byname cannot be registered.

While the submitter allows only minor changes, she explicitly allowed her byname to be changed to the modern form Padstow if the submitted form could not be registered. As Padstow is found in Speed's The Counties of Britain (map of Cornwall, map dated to 1610), it may be registered in that spelling. We have, therefore, made this change. [Dwynwen of Padstow, 11/2003, A-East]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Masala al-Raqq{a-}sa al-Dilhiyya, the elements raqq{a-}s and dilh{i-} were documented from A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, Third Printing, Hans Wehr, edited by J. Milton Cowan, MacDonald and Evans Ltd., London, 1980), p. 354 and p. 296 respectively. This source is not included in the Administrative Handbook, Appendix H, "Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel". As such, photocopies are required with this submission. As no photocopies were provided, these elements are not documented and this submission must be returned. [Masala al-Raqqasa, 10/2003, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.09 The only documentation provided for the element Thalia in the LoI was the statement: "Thalia: Found in Classical Dictionary by Lemprière, pg. 668 and dated from the classical period to present." Lemprière is not among the sources listed in the Administrative Handbook in Appendix H, "Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel". As no photocopies from this source were included in this submission, the element Thalia is insufficiently documented, causing this name to be returned.

Additionally, the College only found evidence of Thalia as the name of one of the muses of Greek mythology. As such, it is not registerable as part of a locative byname such as of Thalia. [Hannah of Thalia, 09/2003 LoAR, R-Trimaris]

François la Flamme 2003.09 This name was submitted as a constructed English placename formed from variant spellings of elements found in A. H. Smith, English Place-Name Elements; specifically: Ful- (from the Old English fugol, meaning 'bird', p. 188; or from the Old English f{u-}l, meaning 'foul', p. 189), Cann (from the Old English canne, meaning 'a depression, a hollow, a deep valley' in this usage, p. 80), and Forge (from the Old French Forge, Middle English Forge, meaning 'a forge, a smithy', p. 184).

The LoI stated that the examples of placenames listed in these entries in Smith, while undated, were pre-15th C. However, no support for this statement, such as photocopies of relevant pages explaining the dating of the placenames in these entries, were included among the photocopies pages from Smith included with this submission. [Vulcans Forge, Canton of, 09/2003 LoAR, R-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2003.06 This submission is being returned for lack of documentation of the element Serpentius. The LoI documented Serpentius as, "A cognomen, intended to mean 'snakelike' ('Repertorium nominum gentilium et cognominum Latinorum', by Heokko Solin & Ollu Salomies)". However, no photocopies were provided from this source. The cited source is not included in Administrative Handbook Appendix H, "Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel". Lacking the required photocopies, this documentation is insufficient to support the element Serpentius. [Darius Serpentius, 06/2003 LoAR, R-East]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Listed on the LoI as Haakon Thorgiersson, the form showed the submitted name as Haakon Ůorgeirsson. The submitter requested authenticity for Icelandic/Norse and allowed minor changes. The only documentation presented for the spelling Haakon was a list of kings of Norway that had been assembled for this submission. Included in the listing for each king was an abbreviation indicating source(s) for the reference. However, a bibliography was provided for only one of the abbreviations, and that source was a modern genealogical website. Additionally, no photocopies were provided for any of these sources. As none of them are included in the list provided in the Administrative Handbook "Appendix H - Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel", this documentation is not complete and so does not support the submitted name. Lacking evidence that Haakon is a period form, it is not registerable. Geirr Bassi (p. 11) lists the form of this name as Hákon. Therefore, we have changed this name to Hákon Ůorgeirsson in order to register this name and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Hákon Ůorgeirsson, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.02 The LoI stated that Hunda-Ma­r "is found in Bertil Thuresson's Middle English Occupational Terms s.n. Hundeman. Thuresson says the name is Old Norse." This source is not included in the Administrative Handbook under "Appendix H - Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel". As photocopies from this source were not included with this submission, the required standard of documentation was not met and this name must be returned. [Matheus Hunda-Ma­r, 02/2003 LoAR, R-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.10 Submitted as Christina Elisabeth Spicewell, the LoI documented Spicewell as an occupational byname:

Several epithets of the form {verb}-wel, including "Waitwel" (probably a servant), are listed in J{o'}ns{o'}. And 'spice' was used as a verb in 1377 (OED).

Presumably the author that the LoI is referring to is Jönsö, who is the author of Middle English Nicknames. However, Jönsö is not included in the list of works in the Administrative Handbook under "Appendix H - Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel", and no photocopies were included with the submission. As the provided documentation was insufficient, and the College was not able to find support for Spicewell, it is not registerable. [Christina Elisabeth, 10/2002, A-East]

François la Flamme 2002.09 Nantyronnen was documented from p. 34 of Dewi Davies, Welsh Place-names. However, this source is not on the "No Photocopy" list specified in the Administrative Handbook (Appendix H - Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel). As photocopies were not provided so that this source may be evaluated, and this element was not supported from other sources, it is not registerable. [Morwen Nantyronnen, 09/2002 LoAR, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.08 The LoI documented Ru▀ as a header form on p. 686 of Seibicke, Historishes Deutsches Vornamenbuck. This source is not on the "No Photocopy" list provided in Appendix H of the Administrative Handbook. As no photocopies were provided for this documentation, we were unable to determine if this source supported Ru▀ as a German given name in period. The College was able to find support for forms of Ru▀ as a byname, but could find no support for it as a given name. Lacking support for Ru▀ as a given name, it is not registerable as a given name. [Ru▀ von Falkenberg, 08/2002, R-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.05 The summary of supporting documentation provided in the LoI was inadequate. The names of a number of sources were listed, but no indication was given regarding what information in these sources was pertinent to this submission. Additionally, only one of those sources was listed in Appendix H of the Administrative Handbook, "Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel". Photocopies are required for supporting documentation for any sources not on this list. No photocopies of any documentation was provided with this submission. [Sandmork, Canton of, 05/2002, R-East]
François la Flamme 2002.05 [Bear Clan] The vast majority of the documentation for this submission came from two sources: Mark Harrison and Gerry Embleton, Viking Hersir, 793-1066AD, volume 3 of Osprey Military Warrior Series; and Nurmann, Schulze, & Verhülsdonk, The Vikings, "Europa Militaria Special No. 6". These are tertiary sources at best and their purpose is not onomastics. Therefore, they must be used with care when used as documentation for name submissions. A number of Norse sagas were mentioned in the LoI, but no photocopies of any of them were provided. As none of them are included in the Admin Handbook under Appendix H, "Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel", these mentions may not be considered documentation. Additionally, no sections of those sagas were cited with specific references to "Norse clans". Such references would be necessary as part of documentation from these sagas. [Erik the Bear, 05/2002, R-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Idonea Svensdöttir, the submitter requested authenticity for Old Norse and allowed any changes. Svensdöttir was documented from a Web article not on the Laurel website. As such, printouts are required as documentation. Since printouts were not included, this documentation is not sufficient for registration. In any case, the Old Norse form of this byname is Sveinsdóttir. We have changed the byname to this form per the submitter's request for authenticity. [I­unn Sveinsdóttir, 04/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.04 No documentation was provided, and the College found none, that Christiensen is a period construction. The LoI included the statement, "Christen found on p82 of Svenska fornamn, Roland Otterbjork". This source is not on the "No Photocopy" list and photocopies were not provided. Lacking the photocopies, this does not count as documentation, since we cannot examine the information provided by this source. [Ansgar Cristernsen, 04/2002, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2004.02 This name is being returned for lack of documentation. The only documentation provided for this name on the LoI was:

Theron was the name of a tyrant of Akragas, overthrown in 489/88 BCE (http://www.barca.fsnet.co.uk/Syracuse-history.htm)

Andronikos appears in the Oxford Classical Dictionary (ref Livius),. Also in Lempriere (1801).

Neither of these sources are included in the Administrative Handbook in Appendix H, "Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel". Therefore, photocopies were required to be included as part of this name submission. However, they were not provided. Lacking these photocopies, the information provided on the LoI may not be considered as documentation for this submission.

In the case of the website referenced for Theron, the link no longer functions. We would remind submission heralds that this situation is one reason why copies are required for articles that are not resident on www.sca.org. [Theron Andronikos, 02/2004, R-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2002.12 Submitted as Nathaniel Constantine of Laibach, the LoI documented Laibach as follows:

Laibach is the German form of the name for the modern Slovenian city of Ljubljiana, first appearing in print in 1144 C.E. (p. 80, Slovenia, Steve Fallon, Lonely Planet Books, 1998; and pp. 6 and 19, Ljubliana, Nace Sumi, Nip Jugoslovenska Recija, 1979). The Diocese of Laibach was founded in the 15th C. (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08743a.htm).

None of these sources are included in "Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel", Appendix H of the CoA Administrative Handbook. Lacking these photocopies, we did not have an opportunity to evaluate these sources and so these references may not be considered for documentation. [Nathaniel Constantine von Laubach, 12/2002, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2001.12 The Laurel office requires that each copy of a submission form have its own separate copy of the documentation that goes with it. A form + its associated documentation is an indivisible set. For a name, that's the long-standing practice: the Laurel office receives one name form and one set of documentation. An armory submission has two colored copies of the submission form, so if it requires any documentation, we will require two copies of the documentation as well. ...

In particular, in SCA branch submissions which require petitions, please include one copy of the petition for each name or armory form sent to Laurel. (So, for a branch name and device, that's three copies of the petition). This ensures that there's a form for each decision-making sovereign of arms, and for the files, while being a simple rule to remember. [08/01, CL]
Jaelle of Armida 1998.09 [Acrisius Sospes] This is being returned for several reasons. First, for lack of documentation. While the LoI cited documentation, it did not include any, and the sources were not from the list of sources for which Laurel does not require photocopies. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Idhunn Thorlaksdottir] Submitted as Idhunna Thorlaksdottir, no documentation was found for the form Idhunna and none could be found. We have changed it to the closest documentable form. According to the submitter's forms she has documented Idunna in the past, but that documentation was not provided to us. If the documentation is sent to us and it is acceptable, we will change her name to Idhunna.
Jaelle of Armida 1998.05 [Nikodemus Sabas Victorius] This is being returned for lack of documentation on the name. All documentation that does not come from Laurel's approved 'no-photocopy list' must include the title page of the book, the reverse of the title page (including title, author and publisher), and the page the name is found on. If the documentation comes from the Laurel website, the URL must be printed on each page of the documentation. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR May 1998, p. 25)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.04 We have been receiving letters of intent which cite web pages as part of their documentation. Let me remind the college that the only web pages that will be accepted across the Board as documentation are the ones on the Laurel web page as part of the www.sca.org site. NO other sites are acceptable as they stand. For documentation to accepted from any other site, the entire page(s) of documentation must be sent with the Laurel package, along with information about the site itself. (Cover Letter 4/98)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Sarolta Lalayvna Shahin] No documentation was presented and none was found for Lalayvna Shahin outside of a statement in the LoI that it was allegedly Bulgarian. Without documentation the name element cannot be used. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 16)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.08 While the LoI cited a source for Sarina as a first name, no photocopies of the documentation were provided. Furthermore, while the LoI asserted that Sarina was a given name, no dated reference was provided. Absence documentation that Sarina is a period given name, we are forced to return it. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1997, p. 24)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1993.12a I was distressed to see the number of names submissions whose sole documentation consisted of the bald assertion that "{X} is found in Hanks & Hodges {Surnames/Given Names} on page {x}". Except in a few cases, there were not even any accompanying photocopies of the appropriate pages. This situation is not acceptable. While Hanks and Hodges' works may be a great place to start in searching for name documentation, they are NOT the place to end that search. Very few of the entries have dates of any kind. There are many modern forms included in the entries. There are even, as there are in many general works of this kind, some errors, sometimes quite glaring. For all of these reasons, Hanks and Hodges' books are not acceptable as adequate documentation or support for an SCA name. They are especially not acceptable as the only documentation or support for an SCA name. [12a/93c]
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1986.10.26 For both name elements no documentation was given beyond page references to relatively non-standard volumes not available to the Laurel staff at this point.... [A] holding name has been issued and the submitted name held pending the receipt of more solid documentation (I will accept Xeroxes from the sources cited, even though they be not the best). (LoAR 26 Oct 86, p. 8)
 
Summarization of Documentation
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 Listed on the LoI as Judith Wilkinson (of Northampton), the forms and the summarization noted that Judith Wilkinson was the form actually submitted; the form under which the name was listed included an alternative byname to use in case the submitted name was not registerable. Please do not include information about alternative names acceptable to the submitter in parentheses with the submitted name. Instead, please include it in the summary of the documentation and information provided on the form. Putting this information in the header confuses the commenters about which name is being submitted. [Judith Wilkinson, 05/04, A-Meridies]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 The documentation was not adequately summarized on the LoI. It is not sufficient to say that a name appears as a header form in a source; many sources, including the sources used to document this submission, include explicitly modern names and describe them as such in the text. It is necessary to summarize what such a source says about a name and to provide dated examples if possible. If the College had not provided the missing dates and descriptions, we would have been forced to return this submission. [Aidan Alpin of Dunkeld, 05/04, A-Middle]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 We note that the documentation was not adequately summarized on the LoI, although the College of Arms commenters filled in the blanks. St. Gabriel letters provide extensive footnotes on the sources from which the names are drawn, as well as the dates for most of the names discussed. This information should be included when summarizing documentation from a St. Gabriel report. [Bella Lucia da Verona, 04/04, A-Lochac]
François la Flamme 2004.03 Listed on the LoI as Úlfeðinn ráinsson, both the submission form and the documentation showed Úlfheðinn Þráinsson. We have made these corrections. [Úlfheðinn Þráinsson, 03/2004, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2004.02 Submitted as Susanna von Schwei▀guth, the submitter allowed minor changes.

The only documentation provided for von Schwei▀guth on the LoI was the statement, "Schwei▀guth is formed from the Schweissgut family, dated to 1427 according to the Wappenbook." This statement is a woefully inadequate summarization of the submitted documentation. It is also misleading. As noted by Clarion:

Unfortunately Wappenbuch is a generic term meaning "roll of arms." It is unclear what book actually contains the citation (although it appears to not be Siebmacher).

Instead of being from a wappenbuch, the submitted documentation was from a different source altogether. The submission form stated "Schwei▀guth = location in Austria; Family coat of arms dated to 1525 in Tirol. (See attached)." The attached documentation was a copy of Andrew Madison Swicegood, Schweissguth Wappenbrief: Schweissguth Coat of Arms (1994). It is an analysis of information in an attempt to determine which of several different coats of arms are the correct arms for this family. It is important to note that the focus of this article is the arms, not the name of this family. All of the information regarding the family name is third-hand, at best. The included Wappenbriefe (letters) are all transcriptions, not originals or photocopies, and are in German (for which no translations were provided). While period dates are noted next to some names, the names seem to be standardized or modernized.

As a result of the language issues with this documentation, and the inadequate summarization provided to the College, this documentation is not sufficient to support the submitted name. [...] [Susanna Schwei▀guth, 02/2004, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2004.01 Additionally, the submitter's form included a request for authenticity for Byzantine language/culture. However, the LoI did not include this information. As a result, the College was not given the opportunity to adequately comment on this submission.

We would remind submission heralds that proper summarization of forms, including changes allowed by the submitter and requests for authenticity, is required as part of the LoI. Improper summarization of a submission is cause for return of that submission. The College of Arms has a limited amount of time and all of us are volunteers. Asking the College to evaluate names based on incomplete or entirely missing data is both unfair to the College and a disservice to the submitter.

The submitter also listed three alternate names on her form. However, as no documentation was presented to the College for any of these, they may not be considered. [Aelia Apollina, 01/2004, R-West]

François la Flamme 2003.12 Listed on the LoI as Wilhelm von Bassel, this name was submitted as Wilhelm von Basel. The LoI stated that "The name was originally submitted as Basel, but we [i.e. Kingdom] did not have any documentation to support this formation." This statement implies that the name was originally submitted as Wilhelm  Basel not Wilhelm von Basel, as is clearly shown on the submission form. Additionally, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th to 16th C "German, Landsknecht". This information was not included in the LoI, depriving the College of the ability to properly comment on this name.

We would remind submission heralds that proper summarization of forms, including changes allowed by the submitter and requests for authenticity, is required as part of the LoI. Improper summarization of a submission is cause for return of that submission. The College of Arms has a limited amount of time and all of us are volunteers. Asking the College to evaluate names based on incomplete or entirely missing data is both unfair to the College and a disservice to the submitter.

Orle and Hund both found a dated example of this byname in Brechenmacher (p. 77 s.n. Basel) which dates the form von Basel to 1360. By coincidence rather than intent, since the College was unaware of the submitter's request for authenticity, this dated example show's the submitter's desired form of this byname in his desired period. We have changed his name to this form in order to register his name and to meet his request for authenticity. [Wilhelm von Basel, 12/2003, A-West]

François la Flamme 2003.12 Listed on the LoI as Bathsheba of Zigana, the submission form shows that this name was submitted as Bath-Sheba Zigana. Apparently it was changed at Kingdom. However no indication of changes made at Kingdom, or an explanation for those changes, was included in the LoI. The form noted that she would accept minor changes and that she would also accept the name Liliom Zigana. No mention of any of this information was included in the LoI.

We would remind submission heralds that proper summarization of forms, including changes allowed by the submitter and requests for authenticity, is required as part of the LoI. Improper summarization of a submission is cause for return of that submission. Asking the College to evaluate names based on incomplete or entirely missing data is both unfair to the College and a disservice to the submitter.

As no documentation was presented to the College for the element Liliom, her alternative choice Liliom Zigana may not be considered.

Bathsheba was documented only as a name used in the Bible (Book of Samuel 11:3). Biblical names are registerable on a case by case basis according to the plausibility of their use in period. Metron Ariston provided information regarding documented period forms of this given name:

Of the given name Withycombe (Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, s.n. Bathsheba) s[a]ys "It occurs occasionally as a christian name in the Middle Ages in the form Barsabe, and more frequently after the Reformation, often as Bathshua, the form of the name in the Authorized Version of the Book of Chronicles."

The documentation provided for the byname of Zigana in the LoI was:

The submitter provides a web site -- http://www.geocities.com/TimesSquare/Lapyrinth/2398/bginfo/geo/trebizon.html - as documentation for the locative. It states that the Zigana Pass was the route that Marco Polo traveled on his way home to Venice in 1295.

While this demonstrates that the pass existed in period, it only supports Zigana as the modern name for this pass. Lacking evidence that it is a period name for this location, it is not registerable.

Metron Ariston regarding the byname of Zigana:

There is indeed a great deal of doubt as to whether the Turkish form of the name used here was actually used in period for either the pass or any locality nearby in which humans lived in antiquity or the medieval period. While Xenophon clearly brought his troops back from Persia by the pass (he describes it clearly), the largest city in the area was Trapezus or Trebizond, although the geographer Strabo, a contemporary of the Emperor Augustus, also mentions the city of Zigopolis which many scholars associate with the modern Zigana area (www.kultur.gov.tr).

Since there is no indication that Zigana is a period name, the element Zigana is not registerable and this name must be returned.

Any future resubmission should include a proper summarization of the submitter's wishes, as noted on the submission form, in the LoI. [Bathsheba of Zigana, 12/2003, R-West]

François la Flamme 2003.12 The only information provided on the LoI for this submission was:

Raven is found in Reaney and Wilson on pg. 372 under the heading of Raven. It is dated to 1185. Oakwood is justified by such name constructions as Oakhurst, Oakleaf, etc.

This is inadequate and erroneous documentation. It is unclear where this documentation came from since the submission form contains no documentation at all. Reaney & Wilson (p. 372 s.n. Raven) do not date the form Raven to 1185. Rather, the form dated to 1185 in this entry is Rauen. No information was given as to why a placename of Oakwood is plausible based on the examples of Oakhurst and Oakleaf. Also, no documentation was provided for either Oakhurst or Oakleaf. As a result, they cannot support a hypothesized Oakwood, leaving the byname of Oakwood completely undocumented as submitted and as represented on the LoI.

A further error in the LoI was the complete failure to note what changes the submitter would allow. In this case, the submitter allows no changes - which dramatically affects the options that the College might research.

We would remind submission heralds that proper summarization of forms, including changes allowed by the submitter and requests for authenticity, is required as part of the LoI. Improper summarization of a submission is cause for return of that submission. The College of Arms has a limited amount of time and all of us are volunteers. Asking the College to evaluate names based on incomplete or entirely missing data is both unfair to the College and a disservice to the submitter. [Raven of Oakwood, 12/2003, R-West]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Regarding the byname Terrien, the LoI stated:

Terrien is a French byname, "man of the earth," which even in a very early period (5th to 9th C.) would suggest a common profession of the time, such as farmer (Bahlow, p. 566 s.n. Terre).

However, the College was unable to find this entry in Bahlow. Also, they found no support for Terrien except as a modern surname. Lacking evidence that Terrien is a plausible byname in period, it is not registerable. [Ricchar Terrien the Goth, 10/2003, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.09 From Laurel: Time is a Precious Resource

Time is something that we all value and never seem to have in excess. As busy as we all are, it is a shame to waste time on activities that accomplish little or no good. It is a crime to do something only part way that then requires others to spend time to complete the work. There is a disturbing trend within the College of Arms to take shortcuts that save a little time up front but cause others more work.

Letters of Intent

When you take a shortcut on summarizing the documentation in a Letter of Intent or simply do not include documentation of a locative byname for a name submission, you are forcing the next person in the submission process to complete the work you started. The few minutes you saved by not including the necessary information will cost one or more people those minutes and perhaps more to recreate the information. (If you don't have the information and wish the help of the College then please specifically ask otherwise it looks like an omission.) If the omission is corrected by the kingdom college, the number of people doing the rework is limited, but if the rework must be done during commentary by the College of Arms, the amount of time is multiplied by potentially more than 50 people.

If you are unsure what is required either for documentation for a submission or in summarization in a letter of intent, I direct your attention to the Administrative Handbook (section V.B.2.b), the December 2002 LoAR Cover Letter secion "From Pelican: Inadequate Summarization of Submissions", and the November 2001 LoAR Cover Letter section "From Laurel Clerk: Things Missing from LoIs".

Commentary

Another place where shortcuts are tempting is in commentary to the College of Arms. We assume certain expertise and basic knowledge in our fellow commenters and in the Sovereigns of Arms. This relied-upon expertise can lull us into believing that a quick comment such as "we no longer register snort-gaskets" is sufficient. When making a statement or argument in which you give an "I think" or "I remember" or even "this is not done", please provide a reference to support your statement. A reference with no documentation or support requires us to spend time before or during the decision meeting looking for what you base your statement upon. If you do not have the time to provide support for a statement, it is better to omit that statement from your commentary.

In Summary

The volume of submissions has grown too large for the College of Arms to be able to regularly completely (re-)document an element of a submission. If the supporting documentation is not provided or adequately summarized on the Letter of Intent, the submission will be returned so that the deficiency may be corrected.

The high volume also means that the Sovereign of Arms do not have the time to search for the references that were vaguely given in commentary. Statements in commentary that allude to documentation but do not cite the source will be considered rumor and may be ignored. [Cover Letter to the 09/2003 LoAR]

François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Karchar of the Blue Eyes, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 15th C Turkey and allowed any changes.

The LoI stated that "Karchar is a Turkish masculine name, which appears in the Book of Dede Korkut, which was recorded between the 12th and 15th Century" and that "'of the Blue Eyes' is the English Translation of the Arabic epithet 'al-Azmaq', which is dated to 1230." No indication was provided on the LoI of where in The Book of Dede Korkut the name Karchar is found. Additionally, no reference was provided in the LoI at all for where the information regarding the byname al-Azmaq was found. This is a case of inadequate summarization of documentation on the LoI and is cause for return. The College cannot judge information that is not provided to them, hence the requirement of proper summarization of all documentation on LoIs. [Karchar the Blue-eyed, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.07 Regarding the byname the Instigator, the LoI only stated that "Instigator is dated to 1598, according to the Compact Oxford English Dictionary." No summary was provided of what the Compact Oxford English Dictionary says about this word. Nor was any indication provided of why the Instigator would be a plausible byname in period. Such lack of summarization has been reason for return in the past:

The documentation was not adequately summarized on the LoI: it is not sufficient to say that a name element is found on a book, we need to know what is said. As the College did not provide independent evidence, we have to return this as per the May [2000] LoAR cover letter. [Adelicia of Caithness, 03/2001, R-Caid]

As a reminder, inadequate summarization will continue to be a reason for return. In this case, the College provided no support for the Instigator as a plausible byname in period. Lacking support for the Instigator as a byname in period, this byname is not registerable. As the submitter allows no changes, we were unable to drop the problematic element in order to register this name. [Arthur Daniels the Instigator, 07/2003 LoAR, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.07 The submitter requested authenticity for Italian and allowed any changes.

No documentation at all for this name was included in either the submission or the LoI. Lacking documentation for this name, this submission should have been returned at Kingdom. As the College was able to provide documentation for these elements, we are able to register a form of this name. However, we would remind submission heralds:

By Laurel precedent, the College is not required to look up documentation that is not adequately summarized on the LoI. In this case, multiple members of the College went out of their way to dig up this information. For the benefit of both the submitter and the members of the College who took on this extra work, we are registering this name as an exception to the requirement that all submitted documentation be properly and adequately summarized on the LoI. Kingdom submissions heralds should be aware that inadequate summarization of supporting documentation has been and will continue to be a reason for return. [Isa van Reinholte, 11/01, A-Ansteorra]

[Valeria de Borgia, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Lochac]
François la Flamme 2003.06 [Heraldic title Gonfanon Pursuivant] No documentation was submitted for this name at all. The LoI simply stated that this title was: "previously registered to the West and released in December '93. We now wish to re-register [it]."

Items that are released and resubmitted fall into the category of new submissions. The Grandfather Clause does not apply since the items are no longer registered. Such items must be redocumented when they are resubmitted, just as if they were a new submission.

The missing documenation was provided by multiple members of the College. Crescent states:

A gonfanon is a period heraldic charge (qv Flag, Pictorial Dictionary, arms of the Counts of Auvern, c. 1275) and thus Gonfanon Pursuivant follows the period practice of using the name of a heraldic charge as a title.

As documentation was found for this submission, it may be registered. [West, Kingdom of, 06/2003 LoAR, A-West]

François la Flamme 2003.06 This submission included a letter from Gunnvör silfrahárr (formerly Gunnora Hallakarva) which provided support for some elements in the submitted name. However, since Gunnvör's letter was not summarized in the LoI, that documentation could not be judged by the College. Therefore, the submitted name must be judged according to the documentation presented to the College in the LoI, along with other information found by the College during the commentary process. [Eiríkr eldr Hj{o,}rtsson, 06/2003 LoAR, A-West]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Listed on the LoI as Haakon Thorgiersson, the form showed the submitted name as Haakon Ůorgeirsson. The submitter requested authenticity for Icelandic/Norse and allowed minor changes. The only documentation presented for the spelling Haakon was a list of kings of Norway that had been assembled for this submission. Included in the listing for each king was an abbreviation indicating source(s) for the reference. However, a bibliography was provided for only one of the abbreviations, and that source was a modern genealogical website. Additionally, no photocopies were provided for any of these sources. As none of them are included in the list provided in the Administrative Handbook "Appendix H - Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel", this documentation is not complete and so does not support the submitted name. Lacking evidence that Haakon is a period form, it is not registerable. Geirr Bassi (p. 11) lists the form of this name as Hákon. Therefore, we have changed this name to Hákon Ůorgeirsson in order to register this name and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Hákon Ůorgeirsson, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Christiane Janssoen, the LoI documented Janssoen with the statement "Dutch name found at www.panix.com/~mittle/names/german.shtml off of a collection of Dutch trade names. (Copies provided)". This is not an adequate summarization of the submitted documentation. The page cited is a list of links to name articles. The statement in the LoI does not indicate which of the numerous articles linked on this page was the article used to document this name. [Christiane Johnson, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.01 No documentation was presented and none was found that Hashimoto is a reasonable period surname in Japanese. The only documentation provided for Hashimoto on the LoI was "Hashimoto - found in 'Name Construction in Mediaeval Japan' by Solveig Throndardottir. Surname constructed from elements Hashi on p142 and moto on p95 and p165." This information is misleading. Hashimoto does not appear in Solveig's book (which is often abbreviated NCMJ). Only the themes hashi and moto are listed. [Hashimoto Arihiro, 01/2003 LoAR, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.12 The submitter requested authenticity for Irish. However, this request was not included on the Letter of Intent and so the College was not given the opportunity to provide commentary on this request for authenticity. Please see the Cover Letter for a further discussion of this issue. [Jehane Francis, 12/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.11 The only documentation provided for the byname the Red was "The byname is a descriptive epithet." This is woefully inadequate and is cause for return. By Laurel precedent, the College is not required to look up documentation that is not adequately summarized on the LoI. In this case, members of the College went out of their way to dig up this information. For the benefit of both the submitter and the members of the College who took on this extra work, we are registering this name as an exception to the requirement that all submitted documentation be properly and adequately summarized on the LoI. Kingdom submissions heralds should be aware that inadequate summarization of supporting documentation has been and will continue to be a reason for return. [Nathaniel Grendel the Red, 11/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.11 By Laurel precedent, the College is not required to look up documentation that is not adequately summarized on the LoI. In this case, Sommelier and Clarion (and other members of the College) went out of their way to dig up supporting documentation for this element. It is this information, and only this information, that allows us to register this name at this time. Kingdom submissions heralds should be aware that inadequate summarization of supporting documentation has been and will continue to be a reason for return. [Renee Claymore, 11/2002, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.11 A letter attached to the submission form noted that the submitter wished her given name to be Mignon if documentation could be found for that name. As this information was not communicated to the College in the LoI, the College was unable to provide thorough commentary on the element Mignon. It was found that Aryanhwy merch Catmael and Talan Gwynek's article "Names Found in Commercial Documents in Bordeaux, 1470-1520" (http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/bordeuax.htm) lists Mignon as part of a byname in the name Yvon le Mignon. However, evidence of Mignon as part of a byname does not support use of Mignon as a given name. Therefore, we have left the name as the submitted Mylisant. [Mylisant D'Etcheverry, 11/2002, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.07 Note: The wording on the LoI was not explicitly clear that Unegen means 'fox'. Inadequate summarization of submitted documentation on the LoI has been, and continues to be, a reason for return. In this case, the documentation was provided, just not clearly. Submission heralds, please make sure to clearly summarize all submitted documentation in the LoI. [Kharra Unegen, 07/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.06 No submission history was included in the LoI entry for the current submission. The submitter has had multiple name resubmissions. A summary of the submission history (as required by the Administrative Handbook, section V.B.2.d) would have helped the College research this issue. Al-Jamal found returns for previous forms of this name in the LoARs of May 1999 and December 1995. As the return texts were substantial, we will not repeat them here, though both are relevent to the current submission. [Durr min al-Jabal al-Mukhfi, 06/2002, R-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.05 The summary of supporting documentation provided in the LoI was inadequate. The names of a number of sources were listed, but no indication was given regarding what information in these sources was pertinent to this submission. Additionally, only one of those sources was listed in Appendix H of the Administrative Handbook, "Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel". Photocopies are required for supporting documentation for any sources not on this list. No photocopies of any documentation was provided with this submission. [Sandmork, Canton of, 05/2002, R-East]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Ansgar Christensen, the submitter requested authenticity for Danish. Unfortunately, this request was not included on the Letter of Intent and so the College, not aware of the request, was not able to provide information to help meet this request. [Ansgar Cristernsen, 04/2002, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2001.09 The sum total of the submitted documentation for the byname of Gresewode was "Gresewode is a plausible placename from Ekwall". This is woefully inadequate. No evidence was given as to why kingdom believes Gresewode is a plausible placename. At the very least, the examples that kingdom believes support the byname in Ekwall should have been listed. [Robert of Gresewode, 09/01, R-Caid]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.01 [Zefiryna] The documentation for the given name was not properly summarized in the LoI: it is not sufficient to list the page number and bibliographical information of a source, we need to know what is said. As none of the commenters were able to find documentation that the name is period Ś and in fact they found indications that it is modern Ś we are returning the name. [Zefiryna Mikhailovna, 01/01, R-Caid]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.04 There has recently been some discussion about summarising name documentation in LoI entries. This started with some items which had as the summary a S. Gabriel client number and the names of the people who had worked on it. This caused some relatively harsh criticism.

I'm afraid I have to agree with the critics. Section V.B.2.d of the Administrative Handbook states that a "summary of all supporting evidence provided for the submission must be included on the letter of intent". Now, a "summary" like the one that started this discussion is essentially similar to saying simply "the name is found in Withycombe", without mentioning what Withycombe writes about the name. Both these "summaries" may fulfill the letter of the rule (although even that can be doubted) but they most certainly don't fulfill the intent, which is to make sure that each commenting member of the College can judge the merits of the documentation.

Granted, the Academy of Saint Gabriel has its letters publicly available on the Web. Also, their work is excellent, although the goals are not quite the same as those of the College of Arms. We have recently renewed the agreement whereby the letters of the Academy are accepted as documentation, so that a copy of the letter is sufficient without attaching copies of the sources cited.

All this, however, does not mean that the client number is a sufficient summary of the documentation. Immediate and affordable net access is something we neither do nor can require from commenting members of the College; for instance, the default method for distributing letters is by regular mail and people have to specifically request e-mail commentary. However, this is in fact beside the point: even if everyone had such access we would still need a summary, just like we need a summary when a name is documented from the reference works listed in Appendix H of the Administrative Handbook.

Starting with the July 2000 LoI's we are going to tighten our interpretation of V.B.2.d. so that items that don't have a proper summary of supporting evidence may be returned instead of pended. Blatant cases (such as "<name> is Saint Gabriel Client #1234", or "<name> is Irish" or "<name> is in Withycombe") will be returned unless the College of Arms is able to provide appropriate supporting evidence in its commentary.

If you are unsure about how to properly summarise name documentation, help is available. One possibility, at least for the majority who have e-mail access, is the submission heralds mailing list <SCASubmissionHeralds@onelist.com>; another possibility is to ask either Laurel or myself. Asking for help is no reason to be ashamed; on the contrary, knowing when to ask for help is a major part of the skills needed for any serious office. [04/00, CL]
Jaelle of Armida 1999.06 [Felis de la Roca] The documentation on the LoI stated "The documentation for the name is provided by the Academy of Saint Gabriel quoting Morlet, Chambers, Dubh and Dauzat (some of these are on the Appendix H list, but others are not and no additional documentation is enclosed)". This is not adequate documentation for an LoI. As the Administrative Handbook states "A summary of all supporting evidence provided for the submission must be included on the letter of intent." This is so the entire College, not just Laurel, can evaluate it. While we are accepting it this time, it is with a warning that in the future the Laurel office may not be so forgiving. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR June 1999, p. 3)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Idhunn Thorlaksdottir] Submitted as Idhunna Thorlaksdottir, no documentation was found for the form Idhunna and none could be found. We have changed it to the closest documentable form. According to the submitter's forms she has documented Idunna in the past, but that documentation was not provided to us. If the documentation is sent to us and it is acceptable, we will change her name to Idhunna.
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1993.12a I was distressed to see the number of names submissions whose sole documentation consisted of the bald assertion that "{X} is found in Hanks & Hodges {Surnames/Given Names} on page {x}". Except in a few cases, there were not even any accompanying photocopies of the appropriate pages. This situation is not acceptable. While Hanks and Hodges' works may be a great place to start in searching for name documentation, they are NOT the place to end that search. Very few of the entries have dates of any kind. There are many modern forms included in the entries. There are even, as there are in many general works of this kind, some errors, sometimes quite glaring. For all of these reasons, Hanks and Hodges' books are not acceptable as adequate documentation or support for an SCA name. They are especially not acceptable as the only documentation or support for an SCA name. [12a/93c]
Baldwin of Erebor 1984.12.02 If part of a name is made up, this fact should ... be noted [in the LoI]. It is unfair to the heralds who are attempting to catch grammar and translation errors not to warn them that the next word they see won't be in any of their dictionaries. [BoE, cvr ltr, 2 Dec 84, p.2]
Baldwin of Erebor 1984.10.31 "Coined" means that a name is made up, not that its provenance is unknown. There is nothing wrong with asking the College of Arms for assistance in substantiating an applicant's claim, but you should make an effort to find out what the submitter had in mind, and to pass this information on in your letter of intent. [BoE, 31 Oct 84, p.20]
 
Translation of Documentation written in non-English languages
François la Flamme 2004.03 The submitter documented the byname Udding from a book and provided scans of pages from that book. Unfortunately, the documentation was essentially unreadable due to poor scanning quality. The LoI asserts that the book is in Swedish, and no translation was provided. We remind the College of Arms that documentation must be translated into English. Either of these issues is sufficient for return.

In addition, the summary of the material presented in the LoI did not support the idea that Udding was a personal byname, but only that it was a variant spelling of the name of the place. Documentation would need to be presented that this is a reasonable byname for it to be registered. [Orm Udding, 03/2004, R-Drachenwald]

François la Flamme 2004.02 We would also note that no translation was provided for the submitted documentation from Flutre. We would remind submission heralds that translations are required for submitted documentation that is not in English. For most submissions where the documentation is in French, this is not usually an issue, since the LoIs routinely quote the relevant entries and members of the College who read French are able to evaluate the information provided in the entry. Since this submission (1) was not properly summarized in the LoI and (2) no translation was provided for the submitted French documentation, most of this entry may not be used as support for this submission. [Marine Perle, 02/2004, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.11 This is a resubmission of a previously returned branch name (Südentür, Canton of, returned in September 1999). Südentur was submitted as meaning "Southern Gate/Door" in German. However, all of the documentation provided was solely in German. Previous precedent requires that translations for non-English documentation be included with the documentation:

The first element of the "name" the submitter cites appears to be volni, "free, independent", not a given name. This situation helps to dramatize one of the major reasons we require that all documentation in another language be translated into English. [12a/93, p.20]

Metron Ariston provided information about a resubmission of this name that was returned at Kingdom in 2000:

When they submitted the same name in 2000 under Alanna, Golden Dolphin, she asked me to check out the German documentation from Bahlow and other sources provided with the submission as she (Alanna) was not fluent in German. I did a literal translation of the material and an analysis that demonstrated that the documentation did NOT say what they said it did and in fact proved that the name was not plausible based on the parallels they provided. A full copy of the translation should be in their Golden Dolphin file. A copy of that translation [...] was also sent to the submitters with the return. (I sent the letter of return so I know this did in fact take place.)

The documentation provided for the current submission is solely in German. Since the required translation was not provided, the College is unable to evaluate whether or not the submitted documentation supports the submitted name. Lacking a translation of the submitted documentation, we are returning this name. [Sudentür, Canton of, 11/2002, R-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2002.09 This name was submitted as Gralon Le Friant Braz and changed at Kingdom because no documentation was found for the submitted form of the given name. The documentation submitted with this name is in French and no translation was provided. Precedent states that "we require that all documentation in another language be translated into English" (November 1993 LoAR, p. 20). As no translation was provided for this documentation, it is not considered support for this name. [Gradlon Le Friant Braz, 09/2002 LoAR, R-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.04 There are two issues with this name submission that are cause for return.

The documentation submitted for the name elements was written in Korean. On that page, handwritten on the photocopy were the words "Yang" and "Mun" and arrows pointing to the characters in question. Previous precedent requires that translations for non-English documentation be included with the documentation:

The first element of the "name" the submitter cites appears to be volni, "free, independent", not a given name. This situation helps to dramatize one of the major reasons we require that all documentation in another language be translated into English. [12a/93, p.20]

In this case, the translation provided was inadequate to know what the documentation said about "Yang" and "Mun". Many factors come into play when determining if a name element is registerable. This documentation may well state that both elements of this name were used by humans in period. However, without a translation of the context in which "Yang" and "Mun" are discussed, we are unable to even know if these words are used as name elements. Lacking a translation, this documentation is not sufficient to support the submission. [Yang Mun, 04/2002, R-Trimaris]

Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1993.12a The first element of the "name" the submitter cites appears to be volni, "free, independent", not a given name. This situation helps to dramatize one of the major reasons we require that all documentation in another language be translated into English. [12a/93, p.20]
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.07.26 The only documentation provided in support of the [byname] ... were a few lines ... from the ... gift shop proprietor cited as the source for the translation. Since no one in the College could come up with any supporting documentation for anything similar..., some more substantial documentation must be required from the submittor. (LoAR 26 Jul 87, p. 10)
 
Legal Name Allowance
François la Flamme 2004.03 Berik was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. However, no documentation was provided supporting Berik as the submitter's legal name. Lacking such support, this name is not registerable under that allowance.

Berik was also documented as a Hunnish name. However, there is no evidence for contact between the Huns and the part of central Asia where Sugdak is located. Barring that evidence, the combination cannot be allowed.

His armory is registered under the holding name Berik of Wealdsmere. As explained in the Cover Letter for the June 2002 LoAR (in the section entitled "From Laurel: Regarding Mundane Given Names Used to Create Holding Names"), use of Berik in his holding name does not grandfather this element for use in an SCA name, since no documentation was provided in this submission supporting Berik as his legal name. [Berik of Sugdak, 03/2004, R-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2003.09 From Pelican: Providing Documentation for the Legal Name Allowance

Several submissions have recently provided inadequate documentation for name elements submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. The normal method of providing such documentation is to provide a photocopy of a legal form of identification for the submitter. Information required in such documentation includes:

  • the full legal name of the submitter

  • what type of document was presented

Photocopy of ID

When providing documentation via a photocopy of a form of legal identification (birth certificate, driver's license, military ID, et cetera), we need to be able to determine what type of ID this was and the submitter's full, legal name as shown on this ID. Certificate numbers, driver's license numbers, et cetera, may be blacked out along with other information we do not need. In the case of a driver's license or other form of ID that includes a signature, it is also often in the submitter's best interest to leave that section visible in a photocopy. As an example, my driver's license shows my legal last name as "OBRIEN" while my signature on my license shows my last name to be "O'Brien". This would support the O'B- spelling in O'Brien if I wanted to submit it under the Legal Name Allowance.

A recent submission blacked out all portions of the submitter's name except the desired element. This is not acceptable documentation. It prevents us from (1) determining the position of this element in the submitted name and (2) confirming that the submitted ID is for the same person whose name was on the submission form. Different states put name elements in different orders. Some states put the first name first. Other states put the last name first.

Some types of ID allow nicknames to be used rather than the legal given name. For example, while a driver's license may show a woman's given name as "Margaret", her library card or work ID may show it as "Peg" if she usually goes by that name. We only register elements of the legal name. In this example, we would register "Margaret" but not "Peg." For this reason, we need to know what type of ID is being used for documentation.

