Collected Precedents of the S.C.A.: Norse and Scandinavian


Name Precedents: Norse and Scandinavian

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Laurel: Date: (year.month.date) Precedent:
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 Submitted as Emma Idunn, this name combines an English given name and an Old Norse given name. Because Old Norse does not use unmarked patronymics, Idunn is not a properly formed byname. The properly constructed Old Norse form would be Idunsdottir.

To make this name registerable, the byname must either be changed to a close English form or to the properly constructed Old Norse form. Because a name mixing Middle English and Old Norse is one step from period practice, we have changed this name to Emma Idone, an all English form. Unmarked patronymics are common in English. Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, dates this spelling of the byname to 1327. The change from Idunn to Idone is also a smaller change in sound and appearance than the change from Idunn to Idunsdottir. [Emma Idone, 05/04, A-Aethelmearc]

Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 Submitted as Hrothgar Ivarsson, the submitter requested authenticity for 10th-11th C. As submitted, the name mixes an Old English form of the given name with an Old Norse patronymic. An authentic name combining these elements in period would have been written completely in Old English or completely in Old Norse depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. We have changed the name to Hróðgeirr Ívarsson, a fully Old Norse form of this name to fulfill his request for authenticity. [Hróðgeirr Ívarsson, 05/04, A-Aethelmearc]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 The submitter requested an authentic name with "the first name Norse and the second name Scottish." While there is a great deal of evidence for Norsemen adopting Gaelic names and vice versa, there is no evidence that Norse and Gaelic orthographies were combined in this manner. This name combines Norse and Gaelic orthographies, which has been ruled one step from period practice. As submitted, it's not authentic although it is registerable.

To make this name authentic, it should be in entirely in either Norse orthography or Gaelic orthography. An entirely Norse form would be Einarr Domnalsson; Talan Gwynek's draft article "Old Norse Forms of Early Irish Names" gives Domnall as the normalized form of the runic "tomnal", which is found in an inscription on a 12th C Icelandic sword hilt. As the College has been unable to find a Gaelic form of Einarr, we cannot speculate on a fully Gaelic form of this name. [Einarr mac Dhòmhnuill, 04/04, A-Calontir]

Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 Submitted as Dufen Eyðimörkingr, we have changed the name to Dufan eyðimarkingr. The spelling of the given name was changed to match the submitted documentation; there is no evidence that a and e are interchangeable when Old Norse is written in a Latin style alphabet. [Dufan eyðimarkingr, 04/04, A-Atenveldt]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.03 While we know of no examples where Norse and Russian are used in the same name, there is enough contact between the cultures for this to be only one step from period practice.

The submitter specified an interest in having the name be authentic for a language and/or culture, he did not specify which culture. We are, therefore, not able to change the name to meet this request. The name Ari viligisl would be an entirely Norse form. We were unable to find an entirely Russian form.  [Arii viligisl, 03/04, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2004.03 Submitted as Ingi aptrkemba, the submitter requested a feminine name and allowed any changes. Ingi is found in Geirr Bassi (p. 12) as a masculine given name. We have changed this to the feminine given name Inga (also found in Geirr Bassi, p. 12) in order to make this name feminine as requested by the submitter. [Inga aptrkemba, 03/2004, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2004.03 Submitted as Kaun Steinrøðsson, the patronymic Steinrøðsson was not correctly formed. The patronymic byname formed from the masculine given name Steinrøðr is Steinrøðarson. We have made this correction. [Kaun Steinrøðarson, 03/2004, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2004.03 Listed on the LoI as Æsa inn kyrra, this name was submitted as Æsa inn kyrri. The element kyrri was changed at Kingdom to kyrra to put it into a feminine form.

The article inn is a masculine form. We have changed it to the feminine in in order to register this name. [Æsa in kyrra, 03/2004, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2004.03 This name is being returned for having two weirdnesses.

Iror is documented as an Old Norse masculine given name in Geirr Bassi (p. 12). As such, it is undated but appropriate for up to approximately 1100. The word insane was documented as an English word dated to 1550. Therefore, this name has one weirdness for combining Old Norse and Middle English and one weirdness for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years.

Any changes we could make in order to register this name would involve a complete change of the byname. The College found a number of options that may interest the submitter. As there are multiple options, and the form gives no indication of what is most important to the submitter, we are returning this name and providing the information found by the College so that the submitter may choose how he wishes to proceed.

[...]

Silver Nautilus found an Old Norse byname with a similar meaning in Aryanhwy merch Catmael's article "Viking Bynames found in the Landnámabók" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/vikbynames.html), which lists the byname inn óði as having the meaning 'mad, frantic, raging'. This byname would support a Lingua Anglica byname such as the Mad, but not the Insane. Iror inn óði would be the fully Old Norse form of this name. [Iror the Insane, 03/2004, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2004.02 Submitted as Bjorn Samsson, the documentation showed the given name as Bj{o,}rn. We have made this correction. [Bj{o,}rn Samsson, 02/2004, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2004.02 Submitted as Svarðkell inn bíldr, no evidence was found to support adding inn 'the' to the documented byname bíldr 'ax, ax-blade'. Gunnvör silfrahár provided commentary regarding this type of byname:

For the by-name <inn bíldr>, I think the <inn> should be dropped. Reviewing all the by-names listed in Geirr Bassi, those with <inn> all appear to be adjectives ("the wise", "the fat", etc.) whereas weapon names such as <geirr>, "spear", appear by themselves. <Bíldr> is defined as "axe; an instrument for bleeding, blood-letter", with the second meaning being demonstrated in the kenning <bíldr skæru> ("blood-letter of battle", a sword), and as a proper noun appears as one of the names of Óðinn as well as a human personal name.

Landnámabók has two examples of this by-name

ch. 87: <Sigmundr kleykir son Önundar bílds> (Sigmundr kleykir, son of Önundr bíldr)

ch. 100: <Þórgrímr bíldr> (the brother of Önundr bíldr)

Lacking evidence that inn would be added to a byname of this type, we changed the submitted byname to the documented form bíldr in order to register this name. [Svarðkell bíldr, 02/2004, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2004.02 This name is being returned for issues with the byname sundafyllir. This byname was documented from Geirr Bassi (p. 28) as meaning 'sound-filler, able to fill a bay with fish by magic'.

Gunnvör silfrahárr provided further information regarding this byname:

[A]s far as I know only woman person ever bore this by-name, <Þuríðr sundafyllir>, as is explained in Landnámabók ch. 50 (http://www.snerpa.is/net/snorri/landnama.htm):

Þuríðr sundafyllir og Völu-Steinn son hennar fór af Hálogalandi til Íslands og nam Bolungarvík, og bjuggu í Vatnsnesi. Hún var því kölluð sundafyllir, að hún seiddi til þess í hallæri á Hálogalandi, að hvert sund var fullt af fiskum.

[Þuríðr sundafyllir and Völu-Steinn, her son, fared from Hálogaland to Iceland and took for themselves Bolungarvík and kept house at Vatnsness. For this was she called "sound-filler", that in a hard year in Hálogaland she brought it about by seiðr (witchcraft) that every sound was filled with fish.]

I tend to agree with the previous commenters about the name suggesting magical powers.

Therefore, the current evidence shows that the byname sundafyllir is both unique and a claim to magical powers. As such, it violates RfS VI.2 "Names Claiming Powers", which states in part:

Names containing elements that allude to powers that the submitter does not possess are considered presumptuous. Society names may not claim divine descent, superhuman abilities, or other powers that the submitter does not actually possess.

[Rannveig sundafyllir, 02/2004, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2004.02 The submitter requested authenticity for 8th to 10th C West Norse. The only documentation provided for Krigføsingglad in the LoI was the statement:

Krigføringglad is and [sic] English-Norweigian translation of "warfare fond" according to freetranslation.com. Submitter wishes this meaning, but is flexible on the translation.

This site provides a translation to modern Norweigian. As such, it provides no evidence that the word Krigføringglad is plausible in any language in period. Additionally, it provides no evidence that this word, even if it were plausible in period, would have appeared as a person's byname. Lacking evidence that the word Krigføringglad is plausible as a byname in period, it is not registerable.

The College was able to find evidence of words using the root víg- 'battle' in Geir T. Zöega's A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic (http://www.northvegr.org/zoega/index002.php), though these words are not documented as bynames and may or may not be plausible in that use. Geirr Bassi (p. 29) lists two descriptive bynames referring to 'battle': valfrekr 'val-fresh, greedy for battle-casualties' and vegandi 'battler, fighter'. [Valr Krigføsingglad, 02/2004, R-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2004.01 Submitted as Yrsa Asmundsdóttir, the patronymic Asmundsdóttir was not correctly formed. The patronymic byname formed from the masculine given name Ásmundr is Ásmundardóttir. We have made this correction. [Yrsa Ásmundardóttir, 01/2004, A-East]
François la Flamme 2004.01 This name is being returned for lack of documentation of Kjalgrimr as a plausible given name in Old Norse. The LoI supported this name as follows:

Constructed name from elements found in Geirr Bassi. "Kjal-" from given names 'Kjallakr' and 'Kjalv{o.}r', pg. 12. "-grimr" from names such as 'Kolgrimr', pg. 12, and 'Thorgrimr', pg. 16. From Friedemann (aka Aryanhwy merch Catmael), Viking Bynames found in the 'Landnámabók' there are two instances of "Kjalki", meaning 'jawbone'. In Þorgeirsson, "Grímr (Gríms) m - from Grím-. Also a name suffix" and "Grím - A name prefix meaning 'mask, disguise, helm, night'."