Documentation Without a Photocopy

In certain circumstances, a submission may document an item for the Legal Name Allowance without providing a photocopy. In such circumstances, the information that should be provided includes:

  • the full legal name of the submitter exactly as it appears on the document

  • the type of document that was presented

  • the reason for the request to provide documentation without a photocopy of the form of legal ID, usually the name of the large consultation table (such as Pennsic/Gulf Wars/Estrella consultation table, et cetera) without access to a photcopier

  • the name of the herald(s) who viewed the form of identification

This requirement was discussed in the December 2001 LoAR:

In the case of the Legal Name Allowance, the documentation takes the form of a photocopy of an acceptable form of identification. ... A question was raised regarding exempting submissions taken at large consultation tables from this requirement since they often do not have access to photocopying. Every effort should be made to get the photocopy. Some consultation tables routinely ask the submitter to send a photocopy to their kingdom submissions herald after the event. This resolves many of these problems. In cases where this is not possible, the following information should be recorded on the submission: the full legal name of the submitter, what type of document was presented, where the submission was taken (Pennsic/Gulf Wars/Estrella consultation table, et cetera), and the name of the herald(s) who viewed the form of identification. Submissions that are calling on the Legal Name Allowance and do not have a photocopy of identification included as part of the submission will be considered on a case by case basis. This seems to be a reasonable balance between applying the same standards to all submitters and allowing for "hardship" cases. [Katja GaussdottÝr of Storvik, 12/01, A-Atlantia]

A good example of this type of documentation appeared in in the Caid LoI of October 6, 2003:

Sewell is the submitter's legal last name. The submission was accepted at a kingdom consult table; no photocopier was available. As specified in precedent (qv. Katja GaussdottÝr of Storvik, 12/01, A-Atlantia), we note the following: Legal name: Jason Robert Sewell; ID shown: current active duty Navy ID; ID seen and verified by Jeanne Marie Crescent and Angus Seraph.

This information was written on the submission form and signatures of the heralds appear below this information on the form. This submission provides (1) the submitter's full legal name, (2) the type of ID, (3) the reason for submitting without a photocopy (no photocopier was available at this kingdom consultation table), (4) the heralds who saw the ID. [Cover Letter to the 09/2003 LoAR]

François la Flamme 2003.09 Boyd was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. The LoI stated that the submitter's driver's license shows "that Boyd is the submitter's legal mundane given name". However, no photocopy of his driver's license was included with his submission form. As Boyd was a surname or byname in period, not a given name, it is not registerable in a given name position except via the Legal Name Allowance. Lacking supporting documentation (such as a photocopy of a driver's license) for the Legal Name Allowance, we must return this name. [Boyd the Rus, 09/2003 LoAR, R-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2003.09 Kim was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. No photocopy of a legal form of ID was included with this submission to support Kim as her legal given name.

The submission included a printout of a note from a herald whose name is not included in this printout. It is impossible to tell who wrote this note by looking only at the printout, though the LoI noted the name of the herald who saw the ID, so he is presumably the author of this note. However, this note does not list the submitter's full name - only noting that Kim is "her given name". As Kim is often a nickname for Kimberly, there was some question in the commentary which of these was her given name. In cases where a documentation for the Legal Name Allowance is provided without a photocopy, the question of a nickname versus a legal name is one reason that the submitter's full legal name should be written down at the time that the herald is viewing the ID.

In this case, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt and are registering her name.

Please see the Cover Letter accompanying this LoAR for more information about required documentation for the Legal Name Allowance. [Kim of Wolfshaven, 09/2003, A-Ansteorra]

François la Flamme 2003.08 Submitted as Pierre von Vorman RaKogscy de Saint Germain, there were a number of issues with this name.

Several elements of this name were submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. The submitted documentation states that the submitter's legal name is Pierre von Vorman Philosephales d'St. Germain. However, no photocopy of documentation (such as a driver's license) was received by the Laurel office supporting this as the submitter's legal name. Lacking such supporting documentation, this name must be evaluated without benefit of the Legal Name Allowance. [Pierre Vorman de Saint Germain, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2003.07 Douglas was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. However, no documentation was presented to support that this is his legal given name. Lacking such evidence, this name is not registerable via the Legal Name Allowance. Douglas is documented to period as a feminine given name in J. W. Garrett-Pegge, A Transcript of the First Volume, 1538-1636, of the Parish Register of Chesham, Buckingham County which lists Douglas lovet, buried October 28, 1592, as "the systers daught." of a person previously mentioned. Given this information, Douglas is registerable as a given name in this submission. [Douglas of Ravenslake, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Lothair Splittstoesser, Splittstoesser was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. However, no photocopies (such as of a driver's license or other legal document) were submitted demonstrating that Splittstoesser is the submitter's legal surname. Crescent found that "Bahlow/Gentry 3rd (sn Splettstö▀er, p. 483) dates Splittstö▀er to 1309." We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [Lothair Splittstö▀er, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.03 Richard was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. However, no documentation (such as a photocopy of a driver's license) was submitted to support Richard as the submitter's legal given name. Without such documentation, this name is not eligible for the Legal Name Allowance. As the College provided alternate documentation for Richard, this name is registerable. [Richard of Dragon Castle, 03/2003, A-Ealdormere]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Fiachrae the Bonesetter, the submitter requested authenticity for 13th to 14th C Ireland. As submitted, this name combined the Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) masculine given name Fiachrae with an English byname. Additionally, the term bonesetter was dated to c. 1510 as an English word. In the spelling boone setter, it was dated to c. 1470. Therefore, the submitted form of this name had two weirdnesses: one for combining Gaelic and English in a name, and a second for elements whose forms are dated more than 300 years apart. To remove the weirdness for temporal disparity in order to register this name, and to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity, we have changed the given name to the Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Fiachra. Lacking evidence that the Bonesetter would have been used as occupational byname for a Gael in Ireland, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's requested time and culture. [Fiachra the Bonesetter, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Brian was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. As no documentation (such as a photocopy of the submitter's driver's license) was included with the submission supporting Brian as the submitter's legal name, it is not registerable under the Legal Name Allowance. The College found alternate documentation for Brian, making it registerable. [Brian Silverswan, 01/2003 LoAR, R-East]
François la Flamme 2002.11 Submitted as Renée Claymore, Renée was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. The photocopy provided of her driver's license shows Renee to be her legal middle name. (Her signature included as part of the license only includes R. as her middle initial.) We have changed this name to the form Renee shown in the submitted documentation (her driver's license) in order to register this name.

If the submitter provides alternate documentation showing Renée as her legal name, we will happily register that form. [Renee Claymore, 11/2002, A-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2002.10 Judith was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. However, no documentation (such as a photocopy of a driver's license) was provided to support Judith as the submitter's legal given name. Lacking such support, Judith is not registerable under the legal name allowance. As alternate documentation was found for this element, we are able to register this name. [Judith Fletcher of Wellow, 10/2002, A-Lochac]
François la Flamme 2002.10 Alida was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. However, no documentation (such as a photocopy of a driver's license) was provided to support Alida as the submitter's legal given name. Lacking such support, Alida is not registerable under the legal name allowance. [Alida de Conti, 10/2002, R-East]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Evangeline was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. However, no documentation was provided supporting Evangeline as the submitter's legal name. Lacking such support, this name is not registerable under that allowance. [Evangeline Bajolet de Roubidoux, 09/2002 LoAR, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Phaedra was submitted under the Legal Name allowance. However, no documentation was provided demonstrating that Phaedra is the submitter's legal given name. Lacking such documentation, this element is not registerable via the Legal Name allowance.

Phaedra was also documented as a name from Greek literature. Since "[t]he story of Phaedra was very well-known in period, particularly in Renaissance France" (as noted by Metron Ariston), Phaedra is registerable in this name under the guidelines for use of literary names (see the Cover Letter for the February 1999 LoAR for more details). [Phaedra filia Roberti, 08/2002, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.07 The submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 14th C French and allowed no changes. Jeanne-Marie was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. However, the photocopy of her driver's license provided with this submission shows her name as JEANNE M [surname]. Therefore, this document does not support the form Jeanne-Marie for registration under the Legal Name Allowance. RfS II.4 states that "The allowance is only made for the actual legal name, not any variants." The provided document does not support the form Jeanne-Marie as her legal name. Alternate documentation was found for the elements Jeanne and Marie. The issue of hyphens in French names was addressed in the precedent:

The submitter has provided documentation for the use of hyphens in some late period French names. While we are not sure that all French names may be combined with hyphens, we are giving him the benefit of the doubt. [Yvon-Maurice Charon, An Tir-A, LoAR 08/98]

As no evidence was found for double given names or hyphenated given names in her desired period, we were unable to make this name authentic for that time and culture. [Jeanne-Marie Dubois, 07/2002, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2002.04 Vaska was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. However, since no documentation was provided (such as a photocopy of a driver's license, et cetera) that Vaska is the submitter's legal name, it is not registerable under the Legal Name Allowance. Since Wickenden (3rd ed., p. 387 s.n. Vasilii) dates Vaska Nozdria to c. 1495, Vaska is registerable as a Russian masculine given name. [Vaska McCormick, 04/2002, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.03 Submitted as Ignacio James, Ignacio was documented from Withycombe (p. 162 s.n. Inigo) as "a Spanish given name found since the 8th Century A.D.". The LoI also states that it is the submitter's legal given name but gives no documentation (such as a photocopy of a driver's license or other proof) to support a claim for the Legal Name allowance. Therefore, the name must be considered only on the merits of the documentation. [Ignazio James, 03/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Katja was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. ... In the case of the Legal Name Allowance, the documentation takes the form of a photocopy of an acceptable form of identification. ... A question was raised regarding exempting submissions taken at large consultation tables from this requirement since they often do not have access to photocopying. Every effort should be made to get the photocopy. Some consultation tables routinely ask the submitter to send a photocopy to their kingdom submissions herald after the event. This resolves many of these problems. In cases where this is not possible, the following information should be recorded on the submission: the full legal name of the submitter, what type of document was presented, where the submission was taken (Pennsic/Gulf Wars/Estrella consultation table, et cetera), and the name of the herald(s) who viewed the form of identification. Submissions that are calling on the Legal Name Allowance and do not have a photocopy of identification included as part of the submission will be considered on a case by case basis. This seems to be a reasonable balance between applying the same standards to all submitters and allowing for "hardship" cases. [Katja Gaussdottír of Storvik, 12/01, A-Atlantia]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.11 Lea is the submitter's modern middle name. As Laurel noted in returning Needham Bledsoe (10/91 LoAR, Outlands), a modern middle name may be used as a Society given name only if it is a given name by type, and Lea is not; originally: it is a locative surname derived from Old English leah `glade; meadow; wood'. [The name was returned for this and other reasons.] (Lea of Crystal Mountain, 11/95 p. 12)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1994.08 Angelena was stated to be a diminutive of the submitter's legal name. The legal name allowance only covers the exact form of the submitter's legal name, not variants or diminutive. We need documentation for Angelena. No documentation was submitted for the byname, nor did any of the commenters find any support for it. We need documentation that "of the Wild Roses" is a period byname or follows a specific pattern of period bynames. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR August 1994, p. 19)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.08 Submitted as Jenni Ilaria Morgan, no documentation at all was included to demonstrate that Jenni is the submitter's legal name, and the spelling she used on the form was Jenny. As has been stated before we do not register variants of a name under the legal name allowance. We have therefore dropped the problematic element as the submitter's forms allowed in order to register the name. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR August 1994, p. 7)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.05.21 If the submittor's actual legal name is [Name], then he should be able to provide [documentation] easily.... If it is not [Name], then he is not entitled to the leniency of the "mundane name allowance". (LoAR 21 May 89, p. 18)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.05.21 [Documenting mundane name] The College is quite reasonable and, although a photocopy of a birth certificate is the usual simple proof in such cases, a copy of a driver's license or other such "proof" item would be acceptable. (LoAR 21 May 89, p. 18)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.02.28 She enclosed a Xerox of her birth certificate: that's documentation! (LoAR 28 Feb 87, p. 6)
 
Special Characters (including "Da'ud" notation)
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 Submitted as Dufen Eyðimörkingr, we have changed the name to Dufan eyðimarkingr. The spelling of the given name was changed to match the submitted documentation; there is no evidence that a and e are interchangeable when Old Norse is written in a Latin style alphabet. [Dufan eyðimarkingr, 04/04, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2004.03 This byname was documented from Woulfe (p. 622), which lists the header Ó Muirnea{c.}áin where the notation {c.} represents a c with a "dot" over it. The "dot" over a letter in Gaelic is called a punctum delens. When Gaelic is being represented using the Roman alphabet, letters with the punctum delens are rendered with an appended h; thus, c with a punctum delens becomes ch in standard transliteration. For registration purposes, we use this standard transliteration method. [Muireann O'Muirnea{c.}áin, 03/2004, R-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2004.02 Submitted as Bjorn Samsson, the documentation showed the given name as Bj{o,}rn. We have made this correction. [Bj{o,}rn Samsson, 02/2004, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2004.02 [Alternate name Effe Men{gh}eis] Submitted as Effric Neyn Ken3ocht Mcherrald, we have replaced the 3 with {gh} as the representation for the yogh character per the May 2001 LoAR:

The main question in this submission was how to represent the letter yogh. For most purposes within the College, Da'ud notation is likely to be used; in that notation, {gh} is the appropriate choice. [Effric Neyn Ken{gh}ocht Mcherrald, 05/2001 LoAR, A-West]

[Effric Neyn Ken{gh}ocht Mcherrald, 02/2004, A-West]
François la Flamme 2003.12 Submitted as Bjorn inn mikli, the documentation showed the given name as having an o-ogonek (which looks like an o with a reversed comma attached to the bottom of the letter) not a simple o. We have made this correction. [Bj{o,}rn inn mikli, 12/2003, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2003.11 Listed on the LoI as Fortune Fetherstone, the name was submitted as Ffortune Ffetherstone. Initial ff- normally appears in English documents with both letters in lowercase and in fact appears to be a notation equivalent to F-. However, Metron Ariston was able to find evidence that the spelling Ff- was used in the late 16th century, for example in the record "Alison Ffetherston, wyffe of Silvester Ffetherstone was buryed the xth daye [of February 1586]" (from a scanned transcription of a nineteenth-century publication of the parish register of All Saints, Roos, Holderness in the East Riding of Yorkshire for the period 1571 through 1679 at http://www.pcug.org.au/~bthompso/roos/p18-37.txt). While it is possible that the editor changed the capitalization, this is sufficient to give the submitter benefit of the doubt, particularly since the -ff- notation is also used in the middle of the word wyffe. [Ffortune Ffetherstone, 11/2003, A-Northshield]
François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Gu{d-}{d-}r of Colanhomm, the given name was misspelled because of a misreading of the special characters in Geirr Bassi. The character {d-} (Unicode U+0111, "Latin small letter d with stroke") is not used in Old Norse. Instead, they used the edh (ð). Therefore, we have changed the name to match the documented form in order to register this name. [Guðr°ðr of Colanhomm, 11/2003, A-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2003.08 Listed on the LoI as Disa blatonn, this name was submitted as Disa Blatonn. The byname was changed at Kingdom to lowercase the byname to match standard transliteration conventions. However, the documented form of this byname is blat{o,}nn. While Old Norse names may be registered with or without accents, other diacritical marks cannot be omitted without documentation. Therefore, we have changed the o in the byname to {o,} (o-ogonek) in order to register this name. [Disa blat{o,}nn, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Þorbjörn Rauðfeldr, Þorbjörn was documented from Aryanhwy merch Catmael's article "Viking Names found in the Landnámabók" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/landnamabok.html). This source notes that the character ö is used to represent an o "with a reverse-comma hook on the bottom". This is the character o-ogonek, which we represent as {o,}. We have made this correction. We have also lowercased the byname to use standard transliteration conventions. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.) [Þorbj{o,}rn rauðfeldr, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.04 The correct Da'ud notation for the edh character, ­, is {dh}, not {dt}. [Grímkell Valgar­arson, 04/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.04 Submitted as Léofwynn of Leodridan, the marking used on the e in the given name is not correct. Metron Ariston explains:

I'm afraid that the marking in the on line article by Scott [Talan Gwynek's article "Feminine Names from A Dictionary of English Surnames", http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/reaney/reaney.cgi?Lewen>] cited on the Letter of Intent is merely an attempt to indicate the long marking in the source material and even there, it appears to be slightly off as Reaney and Wilson under Lewin note the source as the masculine form L{e-}ofwine. Selten (The Anglo-Saxon Heritage in Middle English Personal Names, Vol. II, p. 119) notes "L{e-}ofwynn is well evidenced in Old Enlish[sic]. . . but does not occur in Domesday Book and is apparently rare in Middle English." The given name should either be registered as L{e-}ofwynn or the marking should be omitted entirely.

Based on this information, this name is registerable as L{e-}ofwynn of Leodridan and Leofwynn of Leodridan. As the submitted form included a diacritical mark on the e in the given name, we have registered the form which includes a mark over the e. [L{e-}ofwynn of Leodridan, 04/2003 LoAR, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Thorbjorn inn sterki, the submitter requested authenticity for 10th C Norse and allowed minor changes. Thorbjorn was documented from Nara no Jebu's article "The Old Norse Name" (http://www.meridies.org/as/dmir/heraldry/1304.html). However, this article silently Anglicizes many characters, including thorn (■), edh (­), o-ogonek ({o,}), and any characters containing accents. We have changed the given name to match the form shown in Geirr Bassi in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Ůorbj{o,}rn inn sterki, 02/2003 LoAR, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2003.02 [Alternate name Lonán Dubh] The LoI noted that "[i]f possible, [the submitter] would like Dubh to be spelled Du{b.}, where the b has a dot over it." The "dot" over a letter in Gaelic is called a punctum delens. When Gaelic is being represented using the Roman alphabet, letters with the punctum delens are rendered with an appended h; thus, b with a punctum delens becomes bh in standard transliteration. For registration purposes, we use this standard transliteration method and so have registered this name using the standard form Dubh, as submitted. The submitter is welcome to use the form Dub with the punctum delens over the b when writing his name, if he wishes. [Lonán ua Conaill, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Listed on the LoI as Vi{dt}arr Grimsson, the submitter requested authenticity for 9th to 11th C Norse. The Da'ud notation for the edh character, ­, is {dh}, not {dt}. We have added the accent to the í in the byname to follow the submitted documentation and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Vi­arr Grímsson, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.12 This name was submitted as Aíbinn ingen Senáin hui Néill with a punctum delens (it looks like a dot) over the S in Senáin. When Gaelic is being represented using the Roman alphabet, letters with the punctum delens are rendered with an appended h; thus, S with a punctum delens becomes Sh in standard transliteration. For registration purposes, we use this standard transliteration method and so have registered this name using the standard form Shenáin. The submitter is welcome to use the form Senáin with the punctum delens over the S when writing her name, if she wishes. [Aíbinn ingen Shenáin hui Néill, 12/2002, R-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2002.12 From Laurel Clerk: Czech, Please! (or, Not To Be Too Diacritical, But ...)

I think that no LoAR cover letter has officially defined Da'ud notation for the diacritic called caron, alias hacek, alias ha{cv}ek, alias há{cv}ek. I gather from the Unicode standard that the usual representation is a circumflex inverted (a chevron inverted, a v-like mark) above a letter, but that it might occasionally be depicted using a breve or a single quote. The Da'ud notation will use a second-postion 'v' as in "{sv}" and "{cv}", two of the more common uses.

While I'm on the subject of Central European characters, another commonish combination ought to be defined for the sake of completeness: "{c'}" represents 'c' with an acute accent (/-wise) above it.

Those with Web access might like to bookmark a page by Blaise de Cormeilles and Teceangl Bach at http://www.scadian.net/heraldry/daud.html. It's not an official SCA Inc. or CoA Web page, but it gives the Da'ud initial implementation list from the February 1996 LoAR Cover Letter plus various (mostly unofficial) extensions. [Cover Letter for the 05/2002 LoAR]

François la Flamme 2002.09 The notation used in the LoI to represent this name did not accurately represent the name elements and did not follow standard notation used by the College. We can do no better than to quote al-Jamal in his analysis of the issues with the LoI's notation:

The use of curly braces in the header name and documentation is confusing, and makes it very hard to determine, without direct access to the documentation, exactly what spelling/transliteration is being used and what the marks are supposed to be. I am assuming that "a{-}" means that there is a horizontal line over the preceding "a", and that "a{'}" means that there is an accent over the "a" (though this sounds unlikely for the source cited. I do not remember that Qazi uses accents)

[Ah, back and home and with Qazi in front of me, the name there is Saa'iqa, not Saáiqa.] Please, we developed the system of curly braces in a systematic fashion in order to allow us to use them even on systems and with typewriters/word processing systems, etc. that did not print the multinational characters. To use another system, or to misuse the system, is only confusing. There are several websites that discuss the system of curly braces: http://www.grt-net.com/Heraldry/Names/Da_ud_Notation/da_ud_notation.html or http://www.scadian.net/heraldry/daud.html are only two examples. The initial implementation list, and the rationale behind it, were published in the Cover Letter with the February 1996 LoAR.

[Ana{-}n bint Saa{'} iqa, 09/2002 LoAR, R-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Listed on the LoI as Ailiono'ra inghean ui' Mhurchadha, the accents on these letters were incorrectly represented as apostrophes. We have made this correction. [Ailionóra inghean uí Mhurchadha, 08/2002, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2001.11 A character has been used from time to time, and I would like to formally introduce it and specify its representation. The letter o ogonek is used in Geirr Bassi (because it was used in Old Icelandic). It is usually seen as an o with a small comma-like hook under it, though a Unicode reference says Various hooks, commas, and squiggles may be substituted for the nominal forms. It isn't in Latin-1, the standard Western European character set. In fact, it doesn't appear to be in any font that we currently have available. Therefore, I will represent it without further explanation as {o,}, not just in Da'ud notation text files but also in LoARs. [11/01, CL]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.05 The main question in this submission was how to represent the letter yogh. For most purposes within the College, Da'ud notation is likely to be used; in that notation, {gh} is the appropriate choice. [Effric Neyn Ken{gh}ocht Mcherrald, 05/01,A-West]
 
Given Name supported as a plausible name used by humans in period
François la Flamme 2002.05 This submission is an appeal of a return of the same name in April 2001:

The given name was documented from Roberts, Notable Kin: An Anthology of Columns First Published in the NEHGS NEXUS, 1986-1995. While we have no reason to doubt the quality of the genealogical research, the goals of genealogists are different from ours and their data is not necessarily applicable to SCA use. The College was unable to verify this name. We therefore have to return it, barring new evidence of its use as a given name in period.

Also, please note that the College needs to know the culture as well as the time period of a name, especially when the name is documented from a non-standard source.

The current submission provides documentation of Sueva from a manuscript quoted in A. William Smith, trans., Fifteenth-Century Dance and Music: Twelve Transcribed Italian Treatises and Collections in the Tradition of Domenico da Piacenza. The woman mentioned in this manuscript as Sueva is Sveva, the first wife of Alessandro Sforza. (The v to u switch sometimes occurs in documentary forms.) Therefore, Sueva is documented to period as an Italian feminine given name and is registerable. [Sueva the Short, 05/2002, A-Æthelmearc]

Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.06 Current precedent is to accept the names of significant characters from period Arthurian literature as there is a pattern of such names being used in England and France in period. [Bedivere de Byron, 06/99, A-Atlantia]
Jaelle of Armida 1998.03 [Cristal Fleur Delamare] Cristal was documented on the LoI from Dauzat. However, the citation from Dauzat was only for a last name. Black has Christall Murray dated 1561, and assorted period surnames which start Cr. Given that, we feel that the form Cristal is a reasonable form. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1998, p. 7)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Galen Stuart] Some questions were raised as to how well known a classical Greek physician would be in medieval England. Writings by Galen or attributed to him formed much of the basis of the medieval medical literature (Siraisi, Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine: An Introduction to Knowledge and Practice, pp. 6, 10, 71-72, etc). Even very late in period, Galen was so familiar to the popular audience that Shakespeare used his name as a shorthand tag to denote a doctor (Merry Wives of Windsor, Act II, Scene 3). (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 2)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.10 [registering the given name Roxanne] While we do not find this a very likely name, since the stories of Alexander the Great were so popular during the middle ages (Alexander was one of the Nine Worthies), and since there is documented evidence of taking names from Arthuriana, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt. (Roxanne O'Malley, 10/96 p. 7)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.07 [registering Agravaine] (Agravaine Rhiwallon) Given the use in period of many names from Arthuriana, we find the use of an undocumented name of a significant character whose name appears in period Arthurian literature in this form acceptable. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1996, p. 11)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.01 Mara was the name taken briefly by Naomi in her bitterness (Ruth 1:20). The Bible presents it as a given name, and evidently it was considered a given name until recently (J. Comay, Who's Who in the Old Testament, p.293). It seems a reasonable given name for Society use. (Mara of the Oak Leaf, January, 1993, pg. 4)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 Given Withycombe's citation of Danyell in 1379, and Dauzat's citations of Michelle and Gabrielle, Danielle seems a reasonable French feminine form. (Danielle Corinna d'Assisi, September, 1992, pg. 5)
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1990.10 [Aynia] "Considering that the given is found with this spelling in the submitter's documentation, it seemed acceptable. (That it is most likely a variant of Aine is noted in the documentation.)" (LoAR 10/90 p.7).
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.05.24 [Malkin Alladrson] Note that, although a diminutive, numerous period sources show Malkin well-established as an independent form. (LoAR 24 May 87, p. 5)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.01.25 Note that solid evidence for the use of the form Lucina as a given name in period was derived from Withycombe (p. 200, under Lucy). It should not be taken as precedent for the use of the names of stars as given names in the Society. (LoAR 25 Jan 87, p. 14)
 
Given name NOT supported as a plausible name used by humans in period
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 Submitted as Melisande de Bourges, several variant spellings of this name exist, but none that support the -sande spelling. Therefore, we have changed the given name to Milesenda, a form documented from Morlet, Les Noms de Personne sur le Territoire de L'Ancienne Gaule du VIe au XIIe Siècle. [Milesenda de Bourges, 05/04, A-East]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.03 The name as submitted is not substantially different from her previous submission, which was returned because "Caroline does not appear to be a period name." In addition, the resubmission introduced a new problem. The submitter provides documentation for the name Karolin in a play first published in 1641 (the "gray area"). The purpose of the gray area is to provide the benefit of the doubt for names that are not found prior to the 17th century, but that may plausibly have been in use prior to 1600. For example, if a marriage record or a death record shows a particular name in use between 1600-1650, the name is registerable because it is plausible that it was in use prior to 1600. Literary names in the gray area do not enjoy the same mantle of plausibility. In this specific case, it is likely that Karolin, given to a character that sings carols, is an allegorical name. Barring evidence for the use of Karolin or Karolyne prior to 1600, or of the use of these names by real people prior to 1650, these names are not registerable. [Karolyne, called the Wanderer, 03/04, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.09 No documentation was presented and none was found that Langry was used as a given name in period. Lacking such evidence, the submitted name Langry de Cluny has no given name and, so, violates RfS III.2.a, which states in part "A personal name must contain a given name and at least one byname".

The documentation provided for Langry on the LoI was the statement: "Langry is dated to 1080 in Hopkins, Knights (39)." The source referred to in this statement is Andrea Hopkins, Knights (p. 39), which states, "[T]here is a record of one lord, Langry Gros, giving a mansus (a piece of land capable of supporting a household of people) to the great Abbey of Cluny in 1080 in exchange for a suite of mail."

Many modern history books modernize names. Additionally, historical figures are often referred to simply by their bynames (Mortimer, Hotspur, Percy, etc.). In the case of Langry Gros cited in Hopkins, we cannot tell from the context whether Langry is a given name or one of a pair of bynames. Therefore, we must examine other information about Langry to determine if it is plausible as a given name and whether the form Langry is a solely modern form. Metron Ariston found information about the name Langry online:

There is some significant doubt as to whether Langry is in fact a given name, though it is found as a byname in France. One of the larger on-line French onomastic dictionaries has this to say at www.jtosti.com/noms/l3.htm: "Le nom est porté dans la Seine-et-Marne et dans l'Aube. Variante: Langris (apparue au XIXe siècle). La finale -y semble indiquer qu'il s'agit d'un toponyme (nom de lieu) renvoyant à un ancien village. L'origine pourrait ŕtre semblable à celle de Langres (ville et plateau de la Haute-Marne), qui évoque le peuple gaulois des Lingones. A noter dans l'Ouest des hameaux appelés (la) Langrie. Il faut cependant remarquer que, dans le village de Saint-Léger (77), le nom Langry apparaţt comme une déformation de Landry (voir ce nom), à moins que ce ne soit l'inverse (les membres d'une mŕme famille sont appelés sur les actes du XVIIIe siècle tant˘t Landry, tant˘t Langry)." This would appear to indicate that at least some francophones consider it a locative byname rather than a patronymic one.

Lacking evidence that Langry in the cited Langry Gros is a period given name, we must assume it is a byname based on the evidence found by the College of Langry used solely as a byname in period. As such, the submitted name Langry de Cluny has no given name and must be returned. [Langry de Cluny, 09/2003 LoAR, R-Middle]

François la Flamme 2003.08 No documentation was presented and none was found to support Johari as a name used in period. Further, no documentation was presented for the byname al-Noori at all. and the College found no evidence that it is a period byname. Lacking evidence that these name elements were used in period, this name is not registerable. [Johari al-Noori, 08/2003 LoAR, R-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.06 Submitted as Dava the Quarrier, the name Dava was documented from a Web site that lists modern "Celtic" names. Lacking evidence that Dava was used in period, this name is not registerable. [Dana the Quarrier, 06/2003 LoAR, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2003.06 The submitter requested authenticity for 15th C French. The documentation provided for Ognar on the LoI was:

The submitter supplied no documentation in support of the given name. We are able to construct Ognar from Searle. The protheme Og-, middle element -n- and deuterotheme -ar are found on pages 365, 357, and 72 respectively.

Unfortunately, there are problems with the construction of Ognar as a hypothecized Old English name. Siren explains:

First, <-n-> doesn't mean what they think it means. The entry refers you to <-h->, where Searle comments that this letter is "often omitted, as in...." I see no reason to think that <-n-> means anything else. In addition, <-ar> appears to be a deuterotheme used only in a single name, <Wulfar>, which Searle believes to be a worn down form of <Wulfgar>. So, this construction won't work. In Anglo-Saxon, there are related constructions, like <Ognath> or <Ogmar>, or alternately the Old Norse <Agnarr>.

Lacking evidence that Ognar is a plausible name in period, it is not registerable. [Ognar de Lyondemere, 06/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.02 No documentation was presented and none was found to support Marandon as a plausible given name in period. Metron Ariston explains:

I was not able to find any instances of the root form or the diminutive in period as either a given name or a surname. Indeed, the earliest example I could find was in the mid-eighteenth century with the military engineer Francesco Marandon who was active in Malta in the 1740's. Indeed, since the earliest instances I was able to find for Marand in genealogical materials were associated with Marennes and Marans in the vicinity of La Rochelle in France, I have every reason to believe that the surname Marand and Marandon is actually locative in nature, probably from Marans.

As Marand, from which the diminutive Marandon derives, appears to originate from a place name rather than a given name, it is highly unlikely that Marand was used as a given name in period, much less that it spawned a diminutive such as Marandon in period. Therefore, lacking evidence that Marandon is plausible as a given name in period, it is not registerable. [Marandon Bestelle, 02/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.02 No documentation was found that Siridean was used as a given name in period.

Siridean was submitted based on the Gaelic surname form Ë Sirideáin found in MacLysaght's The Surnames of Ireland (s.n. (O) Sheridan). However, not all Mac and Ë surnames derive from given names. Some derive from descriptive bynames. For example, the surname Ë Balbháin (Woulfe, p. 433 s.n. Ë Balbháin) means 'descendant of the stammerer'. Metron Ariston describes the uncertainty regarding the origin of this name:

There has been a great deal of controversy over the etymology of Sheridan and its Irish antecedent over the years. Some people state that the putative Ë Sirideáin meant "son of the Searcher", i.e., is an attributive patronymic rather than a patronymic formed from a given name. Others insist it must have been derived from a rare given name (based largely on its use as a patronymic as far as I can tell). The Clan Sheridan web site itself (www.longfordtourism.com/genealogy/sheridan.html) notes "O' Shiridean literally translates as decendants of Sheridan the meaning of which is uncertain." I was not able to find a clear instance of its use as a given name (as opposed to a portion of a patronymic) in period [...].

Lacking evidence that Siridean is plausible as a given name in Gaelic in period, it is not registerable as a given name. [Siridean MacLachlan, 02/2003 LoAR, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2003.01 Ferogain was documented only as a legendary name, "one of the five human foster brothers to Cuchulain of Muirthemne. The legend can be found on-line at: http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/cuch/". Metron Ariston provided information about this name:

[A]part from references to the submitter, a quick search of the web produced only one reference with this spelling: an on-line version of Lady Augusta Gregory's rendition of the tale of Cuchulain, which is more or less notorious for its renditions of names found in the original sources. She gives the names of the five boys as "Ferger, Fergel, Ferogain, Ferobain, and Lomna Druth the Fool". While Ferger may represent an original Ferchar ( Ó Corráin and Maguire, Gaelic Personal Names, s.n. Ferchar) and Fergel a fairly obvious Fergal ( ibid., s.n. Fergal), the other names are problematic and the source given is clearly legendary. Based on current precedent without any evidence that the name was borne by humans outside that legendary context, that name cannot be registered. Since he says that he will accept any changes, perhaps he would accept the documented given name Ferganainm which Ó Corráin and Maguire (Gaelic Personal Name s, s.n. Ferganainm) say "was fairly common in Ireland down to the early modern period though I know of no very early examples".

Given the poor quality of the renditions of the names in Lady Augusta Gregory's work, we have no evidence that the spelling Ferogain is even a valid Gaelic name. Were evidence provided that it is a valid name in Gaelic, we still have no evidence that the name is not unique to this legend. Lacking evidence that it was used by humans in period, it is not registerable. [Ferogain of River Shannon, 01/2003 LoAR, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.09 This name is being returned for lack of documentation of Corthaid as a given name. Corthaid was documented via the surname Ó Corthaid, which is given as the Gaelic form in MacLysaght's The Surnames of Ireland (p. 71 s.n. Currid). Not all Mac and Ó surnames derive from given names. Some derive from descriptive bynames. For example, the surname Ó Balbháin (Woulfe, p. 433 s.n. Ó Balbháin) means 'descendant of the stammerer'. Woulfe (p. 482 s.n. Ó Corthaid) says specifically that he cannot trace the origin of the surname. Ó Corráin & Maguire list no given name similar to Corthaid. Lacking evidence that Corthaid is plausible as a given name in Gaelic in period, it is not registerable as a given name. [Corthaid Blodletere, 09/2002 LoAR, R-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2002.09 No documentation was provided and none was found that Sala{-}h is plausible as a masculine given name in period. al-Jamal found information regarding this name:

Schimmel gives two citations for the use of Salah in a name: one is the laqab of Yusuf ibn Ayyub, Salah al-Din (Saladin). The other, with Salah as a given name, is 'Abd as-Sabur Salah, who died in 1982. Hamid, of course, is entirely undated. al-Ja'fari does not give the name at all. Ahmed gives Salah, but the only citation to a real use of it is that of Salah-ud-Din (Saladin). Qazi gives Salaah, but, again, is completely undated. The Fihrist of al-Nadim, a period source, does not give any form of Salah. The sources which give dates all indicate that this name is modern. [...] [I]t seems most unlikely as a period name to me, based on the evidence in all of the sources at hand.

Given that all the period citations use this forms of Salah only in a laqab, and lacking evidence that it is plausible as a period given name, it is not registerable as a given name. [Sala{-}h of Akaray, 09/2002 LoAR, R-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2002.09 No documentation was provided that either name element in this name was used as a name in period. al-Jamal summarizes the issues with these name elements:

An{a-}n: The name actually given in Hamid is 'An{a-}n, with the hamza, a glottal stop, before the initial "A". The name also appears in al-Ja'fari's Muslim Names. I do not find it in any other of my sources. It also needs to be remembered that Hamid, al-Ja'fari, Qazi and, except where he gives dates, Ahmed, are all modern "what to name your baby in Muslim" books. The College has often accepted undated names from these sources owing to a lack of more comprehensive period sources, but their use must be tempered with the knowledge that the majority of names in them are modern and not period.

Saa'iqa: is found on p. 45 (#158) of Qazi. It is found in no other source, not even Hamid or al-Ja'fari. This is more of a problem, if only because of all the sources available, Qazi is probably one of the least dependable, and his transliteration system tends to be idiosyncratic, at best. To use a consistent transliteration system throughout the name, this should be S{a-}'iqa.

In the case of 'An{a-}n, the fact that it is listed in multiple sources and is not explicitly identified as modern might be enough to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt on that name element. However, in the case of S{a-}'iqa, it is found in only one source, and that being one of the least dependable. Lacking other supporting evidence, this single reference is not sufficient support for this name element. [Ana{-}n bint Saa{'} iqa, 09/2002 LoAR, R-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2002.07 This name change was submitted with the explanation:

Her name was registered as "Damiana bint al-Katib" in October 2001. It was submitted as "Dimiana" and was always intended to be "Dimiana", but there was a typo on the May 2001 Outlands Letter of Intent which spelled it "Diamiana". Pelican made a decision on which spelling to use, but the client would prefer it as "Dimiana." Since this typo occured on the Outlands LoI rather than the LoAR, this is a change of registered name submission rather than just a correction.

Unfortunately, neither the original nor the current submission provided support solid support for the form Dimiana. The submitted spelling was supported only by printouts of a web search on the spelling Dimiana. This printout lists instances of a Saint Dimiana which seems to be a modern variant form of Saint Damiana. The College found support for Damiana as a period form of this saint's name when the previous form of this name was put before the College for commentary. Lacking evidence that Dimiana is a plausible period form of this saint's name, it is not registerable. [Dimiana bint al-Katib, 07/2002, R-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2002.05 Submitted as Bryndís rau­kinnr Ragnarsdóttir, the submitter requested authenticity for "8th to 12th C Rus Viking" and allowed minor changes. Bryndís was submitted as a feminine given name constructed from the elements Bryn- and -dís. The meanings of these elements were documented as bryn 'armour' and dís 'noble and/or beautiful' respectively from the Web article "Nafnasafni­: Icelandic and Heathen names" by Haukur Ůorgeirsson (http://www.irminsul.org/arc/012ht.html). Metron Ariston provided an evaluation of this site for SCA name documentation purposes:

The site www.irminsul.org is published by the Irminsul Ættir, who describe themselves as "an Ásatrú church organization, a voluntary association of Ásatrúar to practice the religion, facilitate networking, sharing of resources, developing educational material and programs, fostering cooperation and the promotion of Ásatrú". As such, while I find it has a lot of interesting material, I also find most of it is strongly subordinated to their basic proselytizing intent and must be used with care. They certainly are not focused on chronological or linguistic accuracy in onomastics. [...] In this case, while the Icelandic Names listing has a lot of names and gives "meanings" (many of which the Norse would not have cared about), none of the names are dates apart from a statement that "This is a list of Icelandic names that were used in heathen times. Many, indeed most, are still used today. The spelling used is more or less appropriate for the later part of the saga-writing period." The intent of this group, which seeks to restore "heathen" religion is to provide a name pool for use names in religion and the desire for authenticity is strongly subordinated to that intent.

Since this site contains very few dates for the names listed, and given that there is no information regarding whether the forms of the names listed were normalized, this is a site that should be avoided for name documentation.

The elements Bryn- and -dís both appear in feminine given names in Geirr Bassi. Given these examples, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt on the constructed Bryndís. Lacking evidence that this name was actually used in period, we do not know if it is authentic for her desired time and culture. [Bryndís rau­kinn Ragnarsdóttir, 05/2002, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Dawved Val du Bois, the submitter requested authenticity for "any" and allowed any changes. Dawved was submitted as a "French form variation of David". However, no documentation was provided and none was found to support Dawved as a period variant of David. Lacking such documentation, it is not registerable. [David de Val du Bois, 04/2002, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Gulli was documented as dated to 1325 in Lind's Norsk-Islńndska Dopnamn (p. 400). However, it does not appear in that entry as a given name. Metron Ariston summarizes this issue:

Close examination of the entry for Gulli in Lind indicates that it is not in fact a given name but a byname meaning gold. Both the examples use it as a byname rather than a patronymic and it is specifically associated with the adjective gull meaning gold. This byname, frequently prefixive, as it also appears in Lind, is given as well in Geirr Bassi (The Old Norse Name, p. 22).