Gunnvör silfrahárr found

In the submitted documentation with this name, the by-name <kjálki> (note the a-acute) would not be related to a proposed name element <Kjal->. The word <kjálki> is cognate to English "cheek" and does mean "jawbone" but would not be useful in documenting the submittor's proposed name of <Kjalgrimr> (see Cleasby p. 340 s.v.<kjálki>.)

The name <Kjallakr> is simply an Old Norse adaptation of the Irish name <Cellach> (see, for example, Academy of St. Gabriel Reports #1392 and #1667 at www.panix.com/~gabriel/public-bin/showfinal.cgi?1392+0 and www.panix.com/~gabriel/public-bin/showfinal.cgi?1667+0). <Kjallakr> occurs in Old Norse texts as the name of a son of an Irish king, and also appears as a name in Iceland several times in Landnámabók (Netútgáfan Website. www.snerpa.is/net/snorri/landnama.htm chs. 21, 27, 30, 32, 33, 40, 102). <Kjallakr> does not represent an Old Norse two-element name, and so the first syllable cannot be peeled off and used as a name-element elsewhere.

The Old Norse feminine name <Kjalvör> appears in Landnámabók ch 51. (Netútgáfan Website. www.snerpa.is/net/snorri/landnama.htm). Here <Kjal-> does appear as one element of a two-element name, combined with the exclusively feminine second element <-vör>. As far as I am aware, <Kjal-> appears nowhere else in other Old Norse names, and therefore we have evidence only that the name-element is used in (a) feminine name(s).

Lacking evidence of Kjal- used as a protheme in an Old Norse dithematic name, the constructed Kjalgrimr is not a plausible Old Norse masculine name and is not registerable. As the submitter is most interested in sound, he may wish to know that the closest sounding Old Norse masculine name found by the College was Kolgrímr found in Geirr Bassi (p. 12). [Kjalgrimr Klugh, 01/2004, R-East]

François la Flamme 2004.01 The submitter requested authenticity for "Norse/Icelandic" and allowed any changes.

The byname ulfsvina 'wolf's friend' was submitted as a constructed byname formed from elements found in Geir T. Zoëga, A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic (http://www.northvegr.org/zoega/). This source is a dictionary, not a name resource. While useful, it must be remembered that not every word in this source was applied to humans or would have been used as descriptive bynames in period. Some adjectives may never have been applied to a living creature. Some may have only applied to gods or mythical beasts in sagas or mythology. Others may have, indeed, been used to describe humans.

Therefore, while the submitted documentation could support the plausibility of ulfsvina as a word in Old Icelandic, it does not necessarily provide evidence that such a word would have been used as a descriptive byname for humans in period.

To determine the plausibility of ulfsvina as a descriptive byname, it must be compared to descriptive bynames known to have been used by humans in period. While the LoI noted that Geirr Bassi lists the descriptive byname barnakarl 'friend to children', no documentation was presented and none was found that a byname constructed as [animal] friend would have been used as a descriptive byname applied to humans in Old Norse. Lacking such evidence, ulfsvina is not registerable.

As the submitter requested authenticity for "Norse/Icelandic", she may wish to know that Thyra is a modern English rendering of the Old Norse feminine given name Þyri. There is some evidence that Thyra may have also appeared in late-period Danish. However, from the information that the College was able to find, the form Thyra is not authentic for the Old Norse period. [Thyra ulfsvina, 01/2004, R-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2004.01 This name has multiple issues.

The form shows that this name was submitted as Daniel Þúsunðjalasmiðer. No indication was provided at any point that the submitter was at all involved in any change to a given name of DanR. Additionally, the only documentation provided for the given name in the LoI was from Geirr Bassi, which lists Danr, not DanR.

Þúsunðjalasmiðer was submitted as a byname meaning 'thousand kind craftsman'. However, no evidence was provided and none was found to support a byname with this meaning as a plausible Old Norse byname. Lacking such evidence, this name is not registerable.

Additionally, there was significant discussion whether the construction of Þúsunðjalasmiðer is even valid as a word in Old Norse. The College found support for Þúsund as a word in Old Icelandic meaning 'thousand' or, literally, 'a swarm of hundreds', and for smiðr 'smith' (not 'craftsman') as an Old Norse byname. However, no support was found for the element jala.

The byname would be registerable as smiðr. However, such a significant change to the byname is a major change, which the submitter does not allow. [DanR Þúsunðjalasmiðer, 01/2004, R-Northshield]

François la Flamme 2003.12 Listed on the LoI as Vigdís Vesfirzka, this name was submitted as Vigdís Vestfirnzka. The byname was corrected at Kingdom to remove the incorrect n in the byname. However, an extra letter (t) was omitted in the LoI. We have added the missing letter to the byname.

Additionally, we have lowercased the byname to use standard transliteration conventions. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.) [Vigdís vestfirzka, 12/2003, A-West]

François la Flamme 2003.12 The submitter requested authenticity for 8th C Wessex. Wessex was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom where Old English was spoken. While this is an authentic Old Norse name, it is not an Old English name. The issue of when Norse settlements existed in England was not discussed during commentary. As such, we were unable to determine whether or not this name is appropriate for the submitter's desired time and location. [Hrafnhildr Mikaelsdóttir, 12/2003, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2003.12 Submitted as Bjorn inn mikli, the documentation showed the given name as having an o-ogonek (which looks like an o with a reversed comma attached to the bottom of the letter) not a simple o. We have made this correction. [Bj{o,}rn inn mikli, 12/2003, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2003.12 Submitted as Ellisif Þunnkárr Reinarskona, we have lowercased the byname to use standard transliteration conventions. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.)

The byname Reinarskona combines the Danish masculine given name Reinar with the Old Norse kona 'wife'. While Danish and Old Norse are related languages, they are not the same language. Therefore, the byname Reinarskona violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. As the submitter allows major changes, we have dropped this element in order to register this name. [Ellisif þunnkárr, 12/2003, A-West]

François la Flamme 2003.12 Submitted as Valla  Lùta Kolladóttir, the submitter requested authenticity for 10th C Norway and allowed any changes.

The given name Lúta was cited with the incorrect accent on the u. Also, Valla- is a byname meaning 'field' that is prepended to a given name: in this case, as Valla-Lúta. We have made these corrections. [Valla-Lúta Kolladóttir, 12/2003, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2003.12 Submitted as Jora inn Irska, the submitter requested authenticity for Norse and allowed any changes. The article inn is used in masculine bynames. The feminine form is in. We have made this correction. [Jora in Irska, 12/2003, A-West]
François la Flamme 2003.12 This name is being returned for lack of documentation that the construction of the byname Hvithestr 'white horse' follows a period pattern of bynames used in Old Norse in period.

The submitter requested authenticity for "Viking / Norse" and allowed minor changes. She also allowed no holding name. However, the LoI included none of this information.

We would remind submission heralds that proper summarization of forms, including changes allowed by the submitter and requests for authenticity, is required as part of the LoI. Improper summarization of a submission is cause for return of that submission. The College of Arms has a limited amount of time and all of us are volunteers. Asking the College to evaluate names based on incomplete or entirely missing data is both unfair to the College and a disservice to the submitter.

The submitted byname Hvithestr was submitted as a combination of two descriptive bynames found in Geirr Bassi, hvít 'white' (p. 23) and hestr 'horse' (p. 22). The most often cited example of the an Old Norse descriptive byname of the form [color] + [animal] is rauðrefr, found in Geirr Bassi (p. 26). Geirr Bassi gives the meaning of 'red fox' for this name. However, this byname and meaning have been found to be an error. Via italics, he indicates that this byname came from the Landnámabók. However, the Landnámabók does not have an example of any person with that byname. It seems to be a typo for rauðnefr 'red-nose'. When an earlier submission referred to the byname rauðrefr listed in Geirr Bassi, Gunnvör silfrahárr found this information:

Interestingly enough, I just went through the Old Icelandic version of Landna'mabo'k (see http://www.snerpa.is/net/snorri/landnama.htm) and I *did not* find a single instance of <rau{dh}refr>. I then searched the whole Netu'tga'fan website and the term does not occur in *any* of the sagas or chronicles they have up -- and that includes almost all of them.

Looking carefully through Landna'mabo'k, however, in chapter 92 I *did* find <Þo'rsteinn rau{dh}nefr>, son of <Hro'lfr rau{dh}skeggr>. This leads me to strongly question whether <rau{dh}refr> may not actually represent a typo for the by-name meaning "red-nose"! Cleasby-Vigfusson also does not list the <rau{dh}refr> compound under either <refr> or <rau{dh}r>.