Lacking documentation that Gulli was used as a given name, it is not registerable as a given name. [Gulli av Grendelag, 04/2002, R-Middle]

François la Flamme 2002.01 Ságadís was proposed as a constructed feminine given name. Examples of feminine given names have been found which are formed from major figures in the Norse pantheon (Thor, Odin, Freya) and use the deuterotheme dís. However, no documentation was provided that Sága falls into the same category as Thor, Odin, and Freya. The only documentation provided for Sága was as "a female mythological name" in E. H. Lind, Norsk-isländska dopnamn ock fingerade namn från medeltiden. Simply saying "a female mythological name" gives no indication what type of character Sága was in mythology, whether she was a goddess, a human, or some other type of creature. Therefore, we have no evidence that Sága is falls into the category of names combined with dís to form feminine given names in period. Lacking such documentation, this name is not a plausible construction. [Ságadís Duncansdaughter, 01/02, R-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2001.08 The given name Damasca was documented as a feminine form of Damasco from De Felice, Dizionario dei nomi Italiani (p. 121, s.n. Damasco). However, De Felice says that the masculine given name Damasco was derived from Damascus, the name of the Syrian capital, and probably came into use in the late 19th century. Therefore, barring further documentation neither Damasco nor Damasca is registerable. [Damasca Gisele de Bier, 08/01, R-Ansteorra]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.07 In Latin contexts Panthera would have been a cognomen, roughly equivalent to a byname. No evidence was provided that it was used as a given name; we therefore have to return this. [Panthera Kallista, 07/01, R-Calontir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.05 Submitted as Astor Peyton, the given name was documented as a header spelling in Reaney and Wilson's A Dictionary of English Surnames. While we do register header spellings from this source as standard modern forms, the header spelling of a surname, as in this case, is not necessarily acceptable as a given name. We have therefore substituted a spelling used as a given name and dated by Reaney and Wilson to 1642, within our grey area. Granted, they also say that the name was used as a given name in the 17th century, but this is not sufficient for disallowing the name: the Glossary of Terms says it is logical to assume that something current in the period 1601Ś1650 may also have been current in the last years of the 16th century, so long as there is no specific evidence to the contrary. Reaney and Wilson, while casting doubts, are not specific enough. [Aster Peyton, 05/01, A-An Tir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.10 We were given no evidence that Lindsay was a given name in period. [Lindsay MacBean, 10/99, R-Calontir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.10 [Trinity] So we have given names derived from four great ecclesiastical feasts. [Christmas, Easter, Pentacost, and Epiphany] (Withycombe mentions also Midwinter and Loveday, which are also day names but not ecclesiastical feasts.) The striking thing is that this is a very short list. This is not enough to constitute a plausible productive pattern, much less extended to nouveaux lesser feasts like Trinity Sunday. [Trinity Munro, 10/99, R-Æthelmearc]
Jaelle of Armida 1999.06 [Felis de la Roca] The documentation on the LoI stated "The documentation for the name is provided by the Academy of Saint Gabriel quoting Morlet, Chambers, Dubh and Dauzat (some of these are on the Appendix H list, but others are not and no additional documentation is enclosed)". This is not adequate documentation for an LoI. As the Administrative Handbook states "A summary of all supporting evidence provided for the submission must be included on the letter of intent." This is so the entire College, not just Laurel, can evaluate it. While we are accepting it this time, it is with a warning that in the future the Laurel office may not be so forgiving. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR June 1999, p. 3)
Jaelle of Armida 1999.05 [Hamish Robertson] Black 's Surnames of Scotland (p. 719 under Seumas) says "Seumas. The Gaelic spelling of James. Often incorrectly Englished Hamish, which is the English pronunciation of the vocative form (G. Sheumais)." Withycombe's The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names (p. 144 under Hamish) says, "an attempt to render phonetically Sheumais, the vocative of Seumas, the Gaelic form of James (q.v.). Scott has a Hamish MacTavish, but the present vogue of the name seems to be due to the novels of William Black (1841-98), very popular in their day." Presumably Withycombe is referring to the author Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) in this reference. No evidence has been found to show that Hamish is anything but a post-period form. In-period renderings of Hamish are Seumas in Gaelic and James in English. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR May 1999, p. 13)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.09 [Morgana MacKay] According to the LoI Morgana is SCA compatible. That is not the case. Barring documentation that Morgana was used by a human as a given name prior to the year 1600, this name must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1998, p. 9)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.09 [Isabetta Issoncourt] While the LoI asserted that Isabetta is a plausible construction from Elisabetta, nothing was provided to show why that was a plausible construction, and no one in the College was able to provide the necessary information. Barring a pattern of such usage, or actual documentation for that form, the name must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Ingelri Kelvin] The name is being returned for lack of documentation. While the submitter provides copies from The Medieval Knight which said Ingelri was a name found on a Viking era sword, no documentation could be found for Ingelri in any other source. Since there is no way to know if the book was accurate, and or if the name was in the correct format, barring documentation we are forced to return the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Kinga MacKinnon] This is being returned for two reasons. First no period exemplars were presented and none could be found for Kinga as a period abbreviated form of Kunegunda. Secondly, no documentation was presented, and none could be found for regular contact between Hungary and Scotland. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Idhunn Thorlaksdottir] Submitted as Idhunna Thorlaksdottir, no documentation was found for the form Idhunna and none could be found. We have changed it to the closest documentable form. According to the submitter's forms she has documented Idunna in the past, but that documentation was not provided to us. If the documentation is sent to us and it is acceptable, we will change her name to Idhunna.
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Zarges Rüdi] This is being returned for lack of documentation for the given name. The LoI documented Zarries and Zacharias, not Zarges. Since there was no documentation on the given name and no one could provide any, we are forced to return the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.07 [Dis Egilsdottir] Submitted as Disa Egilsdottir, the only documentation presented for the given name was for Dis, which is a Norse female name. Since there was no documentation for Disa and none could be found, we have changed it to the documentable form.
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Gregoire le Gris] Submitted as Gregoir le Gris, no documentation was provided and none could be found for the spelling Gregoir. We have substituted the closest documentable form. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Jiraud Saint Germain] Submitted as Jhiraud Saint Germaine, no documentation was presented for Jhiraud as a period given name, and none could be found. We have substituted the closest period form. The LoI misspelled the byname Saint Germaine. We have corrected this. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.05 [Dyddanwy Canwr] This is being returned for lack of a documentable given name. While the LoI tried to construct Dyddanwy from Harpy's articles on constructing Welsh names, you cannot just randomly take one from column A and one from column B and come up with a valid Welsh given name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR May 1998, p. 25)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Lleulyth o'r Cymry verch Llewfron mab Dafydd] While the submitter says that Welsh adopted names from the bible, and that Lleulyth is Welsh version of Lilith. However Lilith is not a Biblical name -- she appears in non-canonical Jewish folklore, but not the version of the texts generally available in Europe during the medieval period. Nor does she fall in the class of figures whose names were borrowed for use. It is possible that somewhere in a period Welsh text, there is a reference to Lilith, however it does not occur in any of the texts cited by the submitter. No one in the college has any documentation for Lleulyth as a period Welsh name (whether connected with Lilith or not), nor can it be justified on the basis of existing compound name elements. And, the submitter did not provide any documentation for it, outside of her assertion. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 21)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.08 While the LoI cited a source for Sarina as a first name, no photocopies of the documentation were provided. Furthermore, while the LoI asserted that Sarina was a given name, no dated reference was provided. Absence documentation that Sarina is a period given name, we are forced to return it. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1997, p. 24)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.05 [returning Freyja the Cunning] There is no documentation for the name Freya/Freyja being used for anyone but the Goddess in our period. SCA given names must be given names used by Human beings in our period. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR May 1997, p. 9)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.04 While a French/Italian name is registerable, no documentation was presented to show that Chiara was a given name used by humans in our period, nor could anyone in the College provide any. Without such documentation, we have no choice, but to return the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1997, p. 25)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.02 Midir, which is the standard form of Midair, is a mythological name, and no evidence was provided, nor could be found that it was used by human beings in period. Given names must be documented as having been given names used by human beings in period. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1997, p. 24)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.10 The kingdom was unable to provide documentation for Josephine as a period name, nor could any member of the College of Arms. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR October 1996, p. 12)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.06 [returning the given name Tyrack] The name is being returned for incorrect construction. Most names constructed from ill-attested `themes' given by Searle don't work. (Tyrack of Trinlyr, 9/96 p. 16)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.06 In December I noted that in period Latin inflections do not appear to have been used to change the gender of Welsh (and for that matter Gaelic) names. That is, such feminizations as Briana, Morgana, and Alana are, so far as we know, post-period inventions. The first of these has been declared 'SCA-compatible' on account of its great popularity. As I noted in December, the other two have enjoyed less popularity and are represented by significantly fewer registrations. I called for commentary on whether to continue to allow these and other similarly-formed names for which there is no evidence of period use, promising a decision in May. As things turned out, May was an uncommonly busy month, and the matter was delayed until this month. At any rate the question stimulated little controversy (or even discussion), so a decision is not difficult: the names Morgana and Alana, as well as any other similarly feminized masculine names for which there is no evidence of period use (and which have not already been declared 'SCA-compatible'), are not considered 'SCA-compatible'. In other words, the argument based on the Latin/Romance practice of using inflectional endings to change the gender of a name is not automatically valid; it must be supported either by evidence of period use of the specific name or by evidence that the practice was in general use in the linguistic culture of that name. (Talan Gwynek, Cover Letter to the June 1996 LoAR, p. 2)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1996.01 Diane is the French form of Diana, a name occasionally found in England late in our period (and once in the 13th century). The double nn is apparently a modern innovation suggested by the name Anne; it is not evidenced in any of the available period citations, French or English, and is not supported by the Latin original. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR January 1996, p. 29)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.11 There is ... still no persuasive evidence for Liam as a period diminutive of Uilliam, so we are following the suggestion in the LoI and substituting the full form of the name. (Uilliam Óg Ó Manacháin, 11/95 p. 2)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.09 Andvari was `documented' from Kolatch as the Old Norse form of Andrew, thereby providing further evidence of Kolatch's uselessness. According to Lind, Andvari is mythological, the name of a dwarf in the Sæmundar Edda hins fróda; we need evidence of its use by human beings. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR September 1995, p. 29)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.06 Submitted as Ceridwyn [N], the spelling with a "y" is a hypothetical masculine version which does not appear in any documentation. (You might also let her know that Ceridwen was never used by humans in period, but was only the name of the Welsh goddess.) (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR June 1995, p. 3)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1995.06 Rhianna is not a documented name (not even the submitter's documentation gave this form) and has been returned before for lack of evidence of its use. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR June 1995, p. 24)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.05 [Caelica of Argyll] Caelica appears as the title to a collection of sonnets by Sir Fulke Greville, Lord Brook, which appeared only after his death, having first been published in 1633. As such, it could not have been a part of the name pool before 1600, and must be considered to be in the same category as other similar names, such as Miranda, as out of period. [The name was returned.] (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1995, p. 15)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.11 Submitted as ... Maximillian ..., Maximilian appears always, even the submitter's documentation, to be spelled with a single "l". (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR November 1994, p. 7)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.09 [returning the given name Albion] Albion is the oldest known name for Great Britain as a whole as early as circa 500 B.C.E. The mythological figure...was created to explain the ancient place-name. Names of mythological figures are generally disallowed unless shown to have been used by real humans in period. Albion appears never to have been anything but a place-name. (Albion, Son of Robyn, 9/94 p. 16)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.09 [Artos ap Gwydion ap Math] Artos is not a name; it is a word. While there are Welsh names that use arth- as an element, none of the commenters has found it used uncompounded. (Gruffudd's reference is to a possible derivation of the name Arthur, not to an independent name.) We need evidence for its use as a name in period before we can register it. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR September 1994, p. 21)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.08 Brianne is a modern name and apparently could only arise as a French version of Brianna; a hypothetical French form of a probably non-existent Latinized feminine form of a masculine Irish name [to borrow Palimpsest's wording] is farther from documented practice then we are willing to go. (Brianne nic Auslan de Buchanan, 8/94 p. 18)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.08 Submitted as Rosalinda Lucinda Concepcion Mondragon de la Vega. No dates at all were found for adduced for Concepcion. The reference in Hanks and Hodges referred to the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, and not the name Concepcion. Lacking adequate documentation we have dropped the problematic element. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR August 1994, p. 12)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.04 [Returning Kynda of Hollyoak.] The derivation of the given name is a further stretch of conjectural elements then we are willing to go. Each single element of conjecture is not too unreasonable in itself, but the cumulative effect of all of the conjectural elements in the chain is just too much. ... [T]he number of conjectural steps to get Kynda from documented examples is about three. The College has long been willing to accept reasonable variances from documented examples, but to accept a series of three conjectural steps is more than we are willing to go. [4/94, p.18]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.03 As several commenters noted in the discussion of Amber Lang in the attached LoAR, the registration of Amber as a given name in the SCA has been based on faulty evidence. Unless new evidence is found demonstrating the use of Amber as a given name in period, we will cease to register it after the Laurel meeting held in July 1994. [3/94c]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.03 No evidence was presented either in the appeal or in the commentary that [Abaddon] was ever used by humans, in or out of period. As a consequence, we are unable to register it here. [3/94, p.17]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.03 [Returning Mavis Isleen Reynebaud of Falcon's Keep.] Mavis is not documented before 1891. Isleen is unlikely as a period Englishing of the Irish name Aisling, which would more likely be Anglicized as Ashling. The submitter permitted only minor changes, and we believed the changes necessary to register some form of the name went beyond this allowance. [3/94, p.15]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1993.12a The first element of the "name" the submitter cites appears to be volni, "free, independent", not a given name. This situation helps to dramatize one of the major reasons we require that all documentation in another language be translated into English. [12a/93, p.20]
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.12 [Azaleja] Azaleja is a common noun, Serbo-Croatian for the azalea flower. Its use as a given name is based on Bosanac's Prosvjetin Imenoslov, which is apparently a Serbo-Croatian baby-name book (on a par with most of its American counterparts). (Azaleja Imrah Antoniades, December, 1992, pg. 16)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.10 There are only a bare handful of Melusines registered, and the only documentation is post-1650; I think I can safely disallow the name, pending evidence that it's period. I'd be willing to believe it a variant form of Melisenda, Millicent --- but as it's also the name of a mythical monster, I'd like to see some evidence of its period use by humans. (Melusine d'Argent, October, 1992, pg. 21)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.08 The given name was submitted on the strength of a citation in Geirr Bassi's Old Norse Name. This was an error, probably due to multiple photocopying: the actual name is Kadlin, with an edh. (It appears to be the Old Norse form of the Irish Kathlín.) Kaolin turns out to be a common noun, a form of white clay used in making porcelain; as such, it's unacceptable as a given name in the SCA. (Kaolin Karsikko, August, 1992, pg. 30)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.07 Liam doesn't appear to have been a period diminutive of Uilleam. All the sources that cite Liam do so as a modern diminutive; the period diminutive was Uillec. Without evidence of period use, we can't register Liam. (Uilleam Catach ó Maoilbhreanainn, July, 1992, pg. 24)
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1990.11 [Nichelle, documented as a combination of Nicole and Michelle] "One cannot take various name elements at random and combine them to form a new name. Such a practice does not follow the naming conventions of most languages. Given its modern use in the name of Nichelle ('Lt. Uhura') Nichols we need better documentation that this construction is reasonable in period French." (LoAR 11/90 p.14).
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.12.31 [Kavien] Although said to be a made-up name, it does not follow the naming practises of German, which appears to be the only identifiable language in the name: the ending is that of a participle and the only [similar] words we were able to find in German were imports from other languages.... The only commenter to find anything at all close to this form ... located it as a surname derived from a place name. All in all it fails to meet the requirements for a made-up name under the old rules and the strictures on Invented Names in the new rules (II.3). (LoAR 31 Dec 89, p. 6)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.09.30 [Aegirjon of Cathanar] The name "Aegir" is not Celtic, as stated on the letter of intent, it is the name of the Norse god of the sea and, as such, is not eligible for use in the Society unless it has been documented to be used by normal human beings in period. Such documentation has not been forthcoming. (LoAR 30 Sep 89, p. 14)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.08.27 As this is a common noun, under NR10 compelling evidence for this name used in period as a given name must be provided. As we have often commented before, the fact that a name with meaning is used in one language does not mean that it will be used in another. For instance, although the actual meaning of "Athelstan" is "noble stone", we would not allow someone to register "Noble Stone Jones", even though Old English is the same language pool as Middle and Modern English! While there is a great deal of evidence that a number of primitive cultures have used totemic animals for names derived from transferred epithets, the use of names like Arthur, Bjorn, Ursula, etc. do not necessarily demonstrate that "Bear" would be used in English. (LoAR 27 Aug 89, p. 22)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.04.30 Names appearing in Katherine Kurtz' novels are not automatically acceptable for Society use. (LoAR 30 Apr 89, p. 4)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.04.30 The position that the existence of a name in a piece of fiction from a pre-technological era automatically compels acceptance by the College is contrary to a long tradition in the College of Arms.... This is one of the oldest "allowances" and is restrictive rather than permissive. In other words, it was placed in the rules at the time to prohibit certain forms of fantasy names, not to legitimize fantasy names as a category. Indeed, the wording of the current rules specifically says that fantasy names may be accepted, not that they must be and there is a long tradition of requiring proof of compatibility for the use of such names. For as long as we can remember, names drawn from fantasy have had to obey other strictures (e.g., the ban on names which include titles or claims of rank) and this clearly is still the case. On the basis of [the principal herald's] thesis, the College would be required to register "Smurf", if an enterprising fantasy writer named one of his or her characters that (formally or informally). Somehow we doubt that is what is intended! (LoAR 30 Apr 89, p. 17)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.10.30 [Loriwynn Lindsdottir of Skye] The submittor found "Lore" as a given name in French prose romances based on the Arthurian legend, but a French given name cannot simply be merged with an Old English or Welsh suffix without further ado. Even the merging of Old Norse with Old English, which would be culturally, if not necessarily linguistically, more persuasive, cannot be supported and we were unable to locate the form "Lorí" mentioned by Brigantia without any citation of a specific source. (LoAR 30 Oct 88, p. 15)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.04.23 The name was submitted as Beryld Blackwolf de Gilbert with the notation that the given name was "formed on the out-of- period English feminine name 'Beryl', with a 'd' added to the end to make it masculine. The general consensus of commentary was that adding an undocumented suffix form to an out-of-period name does not make an acceptable Society name. Thus we have substituted the documented period English given name "Berold" which is nearly identical in spelling and pronunciation (see Withycombe, p. 42). (LoAR 23 Apr 88, p. 8)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.08 [Kerensa of the Winds] The explanation offered by the submittor for the given name on the basis of Provencal orthography is not compelling, particularly since "kerensa" is the Cornish common noun meaning "affection" or "love". This being so, our rules demand some evidence for its use as a given name in period. (LoAR Aug 87, p. 15)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.08 Arianrhod was the Welsh moon goddess and, failing evidence for human use of the name in period, may not be used in the Society. (LoAR Aug 87, p. 13)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.08 The given name [Roen] was stated to be "the Irish name Rowan as it would be spelled by a French monk or priest after only hearing it once." Unfortunately, not only is this somewhat debatable, but this is also a documented period English spelling for the name of the French city of Rouen (Reaney, p. 296). Therefore, it cannot be accepted as a constructed variant. (LoAR Aug 87, p. 15)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.07.26 Documentation is required for period use when a name is demonstrably a place name in period. (LoAR 26 Jul 87, pp. 10-11)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.06.14 [Del Delson] The forms (e.g., Dealla, Dela) cited in the letter of intent from Redin are all "weak" masculine nouns which would appear not to form this sort of name modification. In this case the "plausibility" of the construct is rendered somewhat irrelevant by the documented modern use of "Del" as a diminutive form. As Crescent has noted in discussing name documentation, arguments from plausibility must give way to actual evidence and, in this case, a theoretical radical usage must give way to actual diminutive usage. A very close form could be derived from the documented Old Norse given name "Dalli": Dalli Dallason (Geirr Bassi, p. 9). (LoAR 14 Jun 87, p. 6)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.04.26 [Genet] Two etymologies were given for the given name, neither of which is acceptable for period usage. [One] involves creation of a new "flower name" and such have long since been barred from Society usage. The alternative meaning ... is not, so far as we can determine, used in period as a given name. (LoAR 26 Apr 87, p. 11)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.02.28 [Kalina Crna zvjesda] Insufficient documentation was provided to demonstrate that Kalina was a period given name in Serbian or any other language. Documentation in support of the formation and meaning of the byname would also be helpful. (LoAR 28 Feb 87, p. 22)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1986.12.28 The name Moriah has been returned previously ... on the grounds that it is a Biblical place name, the mountain where Abraham prepared to sacrifice Isaac, and not a form used in period as a given name. No evidence has been presented to contravene that precedent. (LoAR 28 Dec 86, p. 17)
Baldwin of Erebor 1985.07.14 I observed one fallacy ... in the text of the arguments. The fallacy was expressed in the statement that "the fact that the name thus coined [from human name themes] happens to be a dwarvish name is no barrier to its appropriateness." William and the Bastard may both be correctly combined to form a name, but the result is a recognizable conflict, and is therefore inappropriate. N. is a recognizable dwarf name, and must be dealt with as such. [BoE, 14 Jul 85, p.14]
Baldwin of Erebor 1985.01.05 Prydwen, as a number of commenters noted, was the name of King Arthur's ship in Welsh folklore. This does not necessarily mean that it is not a given name (I believe ships were sometimes given women's names in period), but in this case a period example of its use as a given name seems to be in order. [BoE, 5 Jan 85, p.2]
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1981.06.24 One must provide evidence for the acceptability of a given name. A citation in a name book counts as evidence (but not conclusive evidence). Such a citation is sufficient unless an objection can be found in period, such as use of the name as a surname in period. Then it is up to the submitter to show that the name was used as a given name in period. WVS [44] [LoAR 24 Jun 81], p. 8
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1980.07.21 N. is out of period as a given name. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 12
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1980.06.05 [Irminsul the Improbable] The Irminsul is a famous thing, and cannot be used as a given name, unless she can provide documentation showing that it was used as a given name in our period. WVS [19] [LoAR 5 Jun 80], p. 4
Karina of the Far West 1979.06.30 "Melusine" is apparently a corruption of Melisante, but it also means a two-tailed mermaid. Please document it as a proper name (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 3)
 
Byname NOT supported as a plausible in period
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 A note on the forms indicated that the submitter wished to submit the byname van Zweeloo instead of of Frisia. However, this was not the submitted byname, nor is it a form of the submitted byname. Because the submitter did not actually submit Juliana van Zweeloo, we cannot in good conscience change her name so completely and register it.

Submissions heralds should note that the resources of the College of Arms are at their disposal. If a submitter wishes to submit something when documentation should exist but is not available to the submissions herald, that is the time for the herald to avail themselves of these resources. This can be done informally, by asking someone either in person or on any of the kingdom or SCA-wide heraldic mailing lists, or formally by noting that they were unable to document an item and asking the College for help in the submission. [Juliana of Frisia, 05/04, A-Middle]

Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 This name is returned for a number of reasons. First, the documentation for the place name Risna is insufficient to determine whether this is a reasonable transcription of a period place name. The name is found in an index to an English translation of a Victorian-era history of Russia; the date is attached to a different spelling, Riasno, to which Risna is cross referenced. The index gives no indication whether the spellings are period forms, if they are normalized, or if the modern names are used. Without this information, we cannot register this spelling. If the submitter wishes to research this name further, finding the work in which this name is found, Vol. 4 Russia Under the Tatar Yoke, 1228-1389, Helen Y. Prochazka, London, England, and seeing what it says about it and about how the names are handled would be useful. In future uses of this source as documentation, submitters should include enough information from the introduction to explain how names are treated. For further research, the submitter may consider searching for Ryasna in Belarus, which is probably the preferred modern name for this place.

The second problem is that the name mixes an English given name with a Lithuanian byname. As no documentation was submitted showing contact between these two cultures, and none found by the College, such combinations cannot be registered. The submitter may want to consider using a German form of Katherne, since there was contact between Germany and Lithuania in period. Some forms are Katherin 1337, Katherine 1366, and Kethe 1365.

Finally, the name combines a German preposition with a Lithuanian name in the same name phrase. The Rule for Submission III.1.a says "Each phrase must be grammatically correct according to the usage of a single language." Barring documentation that Risna is a German form of this place name, these two words cannot be combined in a name phrase. A better alternative would be to use an appropriate Lithuanian form for the locative byname. However, since we do not know the appropriate form for the place name, we are unable to suggest its byname form. [Katherne von Risna, 04/04, R-Lochac]

Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.03 Submitted as Willeam of the Green Pants, the OED dates the first occurrance of the word pants to 1846. Barring evidence that the word pants occurs before 1600, it cannot be registered. Since the submitter will accept all changes, and since he obviously wants to be identified by his green pants, we have changed the byname to Grenetrewis, a hypothetical descriptive byname constructed from two 16th century Scots words, grene (green) and trewis (trews). [Willeam Grenetrewis, 03/04, A-West]
François la Flamme 2004.03 Submitted as Aveline de Longueville, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 13th C Anglo-Norman and allowed minor changes.

Regarding the submitted byname, the LoI stated only:

[de Longueville]~ town in Normandy, France.

This statement is not documentation for the submitted byname as it does not provide supporting evidence that Longueville is a location in Normandy, even modernly.

Several members of the College researched this byname in order to aid the submitter. They found that Reaney & Wilson (s.n. Longueville) date Henry de Longauilla to 1185, Henry de Longavill' to 1229, and Thomas de Longevill to 1336. Based on these examples, de Longavilla is a likely form for her desired time period. No evidence was found for a Longue- form before 1509 (Reaney & Wilson, s.n. Longueville).

We have changed the byname to the form de Longavilla in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Aveline de Longavilla, 03/2004, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2004.03 Submitted as Emma Le Blanc, the submitter requested that her name be made authentic for a Norman woman. She also said that she cared about the meaning 'the white'.

The LoI documented the byname from Cateline de la Mor's article "Sixteenth Century Norman Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/cateline/norman16.html). However, this article gives forms found in a history book; we do not know the actual forms the names took in period.

Marie-Thérèse Morlet, in Étude d'Anthroponymie Picarde, dates the masculine le Blanc and feminine la Blanche to 1363 and 1404 respectively. The form La Blanche is found in 1421 in Paris, in Aryanhwy merch Catmael's article "French Names from Paris, 1421, 1423, & 1438" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/paris1423.html). As the submitter requested a byname meaning 'the white', we have changed to to the feminine form La Blanche to make this byname have her desired meaning while being authentic for Norman.

The surname Leblanc is a likely 16th C form. However, by then it would be a surname, not a descriptive byname indicating that the submitter is 'the white'. [Emma La Blanche, 03/2004, A-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2004.01 Submitted as Rohesia Moreleigh, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 14th C English and allowed minor changes. No documentation was presented and none was found that Moreleigh is a period form of this placename. The LoI stated that "Moreleigh is cited from P.H. Reaney & R.M. Wilson, Dictionary of English Surnames, pg 314, sub Morley, dating Moreleigh to 1377." This statement is in error. The name dated to 1377 at this location in Reaney & Wilson is Thomas Morleigh. We have changed the submitted byname to Morleigh to match this documentation and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Rohesia Morleigh, 01/2004, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Arthur of Ballan Moor, the submitter allowed minor changes only. The placename Ballan Moor was justified as the modern name of a ruined castle in Wales. The College could find no documentation that the name was used in period.

However, it is possible to construct a possible placename using these elements. The period form of the surname appears to be Ballon; the College could not find evidence that the spelling Ballan was used before 1600. Based on similar placenames, the byname needs to take a possessive form, and the most likely spelling for the second element is -more, giving the spelling Ballonesmore.

We have changed the location Ballan Moor to the plausible period spelling Ballonesmore in order to register this name. [Arthur of Ballonesmore, 10/2003, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2003.10 No documentation at all was provided for the byname De L'Isle on the LoI. Submission heralds are reminded that lack of documentation continues to be a reason for return.

Multiple members of the College researched this byname and we thank them for their efforts. No evidence was found that the submitted De L'Isle is a plausible period form. Reaney & Wilson (p. 281 s.n. Lisle) dates Robert del Ile to 1311. We have changed the byname to this form in order to make the byname authentic for the submitter's requested time period and to register this name. [Oriana del Ile, 10/2003, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Regarding the byname Terrien, the LoI stated:

Terrien is a French byname, "man of the earth," which even in a very early period (5th to 9th C.) would suggest a common profession of the time, such as farmer (Bahlow, p. 566 s.n. Terre).

However, the College was unable to find this entry in Bahlow. Also, they found no support for Terrien except as a modern surname. Lacking evidence that Terrien is a plausible byname in period, it is not registerable.

No documentation was provided in the LoI for the byname the Goth and the College found no support for the Goth as a plausible byname in period. Lacking such evidence, this byname is not registerable. [Ricchar Terrien the Goth, 10/2003, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.09 [Alternate name Maria Agrissa Sgourina] This name is being returned for lack of documentation of Agrissa as a plausible byname in period.

The byname Agrissa was documented as the feminine form of a masculine hypothetical byname derived from the word agrios 'wild.' This byname has several problems. First, there is no evidence that agrios was used as a byname. The College was able to document Agrios as a masculine given name, but not as a byname. Patronymic bynames were occasionally used in Byzantine Greek. However, lacking evidence as to the form that a patronymic byname formed from the masculine name Agrios would take or whether such a construction is temporally compatible with this name, the element Agrissa is not registerable.

This submission justified Agrissa by referencing bynames that describe aspects of a person's character. However, the examples provided show bynames meaning 'of good character' and 'peaceful', which are not sufficiently similar to 'wild' to support a byname meaning 'wild'.

In addition, the element Agrissa is incorrectly formed. The feminine form of the adjective agrios is agrina, and a byname formed from would be expected to take the same form. The example that the submitter used to form Agrissa was an irregular form and would not apply to a feminine form of the word agrios.

As the submitter does not allow major changes, we were not able to drop the element Agrissa in order to register the name. [Màiri ni Raghallaigh, 09/2003 LoAR, R-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2003.08 No documentation was presented and none was found to support Johari as a name used in period. Further, no documentation was presented for the byname al-Noori at all. and the College found no evidence that it is a period byname. Lacking evidence that these name elements were used in period, this name is not registerable. [Johari al-Noori, 08/2003 LoAR, R-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.08 The byname inghean ui Chumaráin was submitted as a feminine form of Ó Cumaráin, which was documented from MacLysaght (p. 35 s.n. Cameron). No documentation was provided and none was found that the name Ó Cumaráin existed in period. Lacking such evidence, the submitted byname is not registerable.

As the submitter only allows minor changes, and changing the language of the byname is a major change, we were unable to change this name from the Irish Gaelic inghean ui Chumaráin to the Scots Cameron in order to register this name. [Brigit inghean ui Chumaráin, 08/2003 LoAR, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Catherine Anne Applebee, Applebee is a header form found in Reaney & Wilson (s.n. Appleby). In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. However, precedent (most notably regarding modern forms in Ó Corráin & Maguire) has ruled that header forms which are modern might not be registerable. This has been handled on a case by case basis. In this instance, no evidence was found that -bee is a period variant of -by in placenames in period. Lacking such evidence, the form Applebee is not registerable. The closest form to the submitted Applebee that was found was in F. K. & S. Hitching, References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602 (p. xxv), which dates the form Applebey to 1602. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [Catherine Anne Applebey, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.05 Submitted as Aodhan Longshafts, the submitter requested authenticity for the 10th C (no culture specified) and allowed any changes. The LoI stated that:

Longshafts -attached letter of explanation stating his arrows in archery are long and feels that the longshafts should be considered as a by-name

[Aodhan Longarrow, 05/2003 LoAR, A-Ealdormere]
François la Flamme 2003.05 The documentation provided in the LoI entry for this submission was inadequate. If this submission were judged solely on the evidence provided in the LoI, this name would have been returned for problems with both the given name and the byname. The LoI stated:

The name is Old Norse and English. Gunnar is a masculine given name, "Viking Names found in the Land-námabˇk," Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/landnamabok.htm <(http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/landnamabok.htm>). The second element is a descriptive byname consistent with Norse practice of referring to an individual's physical characteristics; the submitter is not interested in using a translated form of the byname.

The information provided in the LoI for the given name Gunnar does not match the information in the cited article. The statement that Silverbeard "is a descriptive byname consistent with Norse practice of referring to an individual's physical characteristics" provides no evidence that Silverbeard is a plausible byname in period.

Multiple members of the College went out of their way to provide the missing documentation as a courtesy to the submitter and we would like to thank them for their efforts.

Regarding the given name, the correct title for Aryanhwy's article is "Viking Names found in the Landnámabˇk" and it is now located at http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/landnamabok.html. However, the name found there (and in Geirr Bassi) is Gunnarr, not Gunnar. Lind, E. H. Norsk-Islńdska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn frňn Medeltiden (column 404 s.n. Gunnarr) dates Gunnar to 1374 and 1393, supporting Gunnar as a 14th C Norse/Icelandic form of this name.

Sommelier found documentation to support Silverbeard as a plausible descriptive byname in English:

R&W (sn Silverlock, p. 409) date John Silverloc to 1268 (from silver lock, silver hair) and John Silvertop (sn Silverside, p. 409) is dated 1478 with the meaning silver hair. They similarly list Peter Blacloke 1275 and Adam Blakelok 1332 probably from black-beard (sn Blacklock, p. 47) and William Whytlok is dated to 1285 (among others, sn Whitelock, p. 487). Given the R&W citations for black-beard (sn Blackbird, p. 46 with William Blacberd 1206, Thomas Blakeberd 1275) and white-beard (sn Whitbread, p. 486 with William Witberd 1221, Walter Wyteberd 1297), "silver-beard" is a plausible English descriptive epithet.

We would like to remind submissions heralds that inadequate documentation has been and will continue to be a reason for return. [Gunnar Silverbeard, 05/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.03 No documentation was provided and none was found that a byname meaning 'cat-slinger' is a plausible period byname. Lacking such evidence, the byname Sl°ngvandkottu is not registerable. [Kristr°­r Sl°ngvandkottu, 03/2003, R-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2003.02 The submitter requested authenticity for 15th to 16th C Northern Italy and allowed no changes. The only documentation provided for the byname delle Alpi, intended to mean 'of the Alps', was from a modern Italian dictionary. This gives no indication whether such a byname would have been used in Italian in period. Several commenters found that Fucilla (p. 100) stated:

Unless it refers to a place name Alpe, dall'Alpi is difficult to explain since the vast mountain system of the Alps is too big and indefinite to have produced a cognomen.

Lacking evidence that any form of delle Alpi is a plausible Italian byname in period, it is not registerable. [Alessandro delle Alpi, 02/2003 LoAR, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Tam Surrell, no evidence was found that Surrell is a plausible period name. Reaney & Wilson (p. 411 s.n. Sirdifield) give Surrell as the fourth header form in this entry. In most cases, header forms are registerable because they are plausible period variants of the name in question. In this case, the entry in Reaney & Wilson dates Richard de Surdeval to 1086, Robert de Surdeuall' to 1197, John Sowrdewall to 1488, and Richard Surwald to 1516. It is important to note that all of these forms retain the d, which does not support Surrell as a period form. As Surwald is the closest of the forms dated in Reaney & Wilson to the submitted Surrell, we have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [Tam Surwald, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2002.12 No documentation was presented and none was found that Ashie Moor is a plausible Scottish placename in period. Lacking such evidence, this name is not registerable. As the submitter allowed no major changes, we were unable to drop this element in order to register this name. [Lochlan MacBean of Ashie Moor, 12/2002, R-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.12 The only documentation provided for the byname von Heisenberg on the LoI was:

The only reference Bahlow gives to Heisenberg is as the surname of the 20th C physicist, with a reference to Old Norse (p. 223). Given the construction, it seems logical as a coined place name ("Heise/n Mountain"), so that von could be included in the name.

This statement does not provide evidence that Heisenberg is a plausible formal name for a German placename in period because it (1) does not show that a place named Heisenberg existed in period, and (2) does not show placenames that did exist in period and demonstrate that a place named Heisenberg follows the same construction pattern and so would be a plausible period placename. Lacking evidence that Heisenberg follows a pattern of a German placename in period, the byname von Heisenberg is not registerable.

If the submitter is interested in a similar sounding placename, he may wish to know that Brechenmacher (s.n. Eisenberg) dates Ysenburg to 1331. [Gregor von Heisenberg, 12/2002, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.10 Submitted as Valentine Rafael de Peregoy, no documentation was presented and none was found that Peregoy is a valid "Anglicized form of the French locative Perigeux". Lacking evidence that the form Peregoy is plausible in period, it is not registerable. [Valentine Rafael de Périgueux, 10/2002, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.10 Submitted as Gisela de Calais, the submitter requested authenticity for 8th to 10th C Carolingia. No documentation was provided for Calais in the LoI except the statement "Calais is a city on the north coast of France", which provides no evidence that Calais was the name of a location in period. Dauzat & Rostaing (p. 131 s.n. Calais) dates the form Kalais to 1181. As this was the earliest citation found for this placename, we have changed the byname to use this form to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Gisela de Kalais, 10/2002, A-West]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Duncan Faramach MacLeod, the submitter requested authenticity for 13th C Scots, though information included with the submission indicated that the the sound of the name was more important than the request for authenticity. In this name, Duncan and MacLeod are Scots (a language closely related to English) and Faramach is Modern Scottish Gaelic. In period, a name would have been written all in Scots or all in Gaelic depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. No documentation was found that Faramach, meaning 'noisy/loud', was used in period. [Duncan Fearmac MacLeod, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.09 This name is being returned for lack of documentation of the byname toti■jalfi as a plausible period byname. The byname toti, meaning 'breast' (well, not quite, but this is a family forum), is listed in Geirr Bassi (p. 29). However, there are no examples of this byname being used in a compound byname. Additionally, no evidence was found that the byname ■jalfi (also found in Geirr Bassi on p. 29), meaning 'embracer, conqueror' would be combined with an element refering to a body part. Lacking support for this construction, it is not registerable. As the submitter only allows minor changes, we were unable to drop an element and register this name as Styrkárr toti or Styrkárr ■jalfi.

There was also a good bit of discussion regarding whether the constructed byname was offensive. We are declining to rule on that issue at this time. [Styrkárr toti■jalfi, 09/2002 LoAR, R-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2002.09 The submitter desired the locative byname de Roubidoux, because she lives in the Roubidoux River Valley. Metron Ariston found some information regarding this name:

The earliest citations I could find for Roubidoux referred to the family of the founder of Saint Louis Missouri, some in phonetic spellings like "Rubidu" and none went back before the eighteenth century.

Orle found more information:

Roubidoux was brought into that region by a French settlers in the mid-1700s from Montreal. I can find no evidence of the name earlier than that.

Unfortunately, none of the information found by the College dates the name Roubidoux earlier than the 18th C. Lacking evidence that it is a plausible period name, it is not registerable. [Evangeline Bajolet de Roubidoux, 09/2002 LoAR, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.08 The byname Maldèstro was documented only from a modern Italian dictionary as a word meaning 'clumsy'. This gives us no indication that this word existed as an Italian word in period. Lacking evidence that it is a word that would plausibly have been used as a descriptive byname in Italian in period, it is not registerable. Additionally, the accent shown in the word maldèstro is a pronunciation guide in that dictionary and is not actually part of the word, which is maldestro. [Elisabetta Maldèstro, 08/2002, R-East]
François la Flamme 2002.07 No documentation was provided in the LoI for the element Ghafoor and the College found none. Lacking documentation that this element is plausible as part of a period name, it is not registerable. [Mu'Alimah Ramia Jameela Ghafoor, 07/2002, R-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.07 The LoI also noted that, "The client actually uses the name Michael of Endroc, but couldn't find documentation for Endroc. Any help on either byname would be appreciated." Orle found that "Endroc is a town in Hungary in county Baranya and region of Southern Transdanubia. HolinfoBank gives this modern information but I don't know how old this name is." For the element Endroc to be registerable, it would need to be documented as a plausible placename in period.

As the name submitted was Michael of Ravenskeep, and there is no mention of the element Endroc on the name submission form, we have registered a form of the submitted name. Lacking evidence that Ravenskeep is a documentable placename in period, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's requested time and culture. [Michael of Ravenskeep, 07/2002, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2002.06 The submitter has been trying for a number of years to register a locative byname in Arabic based on his group's name, Barony of the Hidden Mountain. He has attempted to document his byname as a locative byname based on an Arabic placename because of the policy that names of SCA branches are only automatically registerable in their registered form. This policy was recently upheld with this ruling:

[returning Armando de la Rama de Mil Ojos] This submission ... translates the name of his group into Spanish. Names of registered extant SCA groups are only automatically registerable in the language in which they are actually registered. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1997, p. 15)

The major problem in the current submission is that no documentation was provided, and the College found none, that the underlying placename in this locative byname is plausible as a period placename in Arabic. In order to support a constructed locative byname, several steps need to be addressed. First, the placename that the locative byname will be based upon needs to be documented as a plausible placename in period. The byname min al-Jabal al-Mukhfi was submitted with the intended meaning 'of the hidden mountain'. Documentation was provided that the phrase min al-Jabal al-Mukhfi is grammatically correct in modern Arabic and means 'from the mountain of the concealer' or 'the mountain that hides [itself]'. However, that the phrase is grammatically correct as a modern Arabic phrase, does not address its use as a period Arabic byname. Lacking evidence that this phrase is plausible as a period Arabic byname, it is not registerable.

Additionally, as stated in the December 1995 return, "[t]he preposition min 'from, out of' is not used in Arabic names." No evidence was provided in the current submission to contradict this point. Lacking evidence that min was used in period Arabic names, it is not registerable.

What is needed to construct an Arabic locative byname referring to a hypothetical location is the following:

First, an Arabic placename needs to be constructed according to period Arabic patterns of usage for placenames. The documentation for this constructed placename needs to include citations of period placenames in Arabic that show parallel constructions.

Secondly, this placename needs to be incorporated into a locative byname. We have an example of the latter, which the submitter may find useful: the city of Cordoba, which in Arabic is Qurtaba. A persion who wished to be known as 'of/from Cordoba' would literally be 'the Cordoban'. This byname would take the form al-Qurtubi in a man's name and al-Qurtubiyya in a woman's name. (Examples taken from Juliana de Luna's article "Andalusian Names: Arabs in Spain", http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/andalusia/. The Arabic form of Cordoba is found in Ahmed's A Dictonary of Muslim Names (pp. 318-319), courtesy of al-Jamal.) [Durr min al-Jabal al-Mukhfi, 06/2002, R-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2002.06 No documentation was provided and none was found that le feu du Christ, 'the fire of Christ', is a plausible period byname in French. The LoI cited examples of Christopher as a byname and put forth the theory that since Christopher meant 'Christ-bearer', Christopher as a byname supported the submitted le feu du Christ. However, Christopher is a patronymic byname, not an epithet byname. It indicates that the person's father was named Christopher, not that the meaning 'Christ-bearer' would refer to this person. Lacking support for the construction of this byname, it is not registerable. [Jehanne le feu du Christ, 06/2002, R-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Regarding the byname de Battenhelm, the LoI stated:

while the client would prefer "du" Battenhelm, "du" is basically a French abbreviation and Battenhelm is not French. There have been three registrations of "de" Battenhelm to members of the household the client belongs to. These are: Margarite Isabeau de Battenhelm 8/83, Erlichin de Battenhelm 7/84 and Frances de Battenhelm 7/84. As he belongs to this household, he wishes to use their byname.

Name elements are only grandfathered to members of a person's immediate family (parent, sibling, child, spouse). These relationships are limited to legal relationships, not household "family" relationships. As no documentation has been provided that the submitter is legally related to Margarite, Erlichin, or Frances, he cannot claim use of de Battenhelm via the Grandfather Clause. As no documentation has been provided and none was found that any form of Battenhelm is a plausible period byname, it is not registerable. [Alcyoneus de Battenhelm, 04/2002, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.04 The submitter requested authenticity for 15th C Italian and allowed any changes. Biancospina was documented from a modern Italian-English dictionary as a word meaning 'hawthorn'. No documentation was presented and none was found that Biancospina is a period word. Fucilla (pp. 86-91) lists many surnames derived from fruit and forest trees, but hawthorn is not included in this list. Fucilla (p. 92) gives Cerasoli as being derived from the English hawthorn and notes (under footnote 203) that the name more commonly derives from 'heliotrope, sunflower'. However, Fucilla may have misidentified the meaning of this name, since multiple sources (both dictionaries and name resources) give cerasoli as deriving from ciliegio, which means 'cherry'.

Lacking evidence that Biancospina is a period word, it is not registerable as a hypothesized byname. Since Biancospina is listed neither in De Felice (Dizionario dei cognomi Italiani) nor in Fucilla, we can't give it the benefit of the doubt that we give to undated names from those sources on a case by case basis. [Ambra Biancospina, 04/2002, R-Middle]

François la Flamme 2002.04 Grendelag was documented as meaning "a neighborhood or group of farms" according to Einar Haugen, Norwegian-English Dictionary, p. 161. No documentation was presented that Grendelag is a period term or even that a byname with this meaning is plausible in period Norwegian. Lacking support for av Grendelag as a plausible byname in period, it is not registerable. [Gulli av Grendelag, 04/2002, R-Middle]
François la Flamme 2002.04 This submission is an appeal of a name change made at kingdom when her original name was registered in March 1998. The name was submitted as Cristal Fleur de la Mer and changed to Cristal Fleur Delamare because kingdom was unable to find documentation for the form de la Mer. The name submission for Andre de la Mer (registered May 1998) cited the same documentation referenced in Cristal's original submission. Therefore, that documentation was sufficient to support the spelling de la Mer at that time. Therefore, we have changed the spelling back to the originally submitted form. [Cristal Fleur de la Mer, 04/2002, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.03 This name is being returned for lack of documentation of Echigo. The only documentation provided for this element was the statement in the LoI: "Echigo is a former province in northern Honshu, found undated on p. 555 in CLG. The region is now the Niigata prefecture." No photocopies were provided of this documentation and it is not on the "no-photocopy list", Appendix H of the Administrative Handbook. [Kagetora of Echigo, 03/2002, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.03 Submitted as Dea Cristofana La Casta, the submitter requested authenticity for Italian. In descriptive bynames, la is typically in lowercase in period. We have made this change. The masculine form of this descriptive byname was documented from an undated reference in Fucilla. Lacking dated documentation, we do not know for certain that it was used in period. However, a byname la Casta, meaning 'the chaste', is consistent with other Italian descriptive bynames in period. So this byname is plausible for period and registerable. [Dea Cristofana la Casta, 03/2002, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.03 Rannach was documented as "a word meaning 'songster, bard, rhymer, story-teller'" from a modern Gaelic/English dictionary. No documentation was provided and none was found that Rannach is a period word. Lacking such evidence, it is not registerable. [Eithne Rannach na an tEilan Dubh, 03/2002, R-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.03 Submitted as Richard Talbot, this name conflicted with Richard Talbot, Earl of Tyrconnell, Viscount Baltinglass, Baron of Talbotstown (1630-1691), who has his own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica. The submitter listed three alternate forms of his name, the first of which was Richard Talbot of Blackmere. However, no documentation was provided for any elements except Richard and Talbot. Lacking such documentation, none of the alternates were registerable. As a courtesy to the submitter, several of the attendees during the Gulf Wars decision meeting documented Blackmere as being dated to 1249 in this spelling in Ekwall (p. 48 s.n. Blackmere). Therefore, we are able to register this name.