As this information removes support for the byname rauðrefr in Geirr Bassi, we are left with no confirmed examples of descriptive bynames of the form [color] + [animal] in Old Norse. One commenter reported an example of rauðbekri 'red ram' as appearing in the Landnámabók, but the information provided was incomplete and we were unable to find the byname in the online version of the Landnámabók. Further, as stated in a previous ruling:

A pattern of anything cannot be derived from a single example. It takes multiple examples--the more examples found, the more likely it is that the theorized pattern is accurate. [Annalies Maria von Marburg, 09/01, A-Caid]

Lacking solid evidence of a clear pattern of descriptive bynames of the form [color] + [animal] in Old Norse, there is no support for the submitted Hvithestr as a plausible descriptive byname in Old Norse. [Kristin Hvithestr, 12/2003, R-West]

François la Flamme 2003.11 The registerability of Brother as a given name was the topic of much discussion during the commentary process.

Reaney & Wilson (p. 68 s.n. Brothers) dates the names Broder, Brodor, and Brodre to 1066. As they are listed as single element names found in the Domesday Book, they are almost certainly used as given names. This entry also dates Willelmus filius Brother to 1202 and says that this name derives from:

ON Bróðir, ODa Brothir or OE br{o-}ðor 'brother', used in ME of a kinsman (1382) and a fellow-member of a guild or corporation (1362).

While the use of this name in reference to kinsman and a guild member is as a descriptive byname, the existance of given name forms, including those cited from the Domesday Book, support the plausibility of Brother as a given name form. Additionally, E. H. Lind, Norsk-Islädska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namm från Medeltiden, column 171, lists an entry for the given name Bróðir and lists examples of forms of this name found in the 14th and 15th C, providing additional support for forms of this name used as given names.

Based on this information, Brother is plausible as a given name form in period. As such, it is registerable when it does not appear to be a form of address. When used as a form of address, Brother is still not registerable (as is true for all forms of address), though the submitter may use it:

The problem with this name is not a presumption issue since Brother Thomas is no more presumptuous than a name such as Thomas the Monk would be. In the case of this name, the element Brother in Brother Timothy is a form of address, not a name element. We do not register forms of address regardless of whether they would be presumptuous, such as Lord or Mistress, or whether they would not be presumptuous, such as Brother or Goodwife. The submitter is welcome to use Brother, as in Brother Timothy, as his preferred form of address, but this use of Brother is not registerable. Therefore, we have registered this name in the altered form forwarded by Kingdom. [Timothy Brother, 11/2002 LoAR, A-Artemisia]

In this case, Brother does not appear to be a form of address because it is followed by Liston, which can only be a locative byname or an inherited surname. Therefore, Brother must be the given name in this submission. [Brother Liston Brounyng, 11/2003, A-Ansteorra]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Annya Allrasystir Úlfsdóttir, the submitted name combines a 16th C Russian given name with a pair of Old Norse bynames (appropriate for c. 1100 or earlier). As a result, this name has two weirdnesses: one for combining Russian and Old Norse in a name, and one for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years. Having two weirdnesses, this name cannot be registered in the submitted form. The submitter gave permission to change her given name to the earlier Russian spelling Anna in order to remove the weirdness for temporal incompatibility. We have made this change.

We have lowercased the descriptive byname allrasystir 'everyone's sister' to use standard transliteration conventions. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.) [Anna allrasystir Úlfsdóttir, 11/2003, A-East]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Skara Skye, the only evidence found for Skara was as an accusative form of the Old Norse masculine given name Skári. As a given name needs to be in the nominative case, we have changed the given name to the nominative form Skári, as allowed by the submitter, in order to register this name.

This name combines an Old Norse given name with the byname Skye, which may be considered either English or Scots (a language closely related to English). However, no support has been found for the spelling Skye before 1610:

... the spelling Skye has only been found dated to circa 1610 (in Speed's The Counties of Britain, p. 266, map of Scotland, map drawn 1610). Johnston (p. 296 s.n. Skye) dates Skey 1292. [Cáel of Skey, 04/02, A-Caid]

Therefore, this name had two weirdnesses: one for combining Old Norse and English, and one for elements that are dated to more than 300 years apart. We have changed the byname to the form Skey in order to remove the temporal disparity and register this name. [Skári Skey, 11/2003, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.11 This name combines a Norse given name with a German byname. There is a weirdness for the lingual combination, but it is registerable. There was considerable contact between Germany and Denmark, including Danish kings controlling the adjoining parts of modern Germany in the 12th and 13th century.

The submitter requested the German form of Sigurd if one could be found. Bahlow documents several names with the first element Sieg-, but not this name. They include the sound-alike Sighart dated to 1295. However, as it is not the same name, we declined to make that change. [Sigurd Grunewald, 11/2003, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Halldorr Thorhalsson, the submitter requested authenticity for 10th C Viking and allowed any changes.

The patronymic Thorhalsson was not correctly formed. The patronymic byname formed from the masculine given name Þorhallr (also rendered Thorhallr) is Þórhallsson (also rendered Thorhallsson). We have made this correction. We have registered this name using the fully Norse form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Halldórr Þórhallsson, 11/2003, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Listed on the LoI as Boddi  Bjarnarson, this name was submitted as Boddi Bjarki Bjarnarson. In the submitted documentation, both Boddi and Bjarki were documented as given names. As no evidence has been found of two given names used in Old Norse, the second given name was dropped at Kingdom. However, in addition to Bjarki being a given name, bjarki is a descriptive byname meaning 'bear-cub'. Therefore, Boddi bjarki Bjarnarson is registerable as a name following the standard pattern of given name + descriptive byname + patronymic byname. [Boddi bjarki Bjarnarson, 11/2003, A-East]
François la Flamme 2003.11 [Household name Skialdmær Hus] While the submitter demonstrated that skialdmær was used as a feminine byname in the sagas, she did not demonstrate that the Norse had a pattern of naming households or other organized groups after a person's byname. Barring evidence of that pattern, this name is not registerable. [Kolfinna k{o,}ttr, 11/2003, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Svana mjóbeinn, the form mjóbeinn 'slim-leg' is a masculine form of this byname. As Svana is a feminine name, the byname must be changed to a feminine form in order to match the gender of the given name. Gunnvör silfrahárr found information about this byname:

The adjective <mjór> (masculine) or <mjó> (feminine) means "thin, slim, tapering, narrow" (Cleasby-Vigfusson, p. 433, http://penguin.pearson.swarthmore.edu/~scrist1/scanned_books/png/oi_cleasbyvigfusson/b0432.png). It occurs in the by-names <mjóbeina> and <mjóbeinn>, "slim-leg" (also in (Cleasby-Vigfusson, p. 433).

The masculine variant was <mjóbeinn>, as seen in Landnámabók ch 40 where it occurs as the by-name of <Þrándr mjóbeinn>.

The feminine variant was <mjóbeina>, found in Kormáks saga ch 15 for <Steinvör mjóbeina Oddsdóttir>:

Maður hét Oddr. Hann bjó í Tungu. Það er í Bitru. Dóttir hans hét Steinvör, væn og vel að sér. Hún var kölluð mjóbeina.

[There was a man named Oddr. He had his farm at Tunga, in Bitra. His daughter was called Steinvör, a pretty girl and well set up. She was called mjóbeina, "slim-leg".]

References:

Cleasby, Richard and Guðbrandr Vigfusson. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon. 1957.

Landnámabók (The Book of Settlements). http://www.snerpa.is/net/snorri/landnama.htm Netútgáfan Website.

Landnámabók. T. Ellwood, trans. The Book of the Settlement of Iceland (Kendal: T. Wilson. 1898). http://www.northvegr.org/lore/landnamabok/index.php

Kormáks saga. http://www.snerpa.is/net/isl/kormaks.htm Netútgáfan Website.

Kormáks saga. Trans. as "The Life and Death of Cormac the Skald" by W.G. Collingwood & J. Stefansson (Ulverston, 1901). Online Medieval and Classical Library (OMACL), University of California Berkeley. 1995. http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Cormac/

We have changed this byname to the feminine form found by Gunnvör in order to register this name. [Svana mjóbeina, 11/2003, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Kolbjorn skattkaupandi, the documentation showed the given name with an o-ogonek, which looks like an 'o' with a reverse comma/hook attached to the bottom of the letter. We have made this correction. [Kolbj{o,}rn skattkaupandi, 11/2003, A-Ealdormere]
François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Gu{d-}{d-}r of Colanhomm, the given name was misspelled because of a misreading of the special characters in Geirr Bassi. The character {d-} (Unicode U+0111, "Latin small letter d with stroke") is not used in Old Norse. Instead, they used the edh (ð). Therefore, we have changed the name to match the documented form in order to register this name. [Guðrøðr of Colanhomm, 11/2003, A-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2003.11 There was some discussion regarding whether the byname Irlandsfari needed to be put into lowercase. The discussion "From Pelican: Regarding Capitalization in Norse Bynames" in the Cover Letter to the October 2002 LoAR states in part:

Therefore, we are upholding the current policy of requiring descriptive bynames in Old Norse to be registered in lowercase. The exceptions to this policy are (1) pre-pended descriptive bynames and (2) descriptive bynames based on proper nouns.