Lack of documentation has been and will continue to be a reason for return. Therefore, all elements of a name, including alternate elements, need to be included in the documentation provided in LoIs. [Richard Talbot of Blackmere, 03/2002, A-West]

Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.11 Submitted as Robert of the Quill, no documentation was provided for the byname. However, as Argent Snail notes, the OED dates the word quill to 1412, although as a part of a reed instead of the meaning we are now used to. As a feather, the OED dates it to 1552. They also date the word to 1610 as a heraldic charge from Guilliam (a quill of yarn). Inn signs were frequently based on heraldic charges, and we have changed the byname accordingly. [Robert atte Quill, 11/00, A-East]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.02 No evidence was given, and none was found, to indicate that Blitzkopf, "lightning-head," was a reasonable byname. The German surnames ending in -head all use modifiers that describe heads, such as "broad head," "hard head," "pretty head," "curly head," and "black head." [Jochen Blitzkopf, 02/00, R-Æthelmearc]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.10 No evidence was given to indicate that Asagiri, meaning "Morning fog", is a reasonable surname, which are primarily based on geographical features, not weather phenomenon. Furthermore the submitter's given name was incorrectly spelled as Tetsuo instead of Tatsuo. While not a reason for return, the submitter should be informed that men in the samurai class invariably has a nanori as well as a surname and given name. [Asagiri Tetsuo, 10/99, R-Atlantia]
Jaelle of Armida 1998.12 [Tsivia bas Tamara v'Amberview. Name change from Tsivia bas Tamara of Amberview] The submitter wished to use the Hebrew v rather than the English of. There are two problems with this. First, according to RfS III.1.a each name phrase must be entire in the same language or in a language with an English connective such as of or the. Unless Amberview can be documented as Hebrew, it cannot be combined with Hebrew. Second, no documentation was presented for v being Hebrew for of. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR December 1998, p. 19)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Osandrea Elspeth Gabrielle de le Bete] The name is being returned for several reasons. ů Finally, no acceptable documentation was provided for de le Bete as a period byname. Osanne Gabriel would be an acceptable name. But as she does not allow any changes, we were forced to return the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Fearghus Slànaighear] Submitted as Fearghus an Slànaigher, use of the definite article is extremely rare in Gaelic names. Therefore, barring documentation of its use with Slànaigher we have dropped it. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1998, p. 1)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Tristan Wulfskin] The name is being returned for lack of documentation of the byname. While Wulf and Skin can be documented as period names, no documentation was presented for combining them into one name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.05 [Mahliqa bint Ali] Submitted as Mahliqa bint Ali Zibec, the only documentation for Zibec came from Arabian Nights. According to al-Jamal, "One must be extremely careful in using any version of Alf Layla wa Layla (The Thousand Nights and One Night) as documentation for names. Many, many names in the Nights are (1) not of mere mortals, and/or (2) allegorical rather than "real" names. Additionally, the stories, while most of them are period, originate from a number of different places. In other words, not all of them are Arabic; there are Persian, Turkish, and Indian stories. As a consequence, not all of the names in them are Arabic, either, but Persian, Turkish, Indian, etc. These other languages have different ways of constructing names than does Arabic. So just because a name is found in this particular work does not mean that it is a real name or that it is constructed properly or that it may be incorporated into an otherwise Arabic name. " Since no documentation could be found for Zibec as a given or byname, we have dropped it. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR May 1998, p. 7)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.04 [Jason Kynslay] Submitted as Jason Kinslayer, no documentation was presented for the form Kinslayer. We have substituted the closest attested form. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1998, p. 5)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Arianwen Teague] Submitted as Arianwen Teague called Seeker, as noted in the LoI, Madeleine Moinet dit Boismenu's name was registered because 'called' is a legitimate documentary form in Latin, German and French. The name submitted here is none of those languages. The commentary ... also shows 'called' names as, for want of a better term, proper aliases (John Smith called John Doe called Richard Roe) rather than common nouns (John Smith called Bandit called Fellow). "Seeker" doesn't fit into these parameters. ["called Seeker" was deleted] (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 6)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Sarolta Lalayvna Shahin] No documentation was presented and none was found for Lalayvna Shahin outside of a statement in the LoI that it was allegedly Bulgarian. Without documentation the name element cannot be used. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 16)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.01 [Gabriel Mousebane] According to the LoI, Mousebane is the Anglicization of the hypothetical Norse epithet meaning "mouse leg". However, no examples of "-leg" epithets showing this pattern were presented. Furthermore, on the LoAR of August 1997 Laurel said "Bynames of the form X-bane don't seem to have been used in our period, though it's just possible that the ON cognate bani was so used. In ON one could construct ufsbani, meaning either 'wolf's killer' or 'Ulf's killer', but this doesn't justify Wolfbane." Barring evidence that names of this sort were used in period, this must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1998, p. 15)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.01 [Henry Enhallow] Submitted as Henry an Eynhallow, the only documentation presented for Eynhallow was from a website that was not the official Laurel web site. Knowing nothing about this site and its reliability, it is not an acceptable source of documentation. However, Johnston's Place-Names of Scotland, pg 173, has Enhallow as the header spelling. We have substituted this spelling as the submitter allows]. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1998 p. 12)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.01 [Tancred of Tanglewood] This is being returned for lack of documentation for the placename. The documentation boiled down to it being the English translation of an Icelandic byname that sounds a bit like an English byname. Barring documentation of the byname we have to return the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1998, p. 22)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.11 According to the letter of intent, Rosensoldat means Soldier of the Rose, in German. However, no documentation was presented, and none could be found for bynames formed in this fashion. Barring such documentation the name will have to be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR November 1997, p. 12)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.05 Submitted as Damiana Fairgrey, no documentation was provided for the combination of the two descriptive names into one. However, Fause Losenge was able to provide an example from Reaney and Wilson of Fayrandgode, from 1301, which would justify the structure of Fairandgrey. Accordingly, we have corrected the byname. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR May 1997, p. 2)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.05 [returning Freyja the Cunning] The byname is also problematic: on the 5/94 LoAR the name Eirik the Wandering was returned because `[n]o one was able to document an authentic English byname formed from the present participle of a word'. Cunning, earlier cunnand, is in origin the present participle of can `to know'. This is a borderline case, since it seems to have acquired independent status as an adjective fairly early, but it at least needs to be mentioned. (By the way, the LoI slightly misleads in appearing to date cunning to 1382; the actual citation is for kunnynge.) If she wants an attested English byname, she might try Slei, Slegh, Sley, le Slege, Sly, etc. These citations, all from the 13th c., are in Reaney & Wilson s.n. Slay and represent the modern English sly, from ON sloegr `sly, cunning, crafty'. Of course, if she returns with an ON forename, the ON byname would be even better. Its feminine forms would be sloeg and, with the definite article, in sloega. There are other possibilities if she prefers another shade of meaning, e.g., gör `skilled, accomplished' (or in göra `the accomplished'). Another possibility, this one etymologically related to cunning, is kunnandi `cunning, knowing, learned' (or in kunnandi). Freygerðr in sloega (in göra, in kunnandi) would be a perfectly acceptable ON feminine name.
Jaelle of Armida 1997.04 This name was meant to mean in Gaelic, Síle the Unseen or Invisible. There are two problems with this, each of which is grounds for return. First, the Gaelic for unseen/invisible was incorrectly constructed. More importantly this is not a reasonable byname. No one could come up with any parallels in period names. Therefore, without some period support for the semantic content of the byname, this runs afoul of VI.2. "Names Claiming Powers - Names containing elements that allude to powers that the submitter does not possess are considered presumptuous. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1997, p. 25)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.12 This name was supposed to mean Isabel d'Anjou, mangler or destroyer of names. However, no evidence was supplied that such an epithet was period, and her own documentation states

The lady in question seeks to establish a name that will express the notion of mangler of names and to have the name expressed in terms of the French language. It is a matter of certainty that no such name can be historically documented, and we therefore do not seek such documentation.

Barring evidence that such an epithet is period, we are forced to return the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR December 1996, p. 14)

Jaelle of Armida 1996.11 No documentation was presented that Wyvern was a period surname. Since the earliest dated citation for it as a word is 1610, and not spelt in this fashion, we do not feel that this is a reasonable name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR November 1996, p. 13)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.09 Submitted as Bonifatius Eburhard der Menschenfresser, we dropped the last element, which means cannibal in modern German. Since no evidence was shown that der Meschenfresser was a period usage, we have dropped it in order to register the name. We have some doubts about cannibal as a byname, but since the element was dropped for other reasons, we did not address that issue. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1996, p. 7)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.04 In particular, there was general agreement that English bynames taken from ordinary day and feast names do not justify an Irish byname taken from an extraordinary, mythical event. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR April 1996, p. 17)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.01 [returning the byname the Whaleseeker] No one found Whaleseeker a plausible period byname, and most commenters found it intrusively modern in form. Despite the Norse trade in narwhal horns, the large Icelandic-English Dictionary compiled by Cleasby, Vigfusson, and Craigie has only one hval- (`whale-') compound describing an occupation, namely, hvalskyti `harpooner', and it seems unlikely that whaleseeking was a discrete occupation separate from command and navigation. Geirr Bassi notes the Old Norse byname hvalaskúfr `a seabird which follows the whales', which would certainly seem to be appropriate for a notably successful whaler; unfortunately, it is questionable whether it could reasonably be combined with the Latin Patricia. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR January 1996, p. 22)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.12 [Eleri y Gwibddyn Dyrys] According to Harpy, y Gwibddyn Dyrys `the wild vagabond' is a correctly constructed Welsh phrase that resembles period Welsh bynames as little as the Melancholy Procrastinator resembles their English counterparts. The latter was returned last month (Judith the Melancholy Procrastinator, Middle) for failure to follow period models, and we do not think that the inability of most SCA folk to understand Welsh is sufficient reason to treat the present submission more leniently. Please compliment her, however, on using a period Welsh-English dictionary to document the elements of the phrase. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR December 1995, p. 19)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.11 [returning the epithet the Melancholy Procrastinator] [Judith the Melancholy Procrastinator] The byname does not follow period models. To quote Harpy: `Independently, the concepts, linguistic patterns, and actual vocabulary of this byname can be shown to be period. It's in putting them together that it flies beyond the limits of anything we have any experience with in period.' Nicknames describing mental and moral characteristics tend in English to use native rather than learned words, and they tend to relate to everyday experience. A melancholy person might be called Chirelitle `cheer little', Waneles `without hope', or Malore `unhappy and unlucky'; a lazy or slow person, Comelate, Dolitel, Hasteles `without haste', or Lenealday `lean or rest all day' (Jönsjö, Middle English Nicknames, p. 21). (Talan Gwynek, LoAR November 1995, p. 15)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.11 [returning the occupational byname the Lamp Lighter] [Natalie the Lamp Lighter] No evidence was presented that lamp-lighting was a period occupation. We shouldn't be surprised to find that it was, but given the doubts expressed by several commenters, we need some actual evidence that the byname is reasonable. The closest that we can come are some period occupational terms for lantern-bearers or candle-bearers, e.g., Latin lanternarius and the derived French surname Lanternier. (The situation is analogous to the first registration of a previously-unused charge.) (Talan Gwynek, LoAR November 1995, p. 11)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1995.05 Submitted as Conrad Ringbreaker of Ascalon, the byname was formed in a manner which does not follow the examples (e.g., Brekedore `break door', cited in Jönsjö) for such names in period. We have modified the byname to correspond to the historical models. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1995, p. 1)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.03 [Tidi's Stream] While Tideswell may mean "Tidi's stream", that is no more support for registering "Tidi's Stream" than, for example, the fact that the name "David" means "beloved" is support for registering "Beloved" as a given name. We have therefore substituted the documented form of the placename. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR March 1995, p. 3)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.02 While documentation was presented for the use of day names as bynames in Old English and Middle English, such documentation is not sufficient support for such a practice in Norse, any more than documentation of a naming practice in Spanish is adequate support for one in French. We need more documentation before we can register this name. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR February 1995, p. 14)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.10 [returning the byname the Artful] The epithet, though the word was dated to 1613 (inside our "gray area" for documentation) is far too late to have been used in this kind of epithetical formation. (Edward the Artful, 10/94 p. 16)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.10 [Anisah al Nawaar] No documentation was presented that the [Arabic] "byname" could be used with the article, and all of the documentation either submitted or found later by the commenters (and Laurel) showed only Nawaar without the article. (The equivalent in English would be analogous to documenting "Robert" and "James" as given names and submitting "Robert the James".) (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR October 1994, p. 18
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.10 The existence of "dark", "fair", and "little" as epithets do not lend adequate support to "merciless". Merciless is not a physical characteristic, as the others are [Ming the Merciless notwithstanding! J]. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR October 1994, p. 18)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.09 Submitted as ...Mieleska, there already exists a feminine occupational surname meaning "miller"; as such, there is no need to construct such a name, especially without input from someone with a good knowledge of the language. We have therefore substituted the documented byname. (Agnieszka Mlynarska, 9/94 p. 10)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.09 Submitted as ...Silverferret, the existence of Silver and Ferret as period surnames, as noted in the LoI, no more justifies Silverferret than the existence of Smith and Jones justifies Smithjones. We have therefore registered the name as an (extremely rare in period) double surname. (Eirik Silver Ferret, 9/94 p. 3)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1994.08 [Snowmane] The most serious problem, however, is the lack of documentation for the element "mane". Given the very large number of documented nicknames which refer to hair, and their high frequency of use, this lack of documentation is significant. We need better support for the byname. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR August 1994, p. 16)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.05 [Returning Eibhlin Niccluir.] The "patronymic" is unattested in the documentation. The only variant discussed in the documentation (dated to 1637) is Makcluir. Further, as an anglicized variant it is unlikely to have been combined with a Gaelic borrowing of the Norman Avelina and Emeline. The combination of two unlikely components is sufficient to cause return for rework and/or better documentation. [5/94, p.18]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.05 [Returning Eduardo Negro y Albo.] We need some documentation for the form of the byname; none of the commenters cited any examples of "[surname] y [surname]" to period. It is especially needed here, where the byname literally means "black and white". [5/94, p.19]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.04 [Returning Teresa of Winterhawke.] None of the cited examples justifies this combination in the byname (Wynterskale and Wintretune both obviously refer to places ("hut" and "town", respectively) that are used in winter). No one was able to document any kind of "winter + bird" or "winter + animal" names at all. As a descriptive surname, Winterhawke is unlikely in the extreme; as a place name, it is impossible. [4/94, p.20]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.04 [Returning Andrew Scarhart.] One example of a byname formed in a verb plus noun pattern does not adequately support any and all combinations of verbs plus nouns. Most of the commenters found the byname extremely unlikely, especially given the very late date for this meaning of "scar". Bynames of this nature date from much earlier than the 1555 citation for scar. [4/94, p.15]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.04 [Returning Deirdre the Distracted.] While the LoI documented the word "distract" to very late period, no evidence was presented, nor could any of the commenters find any, to demonstrate that epithetical nicknames were constructed in this way from a fairly abstract past participle. Without such evidence, we are unable to register this. [4/94, p.15]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.03 [Returning ... of Emerald Marsh.] In period the word "emerald" was applied only to the gem, not to a color. As emeralds are not normally found in marshes, the place name is extremely unlikely. Would the submitter consider "Greenmarsh"? [3/94, p.14]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.03 [Returning Catherine du Castelcoeur.] While the French have many versions of Castel{name} and Château{name}, the {name}is a given name in all but one case ("the Moor's castle"). We lack documentation for the submitted form. [3/94, p.17]
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.01 The appeal forgets that More's Utopia is an allegory, with its names being descriptive. They are no more to be taken as valid than the names Pride or Goodman, from medieval morality plays. Given that abraxas is far better documented as a type of incantation or amulet ( OED; 1990 E.Brit., vol.1, p.38), we cannot consider it compatible with period toponymic construction --- or, indeed, with period bynames in general --- without better evidence. (Thomas of Abraxa, January, 1993, pg. 35)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 Stormsinger doesn't appear to be a valid period byname; it smacks too much of fantasy, rather than history. We need some documentation for the name, or at least for similar names. (Dielle Stormsinger, September, 1992, pg. 43)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1992.03 [Stormcrow] "No justification or period precedent was included in the documentation for combining two surnames in this manner. (Smith and Jones appear in Reaney's dictionary of British Surnames, too, but we would not then register Jonesmith.) (LoAR 3/92 p.12).
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1991.12 "While 'Sea' is a reasonable byname element, there is nothing given in the LoI to indicate that 'Seawalker' is reasonable or formed in a Period manner. Would the client consider the byname 'Gobythesea', formed in the manner of Period exemplars found in reaney's origins, p.289?" [the epithet was returned] (LoAR 12/91 p.18).
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1991.11 "No documentation at all was submitted to demonstrate that Willowspoon makes sense as an occupational byname or that it is formed in a period manner or follows period name construction practices, as required by RfS II.3." [The name was returned for this reason] (LoAR 11/91 p.23).
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.09.18 Insufficient documentation was provided to determine the grammatical accuracy of the bynames or their plausibility in the form [submitted]. Unfortunately, the intent of the submittor as to the intended meaning of the byname is unclear. (LoAR 18 Sep 88, p. 16)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.04.23 [Bakersdatter] There is significant doubt about the use of occupational surnames formed with the feminine patronymic particle in period Scandinavian languages and the submission gives no evidence to support this. (LoAR 23 Apr 88, p. 14)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.07.26 The only documentation provided in support of the [byname] ... were a few lines ... from the ... gift shop proprietor cited as the source for the translation. Since no one in the College could come up with any supporting documentation for anything similar..., some more substantial documentation must be required from the submittor. (LoAR 26 Jul 87, p. 10)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.05.24 For the form "Damaree", which was stated to be Basque, no documentation was given. Therefore, we have substituted a period spelling given by Reaney for the family name from the town ... in France. Note that the pronunciation of the two names would be virtually identical. (LoAR 24 May 87, p. 5)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.02.28 [Kalina Crna zvjesda] Insufficient documentation was provided to demonstrate that Kalina was a period given name in Serbian or any other language. Documentation in support of the formation and meaning of the byname would also be helpful. (LoAR 28 Feb 87, p. 22)
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1981.04.20 I have dropped the nickname "the N.," as no documentation of meaning was given. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 3
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1980.05.15 [Robert Galva'nnyze'd] Galvanized is out of period and this sort of joke name is not acceptable anyway. WVS [17] [LoAR 15 May 80], p. 10
 
No documentation of Substantial Contact (Lingual Mix) between cultures
François la Flamme 2003.04 This name is being returned for combining a Welsh given name with a Hungarian descriptive byname. al-Jamal addressed the documentation for Welsh-Hungarian contact provided in the LoI:

The closest to real documentation for a combination Welsh/Hungarian name that the LoI comes is a statement about the plausibility of an assumption "that there was, at least one, Welshman who went on Crusade to Jerusalem amongst the plethora of English" or "that there was, at least one, Welshman who went on Pilgrimage to the Holy Land ... most likely via Hungary", and alluding to the presence of the Benedictine Order in both the British Isles and in Hungary (without taking into consideration at all the likely or even possible nationality of its members). RfS III.1. states that: "As a rule of thumb, languages should be used together only if there was substantial contact between the cultures that spoke those languages...." (Emphasis added) Assumptions, even without arguing their plausibility, are not evidence of "substantial contact".

Lacking evidence that Welsh and Hungarian cultures had substantial contact, this name is not registerable. [Aneirin Nevetség(es), 04/2003 LoAR, R-Trimaris]

François la Flamme 2001.10 The encyclopedia article used as documentation for the element Kyrghiz describes them as "a secluded people throughout their history." As such, no evidence has been provided establishing contact between the Kyrghiz and pre-17th C century Western Europe. Therefore, this name falls under the precedent:
... significant interaction between Tibet and pre-seventeenth century Western culture has not been demonstrated. The Encyclopædia Britannica dates the first visits to Tibet by Western missionaries to the 17th century, and the fact that the 8th century Tibetan kingdom had some contact with the Arab conquerors of Iran still leaves Tibetans at least two removes from Western Europe. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR November 1995, p. 16)
[Béla of the Kyrghiz, 10/01, R-Outlands]
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Kinga MacKinnon] This is being returned for two reasons. First no period exemplars were presented and none could be found for Kinga as a period abbreviated form of Kunegunda. Secondly, no documentation was presented, and none could be found for regular contact between Hungary and Scotland. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.02 [Eric Ibrahim Mozarab] No documentation has been found for combined Norse-English/Arabic names. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR February 1995, p. 14)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.02 The name combined a purely English given name with a purely Gaelic patronymic, a combination which has yet to be documented in period or since. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR February 1995, p. 5)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.05 [Returning Krista al Kamil.] The example of combined Arabic/Spanish names is not sufficient support for combined Swiss/Arabic names. (The submitter seemed to be confusing the Swedes and the Swiss in her documentation. Caches of Arab silver coins have been found in Scandinavia, not Switzerland. And the presence of Arabic silver coins in Sweden is only evidence that the trade routes extended that far, not that the people at the two ends of those trade routes had any direct dealings with each other.) [5/94, p.22]
 
Evidence (or lack thereof) of Substantial Contact between a culture and Western Europe in period
François la Flamme 2002.11 The submitter requested authenticity for 12th C. Kipchak and allowed minor changes. The LoI stated that:

Both elements of the name are documented from the "Codex Cumanicus" (ISBN 975-428-033-0), which is a "12th to 13th Century multi-lingual composition of several related books spanning several years and authors". Modern scholars tend to define it into two parts, an "Interpreter's Book" and a "Missionary's Book", the former of which is a multi-lingual glossary and the latter mostly translations of contemporary Christian texts. Large portions, if not the entire document [...] is available at http://www.eurasianews.com/erc/002cam.htm.

Nebuly provided information regarding this source:

The client has not documented a Kipchak name, but a Cumanian name. Records of nomadic Turkic tribes in Eastern Europe are often confused about the names of groups, but as far as I can tell from the sources I have (mostly written originally in Hungarian or in English by Hungarians) the Kipchak were a group that settled in the Caucasus and whose descendent peoples (Kumyk, Balkar, & Karachai) live in Dagestan today (Dalby, p337). A related people, the Cumanians, fled the Mongol invasion and settled in Hungary under the protection of the Magyar king Béla IV in the late 13th century (Horváth, p39ff). All of the names cited in the LoI are Cumanian leaders from this time period. The Codex Cumanicus is also a document written in Cumanian, not Kipchak. This works in the submitter's favor, since the Cumanians settled in Europe, and there are records from Hungary of individuals with the byname Kun (Cumanian). These records date from the 15th and 16th centuries, after the assimilation of the Cumanians into western culture, so the given names of these individuals are unhelpfully Christian.

We just don't know that much about early Cumanian names, so I think the submitter should be given the benefit of the doubt.

This information provides evidence of sufficient contact between cultures of Western Europe and Cumanian to allow registration of a Cumanian name. As we have no evidence of these elements in Kipchak, we do not know if the submitted name is authentic for the submitter's requested culture. [Otel Altunat, 11/2002, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2002.09 However, there is a far greater problem with this name. No documentation was provided and none was found that the Uighur had contact with pre-17th C Western Europe. Lacking such evidence, Uighur falls afoul of the precedent:

More important, significant interaction between Tibet and pre-seventeenth century Western culture has not been demonstrated. The Encyclopædia Britannica dates the first visits to Tibet by Western missionaries to the 17th century, and the fact that the 8th century Tibetan kingdom had some contact with the Arab conquerors of Iran still leaves Tibetans at least two removes from Western Europe. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR November 1995, p. 16)

Lacking evidence that the Uighur had contact with pre-17th C Western Europe, Uighur is "at least two removes from Western Europe" and so is not registerable. [Özbeg Aghmighan, 09/2002 LoAR, R-Caid]

François la Flamme 2002.04 However, there is a bigger issue. No documentation was presented and none was found that Korea had significant contact with pre-17th C Western culture. Such documentation is necessary in order to be able to register a Korean name. Lack of such documentation has been cause for return in the past:

More important, significant interaction between Tibet and pre-seventeenth century Western culture has not been demonstrated. The Encyclopædia Britannica dates the first visits to Tibet by Western missionaries to the 17th century, and the fact that the 8th century Tibetan kingdom had some contact with the Arab conquerors of Iran still leaves Tibetans at least two removes from Western Europe. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR November 1995, p. 16)

[Yang Mun, 04/2002, R-Trimaris]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.04 Tibetan names were ruled unacceptable by Talan Gwynek in November 1995:
More important, significant interaction between Tibet and pre-seventeenth century Western culture has not been demonstrated. The Encyclopædia Britannica dates the first visits to Tibet by Western missionaries to the 17th century, and the fact that the 8th century Tibetan kingdom had some contact with the Arab conquerors of Iran still leaves Tibetans at least two removes from Western Europe.
Also, the documentation for this name consisted of a letter from a professor of Tibetan studies in Sakya Monastery. However, no background information was given for the academic status of the monastery, and the information on the letter was not supported by, for example, photocopies of a dictionary showing the name elements. Thus we would have had problems with the documentation even if Tibetan names were registerable. [Mu-Man Dkon-Mchog Näm, 04/01, R-An Tir]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.11 [returning Vairocana Belnon of Uddiyana] There are several problems with this name. First, the documentation is insufficient to show that it is formed according to Tibetan practice or even that Vairocana is Tibetan. Uddiyâna (with a dot under each d) was apparently a land `famous for its magicians'; the context doesn't make it clear whether this was a real or merely a legendary place but does show that it was not Tibetan. More important, significant interaction between Tibet and pre-seventeenth century Western culture has not been demonstrated. The Encyclopædia Britannica dates the first visits to Tibet by Western missionaries to the 17th century, and the fact that the 8th century Tibetan kingdom had some contact with the Arab conquerors of Iran still leaves Tibetans at least two removes from Western Europe. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR November 1995, p. 16)
 
Branch Names: Construction Issues
François la Flamme 2003.04 The LoI stated that this name was submitted as an "[i]nvented name meaning Shire of the Dawn Star". No documentation was provided and none was found that a placename meaning 'Dawn Star' is plausible as an Italian placename in period. Lacking such evidence, this name must be returned as it does not comply with RfS III.2.b.i, Branch Names, which states "Names of branches must follow the patterns of period place-names". [Stella d'Alba, Shire of, 04/2003 LoAR, R-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2002.05 This name combines two elements with similar meanings. No documentation was provided and none was found that such a combination is plausible. The element aerie came into English from French. In English, the meaning 'area, feeding place for animals' is dated to 1581 for aerie in Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (p. 60 s.n. aerie). (The meanings cited in the LoI were from the etymology section of the OED entry, rather than the meaning section.) The element gard derives from the Old English geard, meaning 'enclosure'. Therefore, the constructed Aeriesgard combines two elements that describe specific areas of land. In placenames that contain the element -geard, the protheme specifically indicates what items (plants, animals, etc.) that is in the area being enclosed. Some examples include Bromyard 'broom enclosure', Bruisyard 'cottage enclosure' or 'farmer enclosure', Rudyard 'rue enclosure' or '[type of fish] enclosure', and Plungar 'plum-tree enclosure'. The constructed Aeriesgard, which would mean 'area enclosure', does not match this construction pattern. [Aeriesgard, Shire of, 05/2002, R-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2002.04 This submission is an appeal of the return:

We have traditionally been somewhat more lenient with names from cultures for which we don't have adequate reference works, and we see no reason to change this policy. However, it does not mean that one can in such cases simply look up random words in a dictionary. At the very least we would expect the submitters to show, first, that the name is grammatically correct and, second, that similar constructions exist somewhere else. These examples of similar names would ideally be from nearby cultures. [Vilku Urvas, Shire of, Middle-R, LoAR 09/2000]

This appeal includes documentation of Lithuanian placenames that have forms of vilkas as the protheme, including Vilkakiemis (dated to the 16th C) and Vilku Kampas (dated to the 4th C or earlier). In the case of Lithuanian, the language did not start being written down until the 16th C. So the dates in these cases refer to the age of the settlement at the location, not the particular form of the name. No documentation was provided that urvas, meaning 'cave, grotto, cavern, cavity or hollow', has been used as an element in Lithuanian placenames even at the present time. Urvikiai and Urviskes are placenames in modern Lithuania (http://www.lietuva-jums.lt/IMI/i_en.jsp?nr=gyvenvietes_u). When compared to other placenames, particularly Vilkiskes (listed at http://www.lietuva-jums.lt/IMI/i_en.jsp?nr=gyvenvietes_v), these two placenames seem to use a form of urvas as a protheme. In conjuction with our traditional policy to be "somewhat more lenient with names from culutres for which we don't have adequate reference works", these examples, combined with the information and examples provided by the submitters, is sufficient evidence to register this branch name.

The appeal expressed the submitters' belief that the originally submitted documentation had been sufficient to support registration of the name. Regardless, they provided additional documentation, and it is that documentation that is allowing this name to be registered (as specified above). The documentation accompanying the original submission in their file consists solely of photocopies from a Lithuanian-English pronunciation dictionary and a book entitled Lithanian Self-Taught. While these sources are good for determining meaning of elements and how to conjugate them properly, they do not address whether the elements in question were used in placenames in period. If documentation that these elements were used in placenames was included in the original submission, then that documentation was misplaced somewhere during the submission process. Though we "have traditionally been somewhat more lenient with names from cultures for which we don't have adequate reference works", we still need evidence that the submitted elements are ones that are used in placenames. That issue has been resolved with this appeal. [Vilk{u,} Urvas, Shire of, 04/2002, A-Middle]

Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.01 The submitters have documented that the words used in the name are period. They have provided evidence that the river now known as the Rio de las Animas Perdidas was probably seen by Spanish explorers in the 16th century. They have also documented the use of Las Animas in modern Spanish place names and in the names of Spanish brotherhoods during the period 1558Ś1832. However, since no dates are given for specific brotherhoods or for the founding of those places, we have no way of knowing whether the brotherhoods and places in question were founded in period.

We still need evidence that rivers were named in this manner in period. In addition, we need evidence that nearby places were named after rivers. Since such evidence was not submitted, we have to return this name again. [Rio de Las Animas Perdidas, Shire of, 01/01, R-Outlands]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.09 We have traditionally been somewhat more lenient with names from cultures for which we don't have adequate reference works, and we see no reason to change this policy. However, it does not mean that one can in such cases simply look up random words in a dictionary. At the very least we would expect the submitters to show, first, that the name is grammatically correct and, second, that similar constructions exist somewhere else. These examples of similar names would ideally be from nearby cultures. [Vilku Urvas, Shire of, 09/00, R-Middle]
Jaelle of Armida 1999.06 [Panther Vale, Shire of] The college could find vale used in English place names, albeit rarely, but no documentation could be found for Panther in English place names. Barring documentation this name must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR June 1999, p. 9)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.10 [returning the College of Dragons Crossing] No evidence was presented in the LoI for the word dragon being used in English place name, and no one could find any evidence. Barring such evidence, we must return the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR October 1997, p. 13)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.05 RfS III.2.b.i (Branch Names) requires names of branches to 'follow the patterns of period place-names'. However, no one was able to provide an example of a real period place-name that could serve as a model for this name, and there was a clear consensus that 'Eternal Bird' is simply not a reasonable place-name in any language. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1996, p. 23)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1994.08 Branch names are generally modeled on place names; "land of the unruly" does not appear to follow any period model of which we are aware. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR August 1994, p. 19)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1993.12b [Returning March of the Wild Hares.] None of the commenters could find any period models for this placename formation, nor was any documentation supporting this form included with the submission. Additionally, the name is obtrusively modern in that the first association many of the commenters had was the tea party with the March Hare described so amusingly by Lewis Carroll. [12b/93, p.12]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1991.12 [Castell Daibhidh] "The name mixes languages in a single phrase, and no evidence was presented that it is possible to mix English and Scottish Gaelic in this way." (LoAR 12/91 p.16).
Karina of the Far West 1976.10.29 [Nytha d'Hui.] Explain the name. If the Lord Aten is not being facetious when he tells me that it comes from an exchange, "My lord, we have no record of a name for your SCA branch" -- "Well, Nytha to we!" ... it is unacceptable. (KFW, 29 Oct 76 19], p. 8)
 
Order Names: Construction Issues
François la Flamme 2004.03 [Order name Order of the Silver Seastar] This name is being returned for non-period style. A seastar is another term for a starfish. The Order of the Starfish was recently returned with the explanation:

This order name is being returned for non-period style. RfS III.2.b.ii, Names of Orders and Awards, states:

Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards.

These are often the names of saints; others are similar to sign names (see RfS III.2.a.iii). Some examples are: the Order of Saint Michael, the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, the Brethren of the Sword, the Order of the Garter, La Toison dOr (the Order of the Golden Fleece), the Order of the Golden Rose, the Order of the Star, the Order of the Swan, La Orden de la Jara (the Knights of the Tankard), the Order of Lilies.

This order name does not follow the pattern of basing an order name on a heraldic charge. To follow that pattern, the charge in question must either be (1) documented as a period heraldic charge or (2) must have been ruled to be registerable as a charge within the S.C.A. In the case of a starfish, precedent specifically states that it is not a registerable charge:

As originally blazoned, the mullet was blazoned as a starfish. Starfish have been reblazoned as mullets in the past:

The starfish is not, to the best of our knowledge, a period heraldic charge; it seems to have started use in Victorian heraldry (Elvin, plate 32). [reblazoned as mullets, leaving internal markings as artistic license] (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR October 1992, p. 18).

[Jaelle of Armida, LoAR December 1997, p. 6]

RfS III.2.a.ii says that some order names were "similar to sign names". In those cases, both sign names and order names are formed using names of heraldic charges. Since there is evidence that a starfish was not a period heraldic charge, it is highly unlikely that it would be used in a period sign name. Lacking evidence that it is plausible as an element in a period sign name, it is not registerable in a sign name construction. [Aquaterra, Barony of, Order name Order of the Starfish, 09/2002 LoAR, R-An Tir]

The same problems present in the Order of the Starfish are present in the currently submitted Order of the Seastar. Lacking evidence that seastar is a plausible element in a period sign name, it is not registerable in a sign name construction. [Stromgard, Barony of, 03/2004, R-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2004.03 [Order name Ordo Musarum] No documentation was presented and none was found that an order name meaning 'Order of the Muses' is a plausible order name in period. Lacking such evidence, this name is not registerable.

The LoI cited the Order of the Seraphim found in Meradudd Cethin's article "Project Ordensnamen OR What do you mean that the Anceint[sic] and Venerable Order of the Most Holy and Righteous Wombat's Toenail isn't period?" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/order/). However, an order name referring to a group of angels found in Judeo-Christian religious context is significantly different from a group of demi-goddesses from ancient Greek mythology. As a result, the cited Order of the Seraphim does not support the submitted order name. [Stromgard, Barony of, 03/2004, R-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2004.03 [Order name Ordo Famuli] Submitted as Ordo Primarius Famularis, Primarius was documented from a Latin dictionary as meaning 'in the first rank'. No evidence was provided and none was found to support a word with this meaning in a period order name. Lacking such evidence, we have dropped this element as the submitters allow all changes.

Additionally, the grammar of this order name was incorrect. The form Famularis is an adjective, not a noun. Grammatically correct forms would be Ordo Famuli 'Order of the Servant' and Ordo Famulorum 'Order of the Servants'. As the desired meaning was given as 'Primary or Honored Servant', we have registered this name in the singular form.

[Stromgard, Barony of, 03/2004, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2004.03 [Order name Ordo Primarius Hippocampus] Primarius was documented from a Latin dictionary as meaning 'in the first rank'. No evidence was provided and none was found to support a word with this meaning in a period order name. Lacking such evidence, Primarius is not registerable in an order name. [Stromgard, Barony of, 03/2004, R-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2003.12 [Order name Order of the Serpent's Torque] No documentation was presented and none was found that the pattern [animal/creature]+[possession or adornment] is a plausible construction for an order name in period. Lacking such evidence, this order name violates RfS III.2.b.ii, which requires that "Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards", and must be returned. [An Crosaire, Barony of, 12/2003, R-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2003.12 [Order name Ordre de la Plume de l'ange rouge] No documentation was presented and none was found that a name meaning 'Order of the Feather of the Red Angel' is a plausible order name in period. The submission cited a number of period order names, most of which do not in any way support this submission. The Wing of St. Michael is the only period order name cited in this submission that in any way parallels the construction of the submitted order name. However, it is not a true parallel. al-Jamal explains:

An angel is not a monster or a beast; the only "parts" that come close in the examples cited are the Wing of St. Michael. St. Michael is a very specific personage, with equally specific attributes (archangel, and so on); what is submitted is closer in spirit to "the seraphim's left foot" than St. Michael's wing, and I find nothing in the examples presented to adequately support this submission.

Lacking evidence that the submitted order name complies with RfS III.2.b.ii, which requires that "Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards", this name is not registerable. [An Crosaire, Barony of, 12/2003, R-Trimaris]

François la Flamme 2003.09 [Order name Trimaris Navy Kitcheneers] The LoI provided no documentation at all for this order name. It also lacks a designator (such as Order, Guild, etc.). The College was unable to find any evidence that this name follows any type of period naming pattern. Lacking such evidence, this name is not registerable.

Additionally, no evidence was found that Kitcheneers is a word, even modernly. Hund found evidence of a period form of the word kitchener:

The word Kitcheneers does not appear in the OED. The closest would be "kitchener", which means "one employed in a kitchen, especially in a monastery", which has 'kychynnere' dated to 1440 and 'kitchinner' in 1614.

[Trimaris, Kingdom of, 09/2003 LoAR, R-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2003.08 [Order name Order of the Flower of the Desert] Submitted as Order of the Desert Flower, no documentation was submitted and none was found that a toponymic would have been used as an adjective in an order name in period. Lacking such evidence, this name was not registerable as submitted.

Meradudd Cethin's article "Project Ordensnamen OR What do you mean that the Anceint[sic] and Venerable Order of the Most Holy and Righteous Wombat's Toenail isn't period?" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/order/) dates the order name Star of the Noble House to 1351. This shows one example of a period order name constructed as [Item] of [Generic toponymic]. There are many period order names constructed as [Item] of [Placename] and many generic toponymics used in order names (most famously Temple and Hospital). Therefore, order names in the pattern [Item] of [Generic toponymic] are registerable, assuming that the item and generic toponymic are appropriate. Therefore, as the submitters allow any changes, we have changed this order name to Order of the Flower of the Desert in order to register this name. [Atenveldt, Kingdom of, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.08 [Order name Order of the Radiant Servants] No documentation was provided and none was found that Order of the Radiant Servants follows a period pattern of order names as required by RfS III.2.b.ii, which states in part that "Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards." Siren explains:

[I]n describing a pattern <adjective noun> and combining order names based on charges and order names based on religious artifacts in that pattern, Meredudd and Kwellend-Njal did us a bit of a disservice. There are really two distinct patterns. One is <color+charge>; in form these are like inn sign names. The other is complex desciptions of items of religious significance, using adjectives like "Precious" and "Holy." [...] Only a few order names do not fit in one of these two groups. Of them, a few fit the pattern <adj+knights>, where the adjective is really what we might call the order name (Knights Templar, Golden Knights, etc.). [T]he order names following this pattern either use a geographical location, a color adjective, or a trait such as "poor." The one more abstract example is <Angelical Knights>, which is again a religious reference. I'm not sure how <Radiant> is justifiable given these examples.

As noted by Siren, the adjectives used to describe groups of people do not include attributes such as Radiant. Lacking evidence that Radiant Servants follows a period pattern used for order names, this order name is not registerable. [Atenveldt, Kingdom of, 08/2003 LoAR, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.08 [Award name change to Award of the Orion from Award of Orion] Additionally, a change from Award of  Orion to Award of the Orion changes the structure of this name and requires documentation supporting Award of the Orion as a plausible order name following a period pattern as required by RfS III.2.b.ii, which states that "Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards." No such documentation was submitted. [Ealdormere, Kingdom of, 08/2003 LoAR, R-Ealdormere]
François la Flamme 2003.06 [Heraldic title Escroll Pursuivant] The LoI stated that this title was being submitted as a heraldic title based on a charge. Brachet notes:

If an escroll is a ribbon with a motto on it then it is not an heraldic charge. Also we do not register ribbons, so this title will have to be returned.

Lacking evidence that this this title follows a period pattern for a heraldic title as required by RfS III.2.b.iii, this title is not registerable. [Ansteorra, Kingdom of, 06/2003 LoAR, R-Ansteorra]

François la Flamme 2003.06 [Order name Order of the Halo] No documentation was presented and none was found that halo was used as a word in English in period. Further, no evidence was found that Order of the Halo follows a pattern of period orders and awards as required by RfS III.2.b.II. Due to both of these problems, this name must be returned. [Angels, Barony of the, 06/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.06 [Order name Order of the Aries] Submitted as Order of  Aries, there was some discussion about the registerability of this name.

The reference thought of by many commenters was the constellation named Aries. As no evidence has been found that order names were named for constellations in period, this would not be a valid model for an order name in the SCA. However, this submission provided documentation that aries is a noun in Latin meaning 'battering ram' or 'ram'.

Order of the Ram would be a plausible order name in English. Metron Ariston provided the fully Latin form of this order name, Ordo Arietis.

RfS III.1.a states in part:

Each phrase must be grammatically correct according to the usage of a single language.

For the purposes of this rule a phrase may consist of a single word (Heinrich, Calais) or of a grammatically connected series of words (the Garter, the Dragons Heart, with the Beard, von Königsberg) in a single language.

For order and award names, we have traditionally allowed the designator and following prepositions and articles (such as Award of, Order of the) to be rendered in English rather than in the language of the rest of the name. Examples from 2000 and forward include:

Order of the Cercle d'Honneur [Arn Hold, Barony of, 01/2000]
Order of the Fer de Moline [Arn Hold, Barony of, 01/2000]
Order of the Fleur of Æthelmearc [Æthelmearc, Kingdom of, 02/2000]
Order of the Faering [Storvik, Barony of, 11/2001]
Order of the H{oe}verska of Starkhafn [Starkhafn, Barony of, 09/2002]
Order of the Steinn of Starkhafn [Starkhafn, Barony of, 09/2002]
Order of the Stjarna of Starkhafn [Starkhafn, Barony of, 09/2002]
Order of the Ulftönn of Starkhafn [Starkhafn, Barony of, 09/2002]

Based on these examples, Order of the Aries is a registerable order name referring to a ram. Order of  Aries would use Aries as a proper noun, rather than a generic noun meaning 'ram', and so would specifically refer to the constellation name. Lacking evidence that order names were based on constellations, the submitted Order of Aries is not registerable. As the submitters allow minor changes, we have added the article the in order to register this name. [Gleann Abhann, Principality of, 06/2003 LoAR, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2003.05 No documentation was presented and none was found that the combination Glorious + [a heraldic beast or charge] follows a pattern used in period order names. In the example of Glorious St. Mary, dated to 1261 in Meradudd Cethin's article "Project Ordensnamen OR What do you mean that the Anceint[sic] and Venerable Order of the Most Holy and Righteous Wombat's Toenail isn't period?" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/order/), Glorious is used to describe Mary, the mother of Jesus. As noted by Metron Ariston:

[T]he adjective here is purely religious and one used even in modern Spanish and Italian to describe the Virgin. It is fairly technical, being more or less equivalent to "in glory" which in Catholic terminology refers to the state of being in the presence of God.

Lacking evidence that Glorious [a heraldic beast or charge] is a plausible pattern for an order name in period, this name is not registerable. [Artemisia, Kingdom of, 05/2003 LoAR, R-Artemisia]

François la Flamme 2003.05 [Award name Order of the Gryphons Pride] Pride was documented from the OED using several definitions: "Magnificence, splendour; pomp, ostentation, display", "Exalted or proud position or estate", and "A group of lions forming a social unit". Therefore, the submitted order name would mean 'Order of the Gryphon's Splendour/Display', 'Order of the Gryphon's Exalted Position', or 'Order of the Gryphon's [group of lions]'. No evidence was presented and none was found that any of these meanings follow a period pattern of order or award names as required by RfS III.2.b.ii. The meaning 'Order of the Gryphon's [group of lions]' comes closest to period examples. However, while examples have been found of period order names that refer to groups of people (Knights, Militia, Preachers, et cetera), none have yet been found referring to groups of animals. Lacking evidence that Order of the Gryphons Pride follows a period pattern of order or award names, it is not registerable. [Artemisia, Kingdom of, 05/2003 LoAR, R-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2003.04 [Order name Ordo Arcus Magni] This order name was submitted with the intended meaning 'Order of the Great Bow'. Arcus means 'arch, bow, rainbow'. Therefore, the submitted name means 'Order of the Big/Great Arch/Bow/Rainbow'. Both a bow and a rainbow are heraldic charges and so are reasonable as a noun in an order name. However, no documentation was presented and none was found to support the construction Big/Great [heraldic charge] in an order name in period. Lacking such evidence, this name is not registerable. [Ansteorra, Kingdom of, 04/2003 LoAR, R-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.12 [Order name Order of the Black Pheon] Submitted as Order of the Sable Pheon, no documentation was presented and none was found for use of heraldic tinctures in order names. Lacking such evidence, this order name is not registerable.

Meradudd Cethin's article "Project Ordensnamen OR What do you mean that the Anceint[sic] and Venerable Order of the Most Holy and Righteous Wombat's Toenail isn't period?" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/order/) dates the order name Le Cordon Bleu to 1198 in France. This shows evidence of common color names, such as bleu, used in French order names rather than the heraldic tincture azure. Since pheon is the form found in both English and French, this order name would be registerable using Black Pheon or Pheon Noir instead of Sable Pheon. As the kingdom allows any changes and notes that the meaning is most important, we have changed this order name to Order of the Black Pheon in order to register the name.

During commentary, it was noted that the Kingdom of Atenveldt registered Sable Staff Pursuivant in April 1981. Therefore, they have the construction Sable [charge] grandfathered for heraldic titles. However, constructions are not grandfathered across types of items that may be registered, such as order names or household names. [Atenveldt, Kingdom of, 12/2002, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.12 [Order of the Marble Chalice] No documentation was presented and none was found that Order of the Marble Chalice follows a pattern used for period order names. However, Gleann Abhann has registered Order of the Onyx Chalice (registered in September 1998) and Order of the Garnet Chalice (registered in September 1998). Since both marble and onyx are types of stone, Order of the Marble Chalice follows the same construction pattern as Order of the Onyx Chalice and so is registerable via the Grandfather Clause. [Gleann Abhann, Principality of, 12/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.12 [Order name La Ordern del Sirviente del Sol] No documentation was presented and none was found that La Ordern del Sirviente del Sol, meaning 'The Order of the Servant of the Sun', follows a pattern of order names used in period as required by RfS III.2.b.ii. Lacking evidence that La Ordern del Sirviente del Sol follows a construction used for order names in period, it is not registerable.

Additionally, the College indicated that the Spanish word for Order is Orden, not Ordern. [Atenveldt, Kingdom of, 12/2002, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.12 [Order name La Ordern de la Luz de las Estrellas] No documentation was presented and none was found that La Ordern de la Luz de las Estrellas, 'The Order of the Light of the Stars', follows a pattern of order names used in period as required by RfS III.2.b.ii. Lacking evidence that La Ordern de la Luz de las Estrellas follows a construction used for order names in period, it is not registerable.

The LoI noted the order name Order of the Light of Atenveldt registered in April of 1981 to the Kingdom of Atenveldt. Since items are only grandfathered in their originally registered form, the English Order of the Light of Atenveldt cannot be used via the Grandfather Clause to support the submitted Spanish La Ordern de la Luz de las Estrellas. Additionally, Order of the Light of Atenveldt uses the construction Order of the Light of [branch name] which does not parallel an order name meaning 'The Order of the Light of the Stars'. [Atenveldt, Kingdom of, 12/2002, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.12 [Order name Le Ordre de le Artisan de Soleil.] No documentation was presented and none was found that Le Ordre de le Artisan de Soleil follows a pattern of order names used in period as required by RfS III.2.b.ii. Lacking evidence that Le Ordre de le Artisan de Soleil follows a construction used for order names in period, it is not registerable.

This order name was submitted as meaning 'The Order of the Artisan of the Sun' in French. In fact, the phrase de Soleil is grammaticaly incorrect. It means 'of Sun', not 'of the Sun'. The phrase meaning 'of the Sun' is du Soleil, not de Soleil.

The Kingdom of Atenveldt registered the Order of the Fleur de Soleil in September 1984. In comparing that order name to the currently submitted name, Artisan is not like Fleur. An artisan and a flower are dramatically different entities. Therefore, the current submission is not registerable under the Grandfather Clause.

The LoI also mentioned the Principality of the Sun's order name Order of the Esprit de Soleil (registered in January 1984). As this name was registered to the Principality of the Sun, not the Kingdom of Atenveldt, it is the Principality of the Sun, not the Kingdom of Atenveldt, that has this construction grandfathered to them. Moreover, "artisan" and "spirit" are also dramatically different entities. Therefore, the registered Order of the Esprit de Soleil could not be used to support an order name Le Ordre de le Artisan de Soleil via the Grandfather Clause. [Atenveldt, Kingdom of, 12/2002, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.12

[Order of the Builders of Atenveldt] There are two issues with this submission. The first is whether or not it follows a pattern of order names used in period as required by RfS III.2.b.ii. The second is whether or not the name is generic, and so may not be registered to a single group.

Meradudd Cethin's article "Project Ordensnamen OR What do you mean that the Anceint[sic] and Venerable Order of the Most Holy and Righteous Wombat's Toenail isn't period?" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/order/) dates some order names that include words describing groups of people, including Le Cordon Bleu to 1198 in France. Argonauts of St. Nicholas (1382, Naples), Brothers Hospitaller of Burgos (1212, Spain), Fools (1380, France), Hospitallers for Germany (1382, Germany), Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem (1000's), Nobles of Catalonia (1481, Spain), and Nobles of Tyrol (1361, Austria). Given these examples, coupled with the fact that the LoI dated builder to the 1300s as an English word, Order of the Builders of Atenveldt follows the documented pattern of order names formed as [group of people involved in an activity or occupation] of [placename]. [Atenveldt, Kingdom of, 12/2002, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.12 [Order name Order of the Blood of Fenris] No documentation was presented and none was found that Order of the Blood of Fenris follows a pattern of order names used in period as required by RfS III.2.b.ii. The only period order mentioned was the Order of the Golden Fleece. This example does not support an order name Order of the Blood of [mythical creature]. Orle found a reference to an order name dated to 1608 that includes the word Blood:

Van Duren page 643 gives Order of the Precious Blood 1608 Mantua. This is the only reference I could find for blood being used in a period order. As is common with religious orders it refers to Christ. We do not find specific beings from mythology as order names. Fenris is basically a demigod from Norse tradition.

As Order of the Precious Blood is a reference to Jesus, it is not support for use of Blood of [mythical creature] in an order name. Lacking evidence that Order of the Blood of Fenris follows a construction used for order names in period, it is not registerable. [Atenveldt, Kingdom of, 12/2002, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.09 [Order name Order of the Silver Muse] No documentation was provided for either the elements of this order name or for the construction of this order name. RfS III.2.b.ii, Names of Orders and Awards, states:

Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards.

These are often the names of saints; others are similar to sign names (see RfS III.2.a.iii). Some examples are: the Order of Saint Michael, the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, the Brethren of the Sword, the Order of the Garter, La Toison dOr (the Order of the Golden Fleece), the Order of the Golden Rose, the Order of the Star, the Order of the Swan, La Orden de la Jara (the Knights of the Tankard), the Order of Lilies.

RfS III.2.a.ii says that some order names were "similar to sign names". In those cases, both sign names and order names are formed using names of heraldic charges. To follow the pattern of an order name based on a heraldic charge, the charge in question must either be (1) documented as a period heraldic charge, or (2) must have been ruled to be registerable as a charge within the S.C.A. No evidence was presented of a muse as a period heraldic charge and there has not yet been one registered as a heraldic charge within the S.C.A. Therefore, muse is not available for use in an order name whose name references a heraldic charge.

Lacking evidence that the elements of this order name are period and that the construction of this order name follows period naming patterns for orders and awards, this name is not registerable. [Mists, Principality of the, 09/2002 LoAR, R-West]

François la Flamme 2002.09 [Order name Ordo Saltatoris Nebularum] No documentation was provided for either the elements of this order name or for the construction of this order name. RfS III.2.b.ii, Names of Orders and Awards, states:

Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards.

These are often the names of saints; others are similar to sign names (see RfS III.2.a.iii). Some examples are: the Order of Saint Michael, the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, the Brethren of the Sword, the Order of the Garter, La Toison dOr (the Order of the Golden Fleece), the Order of the Golden Rose, the Order of the Star, the Order of the Swan, La Orden de la Jara (the Knights of the Tankard), the Order of Lilies.

Lacking evidence that the elements of this order name are period and that the construction of this order name follows period naming patterns for orders and awards, this name is not registerable. [Mists, Principality of the, 09/2002 LoAR, R-West]

François la Flamme 2002.09 [Order name Order of the Starfish] This order name is being returned for non-period style. RfS III.2.b.ii, Names of Orders and Awards, states:

Names of orders and awards must follow the patterns of the names of period orders and awards.

These are often the names of saints; others are similar to sign names (see RfS III.2.a.iii). Some examples are: the Order of Saint Michael, the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, the Brethren of the Sword, the Order of the Garter, La Toison dOr (the Order of the Golden Fleece), the Order of the Golden Rose, the Order of the Star, the Order of the Swan, La Orden de la Jara (the Knights of the Tankard), the Order of Lilies.

This order name does not follow the pattern of basing an order name on a heraldic charge. To follow that pattern, the charge in question must either be (1) documented as a period heraldic charge or (2) must have been ruled to be registerable as a charge within the S.C.A. In the case of a starfish, precedent specifically states that it is not a registerable charge:

As originally blazoned, the mullet was blazoned as a starfish. Starfish have been reblazoned as mullets in the past:

The starfish is not, to the best of our knowledge, a period heraldic charge; it seems to have started use in Victorian heraldry (Elvin, plate 32). [reblazoned as mullets, leaving internal markings as artistic license] (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR October 1992, p. 18).

[Jaelle of Armida, LoAR December 1997, p. 6]

RfS III.2.a.ii says that some order names were "similar to sign names". In those cases, both sign names and order names are formed using names of heraldic charges. Since there is evidence that a starfish was not a period heraldic charge, it is highly unlikely that it would be used in a period sign name. Lacking evidence that it is plausible as an element in a period sign name, it is not registerable in a sign name construction. [Aquaterra, Barony of, 09/2002 LoAR, R-An Tir]

Jaelle of Armida 1999.02 [al-Barran, Barony of. Order name for Order of the Watch and Ward] This is being returned for lack of documentation for the Order name. Watch and Ward is a conceptual term, denoting a particular type of feudal service. It cannot be considered in any way as a synonym for a sentinel. Naming patterns for medieval orders used physical objects, not abstractions. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1999, p. 15)
Jaelle of Armida 1999.02 [Order of the Peacock Key] This is being returned for lack of documentation. No documentation was provided and none could be found for period order names in the form of <animal name> <implement>. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1999, p. 10)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.07 [returning Orden de la Estrella de Vida] The order name means "Order of the Star of Life", which does not fit any known period exemplars of order names. (Altavia, Barony of, 7/96 p. 20)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.03 [Order name Vita portens väktare] "Guardians of the White Gate" seems to be more than one step from period practice (the example given in the LoI was the Knights of the Hospital of St. John). We need an exemplar rather closer to this form for adequate support for this proposal. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR March 1995, p. 17)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.02 [returning Order of the Dreamer's Cup] [Caerthe, Barony of] The order name does not appear to follow any period exemplars that any of the commenters could find. [It was suggested that the "Order of the Cup" would be far more appropriate.] (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR February 1995, p. 14)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1992.01 [Order of the Legion of the Sword of Honor] "The order name here does not appear to follow any Period order name that anyone could find. The use of multiple nouns modifying other nouns creates a semantic nightmare. Depending on how one interprets the structure of the various phrases in its name, this could be considered to conflict with the Order of the Sword or with the Legion of Honor." (LoAR 1/92 p.14).
 
Household Names: Construction Issues
François la Flamme 2004.02 [House Bell and Frog] Submitted as House Bells and Frog, all of the examples found by the College of English sign names with the form [item] and [item] had both items as singular, rather than plural, even in cases where there were multiple items of one on the associated image. Therefore, lacking examples of plural items in sign names of this type, we have changed the plural Bells to the singular Bell in order to register this name. [Sely Bloxam, 02/2004, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2004.02 [House of the Three Crescents] Submitted as House of the Triple Crescent, no documentation was presented and none was found to support the use of words such as Double or Triple in English sign names in period, rather than simple numbers such as Two or Three. Lacking such evidence, House of the Triple Crescent is not registerable.

We have changed this household name to House of the Three Crescents, as allowed by the submitter, in order to register this name. [Rabah az-Zafir, 02/2004, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.11 [Household name Skialdmær Hus] While the submitter demonstrated that skialdmær was used as a feminine byname in the sagas, she did not demonstrate that the Norse had a pattern of naming households or other organized groups after a person's byname. Barring evidence of that pattern, this name is not registerable. [Kolfinna k{o,}ttr, 11/2003, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.06 [Household name Dom Kazimira] This submission was documented as the Russian translation of the phrase House of Kazimir. However, no evidence was presented that Dom was a term used to describe a group of people in period Russia. In addition, no evidence was presented as to how household names in Russian might be formed from personal names; it is unclear whether they would use the given name, a patronymic form, a byname, or some other kind of element. Barring such evidence, this household name cannot be registered. [Dmitri Kazimirovich and Tatiana Gordeevna Kazimirova, 06/2003 LoAR, R-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2003.06 [Guild name Guild of the Gilded Spoon] No documentation was presented and none was found that Gilded would have been used as an adjective in a construction (including a sign name) that could be used as a model for a guild name. Lacking such evidence, this name is not registerable. [Starkhafn, Barony of, 06/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.09 [Household name Draco Mercatoria] No documentation was provided and none was found that Draco Mercatoria, meaning 'Merchant Dragon', meets the requirements set down in RfS III.2.b.iv, which states:

Household names must follow the patterns of period names of organized groups of people.

Possible models include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Bakers Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart).

Were documentation found supporting this name as a household name, the structure of this name would need to be corrected. The genders of the two elements in Draco Mercatoria do not agree. The correct Latin form of this phrase is Draco Mercatorius. [Kirsten Dystel, 09/2002 LoAR, R-East]

Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.08 [House Stirling Hart.] The examples cited in the documentation were insufficient to justify the use of a town in an inn name. [Madog Maelgwn ap Llywelyn, 08/99, R-Caid]
Jaelle of Armida 1999.03 [Christall Gordon. Household name for Aggregation of Kith] The LoI notes the Society of Friends, dated to 1648, which is within our grey area, so suggests that therefore Aggregation of Kith is registerable. However, names from the grey area are permissible for use when there is a strong likelihood that they could have first been used prior to 1600, but were not recorded until afterwards (though prior to 1650). In the case of the Society of Friends it is well know when they came into existence, so it is not a period model. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1999, p. 12)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.04 The submitter wanted an Anglo-Saxon name meaning House Ostentiousness. However, this name in either English or Anglo-Saxon, does not follow any period exemplars for Household names. RfS III.2.b.iv. notes that "Household names must follow the patterns of period names of organized groups of people. Possible models include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart)." (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1997, p. 18)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.04 [Ravensrook] The earliest dated example of rookery in the OED is from 1725. Since that is after our period, it cannot be used in an SCA name. There are other period forms that would be acceptable, for instance Ravenhurst. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1997, p. 18)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.01 The household name was supposed to be Gaelic for "Clan of the Mountain Hall"... this follows none of the period models for household names. (Aislinne of Alainmor, 1/97 p. 18)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.06 [Returning Ducal Household Brunwulf.] There is no period precedent for this style of household name. Though there were a number of "ducal households", they were not so styled as part of their proper names. [6/94, p.12]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.01 No support could be found by any of the commenters for [House Pillaging Falcons], nor does it appear to be formed in a period style. [1/94, p.16]
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1991.04 [Rolling Thunder] "That the natural phenomenon of 'a long drawn-out thunderclap' existed in period has never been an issue in previous returns of this name; the modern connotations of the name have been. The OED does not cite instances of 'roll' with either drums or thunder until well after period (1688 and 1700, respectively). The name is not period style but is obtrusively modern." (LoAR 4/91 p.13).
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1982.04.19 I am rejecting the name of the household due to lack of documentation. WVS [67] [LoAR 19 Apr 82], p. 4
 
Heraldic Titles: Construction Issues
François la Flamme 2004.01 [Chequey Herald] No documentation was presented and none was found that a heraldic title in period would have been drawn from field divisions or field treatments, rather than charges. Lacking such evidence, this title is not registerable. [West, Kingdom of, 01/2004, R-West]
François la Flamme 2003.06 [Heraldic title Open Scroll Pursuivant] No documentation was presented and none was found to support [posture/position] [charge] as a period pattern for a heraldic title as required by RfS III.2.b.iii. Lacking such evidence, this title is not registerable. [Ansteorra, Kingdom of, 06/2003 LoAR, R-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2003.06 [Heraldic title Papyrus Scroll Pursuivant] No documentation was presented and none was found to support [type of material] Scroll as a period pattern for a heraldic title as required by RfS III.2.b.iii. Lacking such evidence, this title is not registerable. [Ansteorra, Kingdom of, 06/2003 LoAR, R-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2003.05 [Heraldic title Jade Dragon Herald] The LoI stated that "This is a Heraldic title created from an Order named for the Jade Dragon token given to it's [sic] recipients." However, Atlantia does not have an order named "Order of the Jade Dragon" registered. Therefore, Jade Dragon is not grandfathered to them for use in a heraldic title and must be documented. Kraken notes:

The OED dates the first occurrence of jade with this meaning in English to 1727, well out of even our grey area. All earlier citations use Spanish or French, and they only go back to 1595 (1569 if you count the all-Spanish passage). Its use as an adjective is dated to 1865.

Lacking evidence that Jade would have been used as an adjective to describe an item in period, it is not registerable. [Atlantia, Kingdom of, 05/2003 LoAR, R-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.05 [Heraldic title Bræs Hæt Herald] No documentation was presented and none was found that Bræs Hæt Herald follows a pattern of period heraldic titles as required by RfS III.2.b.iii. Evidence was found for heraldic titles using the pattern [color] [charge] as noted by Electrum:

While I can cite numerous examples of colour + charge (Bluemantle, Eagle Vert, Rouge Dragon, Rouge Croix, Blanc Sanglier), I was only able to find two eamples where the title was not clearly <colour> + <charge> as opposed to <material> + <charge> Leon d'Or Pursuivant (1446) and Toison d'Or King of Arms. Toison d'Or does not help, as that is derived from the Order of Chivalry, rather than the other way around. Leaving Leon d'Or. Neither Wagner and London, "Heralds of the Nobility" nor Walter, The College of Arms, Queen Victoria Street suggest that this title is derived from a Lion Or, noting that Dudley, to whom the herald was attached in 1446 used as his arms Or a lion queue forche vert.

These examples support the construction [color] [charge], including Golden as a color, but do not support the construction [any general metal] [charge]. Lacking such evidence, this title is not registerable.

Additionally, the phrase Bræs Hæt is not grammatically correct. Bræs 'brass' is a noun form in Old English. The corresponding adjectival form is Bræsen. [Artemisia, Kingdom of, 05/2003 LoAR, R-Artemisia]

François la Flamme 2002.06 [Turtle Ship Herald] This is a resubmission with additional documentation of an identical heraldic title that was returned in the August 2001 LoAR, which stated:

The LoI stated that "The 'Turtle ship' is a period iron-clad warship used by the Korean Admiral Yi Sun Shin to defeat various Japanese Armadas in a series of naval battles between 1592-1598".

However, no accompanying documentation was submitted with this title, and the College did not find any evidence that Turtle Ship was the period name for this type of ship. Presumably, the name would have been in Japanese or Korean.

Metron Arison found the following references to 'Turtle Ship': "Turtle Ship Dock at Seoul in Korea (a replica turtle ship) and [in] a couple of arcade or role-playing game books".

However, none of these sources give dated evidence of the name turtle ship in period.

Without such documentation, this submission must be returned.

Black Pillar concisely summarized the issues with the additional documentation provided with this appeal:

The submitter has proven that there were iron-clad warships in period, that they were called k˘buks˘n, and that they are now called "turtle ships." None of the documentation presented in this appeal actually dates the term "turtle ship" to period, which is what Laurel asked for in the return.

Several points came up during commentary that need to be addressed. The largest issue is whether names from Korean are registerable. No documentation was presented and none was found (either in the current submission or in the previous submission) that Korea had significant contact with pre-17th C Western culture. Such documentation is necessary in order to be able to register a Korean name. Lack of such documentation has been cause for return in the past:

More important, significant interaction between Tibet and pre-seventeenth century Western culture has not been demonstrated. The Encyclopædia Britannica dates the first visits to Tibet by Western missionaries to the 17th century, and the fact that the 8th century Tibetan kingdom had some contact with the Arab conquerors of Iran still leaves Tibetans at least two removes from Western Europe. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR November 1995, p. 16)

If evidence is found of significant contact between Korea and Western Europe and a Korean personal name is deemed to be registerable, Korean may not be registerable for a non-personal name. Japanese placenames have been disallowed as group names, even though Japanese personal names are registerable:

[Returning Ryuugatani, Shire of.] There was a fair amount of commentary with the belief that a Japanese place-name does not appear to fall within the defined scope of the Society, which is pre-17th Century Western culture (RfS I.1. See also "Scope of the Society: Period and Culture" in the Organizational Handbook, pp. 74-75). "Its domain includes Europe and areas that had contact with Europe during this period." (RfS I.1.) It was noted that while there was clearly some contact in very late period between Europe and Japan, and evidence that some few Japanese actually visited Europe, the contact between Europe and Japan was not great enough to justify a Japanese place-name in pre-17th C. Europe. [6/94, p.17]

Part of this issue is the question of whether heraldic titles in Oriental languages are registerable in general. There have been only three registrations of heraldic titles from Oriental languages. Both Monsho Herald and Nihonyama Pursuivant were registered long enough ago that the O&A is unsure of the date. Monsho Herald was released in June 1986 and Nihonyama Pursuivant was released in December 1990. Chagama Herald Extraordinary was registered in December 1987. In this case, the LoAR noted that chagama was Japanese for 'tea pot'. Of specific relevence is the fact that the return of the name for the Shire of Ryuugatani is more recent than any of these three heraldic title registrations. As noted by Brachet:

There is still no evidence that the artifact or the name were known in period IN EUROPE. No evidence is presented that Europeans even knew of these ships. The only way this makes sense as a title is as a translation from the Korean/Japanese, and the fact that the famous battles are in 1597-1598 argues (in our minds convincingly) that this is simply not a probable English heraldic title in period.

The current submission provided documentation that the type of ship called a k˘buks˘n dates to the mid-fifteenth century, though the famous battles in which they were used occured in 1597-1598. However, none of the documentation indicated that this type of warship was known to Western Europeans or that the term turtle ship is anything but modern.

In addition to the issues discussed so far, there is the fact that limitations have been placed on the use of the Lingua Anglica Allowance:

The use of lingua franca translation is extended only to single, simple descriptives. Given names, for instance, may not normally be translated into their putative meaning: e.g. Bear may not be used as a given name, even though it's the lingua franca translation of the given name Björn. Placenames, hereditary surnames, and bynames from different languages (e.g. French and German) likewise don't fall under the lingua franca allowance. (28 March, 1993 Cover Letter (January, 1993 LoAR), pp. 2-3)

The Lingua Anglica Allowance has been used in conjunction with only one household name, one branch name, and one order name. Of these, only the household name is more recent than the Lingua Anglica ruling quoted above. The household name was for the Brotherhood of the Seven Holy Sleepers of Ephesus (registered May 1996). While the household name was submitted as a Lingua Anglica form of the same household name in Finnish that was also registered at that time, the legend of these saints was likely known in England, making this a plausible household name in English, regardless of the Lingua Anglica Allowance.

To summarize the issues with this submission:

No documentation has been provided to demonstrate that Korea had significant contact with Western Europe in period to make even Korean personal names registerable.

Registerability of personal names and non-personal names from non-Western European cultures require different levels of contact. Sufficient contact for a personal name to be registerable is not necessarily sufficient contact to allow registration of non-personal names such as branch names, order names, and heraldic titles.

The scope of the Lingua Anglica Allowance has been extended to descriptive bynames used in personal names. In that ruling, it was specifically stated that the Lingua Anglica Allowance did not apply to placenames and surnames. As the normal pattern of heraldic titles is to preserve the title in its original language, it is not appropriate to extend the Lingua Anglica Allowance to heraldic titles. (For example, in period English documents, French heraldic titles are routinely rendered in French or in phonetic English equivalents rather than being translated into English.)

No evidence has been provided that Turtle Ship Herald, or even K˘buks˘n Herald, follows the pattern of period heraldic titles as required by RfS III.2.b.iii. It would seem that the theory is that the ship in question might be registerable as a heraldic charge. And that if it were, it would then be a plausible source for a heraldic title. However, there is no ruling allowing a k˘buks˘n as a heraldic charge and no evidence of one has been found in period armory. Lacking either evidence of an item used in period heraldry or a ruling that an item may be used as a charge in SCA armory, that item (in this case, a k˘buks˘n) is not a candidate for a heraldic title based on the name of a heraldic charge.

[Trimaris, Kingdom of, 06/2002, R-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2001.08 [Vox Viverra Sum Herald] This is returned for lack of documentation of Vox [animal reference] Sum as following examples of period heraldic titles. I can do no better than to quote my predecessor, Master Pietari Pentinpoika Uv, Pelican King of Arms, quoting Mistress Jaelle of Armida, Laurel Queen of Arms, quoting Master Da'ud ibn Auda, Laurel King of Arms:
Grammatically the title should be Vox Maris. However, the title has style problems as well as grammatical ones. To quote Mistress Jaelle of Armida, Laurel Queen of Arms, quoting Master Da'ud ibn Auda, Laurel King of Arms:
[Artemisia, Kingdom of. Title for Vox Grypis Herald] This is being returned for non period style. In a similar case, Master Da'ud as Laurel said:
"[returning Vox Draconis Pursuivant] The previous version, Dragon's Voice Pursuivant, was returned 3/95 for failure to emulate period models as required by RfS III.2.b.iii; translation into Latin doesn't bring it any closer. It was suggested that it might derive from a motto Vox draconis sum 'I am the voice of the dragon', but the period examples noted all comprise the entire motto, and no evidence was presented that Vox draconis sum is a reasonable imitation of a period motto. (Caid, Kingdom of, 10/95 p. 18)"
Barring documentation that this follows period exemplar of heraldic titles, it must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
No such documentation was provided this time, either. [Trimaris, Kingdom of, 06/00, R-Trimaris]

No such documentation was provided this time, either. [Trimaris, Kingdom of, 08/01, R-Trimaris]

Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.06 [Vox Mar Herald] Grammatically the title should be Vox Maris. However, the title has style problems as well as grammatical ones. To quote Mistress Jaelle of Armida, Laurel Queen of Arms, quoting Master Da'ud ibn Auda, Laurel King of Arms:
[Artemisia, Kingdom of. Title for Vox Grypis Herald] This is being returned for non period style. In a similar case, Master Da'ud as Laurel said:
[returning Vox Draconis Pursuivant] The previous version, Dragon's Voice Pursuivant, was returned 3/95 for failure to emulate period models as required by RfS III.2.b.iii; translation into Latin doesn't bring it any closer. It was suggested that it might derive from a motto Vox draconis sum `I am the voice of the dragon', but the period examples noted allcomprise the entire motto, and no evidence was presented that Vox draconis sum is a reasonable imitation of a period motto. (Caid, Kingdom of, 10/95 p. 18)
Barring documentation that this follows period exemplar of heraldic titles, it must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
No such documentation was provided this time, either. [Trimaris, Kingdom of, 06/00, R-Trimaris]
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Artemisia, Kingdom of. Title for Vox Grypis Herald] This is being returned for non period style. In a similar case, Master Da'ud as Laurel said:

[returning Vox Draconis Pursuivant] The previous version, Dragon's Voice Pursuivant, was returned 3/95 for failure to emulate period models as required by RfS III.2.b.iii; translation into Latin doesn't bring it any closer. It was suggested that it might derive from a motto Vox draconis sum `I am the voice of the dragon', but the period examples noted all comprise the entire motto, and no evidence was presented that Vox draconis sum is a reasonable imitation of a period motto. (Caid, Kingdom of, 10/95 p. 18)

Barring documentation that this follows period exemplar of heraldic titles, it must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)

Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Artemisia, Kingdom of. Title for Wormwood Pursuivant] This is being returned for non-period style. Period heraldic titles were formed from surnames, place-names, names of heraldic charges orders of chivalry and mottos. Barring evidence that Wormwood is one of the above it must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.10 [returning Vox Draconis Pursuivant] The previous version, Dragon's Voice Pursuivant, was returned 3/95 for failure to emulate period models as required by RfS III.2.b.iii;

translation into Latin doesn't bring it any closer. It was suggested that it might derive from a motto Vox draconis sum `I am the voice of the dragon', but the period examples noted all comprise the entire motto, and no evidence was presented that Vox draconis sum is a reasonable imitation of a period motto. (Caid, Kingdom of, 10/95 p. 18)

Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.09 Short mottos sometimes became became heraldic titles in period. Franklyn and Tanner's Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Heraldry cites the following: the Ich Dien Pursuivant who served the Prince of Wales, c.1475 (p.179), and Il Faut Faire Pursuivant; maintained by Sir John Falstaf and from his word or motto (p.180). We will accept such heraldic titles on a case by case basis. (East Kingdom, September, 1993, pg. 11)
 
Documentation provided by a native speaker or subject matter expert
François la Flamme 2002.07 The element Rami was documented on the LoI as follows: "The Arabic word rama/ramy means 'to shoot' or 'to fire' (pp. 360-361, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, Arabic-English, Hans Wehr, McDonald and Evans Ltd., London, reprinted 1980); I am trusting the submitter on this, as he was raised and educated in Iraq, and Arabic is his first language." Unfortunately, knowledge of a modern language does not necessarily imply a knowledge of the same language in period. As a result, a simple statement by a native speaker has not been sufficient documentation for a number of years. One precedent that outlines the issue is:

Most of us wouldn't trust the average English-speaker to get Early Modern English correct (witness the number of people who have trouble understanding Shakespeare!); anything earlier is even more unlikely. And there is no reason to believe that English is peculiar in this. We have no more cause to trust a modern German speaker's knowledge of Middle High German than to trust a modern English speaker's knowledge of Middle English. Native speakers of English submitting English names frequently 'know' that they are correct -- even when they are altogether wrong. Without sufficient information with which to judge the reliability of the source, or the background and training of the speaker, we cannot assume any special knowledge about period naming practice or grammar. When the documentation boils down to "because I said so", it cannot be accepted on its face. [6/94c, p.3]

Lacking documentation that Rami would have been used in an Arabic byname in period, it is not registerable. [Mu'Alim Rami Kathoum ibn Abdul Majeed, 07/2002, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2001.11 Unfortunately, the only documentation provided for the byname Varnum given in the LoI was, The submitter asserts that Varnum is an epithet meaning 'shield', and that such an epithet would be appropriate for an Indian warrior (he cites personal communication with Swami Atmajananda, Ramakrishna Order, Washington D.C.). Previous precedent has ruled that communication with a modern speaker of a language is not adequate documentation for a period name:
[Name] As has been noted before, personal correspondence from a modern speaker, or even a scholar, of a language is not adequate documentation for a period name. The only documentation provided in support of the [byname] ... were a few lines ... from the ... gift shop proprietor cited as the source for the translation. Since no one in the College could come up with any supporting documentation for anything similar..., some more substantial documentation must be required from the submittor. (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 26 Jul 87, p. 10)
Despite our high respect for [Name] and her expertise in [language] (it's what she does for a living), we have to have some idea of why she thinks it is O.K. to register this name form. Specifically we need to have documentation of the meaning and construction of the elements in this name, information not included on the letter of intent or on the forms. (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 30 Sep 89, p. 14)
As the College was unable to find documentation of Varnum as a period byname, it must be returned for lack of documentation. [Harsha Varnum, 11/01, R-Caid]
Jaelle of Armida 1998.03 [Kazimierz Dimidowicz Dziecielowski] The submitter provided a letter from William F. Hoffman, author of Polish Surnames,: Origins and Meanings, giving the evidence for the name. Hoffman says that, Kazimierz is a modern (but probably pre-1600) Polish spelling of the name Kazimir, which can be found dating as far back as the 12th century. Since Hoffman is a recognized expert in the field of Polish names, though his speciality is the 19th century, and since the name in other spellings is documentably period, we are willing to accept Hoffman's opinion, and register the name as submitted. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1998, p. 12)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.09 The byname is inadequately documented. We need more than that an unnamed "native speaker" said so. Dictionary or language book citations (or better, photocopies), or a more complete explanation from an identified native speaker as to why it is correctly formed would be helpful. (A'isha al-Aneed, 9/94 p. 21)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.06c Most of us wouldn't trust the average English-speaker to get Early Modern English correct (witness the number of people who have trouble understanding Shakespeare!); anything earlier is even more unlikely. And there is no reason to believe that English is peculiar in this. We have no more cause to trust a modern German speaker's knowledge of Middle High German than to trust a modern English speaker's knowledge of Middle English. Native speakers of English submitting English names frequently 'know' that they are correct -- even when they are altogether wrong. Without sufficient information with which to judge the reliability of the source, or the background and training of the speaker, we cannot assume any special knowledge about period naming practice or grammar. When the documentation boils down to "because I said so", it cannot be accepted on its face. [6/94c, p.3]
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.09.30 Despite our high respect for [Name] and her expertise in [language] (it's what she does for a living), we have to have some idea of why she thinks it is O.K. to register this name form. Specifically we need to have documentation of the meaning and construction of the elements in this name, information not included on the letter of intent or on the forms. (LoAR 30 Sep 89, p. 14)
 
an Academy of Saint Gabriel client letter
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 We note that the documentation was not adequately summarized on the LoI, although the College of Arms commenters filled in the blanks. St. Gabriel letters provide extensive footnotes on the sources from which the names are drawn, as well as the dates for most of the names discussed. This information should be included when summarizing documentation from a St. Gabriel report. [Bella Lucia da Verona, 04/04, A-Lochac]
François la Flamme 2003.08 No documentation was presented, and none was found, that Hrafnahamaringr is a reasonable byname in Old Norse. This element was documented from Academy of Saint Gabriel Report 390 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/390). This report was written in 1997 and is one of the older Academy reports. A warning has been added to the top that states, "Some of the Academy's early reports contain errors that we haven't yet corrected. Please use it with caution." Regarding the submitted byname, this report states:

If you're attached to the word "ravenhammer" and don't care about what it actually means, there is a way to use it. "hamarr" was a word for "a hammer-shaped crag, a crag standing out like an anvil." It's common in place names throughout Iceland and Norway. "Hrafn" is also found in placenames in the same area. Thus, it would be possible to create a place-name "Hrafnahamarr," or "raven's crag." You could be "Thorfinnr at Hrafnahamri," which means "Thorfinn at Raven's Crag." You could also use the name "Thorfinnr Hrafnahamaringr," which translates roughly as "Thorfinn Ravencragger."

This report contains no indication regarding where the information given above was found. Additionally, there is no indication that the element hamarr appeared in placenames in period. Given both of these issues, the submitted report is not sufficient to support Hrafnahamaringr as a plausible period byname in Old Norse. [Thorfinnr Hrafnahamaringr, 08/2003 LoAR, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.12 Submitted as Amelot d'Akeney, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 14th C Norman English and allowed minor changes. The documentation provided for d'Akeney in the LoI was simply, "The submitter included Academy of St Gabriel Report 2502, which appeared entirely satisfactory documentation for her name." This is not a sufficient summarization of the information included in this report. The Cover Letter to the April 2000 LoAR included a discussion of required summarization of documentation. It included the statement:
Starting with the July 2000 LoI's we are going to tighten our interpretation of V.B.2.d. so that items that don't have a proper summary of supporting evidence may be returned instead of pended. Blatant cases (such as "<name> is Saint Gabriel Client #1234", or "<name> is Irish" or "<name> is in Withycombe") will be returned unless the College of Arms is able to provide appropriate supporting evidence in its commentary.

The reason for this policy is obvious in this case, as shown by the information Aryanhwy merch Catmael quotes from this Saint Gabriel client report:

[...]<d'Akeney> is not found in the report, though similar spellings are:

- Dakeny: 1241-1269, 1286, 1367

- Dakigny: c1270

- Dakeni: 1285

- de Akeney: 1295

The sources for these are Brault s.n. Dakeny and Aspilogia II p. 124.

So, the Saint Gabriel report does not, in fact, support the submitted form d'Akeney. Silver Nautilus provided an analysis of this name that explains why d'Akeney is not a plausible form in English:

We can easily document "de Hakeney" (R&W s.n. Hackney dates "de Hakeneye" to 1275 and "Hakeney" without a preposition to 1327). S. Gabriel [client report 2502] finds "de Akeney" in 1295 in Aspilogia (tempore either Edward I or Henry III). However, it is less promising for the preposition as submitted; it states that while "de" contracts to "d'" in French (which would require the French form of the placename, Acquigny), it either contracts to "D-" or does not contract in English.

As the submitter allows minor changes, we have changed the byname to de Akeney in order to register this name. [Amelot de Akeney, 12/2002, A-Lochac]

François la Flamme 2001.11 All the elements in this name were documented from a letter from the Academy of Saint Gabriel. However, the letter was not adequately summarized in the LoI, which has been cause for return in the past. ... By Laurel precedent, the College is not required to look up documentation that is not adequately summarized on the LoI. In this case, multiple members of the College went out of their way to dig up this information. For the benefit of both the submitter and the members of the College who took on this extra work, we are registering this name as an exception to the requirement that all submitted documentation be properly and adequately summarized on the LoI. Kingdom submissions heralds should be aware that inadequate summarization of supporting documentation has been and will continue to be a reason for return. [Isa van Reinholte, 11/01, A-Ansteorra]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.07 Since the submitter did not provide copies of the S. Gabriel letter we decline to say anything definite about the suitability of the byname. [Roderick Zweisterne, 07/00, R-Meridies]
 
Ahmed (Salahudding Ahmed, A Dictionary of Muslim Names)
François la Flamme 2002.11 Khalisa was documented as an undated Arabic feminine name meaning "pure, true, real" from Salahuddin Ahmed, A Dictionary of Muslim Names. Metron Ariston found evidence of Khalisa as a place name in period:

I'd really like to see some evidence for the use of the given name as a given name in period since it was definitely used as a locative name in our period, being effectively a capital of Muslim Sicily at one point: "In 325/937, Khalid bin Ishaq, the governor of Sicily laid foundation of a new city, called Khalisa, near Palermo. Its structure and design almost resembled the city of Mahdiya. The chiefs of Sicily and other officials mostly lived in Khalisa, where most of the administration was controlled." (ismaili.net/histoire/history05/history525.html). This locative usage appears fairly common in the Muslim world even today since al-Khalisa appears not only in lists of Palestinian villages destroyed in 1948 (www.badil.org/Statistics/1948/pal48_safad.htm), but also as a village in the Baghdad Province of Iraq (www.iraqwaterproject.com/facilities/WaterPlantChoices.htm).

Many Arabic given names came into use in the modern era. Since Khalisa has been shown to be a place name in period, there is no reason to assume that its use as a given name was not derived from the placename in modern times. Therefore, the evidence that Khalisa is a modern name is insufficient to suggest that it is plausible as a feminine given name in period. Barring such evidence, Khalisa is not registerable. [Khalisa bint Muthanna, 11/2002, R-Artemisia]

François la Flamme 2002.02 al-Jamal summarizes the issues with the rest of the name:
Afsar is found, undated, in Ahmed (cited in the LoI). Even the example of Afsar-ud-Din is not dated, and since I do not find the name anywhere else, I can only at this time take it as a hypothetical usage. (When Ahmed has dates, he seems to be pretty reliable. When he doesn't, it's generally indicative of modern usage.) He also gives its origin as Persian, and combines it with the Arabic al-Din.
[Keshvar bint Afsar al-Mah, 02/02, R-Atenveldt]
 
The Annals of Connacht
François la Flamme 2002.01 Lassarfina was documented from the Annals of Connacht. This source uses conservative orthography, meaning that most of the spellings in this source follow the rules of Middle Irish (pre-1200). [Lassarfina inghean uí Cheallaigh, 01/02, A-Caid]
 
The Annals of the Four Masters
François la Flamme 2001.11 Since The Annals of the Four Masters were written in 1632-1636, much of their orthography dates from that time period. [Eoin an Eich Ghil mac Cionaodha, 11/01, A-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2001.11 The name Teige was documented from online translations of the Annals of the Four Masters. Those translations were done in the 19th C and so name forms in them are not necessarily appropriate period Anglicized Irish forms. In this case, the form Teige is fine since C. L'Estrange Ewen, A History of Surnames of the British Isles, dates Teige oge ny Foorty of Dromore, yeoman to 1603-4 (p. 210). [Teige MacLennan the Tinker, 11/01, A-Atlantia]
 
The Annals of Loch Cé
François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Cu-Connacht O'Tighernain, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 14th C Irish and allowed minor changes.

The elements of this name were documented from translations of the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Loch Cé. These translations are modern and do not necessarily represent period forms of these names. In this case, the form Cu-Connacht has not been found in period. Rather, this name is Cú Connacht in Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) and Cú Chonnacht in Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700). Additionally, the form O'Tighernain is a partially Anglicized form of the Early Modern Irish Gaelic Ó Tighearnáin. In fact, the form that appears in the location cited in the LoI is Ó Tighearnáin, not O'Tighearnain.

We have changed this name to the fully Early Modern Irish form Cú Chonnacht Ó Tighearnáin in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity and to register this name. [Cú Chonnacht Ó Tighearnáin, 10/2003, A-Middle]

 
The Annals of Ulster
François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Cu-Connacht O'Tighernain, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 14th C Irish and allowed minor changes.