In this case, the byname Irlandsfari refers to Ireland and falls into second category above, "descriptive bynames based on proper nouns". Therefore, this byname does not need to be put into lowercase. [Skarpheðinn Irlandsfari, 11/2003, A-Drachenwald]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Gunnarr of Iorvik, the submitted byname of Iorvik combined the English of and the Norse Iorvik and, so, violated RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. The fully Old Norse form of this byname would be í Iórvík. Old Norse names are registerable with accents used or omitted consistently. We have changed this byname to the fully Old Norse form (with accents omitted) in order to register this name. [Gunnarr i Iorvik, 11/2003, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Fj{o,}rleif Rúnólfswyf, the submitted byname Rúnólfswyf combines the Old Norse Rúnólfs- with the English -wyf and so violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. The Norse word for 'wife' used in bynames is kona, as in Þorvé, Végauts kona, found in Lindorm Eriksson's "The Bynames of the Viking Age Runic Inscriptions" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/lindorm/runicbynames/). In this case, the two elements are separate words, but in transcriptions, bynames that express relationship often take this form. In other sources, they are written as a single word. Therefore, this would be acceptable either as Rúnólfskona or Rúnólfs kona. As the former is closer to her submitted name, we have made that change. [Fj{o,}rleif Rúnólfskona, 11/2003, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2003.11 [Household name Halir yórs] No evidence was presented, nor could any be found by the College, that a household name meaning 'Thor's men' or 'Thor's heroes' would be a reasonable name for a group of people in Old Norse. Also, no evidence was presented that Halir was a term that would be used to describe a group of people, nor that a group of people would be named after a god. Lacking documentation to address these two issues, this name does not meet the requirement in RfS III.2.b.iv that "Household names must follow the patterns of period names of organized groups of people."

In addition, many commenters expressed concern that this name might be presumptuous. In resubmission, the submitter should address whether this name is presumptuous. [Ragnarr Gunnarsson, 11/2003, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Var the Silent, the documentation for the given name Var provided in the LoI was "an Old Norse masculine given name found in King Hrolf and his Champions, cited in 'A Collation of Viking Names,' Stephen Francis Wyley (http://www.angelfire.com/wy/svenskildbiter/Viking/viknams3.html#Male%20U)." Gunnvör silfrahárr provided the following information regarding this source and the name Var:

It is claimed that the name originates from "King Hrolf and his Champions", so turning to Hrólfs saga kraka ok kappa hans (http://www.snerpa.is/net/forn/hrolf.htm) we find that the correct Old Norse form of the name is <Varr>. This saga is *not* a particularly reliable source for name usage, since it is one of the mythical-heroic sagas.

Taking the name from the Anglicized version used in an English translation of Hrólfs saga kraka is undoubtedly how Wyley (and thus the submitter) arrived at the incorrect spelling of the name. I'd suggest always double-checking any names from Wyley vs. other sources (as Atenveldt did do) and if that fails, check vs. the Netútgáfan website (http://www.snerpa.is/net/fornrit.htm) for the specific saga.

Gunnvör also found examples of forms of this name in Nordiskt runnamnslexikon (Lena Peterson. Nordiskt runnamnslexikon. Språk-och folkminnes-institutet. http://www.dal.lu.se/runlex/index.htm). We have changed the submitted Var to the Old Norse form Varr in order to register this name.

The byname the Silent is a reasonable Lingua Anglica form of the Old Norse descriptive byname þegjandi 'silent'. [Varr the Silent, 10/2003, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Listed on the LoI as Bjarni Eðvarðarson af Jorvik, this name was submitted as Bjarni Edwardsson af Jorvik. The patronymic byname was changed at Kingdom to meet the submitter's request for authenticity for 10th C Norse.

There was some discussion regarding the proper construction of the locative byname af Jorvik, meaning 'of York'. Lindorm Eriksson's article "The Bynames of the Viking Age Runic Inscriptions" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/lindorm/runicbynames/places.htm) lists a number of personal names that include locative bynames. The majority of these use í 'in, within' as the particle. Gunnvör silfrahárr found that "Fljótsdæla saga (Netútgáfan website. http://www.snerpa.is/net/isl/fljotsd.htm) ch. 7 has <Þorvaldur í Jórvík>", showing í Jórvík as a locative byname.

We have changed the locative byname to í Jórvík to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Bjarni Eðvarðarson í Jórvík, 10/2003, A-West]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Matheus Hunda-maðr, the submitter requested a name meaning 'keeper of the hounds' authentic for 9th to 11th C Norse.