The elements of this name were documented from translations of the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Loch Cé. These translations are modern and do not necessarily represent period forms of these names. In this case, the form Cu-Connacht has not been found in period. Rather, this name is Cú Connacht in Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) and Cú Chonnacht in Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700). Additionally, the form O'Tighernain is a partially Anglicized form of the Early Modern Irish Gaelic Ó Tighearnáin. In fact, the form that appears in the location cited in the LoI is Ó Tighearnáin, not O'Tighearnain.

We have changed this name to the fully Early Modern Irish form Cú Chonnacht Ó Tighearnáin in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity and to register this name. [Cú Chonnacht Ó Tighearnáin, 10/2003, A-Middle]

 
Arthur (An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.01 [Kenneth Ulrich] Submitted as Kenneth Ulrich Ochiern, no one was able to corroborate Ochiern, nor is the submitter's source (Arthur, An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names) considered a reliable one. As a consequence we have dropped the problematic element to register the name. [1/94, p.9]
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.04.30 Arthur's Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names ... is not a reliable source, being a rather old volume of the "what to name your baby" and "what does you family name mean" variety. (LoAR 30 Apr 89, p 2)
 
Bahlow
François la Flamme 2004.03 Submitted as Elias Treviranus, the submitter requested authenticity for German and allowed any changes. The LoI noted that he "cares most about the meaning ('A person from Trier') and the language/culture ('German')".

The documentation provided for Treviranus on the LoI was:

Treviranus is found in the Dictionary of German Names (Edda Gentry transl.) by Bahlow on page 513, which lists "Treviranus: a person from Trier (name from the Celtic tribe, Treveri)".

It is important to note that this entry does not show use of Treviranus in period. The focus of Bahlow is to present information about German surnames over time. As a result, not all information in it is appropriate for our period.

Clarion provided information about German locatives referring to Trier:

Bahlow, s.n. Treviranus, does list the name as meaning "a person from Trier." Under Trier, it lists a Heinrick Trier in 1345. Brechenmacher, s.n Teviranus, dates it to 1662 and, under Trier(er), dates Tryerer in 1344. For authenticity, Trier or Tryerer would be the best, especially as Treviranus has not been documented in period.

As no evidence was found of Treviranus used as a personal byname in period, we have changed this byname to the documented form Trier in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Elias Trier, 03/2004, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2004.02 The submitter requested authenticity for "Germanic" 14th to 15th C and allowed no changes to his given name.

This name has two problems. The first is that Jörgen, which was cited from Gentry's English edition of Bahlow (s.n. Jörn), is not a given name. Instead it is a genitive form that effectively means 'George's'; hence Jörgensen 'George's son'. No evidence was found of Jörgen used in a given name position, rather than as part of a patronymic byname, in German in period. Lacking evidence that Jörgen was a form used as a given name in period, it is not registerable.

The second problem with this name is that documentation was only found for Unruh as a descriptive byname meaning 'troublemaker'. The LoI documented Von Unruh from the Gentry's English translation of Bahlow (p. 520 s.n. Unruh). However, that entry turns out to have a translation error. Nebuly explains:

The submitter has misinterpreted the documentation for the byname from Bahlow (s.n. Unruh). The complete entry appears as follows:

Unruh (LGer. Unrau [unrest]), also: von Unruh: 'troublemaker' (Nicclos Unru, Liegnitz 1390, Unrowe, Hildesheim 1368).

The misinterpretation is the result of incomplete translation into English by Gentry. The von at the end of the first line of the entry should have been translated to from, since it is used to indicate the etymology of the byname, and not as part of a byname construction.

The particle von is used in locative bynames that refer to specific placenames, for example von Köln meaning 'of Cologne'. Lacking evidence of Unruh as a German placename in period, the byname Von Unruh is not registerable.

A grammatically correct, and registerable, form of this name would be Jörg Unru or Jörg Unrowe. However, as the submitter allows no changes to his given name, we must return this submission. [Jörgen Von Unruh, 02/2004, R-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Regarding the byname Terrien, the LoI stated:

Terrien is a French byname, "man of the earth," which even in a very early period (5th to 9th C.) would suggest a common profession of the time, such as farmer (Bahlow, p. 566 s.n. Terre).

However, the College was unable to find this entry in Bahlow. Also, they found no support for Terrien except as a modern surname. Lacking evidence that Terrien is a plausible byname in period, it is not registerable. [Ricchar Terrien the Goth, 10/2003, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2001.11 Draak was submitted as a header form in Bahlow. In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. However, precedent (most notably regarding modern forms in Ó Corráin & Maguire) has ruled that header forms which are modern may not be registerable. (This has been handled on a case by case basis.) [Benedicta Dracke, 11/01, A-Artemisia]
 
Bain (Bain, Richard, The Clans and Tartans of Scotland)
François la Flamme 2003.01 Second, the LoI stated that Jardine "is also found in The Clans and Tartans of Scotland (Bain, Richard, Glasgow: Collins, third reprint, 1978.) on p.74 where it states 'The Cummings of Culter traced their descent from Jardine Comyn, son of the Earl of Buchan in the 13th century.'"

Bain and sources directly quoting him appear to be the only sources that list Jardine Comyn. Bain is not known for his historical accuracy. Other clan encyclopedias, most notably Way of Plean and Squire's Scottish Clan and Family Encyclopedia, and even other books on tartans, do not include a reference to a Jardine Comyn in any of the entries for Comyn, Cummings, et cetera. There are other sources that cover the Comyn family as earls of Buchan in depth, including Alan Young, Robert the Bruce's Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, and John Mackintosh, LL.D., "Historic Earls and Earldoms of Scotland" (http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/earldoms/), s.n. "Chapter II - Earldom and Earls of Buchan". These sources indicate that there were only three Comyns who held the title earl of Buchan: William (d. 1233), Alexander (d. 1289), and John (d. 1313). William Comyn came by the title earl of Buchan via his second wife, Marjory, who was countess of Buchan. They had three sons: Alexander (who followed his father as earl of Buchan), William, and Fergus. By his first wife, William had four sons: Richard, Walter, William, and David. Alexander Comyn, earl of Buchan, had four sons: John (who followed his father as earl of Buchan), Roger, Alexander, and William. John Comyn, earl of Buchan, had one son John, who predeceased him. Neither of these sources lists any person named Jardine Comyn.

Therefore, we have only the reference from Bain for Jardine as a given name in period. This constitutes a single dubious reference from a work not known for historical accuracy and whose author does not list his sources. Further, more dependable sources cast doubt upon the existence of Jardine Comyn. This issue, combined with the unlikely nature of Jardine as a given name in period, is not sufficient support for registration of Jardine as a given name. Lacking corroborating evidence of Jardine as a given name, this submission must be returned for lack of a given name. [Jardine Mac Enlea, 01/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]

 
Barber
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.09 Barber's British Family Names, ... has been described as `a mere collection of guesses unsupported by evidence' (Reaney & Wilson, p. ix). (Talan Gwynek, LoAR September 1995, p. 11)
 
Bardsley
François la Flamme 2001.11 Submitted as Arianna Wolfraven, the submitter allowed minor changes and did not have a request for authenticity. Wolfraven is a header form in Bardsley. In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. However, precedent (most notably regarding modern forms in Ó Corráin & Maguire) has ruled that header forms which are modern may not be registerable. (This has been handled on a case by case basis.) Wolfraven falls into this category. The name drives from the Old German Wælhræfn and all dated forms of this name found by the College do not have the Wolf- spelling, which seems to be a post-period phenomenon. Bardsley (p. 822 s.n. Wolfraven) dates Wlfraven to 1273. [Arianna Wlfraven, 11/01, A-Trimaris]
 
Black
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 Submitted as Cailean mac Eachduinn, the submitter requested authenticity for Scotland. The spelling of the given name was documented from Black, The Surnames of Scotland, as a Gaelic spelling. When Black marks a spelling as Gaelic, he means it is a modern Gaelic spelling. Occasionally, modern Gaelic forms are identical to late period Gaelic forms, but not always. In this case, Black provides a Gaelic spelling from 1467: Cailin. The patronymic appears in the same 1467 manuscript. Therefore, we have changed the name to Cailin mac Eachduinn to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Cailin mac Eachduinn, 05/04, A-East]
François la Flamme 2004.01 Black (p. 566 s.n. MACTAVISH) states that "Doncan M'Thamais was one of those cited in 1355 to give evidence regarding the lands of Glassre in Argyllshire (HP., II, p. 139)". HP indicates that Black's source for this information was the Highland Papers. The Highland Papers are notorious for modifying spellings from the original documents and cannot be considered reliable for representing spellings of names from our period. In most cases, there are enough other spelling variants in Black's entries to support a dubious citation from the Highland Papers as being plausible in our period. However, the spelling -ais in the submitted name is indicative of a Gaelic rather than Scots form of this byname. As Black (s.nn. MacTavish, MacThomas) lists no other dated examples of a -ais spelling of this byname in period, we must assume that the single example of M'Thamais cited from the Highland Papers is a post-period "updated" form, and is, therefore, not registerable.

As the submitter allows any changes, we have changed this byname to the form McThomas, dated to 1537 in Black (s.n. McThomas), in order to register this name. [Isabel McThomas, 01/2004, A-West]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Listed on the LoI as Adriana inghean Labhruinn mhic Fhionghuin, this name was submitted as Adriana inghean Labhruinn MacFhionguin and changed at Kingdom to correct grammar issues.

The elements Labhruinn and Fhionghuin were documented from Black (s.nn. MacLaren, MacKinnon). Black uses the notation "G." in reference to these forms. The notation "G." indicates a Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. In a number of cases, though not all, these forms are also Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) forms. Black (p. 534 s.n. MacLaren) dates the "MG." [Middle Gaelic] form <Labhran> to 1467. A manuscript from 1467 (likely the same one referred to by Black) lists the form Finguine. Middle Gaelic was mostly in use from 900 to 1200. Since some manuscripts used older spelling conventions, a manuscript written in 1467 may use Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700), appropriate for the 15th C, or may use older form such as Middle Gaelic. A fully Middle Gaelic form of this byname would be ingen Labhrain meic Fhinguine. A fully Early Modern Gaelic form of this byname would be inghean Labhrain mhic Fhionghuine. As the Early Modern Gaelic form of this byname is the closer of these forms to the submitted byname, we have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [Adriana inghean Labhrain mhic Fhionghuine, 11/2003, A-East]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Deibhiosdan was documented from Black (p. 202 s.n. Davidson). However, when Black lists a "Gaelic" form of a name, he is referring to a modern form. In some cases, the name also appeared during our time period, but in many cases, the Gaelic form is recent.

In the case of Deibhiosdan, no documentation was presented and none was found that any form of Davidson appeared in Gaelic in period. Lacking such evidence, Deibhiosdan is not registerable.

As the submitter does not allow major changes, we were unable to change the byname to an English form in order to register this name. [Sarah Deibhiosdan, 11/2003, R-Caid]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Sibéal inghean mhic Gill'easpuig, the byname was documented from Black (p. 500 s.n. MacGillespie) which gives Mac Gill' easpuig as the Gaelic form of this name. However, no date is listed for the form Mac Gill' easpuig. When Black only notes a form as Gaelic (rather than "MG.", indicating "Middle Gaelic") and cites no dates, he is referring to a modern form. We have changed the byname to an Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form in order to register this name. [Sibéal inghean mhic Giolla Easpuig, 08/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Listed on the LoI as Dubh Easa inghean Dhugaill, this name was submitted as Dubheasa inghean Dhougaill and changed at Kingdom to match documented forms, particularly because "according to Black (s.n. Dougal); the Gaelic genitive form is <Dhughaill>". Unfortunately, there was a misreading of this entry. Black (p. 217 s.n. Dougal) lists D¨ghall as the Gaelic (meaning Modern Gaelic) form. This form is in the nominative case. He lists Dowgall and Dubgaill as Middle Gaelic forms dating to 1467, the latter being a genitive form. It is this form which is appropriate to this name. Since inghean (the word preceeding Dubgaill) ends in the letter n, the D in Dubgaill does not lenite. We have corrected the byname to this form in order to register the name. [Dubheasa inghean Dubgaill, 08/2002, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.01 As Black's notation of the Gaelic form of the byname as one word is a modern convention, we have registered this byname as two words. [Jamie Mac Fionnlaigh, 01/02, A-Caid]
 
Catasto (Ferrante LaVolpe's article "Family Names Appearing in the Catasto of 1427" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ferrante/catasto/))
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 Submitted as Gianotta Dallafiora, the name was documented from The Online Catasto of 1427. This source lists names in all capital letters and eliminates spaces in name phrases. The usual documentary form of this byname is dalla Fiora; we have changed the byname to this form. [Gianotta dalla Fiora, 05/04, A-East]
François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Serena Alessandra Dellaluna, the submitter requested authenticity for 15th C Italian and allowed any changes. The byname Dellaluna was documented from Ferrante LaVolpe's article "Family Names Appearing in the Catasto of 1427" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ferrante/catasto/). The source that this author worked from standardizes all of the surnames to 10 characters, removes spaces, and uppercases all of the letters. Based on this information, the name represented by DELLALUNA in this source is most likely della Luna. We have made this change. [Serena Alessandra della Luna, 10/2003, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2003.07 [Alternate name Bonafemena del Bimbo] Submitted as Bonafemena Delbimbo, the byname Delbimbo was documented from Ferrante LaVolpe's article "Family Names Appearing in the Catasto of 1427" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ferrante/catasto/). The source that this author worked from standardizes all of the surnames to 10 characters, removes spaces, and uppercases all of the letters. Based on this information, the name represented by DELBIMBO in this source is most likely del Bimbo. We have made this change. [Banbnat MacDermot, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Cecilia Fiametta Delcanto, the byname Delcanto was documented from David Herlihy, Christiane Klapisch-Zuber, R. Burr Litchfield, and Anthony Molho, ed., "FLORENTINE RENAISSANCE RESOURCES: Online Catasto of 1427" (http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/catasto/overview.html). This source standardizes all of the surnames to 10 characters, removes spaces, and uppercases all of the letters. Based on this information, the name represented by DELCANTO in this source is most likely del Canto. We have made this change. [Cecilia Fiametta del Canto, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2003.06 Listed on the LoI as Isabella Beatrice de la Rosa, this name was submitted as Isabella Beatrice Dela Rosa. The byname was modified to a documentable form at Kingdom. The submitter requested authenticity for an unspecified language/culture.

Isabella and Beatrice were documented as Italian names dated to 1427. The form de la Rosa found by Kingdom was documented as Spanish. The "Florentine Renaissance Resources: Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532" (http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/) lists DELLAROSA as appearing 42 times. The Tratte site standardizes the forms of the names, so the listed DELLAROSA likely represents a period della Rosa. We have changed the byname to make this name consistently Italian in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Isabella Beatrice della Rosa, 06/2003 LoAR, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2002.10 Submitted as Fia Scalandron, Scalandron was documented from Ferrante LaVolpe's article "Family Names Appearing in the Catasto of 1427" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ferrante/catasto/). However, this source only lists the first ten characters in any name. The full byname in this case is Scalandroni. We have made this correction. [Fia Scalandroni, 10/2002, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Alicia Boccaccio de Venetzia, Boccaccio was documented as a patronymic byname found in "Italian Names from Florence, 1427" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ferrante/catasto/). The Catasto patronymic byname list omits particles. Therefore, when Boccaccio, a nominative form, appears in this surname list, it most likely represents di Boccaccio. Boccacci is the genitive form of this name, which would be the normal form of the surname if no particle were used. A number of the surnames listed in Arval Benicoeur and Talan Gwynek, "Fourteenth Century Venetian Personal Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/venice14/) are nominative forms of masculine given names that are not preceded by the particle di. Therefore, Boccaccio is registerable as an unmarked patronymic byname, following the pattern demonstrated in this article. [Alicia Boccaccio da Venezia, 08/2002, A-Atenveldt]
 
Coghlan (Coghlan, Grehan, and Joyce, Book of Irish Names)
François la Flamme 2002.08 The first two elements of this name were documented from Coghlan & Joyce, which is not an acceptable source for documentation. Appendix F ("Names Sources to Be Avoided in Documentation") in the Administrative Handbook says of this source:

Coghlan, Ronan, Ida Grehan and P.W. Joyce, Book of Irish Names "The Book of Irish Names is an abysmal SCA source, particularly its discussion of first names, which is a description of modern (20th century) Irish naming practices." (Ensign [Cateline de la Mor la souriete] LoC, 17 February 1996).

Alternate documentation for these elements was provided by College commenters from Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 88 s.n. Eoin & p. 158 s.n. Ruaidrí). However, Ruairí is a Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form of this name and so is not registerable without evidence that it is a plausible period form. Earlier, this name had the form Ruaidrí in Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) and Ruaidhrí in Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700). [Ruairi' Eoin MacDho'mhnuill, 08/2002, R-Calontir]

Jaelle of Armida 1999.03 [Geaspar O'Murchadha] This is being returned for lack of documentation for the given name. The only documentation presented was from The Book of Irish Names, which is not a reliable source. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1999, pp. 10, 14)
Jaelle of Armida 1999.03 [Medbh Gillacon] The name is being returned for lack of documentation for the given name. The documentation for the given name was taken from The Book of Irish Names, which is not a reliable source. Furthermore, the form there was not Medbh, but Meadhbh. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1999, p. 10)
Jaelle of Armida 1999.01 [Treasa Callan] This is being returned for lack of documentation for the given name. The only documentation for Tresa came from Coghlan which is not a reliable source. Without a given name, the name as a whole must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1999, p. 12)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.11 the documentation for [Irish name] came from an unreliable source, Coghlan, Grehan, and Joyce's, Book of Irish Names. We have replaced it with the closest form that could be reliably documented. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR November 1997, p. 1)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.04 The submitter documented Edana from The Book of Irish Names by Coghlan, Grehan, and Joyce, which glosses it as a feminine form of Aidan, an English spelling of Aodhan. This is a good example of why this book is not considered acceptable documentation. The feminine of Áedán (later Aodhán) is Áednat (later Aodhnait), which has been Anglicized as Enat, Ena, and Eny and Latinized as Aidnata. The Anglicizations are essentially attempts to represent Áednat phonetically in English; they are not based on the masculine form. And although it does add -a, the Latinization is based on the feminine Irish form; a superficial Latin feminization of the masculine name would have yielded Aidana instead. Indeed, we have no period example of such a superficial Latinate feminization of a masculine Irish name, and it is therefore very likely that Coghlan's Edana is a modern formation. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR April 1996, p. 4)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.05 Coghlan, Grehans and Joyce's The Book of Irish Names, ... is not a very good source, mixing as it does fully Gaelic and Anglicized forms, most without dates, "willy nilly" [uillie nillie? J].) (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1995, p. 5)
 
Conway (D. J. Conway, The Celtic Book of Names)
François la Flamme 2002.10 From Pelican: Conway's Celtic Book of Names - A Source to be Avoided

A submission this month documented a given name from D. J. Conway, The Celtic Book of Names. Siren provided an evaluation of this source:

The entire name is: "The Celtic Book of Names: Traditional Names from Ireland, Scotland, and Wales" [...].

There are sample pages at www.amazon.com. The first page mixes Anglicized forms (Aideen), Gaelic forms (Ailbhe), and Latinized forms (Affrica) as header forms without notation. The names listed include human names used in period, names which were adopted more recently, deity names, bynames, and just words. There is little attempt to distinguish when names came into use, what spellings might be appropriate for period, or when names fell out of use.

Given these problems with this source, it is not useful for our purposes and should be avoided. [Cover Letter for the 10/2002 LoAR]

François la Flamme 2002.10 Submitted as Artus Bayn, the submitter requested authenticity for "Scottish" and allowed any changes.

Artus was documented from D. J. Conway, The Celtic Book of Names (s.n. Artair). This source has various problems and should be avoided for our purposes. For a complete discussion, please see the Cover Letter. The LoI also stated that "'Artus de Bretania' is inscribed on a portrayal of King Arthur of Britain in the cathredral of Modena, Italy, dated to early 12th century" (http://www.millersv.edu/~english/homepage/duncan/mideng/). Given that De Felice Dizionario dei nomi Italiani (p. 78 s.n. Arturo) lists the form Artus, the form Artus found in the inscription cited in the LoI seems to be an Italian form of King Arthur's name.

Since the submitter requested authenticity for Scottish, an inscription found in Italy is not relevent when compared to actual forms of the name found in Scotland. Black's Surnames of Scotland (p. 32 s.n. Arthur) dates Arthur of Kyncorth to 1435. We have changed the given name to use this form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Arthur Bayn, 10/2002, A-East]

 
Cresswell (Julia Cresswell, Bloomsbury Dictionary of First Names)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.01 A new names book to watch out for (in the negative sense) is Julia Cresswell's Bloomsbury Dictionary of First Names. I saw a copy in one of the local half-price bookstores just a few days before the Laurel meeting, thumbed through it, found several errors and immediately put it down. Then in processing the submissions at the January 1995 Laurel meeting, one of the submissions quoted it to support Llewellyn (the submitted name was changed at kingdom to the more usual Welsh spelling). Ms. Cresswell's book appears to be one that SCA heralds and submitters would do well to avoid. (Da'ud ibn Auda, Cover Letter to the LoAR of January 1995, pp. 4-5)
 
Dauzat
François la Flamme 2003.09 This name is being returned for lack of evidence that the placename Beausoleil was used in period.

The byname du Beausoleil was documented from Morlet's Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille, a source that rarely gives dates. Dauzat and Rostaing, Dictionnaire Étymologique des noms de lieux en France (s.n. Beausoleil), state that Beausoleil is a recent name. Barring evidence that the placename Beausoleil was used in period, this byname is not registerable.

In addition, no evidence was presented for the use of du (derived from de le 'of the') rather than de 'of' with this byname. In any resubmission of this name that includes the byname du Beausoleil, the appropriateness of du, rather than de, should be addressed. [Anne du Beausoleil, 09/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]

 
De Felice
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 The College raised the question whether Destino was adequately documented as a period name. When (1) a name is listed in De Felice, (2) the documentation includes no indication that it is post-period, and (3) the name follows naming patterns documented to period, we have traditionally given the submitter the benefit of the doubt by assuming it was used in period and is therefore registerable. Orle cites these names from James Grubb's Provincial Families of the Renaissance: Private and Public Life in the Veneto: Well-behaved (Bonagente) Uglychild (Brutofante), God Aid Him (Deolavanzio), No Trouble (Senzabriga), Welcome (Benvenuto), Good fortune (Bonaventura), Pilgrim (Pellegrino), and Allgood (Ognibene). [Destino Dini, 04/04, A-Outlands]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 No dates were provided for the byname Bizzarro; it is documented only as a header spelling in De Felice's Dizionario dei Cognomi Italiani. However, the submitter made no requests for authenticity. When (1) a name is listed in De Felice, (2) the documentation includes no indication that it is post-period, and (3) the name follows naming patterns documented to period, we have traditionally given the submitter the benefit of the doubt by assuming it was used in period and is therefore registerable. [Giovanni Bizzarro, 04/04, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Lillia Sandra Fassóne, Lillia was documented from Emidio de Felice, Dizionario dei Nomi Italiani (p. 233 s.n. Lilia), which gives this name as a short form of Liliana. The College was unable to find evidence of Lillia in use in Italy before the 19th C. Lacking evidence that the Lillia is plausible as an Italian name in period, it is not registerable. [Lylie Sandra Fassone, 07/2003 LoAR, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2003.04 Listed on the LoI as Pamela Gattaerelli, this name was submitted as Paméla Gattaerelli. The accent was dropped from the given name at Kingdom because the accents used in De Felice are pronunciation guides and are not part of the name. [Pamela Gattarelli, 04/2003 LoAR, A-East]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Listed on the LoI as Vincenzo Pasquale d'Anzio, this name was submitted as Vincénzo Pasquale D'Anzio. Vincénzo was documented from De Felice. Kingdom removed the accent from this name because the accents are used in De Felice as a pronunciation guide, not as part of the actual names. [Vincenzo Pasquale d'Anza, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.08 This name was submitted as Michèli lo Aquila da Napolia, and changed at kingdom to follow documented spellings of Micheli and Napoli. The LoI stated that:

The submitter will only accept minor changes to the name, but requests specifically assistance with the grammar of the name. If the name must be changed, the submitter indicates he cares more about the meaning of the name. The element meaning "eagle" is very important to the submitter; he wishes to be "Michael (the) Eagle from Naples". He desires a masculine name authentic for 15th century Italy, and he will allow the creation of a holding name.

Micheli was documented from De Felice, Dizionario dei cognomi Italiani, p. 169. This source discusses surnames, not given names. Micheli is a genitive form and would have been used as a surname. The corresponding nominative form Michele is the form that would be used as a given name. Lacking documentation that a genitive form would be used as a given name, the form Micheli is not registerable in a given name position.

The only documentation presented for use of Aquila in a name appears in De Felice Dizionario dei cognomi Italiani (p. 59 s.n. Aquila), which gives this name as originating as a locative byname or a patronymic byname. Neither one would use lo and neither means 'the Eagle'. This name would be registerable as Michele Aquilani da Napoli, which would have Aquilani as an inherited surname deriving from the location Aquila. However, changing the element lo Aquila to Aquilani changes both the origin of this name element and its meaning, and so is dramatic enough of a change that it is a major change, which the submitter does not permit. [Micheli lo Aquila da Napoli, 08/2002, R-An Tir]

Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.07 Accents appear in de Felice's Dizionario dei cognomi italiani, but they are simply to help with pronunciation. They are not used in Italian spelling. [Beatrice da Palermo, 07/01, A-Calontir]
 
Arana de Love (Francisca Arana de Love, Nombres Propios Espa˝oles)
François la Flamme 2003.07 Acacia was documented as an undated feminine given name found in Francisca Arana de Love, Nombres Propios Espa˝oles. Unfortunately, this book is a "baby name book". Undated names in this source are likely modern. While evidence was found of the masculine names Acacius in Latin and Acacio in 16th C Spanish, no evidence was found that a feminine form of this name, such as Acacia, was used in period. Further, Metron Ariston found that acacia was a type of tree in period, specifically that "acacia is primarily in Latin and thence in English a botanical term. The acacia tree or Egyptian pod-thorn was described by Pliny in antiquity and many medieval and modern plants drew their name from their similarity to that plant."

Not all Latin masculine names had feminine equivalents that were used in period. In this case, given that we were unable to find evidence of Acacia used as a feminine name in period, combined with the use of acacia as a botanical term in period, it is unlikely that Acacia came into use in period. Therefore, lacking evidence supporting the use of Acacia as a feminine name in period, this name is not registerable. [Acacia D'Navarre, 07/2003 LoAR, R-Lochac]

François la Flamme 2002.07 This name was originally submitted as Sabina Bragança and changed at Kingdom to match documented examples of Portuguese locative bynames. The submitter requested authenticity for 16th C Portuguese. Sabina was documented as a header spelling in Francisca Arana de Love, Nombres Propios Espa˝oles, (p. 323) which gives it as the name of a 4th C martyr. This source should be used with care. Clarion explains:

Unfortunately, Arana de Love does not distinguish between names found in Spain and names found elsewhere. In this case, Sabina appears to be the name of an early Roman saint. I was unable to find the name in either Portugal or Spain.

Lacking evidence of Sabina in use in Spain or Portugal, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's desired culture. As Sabina is the Spanish form used to refer to the 4th C Roman saint, it is registerable as a saint's name in Spanish. [Sabina de Bragança, 07/2002, A-Middle]

 
Dellquest
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.09 Please add Augustus Wilfrid Dellquest's These Names of Ours: A Book of Surnames (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell) to the list of name books that are unacceptable as documentation. I haven't seen the book in its entirety, but in this case even a few pages submitted as documentation are enough to show that it is worthless for our purposes. (Talan Gwynek, Cover Letter with the September 1995, p. 2)
 
The Domesday Book
François la Flamme 2003.03 As submitted, this name combined the Old English Eald- 'old' with Nortwalde 'north forest', which is a form dated to the Domesday Book. The forms of placenames found in the Domesday Book have to be interpreted with care, as this document shows the transition from Old English to Middle English. As it turns out, the Old English Eald- had shifted to the Middle English (Anglo-Norman) form Alde- by the time of the Domesday Book. Therefore, the submitted Ealdnortwalde combined the Old English Eald- with the Middle English Nortwalde in a single word and so violated RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a name phrase. [Ealdnor­wuda, Canton of, 03/2003, A-Middle]
 
Ekwall
François la Flamme 2001.11 The sum total of the submitted documentation for the byname of Gresewode was "Gresewode is a plausible placename from Ekwall". This is woefully inadequate. No evidence was given as to why kingdom believes Gresewode is a plausible placename. At the very least, the examples that kingdom believes support the byname in Ekwall should have been listed. [Robert of Gresewode, 09/01, R-Caid]
 
Europa Militaria (Europa Militaria Special)
François la Flamme 2002.05 [Bear Clan] The vast majority of the documentation for this submission came from two sources: Mark Harrison and Gerry Embleton, Viking Hersir, 793-1066AD, volume 3 of Osprey Military Warrior Series; and Nurmann, Schulze, & Verhülsdonk, The Vikings, "Europa Militaria Special No. 6". These are tertiary sources at best and their purpose is not onomastics. Therefore, they must be used with care when used as documentation for name submissions. A number of Norse sagas were mentioned in the LoI, but no photocopies of any of them were provided. As none of them are included in the Admin Handbook under Appendix H, "Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel", these mentions may not be considered documentation. Additionally, no sections of those sagas were cited with specific references to "Norse clans". Such references would be necessary as part of documentation from these sagas. [Erik the Bear, 05/2002, R-Atlantia]
 
Fucilla
François la Flamme 2003.08 Listed on the LoI as Licia da Solari, this name was submitted as Licia de Solaria and changed at Kingdom to correct the locative byname to the form found in Fucilla. However, Fucilla gives modern forms; all examples found by the College of Solari in Italian in period appear without a preposition. Therefore, we have dropped da in order to match period examples of this surname and register this name. [Licia Solari, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.07 The byname della Neve was documented as a surname from Fucilla (p. 224), which states "Neve, Della Neve, snow, could apply to a very light complexioned person". The problem with Fucilla is that there are few, if any, dates in this source. So, in most instances, it is not possible to tell simply from reading the entry in Fucilla if the name is period or not. In most cases, the same name may be found in other sources. In other cases, a pattern of similar names may be documented. The College was unable to find evidence of della Neve as a byname in any source other than Fucilla. The only use of della Neve in period that was found by the College was in the phrase Santa Maria della Neve 'Saint Mary of the Snow', which was used as an appellation of the Madonna. Lacking evidence that della Neve is plausible as a byname in period, it is not registerable. [Allegranza della Neve, 07/2003 LoAR, R-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.03 Submitted as Dea Cristofana La Casta, the submitter requested authenticity for Italian. In descriptive bynames, la is typically in lowercase in period. We have made this change. The masculine form of this descriptive byname was documented from an undated reference in Fucilla. Lacking dated documentation, we do not know for certain that it was used in period. However, a byname la Casta, meaning 'the chaste', is consistent with other Italian descriptive bynames in period. So this byname is plausible for period and registerable. [Dea Cristofana la Casta, 03/2002, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Lavandoli was documented as a surname meaning 'lavender' from Fucilla (p 85 s.n. Medicinal Plants). The problem with Fucilla is that there are few, if any, dates in this source. So, in most instances, it is not possible to tell simply from reading the entry in Fucilla if the name is period or not. In most cases, the same name may be found in other sources. In other cases, a pattern of similar names may be documented. The College was unable to find evidence of Lavandoli in any source other than Fucilla. So the question becomes whether or not surnames based on medicinal plants may be documented. A number of the names listed under the Medicinal Plants section in Fucilla have alternate derivations. For example, Nardo can also be a diminutive of Bernardo. Some of the names in this section of Fucilla that are not marked as having alternate derivations are Bistorti, Logli, Mentastro, Lavandoli, and Cadoni. None of these are listed in De Felice, Dizionario dei cognomi italiani. If there was a pattern in period of surnames derived from medicinal plants, surely at least one of these names would have been listed in De Felice. Therefore, barring evidence of use of the surname Lavandoli in period, or even a pattern of surnames derived from medicinal plants in period Italian, this name is not registerable. [Anastasia Lavandoli, 12/01, R-Artemisia]
 
Geirr Bassi
François la Flamme 2001.09 The documentation submitted for the byname Vigamerr was "Viga is found in GierBassi[sic] on p. 29., meaning 'battle' and merr is found on p. 25 with the cited meaning 'mare.'" This documentation supports a byname of viga and an unrelated byname of merr. It does not provide support for combining the two elements into a byname. Without evidence that a byname meaning 'battle-mare' is reasonable in Old Norse, the byname Vigamerr is not registerable. [Emeline Vigamerr, 09/01, R-Caid]
 
Frances and Joseph Gies' books (incl. Life in a Medieval Village)
François la Flamme 2002.03 Submitted as Helena Ordevill, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 13th C England and allowed minor changes. The byname Ordevill was documented from Frances and Joseph Gies' Life in a Medieval Village (p. 71) which gives Ordevill from hors de ville or Extra Villam meaning "outside the village.". The photocopy provided from this source do not include any information about what sources the authors used in assembling their information. Also, a footnote on one of the photocopied pages indicates that the authors have standardized or normalized names in their book. Their book was not written with the purpose of being a name resource and any name information in it should be used with care. The information included in the photocopied pages is not sufficient to discern whether Ordevill is period, or even what language it is. As the College found no other support for Ordevill, it is not registerable with the documentation provided. Reaney & Wilson (p. 331 s.n. Orwell) dates Turbert de Orduuelle to 1066. Since the submitter indicated that sound was most important, we have changed the byname to this form in order to register the name. [Helena de Orduuelle, 03/2002, A-Outlands]
 
Gruffudd
François la Flamme 2003.02 Ifanwy was documented from Gruffydd (p. 60). However, this entry gives no date for this name. Undated names in Gruffydd are generally modern. Regarding this name, Metron Ariston stated that "[t]he only instances I could find were relatively modern (nineteenth and twentieth centuries)." Lacking evidence that Ifanwy was used as a name in period, it is not registerable. [Ifanwy ferch Morien, 02/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.10 Margiad was documented as a Welsh form of Margaret from Withycombe (pp. 206-7 s.n. Margaret). When Withycombe is discussing languages other than English, she is usually referring to modern forms unless she specifically states otherwise. Gruffudd also lists Margiad, but gives no dates for this name. When Gruffudd does not list dates for a name, he is normally referring to modern forms. The College was unable to find any evidence that Margiad was used in period, though period Welsh forms of Margaret were found. Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th Century Welsh Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/welsh13.html) lists Margareta and Marured as Welsh forms of Margaret. This article also lists Lewelin and Lewelyn as forms of Llywelyn found in this time period. From this information, authentic 13th C forms of this name would be the Latinized Welsh form Margareta filia Lewelin and the Welsh forms Marured verch Lewelin and Marured verch Lewelyn. Lacking evidence that Margiad is a plausible period form, it is not registerable. [Margate verch Llywelyn, 10/2002, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Madryn Newmarch, Madryn was documented from Gruffydd (p. 66). However, this entry gives no date for this name, dating only Madrun to the 5th C as a feminine given name. Undated names listed in Gruffudd are usually modern names. Lacking evidence that the form Madryn is a plausible period form, it is not registerable. [Madrun Newmarch, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Heulwen was documented from Gruffydd (p. 59). However, this entry gives no date for this name. Metron Ariston notes that "[u]ndated feminine names in Gruffudd are usually not period names. In this case, where the translation given is 'sunshine', I would say that the odds are very long that this is not a period name." Lacking evidence that Heulwen was used in period, it is not registerable. [Heulwen ferch Lloid, 09/2002 LoAR, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Gwenlyn ferch Ithel, Gwenlyn was documented from Gruffydd (p. 50). However, this entry gives no date for this name. Metron Ariston notes that "[u]ndated feminine names in Gruffudd, particularly those with geographic translations, are usually not period names." Lacking evidence that Gwenlyn was used in period, it is not registerable. We have changed the given name to the second form listed in the LoI, Gwenllyen, which is dated to the 16th C in Morgan & Morgan (p. 111 s.n. Gwenllian) in order to register this name. [Gwenllyen ferch Ithel, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Calontir]
 
Hanks and Hodges
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.05 As noted before, Hanks and Hodges is a particularly poor source for period names. [Aeron Aschennen of Clan MacKenzie, 05/00, R-Ansteorra]
Jaelle of Armida 1996.08 Furthermore, the documentation on [N] comes from Hanks and Hodges, which is not a reliable source. If the submitter wishes to use that surname, better documentation will need to be provided. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1996, pp. 12-13)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1995.06 We need more documentation for the name, both for the given and for the overall form of the name. The submitter's documentation for the given came from the "Complete Book of Hebrew Baby Names"; the entry itself is undated. Both the title of the source and the fact that the entry is undated make us suspicious of this source's acceptability for the purpose of documenting a name for SCA purposes. While Hanks and Hodges give some support to Eliana as a possible Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese descendant of a Greco-Latin name, research by Battlement appears to indicate that H&H may have invented the derivation; at the very least, we need further support from a more reliable source. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR June 1995, p. 26)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.08 Submitted as Rosalinda Lucinda Concepcion Mondragon de la Vega. No dates at all were found for adduced for Concepcion. The reference in Hanks and Hodges referred to the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, and not the name Concepcion. Lacking adequate documentation we have dropped the problematic element. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR August 1994, p. 12)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1993.12b The only documentation submitted for this name was from the works of Hanks and Hodges. Fortunately, in this case, not only did Hanks and Hodges date Feliciano to the 3rd century, but Lord Palimpsest was able to support both elements of the name from other more acceptable sources. [12b/93, p.6]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1993.12a I was distressed to see the number of names submissions whose sole documentation consisted of the bald assertion that "{X} is found in Hanks & Hodges {Surnames/Given Names} on page {x}". Except in a few cases, there were not even any accompanying photocopies of the appropriate pages. This situation is not acceptable. While Hanks and Hodges' works may be a great place to start in searching for name documentation, they are NOT the place to end that search. Very few of the entries have dates of any kind. There are many modern forms included in the entries. There are even, as there are in many general works of this kind, some errors, sometimes quite glaring. For all of these reasons, Hanks and Hodges' books are not acceptable as adequate documentation or support for an SCA name. They are especially not acceptable as the only documentation or support for an SCA name. [12a/93c]
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.06 There was some question over whether Blodwen ...is a period given Name. Hanks & Hodges (Dictionary of First Names , p.43) unequivocally date it to the Middle Ages. However, Lady Harpy could find no period examples of the name's use in all her sources; she quotes the opinion of a professor in Medieval Welsh that Blodwen as a name dates from the 19th Century. I'd trust Lady Harpy's expertise in this area far more than that of Hanks & Hodges; but either I must declare Hanks & Hodges completely unreliable, even in their most authoritative statements (as we've done for Yonge), or else give the submitter the benefit of the doubt. Since Blodwen has already been accepted for Society use (LoAR of Sept 92), the latter seems the more generous course. (Blodwen ferch Margred, June, 1993, pg. 10)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.12 [Hasim] Hasim doesn't appear to be documented as a period given name. Hanks & Hodges' First Names is evidently not reliable in this case; we need to see some period examples of the name's use. (Hasim Solomon, December, 1992, pg. 16)
 
Hoffman (William F. Hoffman, Polish Surnames)
François la Flamme 2003.01 [Name change from Monika Elzbietka Poznanska] No documentation was presented and none was found that Moniczka was used in period. Moniczka was documented from William F. Hoffman and George Wieslaw Helon, First Names of the Polish Commonwealth: Origins and Meanings (p. 258). Nebuly provided information regarding this source:

The book is explicitly post-period, with emphasis on coverage of names that have been used in Poland since the 18th century. The client's name as currently registered is more authentic than the newly submitted form - the SSNO has Monika dated to 1499 (s.n. Mo{n'}ka) - although a period Polish woman's name would not have had a double given name.

As there are so few sources on Polish names currently available in English, we are not willing to place this source on the list of name sources to avoid. However, it should be used with care. [Moniczka Elzbietka Poznanska, 01/2003 LoAR, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.02 This name is being returned for lack of documentation of Teofilia as a feminine given name. The name was documented from William F. Hoffman and George W. Helon, First Names of the Polish Commonwealth: Origins and Meanings. Nebuly says of documentation from this source:

The submitted documentation from Hoffman & Helon is explicitly post-period. As the authors themselves state on page 4, this book is designed for use by descendants of Poles who emigrated to English-speaking countries, and a large part of the work was based on First Names in Current Use in Poland. The book is in no way, shape, or fashion intended to be used by medieval recreationists and there are other far superior books for this purpose. The same criticism can be levelled at the use of Hoffman's Polish Surnames, which is another genealogical reference work. While both works are excellent for their intended niche, they are of no value in documenting medieval Polish practice.

Given this information, these sources should not be used for documentation of SCA name submissions. [Teofilia Karaszkiewicz, 02/02, R-Atlantia]
 
Hoffman & Helon (William F. Hoffman and George W. Helon, First Names of the Polish Commonwealth: Origins and Meanings)
François la Flamme 2003.01 No documentation was presented and none was found that Moniczka was used in period. Moniczka was documented from William F. Hoffman and George Wieslaw Helon, First Names of the Polish Commonwealth: Origins and Meanings (p. 258). Nebuly provided information regarding this source:
The book is explicitly post-period, with emphasis on coverage of names that have been used in Poland since the 18th century. The client's name as currently registered is more authentic than the newly submitted form - the SSNO has Monika dated to 1499 (s.n. Mo{n'}ka) - although a period Polish woman's name would not have had a double given name.
As there are so few sources on Polish names currently available in English, we are not willing to place this source on the list of name sources to avoid. However, it should be used with care. [Moniczka Elzbietka Poznanska, 01/03, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.02 This name is being returned for lack of documentation of Teofilia as a feminine given name. The name was documented from William F. Hoffman and George W. Helon, First Names of the Polish Commonwealth: Origins and Meanings. Nebuly says of documentation from this source:

The submitted documentation from Hoffman & Helon is explicitly post-period. As the authors themselves state on page 4, this book is designed for use by descendants of Poles who emigrated to English-speaking countries, and a large part of the work was based on First Names in Current Use in Poland. The book is in no way, shape, or fashion intended to be used by medieval recreationists and there are other far superior books for this purpose. The same criticism can be levelled at the use of Hoffman's Polish Surnames, which is another genealogical reference work. While both works are excellent for their intended niche, they are of no value in documenting medieval Polish practice.

Given this information, these sources should not be used for documentation of SCA name submissions. [Teofilia Karaszkiewicz, 02/02, R-Atlantia]
 
"Hundred Years War" game site web article
François la Flamme 2004.03 The documentation provided for the elements Jocelyn and Alexandra in the LoI was the statement that they were "listed at the Hundred Years War game site at <http://www.hyw.com/books/history/Legitima.htm>". This site is a particularly poor resource for our purposes and should be avoided. [Alexandra Axstell of Mordaf, 03/2004, A-Middle]
 
Johnston
François la Flamme 2002.02 Applecross was submitted as a header form in Johnston. In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. However, precedent (most notably regarding modern forms in Ó Corráin & Maguire) has ruled that header forms which are modern may not be registerable. (This has been handled on a case by case basis.) Johnston (p. 84 s.n. Applecross) dates Aporcrosan to 673, Apuorcrossan to 737, Appillcroce to 1510, and Abilcros to 1515. The early forms are spelled with an 'r' in the second syllable. The 16th C forms are spelled with an 'l' in the second syllable. Even these 16th C spellings do not show the Appl- spelling. Therefore, the submitted spelling Applecross is not a plausible period variant. [Muirgen of Applecross, 02/02, R-Calontir] [Ed.: returned for problems with the locative]
 
Kolatch
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.09 Andvari was 'documented' from Kolatch as the Old Norse form of Andrew, thereby providing further evidence of Kolatch's uselessness. According to Lind, Andvari is mythological, the name of a dwarf in the Sæmundar Edda hins fróda; we need evidence of its use by human beings. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR September 1995, p. 29)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.08 [returning Caitlyn] The given is documented only as Caitlin (even in the submitter's own documentation -- photocopies from Today's Best Baby Names by Alfred J. Kolatch!), and Irish does not use the English "i/y" switch. (Caitlyn of Dolwyddelan, 8/94 p. 19)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.04.26 The name ... was documented as a feminine name solely from Kolatch, which is notorious for its lack of interest in drawing distinctions between traditional and modern names. (LoAR 25 Jan 87, p. 19) (See also: LoAR 26 Oct 86, p. 7; LoAR 26 Apr 87, p. 13)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.04.26 The name was stated ... to be Yiddish, based on evidence from Kolatch, but that source includes many modern Israeli names which would not have been used even a century ago. Some documentation must be provided for the use of the two name elements in period. (LoAR 26 Apr 87, p. 13)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1986.10.26 Kolatch is notoriously unreliable as a source for period names. (LoAR 26 Oct 86, p. 7)
 
Loughead
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.09 Please do not use Flora Gaines Loughead's Dictionary of Given Names for documentation; it is worthless for our purposes. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR September 1995, p. 8)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1990.04.29 The source for the given name (Loughead) is very unreliable. (LoAR 29 Apr 90, p. 15)
 
MacLysaght
François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Phineas MacGoldrick, MacGoldrick was documented as an undated form from MacLysaght. However, many of the Anglicized Irish forms listed by MacLysaght are modern. Woulfe (s.n. Mag Ualghairg) lists Magowlricke, Magollricke and M'Gworlick as Anglicized Irish forms dated to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. As Magollricke is the closest dated form to the submitted MacGoldrick, we have changed the byname to that spelling in order to register this name. [Phineas Magollricke, 11/2003, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2001.12 The submitted MacGlinchy was documented from MacLysaght (p. 129) as an Anglicized form of Mag Loingsigh. However, MacLysaght does not give dates for his Anglicized forms. In many cases, the forms he lists are plausible period Anglicized forms. Unfortunately, this is not the case for this name. Woulfe (p. 423 s.n. Mag Loingsigh) dates Maglinchie and M'Glinche to temp. Elizabeth I-James I, and lists MacGlinchy as a modern Anglicized form. What we see in these Anglicized forms is the shift in which portion of the byname the "g" is associated with, from Mag + L- forms to M' + Gl- forms to Mac + Gl- forms. As none of the period Anglicized examples listed under any of Mag L- headers on pp. 422-423 in Woulfe include the "c", the shift to Mac + Gl- forms seems to be post period. Lacking evidence that this shift is period, the submitted byname is not registerable. Since the submitter allows any changes, we have substituted a period form listed in Woulfe in order to register this name. [Mungo Maglinchie, 12/01, A-Atlantia]
 
Morgan (Peadar Morgan, Ainmean Chloinne: Scottish Gaelic Names for Children)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.06 The only available documentation for Riona is Peadar Morgan's statement in Ainmean Chloinne: Scottish Gaelic Names for Children that it is an occasional diminutive of Scots Gaelic Catrìona. Morgan gives no indication that it is a period diminutive, and it is completely unlike any of the corresponding documented period English diminutives, e.g., Kit. Lacking evidence either for a pattern of similar period Gaelic diminutives or for a period English form of which it could be a Gaelic spelling, we are unwilling to assume that it is a legitimate period form. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR June 1996, p. 13)
 
"Normans at the Battle of Hastings" web article
François la Flamme 2004.02 Submitted as Guy de Beaumont, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th C Norman and allowed minor changes. The byname de Beaumont was documented from the Web article "Normans at the Battle of Hastings" (http://s-gabriel.org/names/arval/hastings.html). However, this article uses modern spellings. As a result, the listing of Robert de Beaumont, afterwards Count of Meulan and Earl of Leicester in this article supports the assertion that a man with some form of the name Robert de Beaumont was at the battle of Hastings, but it does not support the assertion that Robert de Beaumont was the form of his name used at that time. The College was unable to find any support for the use of the form Beaumont as early as the 12th C. The closet spelling found by the College was in Ekwall (p. 33 s.n. Beaumont), which dates the form Bealmont to 1175-80. Therefore, we have changed the byname to use the form Bealmont in order to make this name authentic for the submitter's desired time and culture. [Guy de Bealmont, 02/2004, A-Ansteorra]
 
Norse Sagas in general
François la Flamme 2002.05 [Bear Clan] A number of Norse sagas were mentioned in the LoI, but no photocopies of any of them were provided. As none of them are included in the Admin Handbook under Appendix H, "Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel", these mentions may not be considered documentation. Additionally, no sections of those sagas were cited with specific references to "Norse clans". Such references would be necessary as part of documentation from these sagas. [Erik the Bear, 05/2002, R-Atlantia]
 
O'Brien, Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae
François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Rónnait ingen Fáeláin, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed any changes. Rónnait is documented from Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "Early Irish Feminine Names from the Index to O'Brien's Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/obrien/). Tangwystyl explains in the introduction of that article that "[t]he spellings in the index are 'normalized' to 'standard Old Irish' but for the most part correspond to those found in the actual text." In the case of Rónnait, the form actually found in the text of this work is Rónnat, which corresponds to the standard form given in Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 157 s.n. Rónnat). We have changed the given name to the documented form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Rónnat ingen Fáeláin, 04/2002, A-An Tir]
 
Ó Corráin & Maguire
François la Flamme 2002.05 Submitted as Róisín ingen uí Fhlaithbertaig, Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 157 s.n. Róis) say "Róisín is a popular diminutive form." While Róis is dated to the 16th C, no dates are given for the form Róisín. Given that Róis only appears in Irish Gaelic in the 16th C, it is highly unlikely that it formed diminutives in period. In their statement, Ó Corráin & Maguire use the present tense, "is a popular diminutive form." This phrasing is significant because they use the past tense when discussing forms dated as late as the 19th C (s.n. Máire). Therefore, Róisín must be assumed to be a modern diminutive form. Barring evidence that Róisín was used in period, it is not registerable. We have changed the given name to the documented Róis in order to register the name. As the submitter requested authenticity for Irish, we have changed the byname to use Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) spellings in order to be consistent with the given name Róis. [Róis inghean uí Fhlaithbheartaigh, 05/2002, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.01 Submitted as Temair Brecc inghen Cholm, Cholm is the lenited form of the nominative form of the masculine name Colm. Colm is listed as the last form under the header Columb (p. 55) in Ó Corráin & Maguire. When multiple forms are listed after the colon in headers in OCM, the first form after the colon is usually a period form and the latter forms are usually modern. No evidence was presented and none was found that the form Colm was used in period. Lacking such evidence, this form is not registerable. We have changed the patronymic to a form consistent with examples in the Annals of Connacht. [Temair Brecc inghen Choluim, 01/02, A-West]
Jaelle of Armida 1999.03 [Máille ingen Bhrain Cadal] The name is being returned for lack of a period given name. While it is true that it appears in Woulfe's Irish Names and Surnames, that is no guarantee that it is a period. Ó Corrain and Maguire (Gaelic Personal Names, p. 133) under Máire lists Maille (with no marking) among pet-forms of Máire with no date. However, given their previous note that the name Máire itself was extremely rare before the seventeenth century, it is quite unlikely that Máire formed a pet-form during our period. Barring documentation that it was used in period, it is not acceptable for use in the SCA. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1999, p. 12)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.08 O Corrain and Maguire (Gaelic Personal Names, p. 162) ... notes two usages of the given name, both apparently for non-humans.... Evidence for the name's use by humans is required. (LoAR Aug 87, p. 13)
 
Osprey (Osprey Military Warrior Series)
François la Flamme 2002.05 [Bear Clan] The vast majority of the documentation for this submission came from two sources: Mark Harrison and Gerry Embleton, Viking Hersir, 793-1066AD, volume 3 of Osprey Military Warrior Series; and Nurmann, Schulze, & Verhülsdonk, The Vikings, "Europa Militaria Special No. 6". These are tertiary sources at best and their purpose is not onomastics. Therefore, they must be used with care when used as documentation for name submissions. A number of Norse sagas were mentioned in the LoI, but no photocopies of any of them were provided. As none of them are included in the Admin Handbook under Appendix H, "Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel", these mentions may not be considered documentation. Additionally, no sections of those sagas were cited with specific references to "Norse clans". Such references would be necessary as part of documentation from these sagas. [Erik the Bear, 05/2002, R-Atlantia]
 
Reaney & Wilson
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 Submitted as Mathildis De'Ath, the byname De'Ath was documented as a header spelling in Reaney and Wilson. In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. However, precedent (most notably regarding modern forms in Ó Corráin & Maguire) has ruled that header forms which are modern may not be registerable. Reaney and Wilson regard the derivation of the byname from "de Athe" as plausible, but spend far more time giving good solid English derivations from "death" and "deeth". In addition, neither Reaney and Wilson nor Bardsley give any dated examples using the apostrophe. We have, therefore, changed the byname to the form Death, dated in Reaney and Wilson to the time of Edward I, and in Bardsley to 1598. [Mathildis Death, 05/04, A-Middle]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 This is returned because the documentation in Reaney & Wilson states specifically that Sealeaf is a modern form. Reaney and Wilson claim only a very speculative derivation from period citations. In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. However, precedent (most notably regarding modern forms in Ó Corráin & Maguire) states that header forms which are modern may not be registerable. Reaney and Wilson date a form of this name, Seloue, to 1308. However, as this changes both the sound and appearance of the name, it is judged to be a major change, which the submitter does not allow. [Elizabeth Sealeaf, 04/04, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.09 Submitted as Tukka Kirk, there were issues with the documentation for Tukka and with the combination of languages in this name.

The given name Tukka was documented from Reaney & Wilson (p. 456 s.n. Tuck). However, this entry gives no dated examples of Tukka. Instead, this entry states, "... the frequent occurrence of the personal name in the 12th and 13th centuries suggests that we have an Anglo-Scand. *Tukka, a pet-form of ON Þorketil." None of the dated forms listed in this entry end in an a. Metron Ariston explains the notation in this entry, "[T]he discussion in the location cited in Reaney and Wilson [s.n. Tuck] presumes an unattested Tukka derived from the Old Norse. (The asterisk is a dead giveaway!)"

Adding to the uncertainty of the form Tukka theorized by Reaney & Wilson is the information in Bardsley (s.n. Tuck), which cites Toka from a Latin entry in the Domesday Book: "'liber homo Stigandi Toka Francigine' (?Toka the Frenchman)".

Based on this information, Tukka is, at best, an unattested Old English name formed as a diminutive of an Old Norse name. The byname Kirk was documented as appropriate for 15th to 16th C Scots (a language closely related to English). Combining Old English and Scots in a name has been previously been ruled to be reason for return (Dunno Jamesson, LoAR of March 2002).

Reaney & Wilson (s.n. Tuck) date Tukke faber to 1101-7. As the submitter allows any changes, we have changed the given name to the Middle English Tukke in order to register this name. The submitter may wish to know that, since a final e is not silent in Middle English, the form Tukke would be pronounced approximately "TUH-keh" - fairly similar to a modern pronunciation of Tukka. [Tukke Kirk, 09/2003, A-Ansteorra]

François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Catherine Anne Applebee, Applebee is a header form found in Reaney & Wilson (s.n. Appleby). In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. However, precedent (most notably regarding modern forms in Ó Corráin & Maguire) has ruled that header forms which are modern might not be registerable. This has been handled on a case by case basis. In this instance, no evidence was found that -bee is a period variant of -by in placenames in period. Lacking such evidence, the form Applebee is not registerable. The closest form to the submitted Applebee that was found was in F. K. & S. Hitching, References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602 (p. xxv), which dates the form Applebey to 1602. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [Catherine Anne Applebey, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Tam Surrell, no evidence was found that Surrell is a plausible period name. Reaney & Wilson (p. 411 s.n. Sirdifield) give Surrell as the fourth header form in this entry. In most cases, header forms are registerable because they are plausible period variants of the name in question. In this case, the entry in Reaney & Wilson dates Richard de Surdeval to 1086, Robert de Surdeuall' to 1197, John Sowrdewall to 1488, and Richard Surwald to 1516. It is important to note that all of these forms retain the d, which does not support Surrell as a period form. As Surwald is the closest of the forms dated in Reaney & Wilson to the submitted Surrell, we have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [Tam Surwald, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2002.06 Submitted as Jonathan D'Abernon, the submitter requested authenticity for Norman language/culture. D'Abernon was submitted as a header form appearing in Reaney & Wilson. In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. In this case, examples under this header and others indicate that the d is in lowercase if the name includes de or the d'. In these cases, the initial letter of the location name is capitalized. In cases where some form of de has been prepended to the location name, only the first letter (D) is capitalized. Examples regarding this name are found in Reaney & Wilson (p. 123 s.n. D'Abernon) which date Roger de Abernon to 1086 and Jordan Dabernun to 1197. Lacking evidence that a form such as D'Abernon is plausible in period, it is not registerable. We have changed the capitalization in this name to match documented forms in order to register the name. [Jonathan d'Abernon, 06/2002, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.06 Submitted as Dayone the Dark, no documentation was provided and none was found that Dayone is a plausible name in period. Black Pillar found some similar-sounding names in period, which we are including here for the submitter's information:

I note the masculine name "Deo" from the article "Italian Men's Names from Florence, 1427" by Ferrante laVolpe. There is the masculine name "Dion" from Wickendon's Dictionary of Period Russian Names, online 2nd edition. There is also the Welsh masculine name "Deyo," given as a variant of "David" in "A Simple Guide to Constructing 16th Century Welsh Names" by Tangwystl verch Morgant Glasvryn. Those are the closest that I have found in looking through my resources.

The LoI specifically noted that if the submitted name was not registerable, the submitter would accept Melissa Dawn the Dark. Dawn was documented as a header form in Reaney & Wilson (p. 128 s.n. Dawn). In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. However, precedent (most notably regarding modern forms in Ó Corráin & Maguire) has ruled that header forms which are modern might not be registerable. This has been handled on a case by case basis. In this instance, the only example given under this header in Reaney & Wilson is Roger Dawen, dated to 1332. Dawen is derived from Daw/Dawe, a diminutive of David, via an -en diminutive ending. Lacking evidence that the e would have been dropped in period, Dawn is not registerable. As Dawen is a diminutive of a given name, it is registerable as a given name and does not require Melissa to be added as a given name to make this name registerable. [Dawen the Dark, 06/2002, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.02 MacFarlane was documented from Reaney & Wilson (s.n. MacFarlan). However, all examples in this entry are cited from Black. Therefore, they are Scots, not English. [Brigitte MacFarlane Red, 02/02, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.01 Submitted as Duncan Jullings, the submitter requested authenticity for "Scottish, any date" and allowed any changes. Jullings was documented as a header spelling in Reaney & Wilson (p. 258 s.n. Julian). In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. However, precedent (most notably regarding modern forms in Ó Corráin & Maguire) has ruled that header forms which are modern might not be registerable. This has been handled on a case by case basis. In this instance, the College was unable to find evidence that Jullings is a plausible period variant of the byname Julian. We have, therefore, changed the byname to his second choice, Julyan, which is dated to 17 Edw. III in Bardsley (p. 437 s.n. Julian). [Duncan Julyan, 01/02, A-West]
 
Shakespeare
Jaelle of Armida 1999.03 The only documentation for Rosalynd in the LoI said that it was proposed as a variant of Rosalind first used in Shakespeare's As You Like It. Since that is from the end of our period, we do not think it is likely that a variant form of the name was used during our period. Therefore we have changed it to the form found in Shakespeare. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1999, p. 6)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.07 [registering the given name Jessica] [Jessica Marten] The Rules for Submission state "New name elements, whether invented by the submitter or borrowed from a literary source, may be used if they follow the rules for name formation from a linguistic tradition compatible with the domain of the Society and the name elements used." (Rule II.3, Invented Names) Elizabethan English qualifies as a linguistic tradition compatible with the domain of the SCA. Shakespeare qualifies as a period author and the Merchant of Venice just fits into our time period (ignoring the "gray" period from 1601 to 1650). The character in the play is human. Jessica may be "modern" according to Withycombe, but it is an acceptable SCA given name according to our rules. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1997, p. 5)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.09 [changing the byname Capulet] Shakespeare's use of Capulet is insufficient to establish it as an actual name. The available Italian sources suggest that Capulet is probably a distortion of Cap(p)elletti (and that Montague is similarly a distortion of Montecchi). We have substituted...Capelet, an occupational byname for maker of chaplets (small hats; chaplets, garlands). (Cecelya Capelet, 9/94 p. 2)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.08 Submitted as Tamora Enderkelyn, that spelling was only documented from "Titus and Andronicus", one of Shakespeare's plays appearing in 1594, and there was no documentation that it ever entered into general use. We have therefore substituted the documented form. [Editor's note: the play in question, which is eminently missable, is Titus Andronicus.] (Tamara Enderkelyn, 8/94 p. 10)
 
Smith (Elsdon Smith, New Dictionary of American Family Names)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.08 The documentation for Delarosa was from Elsdon Smith's New Dictionary of American Family Names, a most untrustworthy source. Delarosa appears to be the Americanized form of the surname; the original Italian would be Della Rosa. The preposition was almost universally separated from the rest of the byname, according to Fucilla. [Name returned since submittor forbade grammatical changes] (Diana Delarosa di Pergola, August, 1992, pg. 23)
 
Solveig (Solveig Throndardottír, Name Construction in Medieval Japan (NCMJ))
François la Flamme 2001.09 As there are four editions of NCMJ, simply citing a page number is not useful. The header needs to be included in the documentation as well.

We would like to thank the submitter for including with his documentation, the specific Kanji characters that were combined in the elements of this name. We do not register the Kanji characters; instead we register the Romaji transliteration. But as multiple Kanji characters have the same pronunciation, it made researching the name easier to know which Kanji were used to create the submitted name. [Kentsuki no Ujitora Kaito Tamashi, 09/01, R-Caid]
 
SSNO (Slownik Staropolskich Nazw Osobowych)
François la Flamme 2003.01 The submitter requested authenticity for Polish. The documentation submitted indicates that Wilhelm "is dated to 1423 in the Slownik Staropolskich Nazw Osobowych [VI: 96]". (This source is often abbreviated as SSNO.) Aryanhwy merch Catmael inquired of several people regarding aspects of this name and SSNO in general. Among the commentary she passed on was information from Talan Gwynek, who explained that "some of the documents cited in SSNO are actually in German and use Germanized forms even of some native Polish names". Given this information, the example of Wilhelm that appears in SSNO may be from a German record of a Polish person. As we were unable to confirm that Wilhelm was actually used as a Polish form of William, we were unable to confirm that this name is authentic for Polish as requested by the submitter. [Wilhelm Michalik, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Middle]
 
Thuresson (Bertil Thuresson's Middle English Occupational Terms)
François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Matheus Hunda-maðr, the submitter requested a name meaning 'keeper of the hounds' authentic for 9th to 11th C Norse.

The element Hunda-maðr was documented from Bertil Thuresson's Middle English Occupational Terms, s.n. Hundeman, which states: "An ON *hunda-maðr 'houndsman' (perhaps used as a pers[onal] n[ame]) is the first el[ement] of the pl[acename] Hunmanby." This entry shows the standard practice of many dictionary-type works of inserting hyphens between etymological roots in words in order to emphasize the construction of the word being discussed. Lacking evidence that the hyphen would appear within this byname in transliterations of Old Norse, we have removed it from this byname. Additionally, we have lowercased the byname to use standard transliteration conventions (see the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information). [Matheus hundamaðr, 10/2003, A-Æthelmearc]

 
Tumanova (Tatiana Nikolaevna Tumanova, The Complete Russian Name Book)
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Khristiana Ivanovna Medvednikova, the elements Khristiana and Medvednikova were documented only from Tatiana Nikolaevna Tumanova's The Complete Russian Name Book. Nebuly explains the issues with this source:

Though in the past we have relied on Tatiana's book for Russian name documentation, that work contains no dates and is derived from books about modern Russian names (also without dates).

The College was unable to find evidence of Khristiana as a period name. Lacking such evidence, it is not registerable. Therefore, we have changed the given name to Khristina, which is dated to 1165 in Wickenden (3rd ed., p. 143 s.n. Khristina). Wickenden (3rd ed., p. 207 s.n. Medvednikov) dates the byname Medvednikov to c. 1495. Medvednikova is the feminine form of this name. [Khristina Ivanovna Medvednikova, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.09 This name is being returned for lack of documentation of Lyutsina as a feminine given name in period. Lyutsina was documented using Tatiana Nikolaevna Tumanova's The Complete Russian Name Book. Nebuly explains the issues with this name:

The name Lyutsina does not appear in Wickenden. Though in the past we have relied on Tatiana's book for Russian name documentation, that work contains no dates and is derived from books about modern Russian names (also without dates). I do note that Wickenden includes the name Lukina, which carries the client's desired meaning. The name was borne by a third century martyr, and is a feminine form of Lukin (dated to the mid 15th century). I recommend changing the name to the documented form Lukina Manova.

Lacking evidence that Lyutsina is plausible as a feminine given name in period, it is not registerable. It was generally felt that the change from Lyutsina to Lukina was a major change, which the submitter does not allow. [Lyutsina Manova, 09/2002 LoAR, R-An Tir]

Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.06 Submitted as Moria the Black, the only documentation for the given name was from Tatiana Nikolaevna Tumanova, The Complete Russian Name Book. However, the name could not be found in more recent works on the subject, and Tumanova's book is known to be outdated. Since the submitter is interested in the sound of the name we have changed the given name to a similar-sounding name found in Withycombe's The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. [Maria the Black, 06/01, A-Ealdormere]
 
Whyte (Donald Whyte, Scottish Surnames)
François la Flamme 2004.01 Submitted as Isabel McThomais, this is a case of Black and Whyte. The LoI stated that:

The surname is a variant of one in Black (p.566 at MacTavish) - the citation is for Doncan M'Thamais in 1355. This is a variant spelling. (The submittor cites <http://www.mactamhais.liquidweb.com/pswd2.htm> for her documentation -- and that website seems to be quoting Black, but the page number is different. The website gives the desired spelling. Copies from the website will be enclosed for Laurel's evaluation.)

The Web site implies that the information listed is from Donald Whyte's Scottish Surnames. Under the header "p. 173 - MacTAVISH", the Web page states that "Duncan McThomais is recorded at Glassary in 1355, when he served on an inquest regarding the lands of that parish". However, Whyte has no entry for MacTAVISH (or any spelling thereof). While Whyte gives dates, most of the listed names seem to be modernized. This factor, combined with his failure to note sources, makes this an unreliable source for our purposes. [Isabel McThomas, 01/2004, A-West]

 
Withycombe
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 While not in itself a reason for return, the name mixes English and Spanish, which is a step from period practice. The given name, Isabella, was documented from Withycombe, The Oxford Dictionary of English Given Names. Unfortunately, Withycombe is an unreliable source for names outside of England. The Spanish form of Isabella is Isabel or Ysabel; the name is found in these spellings from the 13th through the 16th C. If the submitter is interested in an authentic Spanish name, we suggest that she use one of these spellings. [Isabella Maria-Magdalena Fernandes de Chaves, 05/04, R-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2003.08 The information provided in the LoI for Ena was:

Ena is found in Withycombe (3rd edition, p. 104) as a semi-Anglicization of the Irish feminine and masculine given name Eithne; O Corrain and Maguire corroborate this under Eithne (pp. 84-5), citing anglicized forms as Anne, Annie and Ena.

However, this information does not support Ena as a period Anglicization of the Gaelic feminine given name Eithne. As noted by Metron Ariston:

The anglicization noted in Ó Corráin and Maguire is undated and probably quite late. Withycombe's citation indicates that this anglicization became popular with the birth of an English princess in 1887 which is hardly evidence for period usage.

Lacking evidence that Ena is a period Anglicized Irish form of the Gaelic Eithne, it is not registerable. [Ena Weshen-eskey gav, 08/2003 LoAR, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.07 The submitter's form documents Amelie as a German form of Amelia found in Withycombe (p. 19). This is incorrect. Withycombe lists Amalie as a German form and Amélie as a French form. In addition, Withycombe's strength lies in English. In most cases, when she is referring to names that are not in English, she is referring to modern forms. [Amalie von Prag, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Lochac]
François la Flamme 2003.04 Regarding the submitted byname Arenvald, the only support found for this spelling was in Withycombe, as noted by Metron Ariston:

The usual source cited for Old German Arenvald is Withycombe (Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names) who under Arnold notes "Old German Arenvald, compound of Arin 'eagle', and vald 'power'."

Withycombe's strengths lie in English. In this case, her information does not agree with that in Bahlow. Hund provided the information that Bahlow and Brechenmacher have regarding this name:

According to Balhow under Arnwaldt does not mean Arnold as -waldt and -old are significantly different. However, it can be construed as a place name like Buch-wald, usw.. Brechenmacher under Arnswald(e) has Arneswold dated to 1358 and Arnswold dated to 1400, both as surnames.

Lacking support for the form Arenvald other than in the reference in Withycombe, we have changed this byname to the period form Arneswold in order to register this name. [Strom Arneswold, 04/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2002.10 Margiad was documented as a Welsh form of Margaret from Withycombe (pp. 206-7 s.n. Margaret). When Withycombe is discussing languages other than English, she is usually referring to modern forms unless she specifically states otherwise. Gruffudd also lists Margiad, but gives no dates for this name. When Gruffudd does not list dates for a name, he is normally referring to modern forms. The College was unable to find any evidence that Margiad was used in period, though period Welsh forms of Margaret were found. Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th Century Welsh Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/welsh13.html) lists Margareta and Marured as Welsh forms of Margaret. This article also lists Lewelin and Lewelyn as forms of Llywelyn found in this time period. From this information, authentic 13th C forms of this name would be the Latinized Welsh form Margareta filia Lewelin and the Welsh forms Marured verch Lewelin and Marured verch Lewelyn. Lacking evidence that Margiad is a plausible period form, it is not registerable. [Margate verch Llywelyn, 10/2002, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2002.10 Eulalia was documented from Withycombe (p. 110 s.n. Eulalia), which describes this name as fairly common in Spain and France. However, when Withycombe is discussing languages other than English, she is generally referring to modern usage. [Eulalia de Ravenfeld, 10/2002, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2002.06 Unfortunately, no evidence was found that the form Terence was used in period. Metron Ariston summarizes:

The evidence from Withycombe is not really supportive of the use of this name in the English context at an early enough period for the byname: "There was a 3rd-C Carthaginian St. Terentius, but it has not been used as a christian name, except in Ireland, where Terence or Terry is commonly used for the native Toirdhealbhach or Turlough." This statement seems supported by Reaney and Wilson (Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Terrey) where all the Terry forms seem to come from Theoderic or one of its variants rather than from Terence.

Regarding the use of Terence as an Anglicized form of the Irish Gaelic Toirdhealbhach, Withycombe's use of the verb "is" indicates that this use is modern, which is confirmed by Anglicized Irish forms found in John O'Donovan, Annals of Ireland, by the Four Masters, vol. 5. This volume includes transcriptions of the text of several late 16th C indentures in footnotes. Several names in these indentures include Anglicized forms of Toirdhealbhach, specifically Tirrelage O'Bardan of Dromhishen (February 10, 1570, pp. 1651-1652), Tirreloghe Mc Morighe of Ballinemone (June 26, 1570, pp. 1649-1650), Tirlogh Mc Rorie and Tirloghe O Doyne (March 8, 1576, pp. 1690-1691). Lacking evidence that the form Terence was known in period, it is not registerable. In order to register this name, we have changed the given name to the saint's name cited by Withycombe, as that name could have been known in English in period. [Terentius the Coward, 06/2002, A-Ealdormere]

François la Flamme 2002.04 No documentation was presented and none was found that Arianne was used in period. Withycombe (p. 31 s.n. Ariadne) lists Ariane as a French form of the Greek name Ariadne. When Withycombe is discussing names in languages other than English, she is usually discussing modern forms. Therefore, the citation in Withycombe is not evidence of use of Ariane as a French name in period. As the submitter allows any changes, we have changed the given name to the Italian form Arianna in order to register this name. [Arianna de Chateaumichel, 04/2002, A-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2002.02 Submitted as Sine of Cumbrae, Sine was documented from Withycombe (s.n. Jane) as a Gaelic form of Jane. When Withycombe is discussing names in languages other than English, she is usually referring to modern forms. No documentation was provided and the College found none that Sine is a period Gaelic name. Lacking such documentation, it is not registerable. [Jeane of Cumbrae, 02/02, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.02 Withycombe (p. 257 s.n. Rosalind) says that the given name derives from the Old German Roslindis and that "[t]he name was carried to Spain by the Goths and took root there as Rosalinda." To date, no form of Rosalinda has been found dated in period in Spain. So this may be a case where Withycombe (whose strength is in English names) is incorrect. However, given the continuing research in Iberian naming practices and the citation in Withycombe, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt. [Rosalinda of Castile, 02/02, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2001.11 The LoI documented the name Shena from Withycombe (s.n. Jane). However, while Withycombe dates the name Jane to the 15th C, regarding Shena, she says, The Gaelic form of the name is Sýne (phonetically rendered as Sheena or Shena); Irish is Séadna. When discussing non-English names, Withycombe is usually referring to modern forms. No documentation was provided and none could be found that any form of Shena, Sýne, etc. was used in period. Without such documentation, the name is not registerable. [Shena the Red of Ravenhurst, 11/01, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2001.08 Withycombe's strength lies in English. In most cases, when she is referring to names that are not in English, she is referring to modern forms. As such, any undated references in Withycombe to forms of names in other languages ought to have additional support. [Anton Cwith, 08/01, A-Ansteorra]
Jaelle of Armida 1999.03 This is being returned for lack of documentation. While it is true, as the LoI states, that Angelique is found Withycombe, it is not dated to our period. Without such documentation the name must be returned.(Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1999, p. 10)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Cáemgen Ó Tuathail] Submitted as Coemgen Ó Tuathail, Coemgen as documented from Withycombe. However, while she is an excellent source for names in English, she is not as reliable when it comes to names that are not English. The correct Gaelic form is Cáemgen which we have substituted. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 2)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.07 Withycombe actually says that Veronica was introduced into Scotland in the later 17th century and into England even later. As a consequence its use in an English name is post-period. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR July 1994, p. 5)
 
Withycombe Index (Andreanna Innes, An Index of Given Names Contained in The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names by E. G. Withycombe)
François la Flamme 2003.03 Submitted as Aethelind of Erbystok, the submitter requested authenticity for 13th C Welsh/English and allowed minor changes. The only documentation provided for the submitted Aethelind was the statement on her form "Aethelind - Withycombe p.3 - Innes Compilation of 1992."

Andreanna Innes's An Index of Given Names Contained in The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names by E. G. Withycombe lists Aethelind as a name found under Ethelinda. However, Withycombe (p. 109 s.n. Ethelinda) shows Æthelind, not Aethelind. The conversion from Æ to Ae is a modern editorial convention used when it is not possible to use the character Æ. As no evidence was found to support Aethelind as a period form of Æthelind, it is not registerable. We have changed the given name in this submission to the form Æthelind in order to register this name. [Æthelind of Erbystok, 03/2003, A-Outlands]

 
Woulfe (Woulfe, Irish Names and Surnames)
François la Flamme 2001.12 The submitted MacGlinchy was documented from MacLysaght (p. 129) as an Anglicized form of Mag Loingsigh. However, MacLysaght does not give dates for his Anglicized forms. In many cases, the forms he lists are plausible period Anglicized forms. Unfortunately, this is not the case for this name. Woulfe (p. 423 s.n. Mag Loingsigh) dates Maglinchie and M'Glinche to temp. Elizabeth I-James I, and lists MacGlinchy as a modern Anglicized form. What we see in these Anglicized forms is the shift in which portion of the byname the "g" is associated with, from Mag + L- forms to M' + Gl- forms to Mac + Gl- forms. As none of the period Anglicized examples listed under any of Mag L- headers on pp. 422-423 in Woulfe include the "c", the shift to Mac + Gl- forms seems to be post period. Lacking evidence that this shift is period, the submitted byname is not registerable. Since the submitter allows any changes, we have substituted a period form listed in Woulfe in order to register this name. [Mungo Maglinchie, 12/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Christopher MacEvinney, MacEvinney was documented as a modern Anglicized Irish surname found in Woulfe (p. 305 s.n. MacAibne). (Note: the secondary header forms listed in Woulfe are Anglicized Irish forms. Those listed in italics date to records from the time of Elizabeth I or James I. Forms listed in regular font (not italic) are modern forms.) This entry dates the Anglicized Irish forms M'Aveny and M'Eveny to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. Lacking evidence that the submitted form MacEvinney is a plausible period form, we have changed this byname to MacEveny, based on the dated example in Woulfe, in order to register this name. [Christopher MacEveny, 10/2003, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2002.10 This name was submitted as Kaoilinn Mirymuth and changed at Kingdom to Keelin Mirymuth as no documentation was found for the form Kaoilinn. The LoI explains:

No documentation at all was provided for Kaoilinn, therefore we changed the first name from Kaiolinn [a typo for Kaoiilinn] to Keelin at Kingdom. Keelin is found in Woulfe "Irish name and Surnames" on page 208 under the header form Caoilfionn as an aglicization[sic] of "the name of an Irish virgin saint who was venerated on 3 February."

However, undated Anglicized forms listed in the given names sections of Woulfe are modern forms, and so cannot immediately be assumed to have been used in period. Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 41 s.n. Cáelfind) lists Caoilinn, which is an Early Modern Irish (c. 1200-c. 1700) form, but lists no Anglicized forms of this name. Lacking evidence that Keelin is a plausible period form, it is not registerable. [Keelin Mirymuth, 10/2002, R-Atlantia]

Jaelle of Armida 1999.03 [Máille ingen Bhrain Cadal] The name is being returned for lack of a period given name. While it is true that it appears in Woulfe's Irish Names and Surnames, that is no guarantee that it is a period. Ó Corrain and Maguire (Gaelic Personal Names, p. 133) under Máire lists Maille (with no marking) among pet-forms of Máire with no date. However, given their previous note that the name Máire itself was extremely rare before the seventeenth century, it is quite unlikely that Máire formed a pet-form during our period. Barring documentation that it was used in period, it is not acceptable for use in the SCA. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1999, p. 12)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.03 The assertion in the LoI that Conor is given by Woulfe as a Gaelic form is incorrect: throughout the book the forms listed in Roman type after a headword are Anglicizations. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1997, p. 1)
 
The Writer's Digest Character Naming Sourcebook
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.10 ... the submitter's source for the name, The Writer's Digest Character Naming Sourcebook, is not by itself a good enough source for names, especially as its information is contradicted by better sources. [Wiktorzyja Adalbertowna, 10/99, A-Calontir]
 
Yonge
François la Flamme 2002.05 Aletha was documented from Yonge, which is not a reliable source. [Viridis Solari, 05/2002, A-An Tir]
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 Yonge [History of Christian Names] is no longer considered a trustworthy source. Her main strength is the breadth of languages she covered; for many of those languages (including French) she has been superceded by far more reliable works. (Estevene Grippon, September, 1992, pg. 6)
 
Baby Name Books
François la Flamme 2003.01 Ethrelinda was submitted as a variant of Ethelinda, which was documented as "the name of a concubine of Charlemagne (Ernest Weekley, 'Jack and Jill, A Study in Our Christian Names', p 133)." This source appears to be a modern baby name book and should be avoided for SCA name documentation. [Ethrelinda of Eisental, 01/2003 LoAR, R-East]
Da'ud ibn Auda 1995.06 We need more documentation for the name, both for the given and for the overall form of the name. The submitter's documentation for the given came from the "Complete Book of Hebrew Baby Names"; the entry itself is undated. Both the title of the source and the fact that the entry is undated make us suspicious of this source's acceptability for the purpose of documenting a name for SCA purposes. While Hanks and Hodges give some support to Eliana as a possible Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese descendant of a Greco-Latin name, research by Battlement appears to indicate that H&H may have invented the derivation; at the very least, we need further support from a more reliable source. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR June 1995, p. 26)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.08 [returning Caitlyn] The given is documented only as Caitlin (even in the submitter's own documentation -- photocopies from Today's Best Baby Names by Alfred J. Kolatch!), and Irish does not use the English "i/y" switch. (Caitlyn of Dolwyddelan, 8/94 p. 19)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.12 [Azaleja] Azaleja is a common noun, Serbo-Croatian for the azalea flower. Its use as a given name is based on Bosanac's Prosvjetin Imenoslov, which is apparently a Serbo-Croatian baby-name book (on a par with most of its American counterparts). (Azaleja Imrah Antoniades, December, 1992, pg. 16)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1990.03.31 The given names were documented form a book by Eric Partridge called Name This Child: A Dictionary of Modern British and American Given or Christian Names. This title alone casts some doubt on its value as evidence! Virtually no dates are given for any names, which is problematic for our purposes since many last names are included as valid given names which were not known in period as given names (in a few cases, possibly not even as surnames in period). (LoAR 31 Mar 90, p. 3)
 
Dictionaries (including translation websites)
François la Flamme 2004.02 The submitter requested authenticity for 8th to 10th C West Norse. The only documentation provided for Krigf°singglad in the LoI was the statement:

Krigf°ringglad is and [sic] English-Norweigian translation of "warfare fond" according to freetranslation.com. Submitter wishes this meaning, but is flexible on the translation.

This site provides a translation to modern Norweigian. As such, it provides no evidence that the word Krigf°ringglad is plausible in any language in period. Additionally, it provides no evidence that this word, even if it were plausible in period, would have appeared as a person's byname. Lacking evidence that the word Krigf°ringglad is plausible as a byname in period, it is not registerable. [Valr Krigf°singglad, 02/2004, R-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Masala al-Raqq{a-}sa al-Dilhiyya, the elements raqq{a-}s and dilh{i-} were documented from A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, Third Printing, Hans Wehr, edited by J. Milton Cowan, MacDonald and Evans Ltd., London, 1980), p. 354 and p. 296 respectively. This source is not included in the Administrative Handbook, Appendix H, "Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel". As such, photocopies are required with this submission. As no photocopies were provided, these elements are not documented and this submission must be returned.

Since the source cited for these elements is a modern dictionary, there was concern that these elements, particularly dilh{i-}, may not be period forms. The College was able to provide documentation for al-Raqq{a-}sa. However no documentation was found to support al-Dilhiyya as a plausible byname in period. Lacking such evidence, al-Dilhiyya is not registerable. As the submitter allows major changes, we have dropped this element in order to register this name. [Masala al-Raqqasa, 10/2003, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.06 [Household name Die Roten Dracken Kompanie] Listed on the LoI as Kompanie Röter Drachen, this name was submitted as Rote Drachen. The grammar was corrected at Kingdom and a designator added. The LoI did a good job of communicating the submitter's wishes regarding this name:

He intends this submission for a household fighting unit connected with House Drachenholz, which was registered in Oct. '96. He will allow any changes, but wishes to keep the element Drachen in the name. The meaning is intended to be "Red Dragons".

The elements for this name were documented from a modern German dictionary. The German language has changed over time and not everything in modern German is appropriate for period. Orle provided information regarding a period form of this name:

The idea is plausible as a German house name for registration uses. Kompanie: Brechenmacher page 88 s.n. Kompan gives Middle High German kompÔn meaning companions or comrades. Röter: Bahlow page 468 s.n. Roth gives der rote czymmerman 1413 as the red carpenter. Drachen: Brechenmacher page 336 s.n. Drachenhand gives Drackenhand from 1367 and s.n. Drackenstein gives Middle High German dracke for dragon.

Die Roten Dracken Kompanie is the closest form I can get.

The change from Rote 'Red' to Roten 'Red' occurs because it is an adjective that modifies a plural noun ('Dragons'). We have changed this name to the form suggested by Orle to correct the grammar and use a construction plausible for period. [Erich von Drachenholz, 06/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2002.11 Submitted as Kunetil der Bogenschutze, Bogenschutze was documented as a word meaning 'archer' from a modern English-German/German-English dictionary. Evidence that a word exists in modern German is not documentation for use of that word as a period byname. Brechenmacher (p. 172 s.n. Bogenschütz) dates Dietz Bogenschütz to 1435 and Jakob Bogenschütz to 1499. We have changed the byname to the documented form Bogenschütz, in order to register this name. Lacking evidence that der would have been used with Bogenschütz, we have omitted it from this name. [Kunetil Bogenschütz, 11/2002, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.11 Submitted as Kataryna Tkachecha, Tkachecha was documented as the feminine form of a word meaning 'weaver' from a section of Ukrainian-English and English-Ukrainian Dictionary compiled by W. Niniows'kyi. This supports tkachecha as a modern Ukrainian word. It does not support tkachecha as a period Ukrainian byname. Rouge Scarpe found evidence for a modern Ukrainian surname that originally meant 'weaver':

[T]he byname itself is improbable, especially since there IS a Ukrainian byname that means weaver (Tkach) and it does not have to agree with the gender of the bearer. It therefore seems unlikely that tkachikha was ever found in period as an occupational byname. I think that the client needs to show that it was actually used. Kataryna Tkach would be a lovely period Ukrainian name, I would think (but I have no dated documentation for Tkach either).

Given that the modern Ukrainian surname Tkach originally meant 'weaver', that name is much more likely to have been used as a period byname than Tkachecha, which has not even been shown to be a modern surname. As the submitter allows any changes, we have changed the byname to Tkach in order to register this name. [Kataryna Tkach, 11/2002, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2002.09 The element brÓthadair was documented in the LoI only "as a word meaning 'knave' on p. 48 of Maclennan, Malcolm. (A Pronouncing and Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language. Aberdeen: ACAIR and Aberdeen University Press, 1984.)" No documentation was presented and none was found that the word brÓthadair was used in period. Additionally, no evidence was found that a word meaning 'knave' follows the patterns for descriptive bynames in Gaelic. Descriptive bynames in Gaelic were rare. Of those that existed, the vast majority are straightforward physical descriptions. The few descriptive bynames that describe a personality trait are also straightforward: 'greedy', 'arrogant', et cetera. A descriptive byname meaning 'knave' is not similarly simple. Another issue with this byname, assuming support were found for it as a descriptive byname in period, is the question of whether such a description would have been used to describe a woman in period or whether it would have been limited to men. Lacking documentation regarding all of these issues, this name must be returned. [Caiterína an brÓthadair, 09/2002 LoAR, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.08 The byname Maldèstro was documented only from a modern Italian dictionary as a word meaning 'clumsy'. This gives us no indication that this word existed as an Italian word in period. Lacking evidence that it is a word that would plausibly have been used as a descriptive byname in Italian in period, it is not registerable. Additionally, the accent shown in the word maldèstro is a pronunciation guide in that dictionary and is not actually part of the word, which is maldestro. [Elisabetta Maldèstro, 08/2002, R-East]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Khalila was documented as a word meaning 'female' from an Arabic-English dictionary. This documentation is not sufficient to register Khalila as a feminine given name. [Khalila al-Sadafiyya, 09/01, A-Caid]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.09 We have traditionally been somewhat more lenient with names from cultures for which we don't have adequate reference works, and we see no reason to change this policy. However, it does not mean that one can in such cases simply look up random words in a dictionary. At the very least we would expect the submitters to show, first, that the name is grammatically correct and, second, that similar constructions exist somewhere else. These examples of similar names would ideally be from nearby cultures. [Vilku Urvas, Shire of, 09/00, R-Middle]
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [André the Rorqual] While the LoI documented Rorqual as the French word for whale, no documentation was presented for it being used as a byname. Furthermore according to Dauzat's Dictionnaire Étymologique et Historique du Français, rorqual is first found in 1808 and derives from old Norwegian raudh-hwalr, "red whale." Barring documentation of its period use as a name this must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
 
Genealogy Resources
François la Flamme 2004.02 Submitted as Guilla Ironhair, there was considerable discussion regarding the submitted given name Guilla. As Siren found dated examples of Guilla in period, we are able to register this name.

Guilla was submitted as an Italian feminine given name based on information provided in the LoI:

[...]Guilla of Spoleto (c. 925-1012) was born in Este Italy, http://www.mathematical.com/spoletoguilla925.html. Aryanhwy merch Catmael notes that this website cites ancestry.com as its source, and that Laurel has previously ruled that this site alone is insufficient for SCA documentation [...]

The LoI is correct, as explained in the August 2001 LoAR:

Heinemann was documented from ancestry.com. The April 2001 LoAR stated the following in regards to the submitted name Sueva the Short:

The given name was documented from Roberts, Notable Kin: An Anthology of Columns First Published in the NEHGS NEXUS, 1986-1995. While we have no reason to doubt the quality of the genealogical research, the goals of genealogists are different from ours and their data is not necessarily applicable to SCA use.

The same issue applies to documentation from genealogy Web sites including ancestry.com. They cannot be relied on for documentation for spelling variants. [Tatiana Heinemann, 08/2001 LoAR, A-Trimaris]

[Guilla Ironhare, 02/2004, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2004.02 This name is being returned for lack of a given name as required by RfS III.2.a, "Personal Names", which states in part that "A personal name must contain a given name and at least one byname".

Teofilia was submitted as a given name as stated in the LoI:

Teofilia is dated to before 1607 by Zofia Teofilia Danilowicz, mother of Jan Sobieski III, b 1607 (<http://www.geocities.com/a_gulinski/poczela.htm>)

This website is a genealogy website. Genealogy sources often standardize and/or modernize names. While this practice aids in presentation of a genealogist's research, it is not useful for our purposes. [Teofilia Karaszkiewicza, 02/2004, R-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2002.12 The primary documentation for Cibella came from the International Genealogical Index (IGI), which is a source that should be avoided for SCA name documentation:
The only documentation provided for the given name was from the International Genealogical Index (IGI) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS). The IGI is not sufficient documentation for a submission. It is a database of names from records and is intended for use within the LDS. Some of the names listed come from primary sources, some from secondary sources, and some from tertiary sources. The information is submitted by many people who have varying levels of research skills. As such, inaccuracies in transcription and normalization of names renders it unsuitable for SCA heraldic use. [Gabrielle de Nevers, 09/01, A-Æthelmearc]

Alternative documentation for Cibella was provided on the LoI. "Marriages from the Escomb Registers (1543-1837)" (http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/genuki/Transcriptions/DUR/ESC.html) dates Cibell Stubbs to November 24, 1591, in a record written in English. "Marriages from the Chester-le-Street Registers (1582-1699)" (http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/genuki/Transcriptions/DUR/CLS1582.html) lists several records written in Latin with forms of Sibella: Sibilla Duddon (November 3, 1588), Sibella Sanders (June 1, 1589), Sibella Harrison (December 16, 1590), and Sibilla Simson (December 25, 1594). Based on these examples, Cibella is a reasonable Latin form of the English Cibell and is, therefore, registerable. [Cibella Monmouth, 12/2002, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Etiennette Bluet, Etiennette was documented from Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (p. 127 s.n. William I). Genealogy resources often standardize names and, in so doing, do not necessarily use spellings appropriate for the time and place in which the individual lived. In this case, Etiennette seems to be a modern representation for the name of a woman named Estefania. The submitted documentation gives no support for Etiennette as as a name actually used in period.

Siren found listings in French parish registers for a woman named Estiennette Grau who was baptized in 1598 ("REGISTRES PAROISSIAUX D'AMBLENY (AISNE): BAPTEMES 1578-1616" at http://lkokanosky.free.fr/ambnai1.html) and who is listed as the mother in six baptisms ranging from 1624 to 1637 (listed at the same site in the page http://lkokanosky.free.fr/ambleny_A.html). Therefore, we have changed the spelling of the given name to the documented form Estiennette, in order to register this name. [Estiennette Bluet, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Geoffrey de Grene de Boketon, the submitter provided genealogical information as part of his documentation. Genealogical information must be used with care when used as name submission documentation. In this instance, the information provided (combined with information from other sources including Reaney & Wilson) supports de Grene and de Boketon as bynames in period. However, none of the information provided showed evidence that the combined form de Grene de Boketon is a form that would have appeared in period documents. By the time that double bynames appeared in late period, the first byname was normally an inherited surname. In the case of locative bynames, they normally dropped the preposition when they became surnames. A name of the form Geoffrey Grene de Boketon would be understood in late period to refer to a man named Geoffrey Grene who lived at or came from a place named Boketon. Lacking evidence that an English name in period would have included two locative bynames that both contained prepositions, the submitted form is not registerable. On his submission form, the submitter indicated that if the full name as submitted was not registerable, he wished the form Geoffrey de Boketon. Therefore, we are registering that form, rather than the form Geoffrey Grene de Boketon, which is also registerable. [Geoffrey de Boketon, 08/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2001.11 The only documentation provided for Nickerson was from a genealogy webpage. As genealogy sources routinely normalize spellings, they are not suitable for documentation of SCA name submissions on their own. Without independent evidence that Nickerson is a period surname, it is not registerable. The closest dated form found was Nickeson, which is dated to 1601 in Hitching and Hitching References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602. We have therefore used this spelling. [Calum Nickeson, 11/01, A-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2001.09 The only documentation provided for the given name was from the International Genealogical Index (IGI) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS). The IGI is not sufficient documentation for a submission. It is a database of names from records and is intended for use within the LDS. Some of the names listed come from primary sources, some from secondary sources, and some from tertiary sources. The information is submitted by many people who have varying levels of research skills. As such, inaccuracies in transcription and normalization of names renders it unsuitable for SCA heraldic use.

As the College of Arms was able to find alternative documentation, this name is registerable. [Gabrielle de Nevers, 09/01, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2001.08 Heinemann was documented from ancestry.com. The April 2001 LoAR stated the following in regards to the submitted name Sueva the Short:
The given name was documented from Roberts, Notable Kin: An Anthology of Columns First Published in the NEHGS NEXUS, 1986-1995. While we have no reason to doubt the quality of the genealogical research, the goals of genealogists are different from ours and their data is not necessarily applicable to SCA use.
The same issue applies to documentation from genealogy Web sites including ancestry.com. They cannot be relied on for documentation for spelling variants. [Tatiana Heinemann, 08/01, A-Trimaris]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.12 Submitted as Emry Lioncourt, the only documentation for the given name was from the Info Base of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. However, as noted before, the goals of the LDS are such that their data cannot be considered reliable for the purposes of documenting spelling variants. [Emery Lioncourt, 12/00, A-An Tir]
Jaelle of Armida 1998.04 We will repeat what has been said before about the Mormon Church's International Genealogical Index (IGI), as it applies to the use of the IGI as a source for documentation of names in the SCA:

"The IGI is a database originally intended to record ordinances performed in behalf of ancestor of LDS members. It was recognized that the information contained would or could be a valuable tool for other individuals searching for their ancestors so the information was made public. Effort is made to insure the best, most accurate information is used in the performance of these ordinances, but human beings do the work and thus errors are made. Understand that it is a record of ordinances that contain genealogical information, not the other way around. Since it's a record ordinances, you can't change want was done, you can only correct the errored information and resubmit." (Jeffrey Smidt, <jsmidt@iastate.edu, soc.genealogy.misc newsgroup, Tue, 22 Jul 1997 09:08:07 -0700, Message-ID: <33D4DAE7.332A@iastate.edu>)

In other words, the records may contain a lot of errors, much of the information is sent in by amateur genealogists (which makes it more error prone), and it is, at the very best, a mediocre secondary source for SCA purposes, and more often, a poor tertiary or quaternary source, with names normalized and/or mistranscribed in many cases. It should only be used for SCA purposes with all of that in mind. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1998, p. 16)

Jaelle of Armida 1997.03 [Tristana de Winter] The original documentation for de Winter came from copies of records from the International Genealogical Index for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Days Saints. Unfortunately, in large part, the LDS genealogical records are taken from the researches of interested amateurs whose work varies widely in quality and accuracy, and quality control is nearly non-existent. The people who do the work are well-meaning and usually are doing their best to be accurate. But most of them have next to no training and errors are not only relatively easy to make but just as easily compounded. ... [T]he College should be aware that the LDS records are not, in and of themselves, to be considered adequate name documentation. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1997, p. 5)
 
Prior Registration
François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Liadan Cu Teach Càirdeas, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish/Gaelic and allowed any changes. No evidence was presented nor could any be found that Teach Càirdeas was a plausible byname for a period person. While the submitter asserted that it had been previously registered, the name does not appear in the Armorial. Even if it did, it would be irrelevant; previous registration has long been no guarantee of current registerability. We have dropped this phrase in order to register this name. [Liadan Chu, 11/2003, A-Ealdormere]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.01 [I]t has been noted many times in the past that prior registration in the SCA does not constitute adequate documentation. [1/94, p.17]
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.04.23 The fact that the name was registered previously in the Society is more or less irrelevant with regard to [Name]: at the time when the name ... was registered (1975), the forms did not even have a space for name documentation! (LoAR 23 Apr 88, p. 14)
 
Books of Saints
François la Flamme 2001.11 A submission this month included a given name documented from The Book of Irish Saints by Eoin Neeson. On examination, this doesn't appear to be a trustworthy source. Of the twelve saints listed in the photocopies we received, at least three aren't corroborated in Farmer's The Oxford Dictionary of Saints or in Ó Corráin & Maguire. Seven of the remaining names don't have the Gaelic forms of the saints' names spelled correctly. Additionally, Neeson is not consistent in his headers. Some entries have Gaelic forms as the first listed header form; other entries use Anglicized forms, with no indication of which is which. In at least one case (Saint Brioch), Neeson incorrectly describes the saint as being from Ireland. All of these factors combine to render Neeson's book unsuitable for our purposes.[11/01, CL]
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 Angelina is a period given name: Butler's Lives of the Saints notes the Blessed Angelina of Marsciano, b.1377. (Angeline Aldwyne, September, 1992, pg. 2)
 
the Uppity Women series of books
Jaelle of Armida 1999.06 [Erin Amazonia the Tall] The documentation for Amazonia comes from Uppity Women of Ancient Times by Vicki Leon, which while amusing to read, is not noted for its scholarship, and therefore is not a reliable source. [Name returned for combination of issues.] (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR June 1999, p. 9)
 
 
Rulings not yet sorted into a particular category
François la Flamme 2002.02 Keshvar was documented from a Web site titled "Zoroastrian names" (http://www.avesta.org/znames.htm). The names on this site need to be used with care. On his "Medieval Names Archives" website, Arval Benicoeur includes an explanation of the sources for the "Zoroastrian names" site provided by its author:
The Avestan names all occur in the Avesta itself, and thus can be dated to around 1000 BCE or earlier. The Old Persian inscriptions are from around 500ľ600 BCE. The Parsi names are from Dosabhai Framji Karaka, History of the Parsis I, London 1884. pp. 162ľ3, and are names in use at that time. The Zoroastrian Irani names are from Farhang-e Behdinan, by Jamshid Sorush Sorushian, Tehran, 1956, and are names used in Kerman and Yazd at that time. You will find many of the names in current usage in the Pahlavi texts as well (ca. 9th ce CE), and in fact date to ancient times, e.g. Av. manush-chithra -> Pahl. Minochehr -> modern menucher. If you consider 9th ce[ntury] CE as medieval, I would suggest looking through the Pahlavi texts for more names.
Keshvar is included under the "Parsi names" and "Irani Zoroastrian names" lists on this site. Therefore, Keshvar is only documented to c. 1884 and c. 1956. Lacking documentation that it was used in period, it is not registerable. [Keshvar bint Afsar al-Mah, 02/02, R-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.02 The submitter also documented Keegan from a Web site entitled "Irish/Irish Gaelic Male Names" (http://www.crosswinds.net/~daire/names/irishmale.html). Unfortunately, this site is useless for our purposes. The names listed are modern and many are not Gaelic forms. Gaelic does not have the letters 'j', 'k', 'v', 'w', 'y', or 'z'. This site should definitely be avoided for name documentation. [Egan mac Muirgein, 02/02, A-Merdies]
François la Flamme 2001.11 This submission is being returned for lack of documentation of Erbesweald. The LoI documents Earbesweald [sic] as Old English translation-'Herbal Forest'. Not intended to be real location.. No documentation was provided and the College found none that 'Herbal Forest' is a reasonable placename in Old English. Regardless of whether or not the submitted Erbesweald is intended to be a real place, it is included in this name as a placename and so must be documentable as such. Without such evidence, this name is not registerable. [Aethelind of Erbesweald, 11/01, R-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2001.11 The surname Redsmythe was documented as an occupational byname (referring to someone who works in brass) from the Book of Trades at http://www.renfaire.com/Acting/professions.html. This text at this website is a modern translation of Eygentliche Beshreibung Aller Staende auff Erden, a work of German verse from 1568. Bardsley (p. 641 s.n. Redsmith) hypothesizes the meaning of this byname as 'goldsmith' and lists John Rodesmithe (?). The source for this citation does not readily indicate a date for this name. However, Bardsley crossreferences to other headers and gives the medium worked in: Whitesmith (tin), Blacksmith (iron), Greensmith (lead or laten), and Brownsmith (copper or brass). As all of these other headers included forms dated to period, it is reasonable to assume that Redsmith is also period. The spelling Redsmythe falls within documented variants for -smith names. [Pearce Redsmythe, 11/01, A-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.09 Submitted on the LoI as Tom MacGrimm, the name was changed to that form in Kingdom; it was originally submitted as Tam MacGrimm. However, Reaney and Wilson's Dictionary of English Surnames has "Peter Tamelyn 1327 SRsf. A double diminutive of Tam (Tom). cf. Tomlin." and "William Tamson 1395 EA (OS) iv (C); Walter Tampson 1641 PrSo; John Tampson 1642 PrD. 'Son of Tam', a variant of Tom, a pet-form of Thomas." Therefore Tam appears to be an acceptable given name. However, there is no documentation for adding mac to the documentable Grimm. We have therefore changed the given name back to the original form and removed mac from the byname. [Tam Grimm, 09/00, A-Outlands]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.07 This name has several problems. First, no dated evidence was submitted for the given name. Second, neither was evidence given for the unusual byname Haifisch, meaning 'shark.' Third, the second byname der Laut does not mean 'the Loud' but 'the Tone'; this doesn't fit with our knowledge about period bynames. Finally, no evidence was submitted for using two descriptive bynames in German. [Arnak Haifisch der Laut, 07/00, R-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.07 This name has several problems. First, Hurrem/Roxelana, cited in the submission, was known by her original Russian name only to the West; to Turks, she was known by the Turkish harem name. Combining the two names seems to be restricted to modern history books.

Second, an epithet is not acceptable simply because a native speaker says so; modern-day people do not normally have that kind of knowledge about period naming practices. Third, Sarolta is incompatible with the rest of the name: it is only known from 10th century Hungary, and by the time of the Turkish invasion, pagan-era Hungarian female names had already disappeared. [Akilli Asian Sarolta, 07/00, R-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.07 There was no documentation indicating that a byname which is possibly justifiable in Middle English could be used for a Latin byname. [Andronicus Ursacor, 07/99, R-Atenveldt]
Jaelle of Armida 1999.06 [Catalana della Quercia] The LoI stated "della Quercia is dated to 1374 from Encarta Online (http://encarta.msn.com)." This is not adequate documentation for an LoI. Evidence that it was used as a name is required. As the Administrative Handbook states "A summary of all supporting evidence provided for the submission must be included on the letter of intent." This is so the entire College, not just Laurel, can evaluate it. While we are accepting it this time, it is with a warning that in the future the Laurel office may not be so forgiving. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR June 1999, p. 5)
Jaelle of Armida 1999.02 Period literature such as histories, romances, sagas, legends and myths occupy a slightly unusual position as sources for period names. While the documents themselves are undeniable period themselves, the names in them range from names that can be clearly documented as being used by humans from other, more prosaic sources, to names assigned to humans in literature that appear to be unique to a particular character and cannot be documented to have been used by real medieval humans to names which are clearly assigned to supernatural creatures in the literature. Given this range of possibilities, period literature must be used cautiously as a source for medieval names.

A researcher must look carefully at the source, its purpose and the character that bears the name. As a rule of thumb, a literary work whose purpose is historical is going to be more accurate about naming practices in that culture and time than a mythological source, with the caveat that the further back a "historical" source goes from the writer's own time, the more fantastical elements may creep in. The fidelity of the translation must also be considered. The modern editions of many medieval sources are translated or the spelling regularized or modernized. This means that a documentable name may appear in a translated or modernized source in a form inappropriate to the period and culture from which the source originates. It is also generally necessary to look at the actual naming practices of the time period in which the work of literature was produced and thereafter, as some works have affected subsequent naming practices. If you can document the name from a more standard source, it is usually better to use the standard source rather than the literary work as documentation. However, names from period literature may be used, with some caveats.

1. Try other sources first - often better documentation can be found.

2. It has to be a name of a human being in the story. God/dess, elf, dwarf, etc. names aren't usable.

3. Beware of allegorical names in sources such as the English mystery plays. It is extremely unlikely that we would register Everyman as a name, even though it is found as a name of a human being in period mystery plays, unless actual documentation is found for it as a name for a real person.

4. And this is subjective - minor characters from minor works may or may not be acceptable. Especially if they do not fit the naming patterns of the time period. (Jaelle of Armida, CL with the February 1999 LoAR, p. 2)

Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Ahbel of Regnesfolc] The name is being returned for lack of documentation for Regnesfolc. According to the LoI it is a registered household name. However, that does not mean that the submitter can use it. Household names, unlike official SCA group names, are not automatically acceptable for SCA name usage. Please inform the submitter that barring documentation that Ahbel is a period form of Abel it is not registerable. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [István Nyiregyhazi] Submitted as István Nyíregyhazi, while the LoI stated that the byname could be found in Kalman's The World of Hungarian Names, it could not be found in that spelling. We have substituted the closest documentable form, which is the same as the submitted form, but without an accent over the i. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [William Cormac Britt] Submitted as William Cormac O'Britt, no documentation was presented and none could be found for adding O' to Britt. Therefore we have dropped it. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.07 [Miguel de Majorca] Submitted as Miguel Navas de Majorca no acceptable documentation was provided for Navas and none could be found. We have dropped Navas in order to register the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.05 [Valeria Àngeli] Submitted as Valeria Àngeli Sforza, on the July 1997 LoAR the name Sforza was ruled to be presumptuous. While an argument was made on the LoI to overturn the precedent, no examples were presented of period use of the name outside of the royal line. Absent such evidence, the precedent cannot be overturned. We have dropped Sforza in order to register the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR May 1998, p. 14)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.04 There has been a number of commenters counting the use of an SCA branch name in an SCA name submission as a "weirdness" if the official group name is in poor style -- i.e. not in the form of a documentable place-name. The use of any registered official groups will not count as a weirdness. To decide on a case-by-case basis if the group name is a weirdness in a personal name submission requires an additional, unnecessary level of decision. (Cover Letter 4/98)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Poukka, Canton of] A possible problem was mentioned with the name for this group since it appears to be similar to the word Pooka, which is an English malevolent spirit. There are often words in one language which appear to be similar to a word in another language. Since the group name is formed correctly in Finnish, the and two words do not sound the same in Finnish, we see no problem with registering this. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 5)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.01 [Van of Vest Yorvik] This is being returned because Van is not a first name. While documented from Dauzat, Dauzat says: "Van, prépos flamande correspondant à de, marquant l'origine (allem von). ..." That is to say it is "a preposition corresponding to de marking a locative [origin of the person] (also von)..." not a first name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1998, p. 22)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.11 A book on Celtic Myth is not evidence that a name was used by human beings during our period. Barring such documentation, the name [will] have to be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR November 1997, p. 12)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.07 [returning Armando de la Rama de Mil Ojos] This submission ... translates the name of his group into Spanish. Names of registered extant SCA groups are only automatically registerable in the language in which they are actually registered. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1997, p. 15)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.07 The byname is Mongolian for Thousand Eyes, which is also the name of the submitter's Barony. Normally we do not register translations of SCA group names. However, the submitter has provided documentation that this follows period Mongolian practice; there was a Mongol chieftain in the court of Kubla Khan whose byname was Hundred Eyes. Since the byname follows documented Mongolian practice it is acceptable. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1997, p. 7)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.04 [registering the given name Arielle] The name Ariel is found in the Bible, in Ezra, as the name of a male leader. While no one could produce documentation showing that Arielle is a period name, Hebrew names of this sort are frequently feminized by adding an "a" or an "e" at the end. For instance, Rafael bcomes Rafaelle, Gabriel becomes Gabrielle, Uriel becomes Urielle, Michael becomes Michaela, etc. Since our sources for period Hebrew names give us many more for men than for women, we are registering this as a compatible name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1997, p. 2)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.04 The spelling Alrik is taken from a book by Gwyn Jones. While Gwyn Jones is a well known scholar, he is not a linguist or an onomasticist, and does not really care too much on how he transliterates Scandinavian names. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1997, p. 3)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.02 [Denison ap Morgan] Pwyll is strictly a mythological name, and therefore not suitable for use in SCA names. We have dropped Pwyll in order to register the rest of the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1997, p. 17)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.01 No documentation was presented to show that Fafnir was used by humans in period, and Lind, from where the name was documented, marks it as mythological. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1997, p. 20)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.08 Hungarian practice is to put the given name after the surname, which practice was not followed here. Without evidence of Hungarian's using the standard practice of given name surname, and since the client will not take changes, the submission will have to be returned. [See, however, the ruling of 8/98 infra.] (Aléna Széllvár, 8/96 p. 9)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.07 [registering Madeleine Moinet dit Boismenu] While this name violates the long-standing prohibition against names of the form X called Y, in the early records it is quite common to find people recorded as X cognomento Y or, later, X dictus Y, X genannt Y, etc. These are official documentary forms no different in principle from X filius Y; like filius Y, dictus Y serves to specify which X is in question. In Latin, German, and French it is a legitimate documentary form. Therefore, since names of this sort are documented we are hereby overturning this ban for those languages. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1996, p. 7)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.12 [Umm Yaasmeen Sahar] The kunya (honorific) Umm Yaasmeen `mother of Yaasmeen' is in effect an `upside-down metronymic'; and just as metronymics do not seem to have been part of Arabic naming practice, no one has found a kunya based on a feminine name. We have previously returned Arabic names for incorporating metronymics (e.g., Raym 'Inan bint Rabi'ah, Atenveldt, 8/95 LoAR, and Aliyah bint Leyla, Middle, 4/94 LoAR); given the equal lack of evidence for the reciprocal practice and its equal implausibility in the male-oriented Arab culture, consistency requires that we return this name as well. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR December 1995, p. 23)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.12 In short, the name is incorrectly constructed, inadequately documented, and presumptuous (as presumption is defined in the Rules for Submissions); since he permits no changes, each of these problems would by itself be sufficient grounds for return. Any future submission along these lines should be accompanied by adequate documentation for all of the elements and for the grammatical constructions used and should not incorporate titles of rank. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR December 1995, p. 18)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.11 [returning Vairocana Belnon of Uddiyana] There are several problems with this name. First, the documentation is insufficient to show that it is formed according to Tibetan practice or even that Vairocana is Tibetan. Uddiyâna (with a dot under each d) was apparently a land `famous for its magicians'; the context doesn't make it clear whether this was a real or merely a legendary place but does show that it was not Tibetan. More important, significant interaction between Tibet and pre-seventeenth century Western culture has not been demonstrated. The Encyclopædia Britannica dates the first visits to Tibet by Western missionaries to the 17th century, and the fact that the 8th century Tibetan kingdom had some contact with the Arab conquerors of Iran still leaves Tibetans at least two removes from Western Europe. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR November 1995, p. 16)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.11 The name was submitted as Cyneburh Ceridwen MacDougall, which contains at least four `weirdnesses': (1) the names are from three different cultures and languages; (2) Ceridwen seems not to have been used by human beings in period and is allowed only on sufferance; (3) there is a huge chronological gap between Cyneburh and MacDougall; and (4) the overall structure has been documented only for the language of the weakest element (Ceridwen) or for a date completely incompatible with Cyneburh. We have replaced the given name with a later form to ameliorate the last two and consider the first two not quite extreme enough to warrant further changes. Nevertheless, the name would be far more authentic without the Ceridwen. [Registered as Kyneburgh Ceridwen MacDougall] (Talan Gwynek, LoAR November 1995, pp.1-2)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1995.10 Speaking of documentation, I'm sorry to say that I've found another ringer: someone used the title page of Charles F. Gosnell's Spanish Personal Names to identify the source of a page from what appears to be a bad English-language Spanish baby-name book. Two instances are hardly an epidemic, but they are a bit disconcerting, especially since there's not much that we can do about the problem except keep our eyes open. (Talan Gwynek, Cover Letter to the October 1995 LoAR, p. 4)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.09 [A] submission form ... was accompanied by documentation for [N] consisting of photocopies of the relevant page of Hanks & Hodges' Dictionary of First Names and the title page from Withycombe! A submissions herald who isn't particularly familiar with name books could easily miss this, so let's hope that it's a rare slip-up and not the beginning of a constant nuisance. (Talan Gwynic, Cover Letter with the September 1995, p. 2)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.09 [Eleazar Ben Judah] It is customary not to capitalize the particle ben. Had he not forbidden spelling and grammar changes, we'd have changed the name to Eleazar ben Judah. We'd still much prefer this form; but period practice in respect of capitalization was erratic enough that we are not willing to return the name solely for that reason. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR September 1995, p. 12)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.09 The LoI appeals to Withycombe's discussion (p. xxxv) of the use of men's names for women in the 13th to 15th centuries to suggest that Alana might have been a documentary form for a woman named Alan, and on this basis we have registered the forename as Alana.... Please inform her that it is very doubtful either that Alan was feminized to Alana in period or that the practice of forming such artificial Latinate feminine forms was still in use when double given names first appeared in England near the end of our period. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR September 1995, p. 20)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.09 These remarks are intended primarily for submissions heralds. The italicized statements have been culled from recent Letters of Intent and lightly edited; the rejoinders should speak for themselves. Mistakes like 1-4 can happen occasionally to anyone, but they shouldn't happen often; if they do, either you're making too many mistakes, or the people who feed you your information are doing so. Statements 5 and 6 provide no useful information and should be omitted; we can see that the submitted form is a variant, and presumably you wouldn't have sent it up if you hadn't thought it a reasonable one. If you have a case to make, make it; otherwise, it's better to let the name speak for itself.

1. All [of the given names are] dated to period [in a particular source]. In fact only one of the three is, and one isn't found at all in that source!

2. <Source> cites this as a feminine of <name>. In fact the supposed feminine form isn't mentioned at all in that source, and the name is described as a byname.

3. <Source> dates this surname ... to <date>. In fact the source doesn't even mention the name in the submitted form, citing a different form altogether.

4. <Source> cites this as the feminine form of <surname>. In fact the source in question never gives the feminine forms of surnames.

5. <Name> is a variant spelling of <name>. No justification is given, though one may very much be needed: after all, Khinnrye is clearly a variant spelling of Henry!

6. We feel that the variant spelling is acceptable. Fine; maybe it is. But why do you feel so? Better yet, why do you think so? (Talan Gwynek, Cover Letter with the September 1995, pp. 2-3)

Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.08 [returning Arslan Sanjarzade Yildirim-Kilij] We are returning this name for further documentation. On the basis of the available information, Arslan Sanjarzade appears to be modern, Western-style Turkish name constructed from period elements; Schimmel, Islamic Names, p. 80, says, however, that the family name preceded the given name in those few families that had family names before this century. The submitter's documentation shows some period examples of names compounded from what are either simpler names or a combination of a nickname and a name, but there is no documentation for compound nicknames, nor is there evidence to show where in a period Turkish name a nickname should be placed. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR August 1995, p. 21)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.06 There have been some commenters of late who have been calling for the return of name submissions where the various elements of the name are not dated to within 300 years of each other. Other commenters are apparently under the impression that some names have already been returned because their various elements are not dated to within 300 years of each other. Laurel is at a loss to understand how a precedent set by Baron Bruce which said specifically that a temporal discontinuity of 300 years or more was not, in and of itself, sufficient reason to return a name, has become in recent times the "300 year rule" requiring the return of a submission. So that we may all be clear on the topic, I quote the relevant precedent here.

In a number of my recent rulings, I've ruled that excessive temporal mismatching can be considered a "weirdness", costing the submitter the benefit of the doubt. With this LoAR [March 1993], I hereby make the new policy official: If the elements of a submitted name are dated too far apart, then any other anomaly in the name may combine to force it to be returned. The greater the temporal divide, the greater the anomaly: a given name and byname whose spellings are documented within, say, a century of each other will probably be all right, but a three-century divide is pushing it.

By itself, temporal incompatibility is still not sufficient reason for return. I haven't yet been faced with a case so extreme (a couple of millennia, say) to require a return; our worst instance of temporal mismatch (Tamas of Midian) also involved geographic mismatch as well. But henceforth, excessive temporal mismatch may contribute to a name's unacceptability; another problem with the name may cause it to be returned. [Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, 8 May 1993 Cover Letter, pg. 4] (Da'ud ibn Auda, Cover Letter to the LoAR of June 1995, pp. 2-3)

Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.05 [registering the epithet Hæweneage] [Ælfgar Hæweneage] Submitted as Ælfgar Haewen Eagen, all of the period exemplars of similar names are compounded into a single word. Jönsjö has a number of compounds of the form <color>+<eye>, again always as a single word and always with "eye" in the singular. The submitted form is using the plural eagan, where the singular eage is better supported by the historical examples. The OE noun eage `eye' is neuter. The adjective will be in the indefinite declension here and in the nominative singular neuter, so it will receive no ending. The byname would then be hæweneage, which we have registered. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1995, pp. 1-2)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.05 The word barrister came into use so late that the form of the byname here is essentially impossible. However, names with similar meanings which were documented by the commenters included le Lawyer (1336), Lawman (1279), le Legistere (1286), and derived from OE mótere (public speaker) and OFr plaideor, plaitier (pleader), le Motere (1175), le Mouter (1327), Plaitere (1216), le Pleytour (1327), and le Pledour (1331). [The name was registered] (Ansel the Barrister, 5/95 p. 7)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.05 The word bison was known in England only as a learned, Latin word until after our period of study. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1995, p. 2)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.04 The word "torque" used in the sense here is dated no earlier than 1834. As such the term is quite post-period. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR April 1995, p. 10)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.01 [Valentine fitz Katherine] Sufficient documentation for the general form of <fitz> <mother's name> was presented to show a practice of this pattern. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR January 1995, p. 11)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.10 Brenna is only marginally justifiable for the Classical Mediterranean area. It's use in an Anglo-Irish name as one of two given names becomes two steps beyond period practice, as Anglo-Irish names did not use double given names in period. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR October 1994, p. 17)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.10 Margaret is far, far too late to be combined with the name of an early Irish tribe (they arrived in Ireland between 500 and 100 B.C.) with a temporal difference of a millennium or more. [The name was returned.] (Margaret of the Érainn, 10/94 p. 16)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.06 [Returning Kyrin Charissa de Cameron.] [The given name was inadequately documented.] Additionally, it would appear to be a masculine name, which with Charissa would make the name one of mixed gender; while the SCA registers cross-gender names, mixed gender names have been disallowed for some time. [6/94, p.12]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.05 [Returning Damián Daskal De Valerio.] No evidence was presented that Daskal is a period form; a book on American family names is not good documentation for our purposes, as many foreign names have undergone odd transformations in this country. Daskal appears to be a simplification, American and/or modern, of didáskalos 'a teacher, master'. The documentation for the surname is for the surname Valera (with "a" instead of "io"; Valerio is an Italian given name, not a locative, and its use with "de" here is inappropriate. We need better documentation for both these parts of the name. [5/94, p.21]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.05 [Returning David Mícheál Mac Laisre.] The name consists of three given names: Mac Laisre is a given name, not a patronymic (and since it means 'son of flame', it can't well be re-interpreted as a patronymic). No evidence has been found for the use of two given names in Irish, let alone three with no surname. That, combined with the fact that Mícheál is a modern spelling of older Míchél, while Dauíd (rather than David) is an older spelling of modern Daibhead, is sufficient cause for return. [5/94, p.15]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.04 [Returning _liyah bint Leyl_.] The Arabs do not seem to have used matronymic formations (which this is) in their names, either in period or since. Of only two instances in history which Laurel has found in his researches, one was 'Isa ibn Maryam (Jesus the son of Mary), which was clearly a special case. [4/94, p.19]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.03 None of the commenters were able to document [sur la Chaise Azurée] in French, and comparable forms in English and German do not adequately support the same form in a different language (French). [3/94, p.16]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.01 The submitted name is not just an Anglo-French hybrid; it has the specific form {English nominal descriptor} {French toponym}. The examples [are] of the form {English place-name} {surname of French owner}. Vair Couvert follows another pattern altogether, one that still hasn't been documented. (And since the pattern involves the use of two languages in a single phrase, it must be documented pretty thoroughly; one or two isolated examples would probably be insufficient.) [1/94, p.18]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1993.12b The name as submitted appears to be made up of modern variants of the individual elements. It is thus incompatible with the period and domain of the Society, as required by RfS I.1. As a consequence, we are required to return this for modification to period forms or for better documentation of each element than the works of Hanks and Hodges. [12b/93, p.11]
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.10 The Arabic name Rabah is indeed cited as a period masculine given name in "Arabic Naming Practices" by Da'ud ibn Auda, West Kingdom Known World Symposium Proceedings, 1987, p.47. (It's translated as "gain".) Lord Clarion's comment on this submission suggests that the entry may have been a typo, but it certainly isn't the result of over-photocopying, or a mistake on the submitter's part. I'm inclined to give him the benefit of the doubt here. (If it is a typo, it will have to be formally corrected.) (Rabah az-Zafir, October, 1993, pg. 4)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.10 [Order of Black Widows] While I concede that the words black and widow are period words, the phrase black widow is a modern construction. As with the Artemisian Tank Corps (returned Feb 91), though the parts of the name may be period, the name as a whole is decidedly modern. In previous appeals, the submitters have made clear that the Order's name specifically referred to the black widow spider; and that's certainly how the name will be perceived. No evidence has yet been produced that the spider was known to medieval Europeans, or even to anyone prior to the 19th Century. (It didn't even get the name black widow until the early 20th Century.) Without such evidence, we will not register the creature, by name or in armory. (Kingdom of Trimaris, October, 1992, pg. 33)
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1990.10 "The use of a matronymic in Arabic [was not] documented. (Laurel believes that the two instances he could find, that of 'Isa ibn Maryam {Jesus the son of Mary, clearly a unique case} and one other instance noted in The Fihrist of al-Nadim do not establish a pattern of general usage. We would prefer to see more examples before allowing this exception to the rule of the use of patronymics in Arabic)." [The name was returned for this reason and for the non-documentability of a byname] (LoAR 10/90 p.16).
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1990.10 [Returning Shala bint Samia Shashati] While Shala is a reasonable transliteration of the Arabic name often transliterated as Shahlaa, and while Samia could be considered as an acceptable alternative to the name Samihah, no evidence was presented to support Shashati, nor was the use of a matronymic in Arabic documented. (LoAR 10/90 p.16).
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.12.31 The documentation for the appeal includes a resubmission of the lengthy persona story to which the submittor is clearly very attached, but persona stories are irrelevant to registration and in this case the story owes less to period sources than nineteenth-century fairy tale redaction. (LoAR 31 Dec 89, p. 26)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.12.31 Under the old rules, the admissibility of the name ... formed on a [language] model from a place name in a role playing game would have been extremely arguable. Under the new rules, which do not have a "source test", the fact that the structure is compatible with [language] naming practise makes the name admissible. (LoAR 31 Dec 89, p. 4)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.03.26 The documentation of the given name was from [Evelyn] Wells, which is not a very good source. (LoAR 26 Mar 89, p. 1)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.10.30 The documentation indicated that the given name was compounded from a Hindu adjective ... and [a] Spanish noun.... Society usage does not permit such cross-linguistic amalgams (unless there is specific documentation to support the form) and in this case it is particularly unlikely given the naming practises of the two linguistic groups. (LoAR 30 Oct 88, p. 16)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.08 The ... extremely lengthy appeal covered several points and was copiously documented with extracts from several genealogical and heraldic works.... It is a pity that so much of her documentation supported the original return....

Documentation was submitted to support the existence of [Name] as a surname and appeal was made to the familiar Camden citation as evidence that surnames were used in period. However, precedent reasserted by Master Baldwin ... (December, 1984) has reaffirmed that names used solely as surnames in period may not be used as given names: Camden notes an anomaly peculiar to late sixteenth century England and we must draw our general rules from the common usage, not the anomaly. She needs to have a given name.

The submittor states that the Campbells were actually lords of Lochow or of some other seat and not of Argyll. Unfortunately, her own documentation indicates that Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow, created Lord Campbell in 1445 and chief of the clan, assumed the designation of Argyll. The use of the name Campbell of Argyll in modern mundane usage is tantamount to a claim of kinship with the chief and it will be so taken by the bulk of members of the Society, causing offense to some. (LoAR Aug 87, pp. 15-16)

Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.05.24 By the submittor's own documentation the given name was that of one of the sons of Genghis Khan. Such names, e.g. Genghis, Temujin, etc., have in the past been returned as unique names failing documentation to demonstrate their more general use in Mongolian society. (LoAR 24 May 87, p. 12)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.04.26 The [Norse] citations noted ... unfortunately are all from the Penguin English translations, which are notoriously random in their forms: although they seldom obscure the given names and patronymics often take modern English forms or are compounded of modern and period forms. (LoAR 26 Apr 87, p. 12)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.03.29 We do not normally register diminutive forms for the given name unless there is documentation that it was used independently in period. (LoAR 29 Mar 87, p. 20)
Baldwin of Erebor 1985.04.14 A compound or dithematic name is composed of a first element (the protheme) and a second element (the deuterotheme) drawn from the body of word stems (themes) used to form names in a given language. To document a name as dithematic, it is necessary to show that it is constructed from a known protheme and a known deuterotheme (or plausible variants thereof) for a specific culture. [BoE, 14 Apr 85, p.6]
Baldwin of Erebor 1985.04.14 The applicant has provided an example of -hafoc, -havoc 'hawk' as a deuterotheme, but there is as yet no evidence that graeg 'gray' was ever used as a name element. We normally require that dithematic names be made up of known elements. Our experience has been that given names are drawn from a smaller subset of the language than bynames; the "adjective + noun" and "tincture + animal" models mentioned in the appeal are too sweeping. [BoE, 14 Apr 85, p.14]
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1982.01.18 Submitting a device or badge with a Society name known to be unacceptable is a waste of the College's time. WVS [61] [LoAR 17-18 Jan 82], p. 8
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1981.05.12 Society names must either be made of names that were used by mortals in our period or that are created names that are acceptable variants of period names or are in keeping with period name construction. Names were coined in period, and so they may be coined now, but only in keeping with period practices. Names from fictional sources may be used if they satisfy the requirement of being in keeping with period practices. Names which are out of period but are in keeping with period practices should also be allowed, as the date of creation shouldn't matter if the name is in keeping. WVS [41] [CL 12 May 81], p. 4
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1981.02.24 Changes in spelling that do not change the pronunciation are acceptable, as names were a verbal tradition and were spelled phonetically during much of our period. Changes in spelling that change the pronunciation of the name are different. Here one must demonstrate that this sort of change could have been done in our period. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 4
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1981.02.24 Given names and place names may be used as surnames, with or without prepositions or patronymics. However, place names and surnames may not be used as given names. There are some cases where a name is both a given name and a surname, and so may be used as either one. When a name is known to be a surname or a place name and is not known to also be a given name, then it may not be used as a given name unless the submitter proves that it was actually used as a given name in our period. This is one case where the use of the name as a given name in modern times is not sufficient, since we have period evidence of its [use] as a non-given name. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 5
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1981.02.24 If a name is in use today or if any source can be found of its use in the real world at some time, then it may be used and assumed allowable unless we can find something wrong with it or prove that it is out of period. Most, but not all, names in use today are in fact period names. Therefore, if you can cite a source for a name, you get the benefit of the doubt on that name. If somebody shows that such a name violates one of our rules, then it shall not be allowed. If it is shown that such a name is out of period, then it shall not be allowed unless it has been previously used and registered by the College more than once. I feel that if a name is otherwise acceptable and is only inadmissible because it is first cited in the late 1600's and if it has been previously registered several times, [then] we should go on using it. Registered use in the SCA is therefore almost as good as use in period. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. [34]
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1981.02.24 If a person submits a name for which no source is given or can be found, then it is up to that person to convince us that the name is in period or is compatible with period usage if it is a modified name. If someone created a name by translating something in English, then the burden is on them to show that their translation is correct and that the form of the name is period usage. It is quite acceptable to mutate an existing name if you can convince us that the mutation is proper to our period. Some changes were done and some were not. Changes in spelling that do not change the pronunciation are acceptable, as names were a verbal tradition and were spelled phonetically during much of our period. Changes in spelling that change the pronunciation of the name are different. Here one must demonstrate that this sort of change could have been done in our period. WVS [35] [CL 24 Feb 81], p. 4
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1980.07.21 I need the language, translation, and/or source for the name. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 10
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1980.07.21 If I followed your form of reasoning I could not reject any place name, as the person could then just say that that was the name of the mythical estate they had just made up for their persona. Or they could hang a sign on their doorstep with that name and say that was the name of their household. WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 14
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1980.04.14 [James Douglas Eastland] I believe that the use of middle names like that in English is out of period. WVS [15] [LoAR 14 Apr 80], p. 2
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1980.06.05 The word N. was coined in 1853, and is thus out of period. Please choose a different surname. WVS [19] [LoAR 5 Jun 80], p. 4
Karina of the Far West 1979.06.30 Take a surname, or provide documentation that your persona is from a culture not using them. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 77)
Karina of the Far West 1979.06.30 The name is rejected as being modern slang. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 67)
Karina of the Far West 1976.01.30 Please document the use of "Koenig," meaning "king," as a surname for non-royalty during our period. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 69)
Karina of the Far West 1976.06.16 [Giliniel Silmeline.] Change the name with its multiple meaning of "starlight" it sounds too Elvish; unless she can prove that a mortal could have used the name. (KFW, 16 Jun 76 [6], p. 11)
Karina of the Far West 1972.11.12 N. is coined, and no language at all. (KFW, 12 Nov 72 [35], p. 1) [The name was approved.]
Harold Breakstone 1972.01.16 Rhiannon N.... wishes to know if her name is all right or if she should go back to being M. No one seems to know; she must prove that the name was used by humans, not gods only, and before the nineteenth century when anything went. The College operates under the Napoleonic code: otherwise we would never get anywhere. (KFW, 16 Jan 72 [22], p. 1)