The element Hunda-maðr was documented from Bertil Thuresson's Middle English Occupational Terms, s.n. Hundeman, which states: "An ON *hunda-maðr 'houndsman' (perhaps used as a pers[onal] n[ame]) is the first el[ement] of the pl[acename] Hunmanby." This entry shows the standard practice of many dictionary-type works of inserting hyphens between etymological roots in words in order to emphasize the construction of the word being discussed. Lacking evidence that the hyphen would appear within this byname in transliterations of Old Norse, we have removed it from this byname. Additionally, we have lowercased the byname to use standard transliteration conventions (see the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information). [Matheus hundamaðr, 10/2003, A-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2003.10 No documentation was presented and none was found to support gullhrafn 'gold-raven' as a plausible byname in Old Norse.

The Old Norse byname gullskeggr 'gold-beard', cited in the LoI, shows a physical description referring to the color of a man's beard. It does not support an Old Norse byname constructed [gold] + [animal]. Gunnvör silfrahárr provided a copious list of Old Norse bynames referring to animals and summarized her findings:

On the byname <gullhrafn>, if we examine the recorded bynames from sources such as Landnámabók and the runic inscriptions, those that do contain animal names are overwhelmingly the animal name only. Otherwise the animal name is combined with a word describing a body-part. There are no <animal + adjective> or <adjective + animal> by-names in these sources:

Lacking evidence that gullhrafn is a plausible byname in Old Norse, it is not registerable. [Æsa gullhrafn, 10/2003, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.09 Submitted as Ingeborg í Trondheim, the submitter requested authenticity for 11th to 13th C "Viking-Old Norse-Norway/Sweden" and allowed any changes. Metron Ariston found information about the names used to refer to this location over time:

While Trondheim was apparently founded by Olaf Tryggvason in 997 (www.trondheim.com), the form of the name used here appears to be modern Norwegian rather than a period form and means "in Trondheim" rather than "from Trondheim". (In modern Norwegian the preposition for from is fra.) An article cited at http://www.samlaget.no/maalogminne/1_98/saman198.html notes a 1930 monograph by Didrik Arup Seip entitled "Trondhjems bynavn" that indicates that the earliest forms of the name of the town are Þrándheimr and Kaupangr and that after 1180-90 Niðaróss became the official name of the city. It is very clear from many web pages and written sources that in the period that the given name applies to the name of the city was Niðaróss [sic]. (It apparently only became Trondheim in the nationalizing phase after period, based on the earlier Þrándheimr.).

Lindorm Eriksson's article "The Bynames of the Viking Age Runic Inscriptions" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/lindorm/runicbynames/places.htm) lists a number of personal names that include locative bynames. The majority of these use í 'in, within' as the particle. In locative bynames that use í, the placename takes the dative case. The form Þrándheimr found by Metron Ariston is a nominative case. Gunnvör silfrahárr found an example of the dative case in Hálfdanar saga Eysteinssonar (Netútgáfan Web site, http://www.snerpa.is/net/forn/half-e.htm), where chapter 25 "is titled, '25. Hálfdan tók ríki í Þrándheimi'".

Based on this information, we have changed the byname in this submission to í Þrándheimi in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Ingeborg í Þrándheimi, 09/2003, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.09 Listed on the LoI as Caitilín eyverska, this name was submitted as Caitlín Eyverska. The given name and byname were changed at Kingdom to match documented forms and because Caitlín was found to be a modern, rather than a medieval, form of this name.

The section "From Pelican: Regarding Capitalization in Norse Bynames" included in the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR provides two cases where descriptive bynames may be registered in capitalized forms:

Therefore, we are upholding the current policy of requiring descriptive bynames in Old Norse to be registered in lowercase. The exceptions to this policy are (1) pre-pended descriptive bynames and (2) descriptive bynames based on proper nouns.

The byname eyverska 'woman from the Orkney Islands' is a descriptive byname based on proper noun. As such, it may be registered with the initial letter capitalized. Therefore, we have returned the byname to the submitted form. [Caitilín Eyverska, 09/2003, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2003.09 Listed on the LoI as Már inn sléttmála, this name was submitted as Máría inn Sléttmáli. The element Sléttmáli was changed at Kingdom to sléttmála to put it into a feminine form and to lowercase the byname in order to use standard transliteration conventions.

We have corrected the misplaced accent in the given name. Also, the article inn is a masculine form. We have changed it to the feminine in in order to register this name. [Máría in sléttmála, 09/2003, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2003.08 Submitted as Friða Sørkvirsdóttir, the patronymic Sørkvirsdóttir was not correctly formed. The patronymic byname formed from the masculine given name Sørkvir is Sørkvisdóttir. We have made this correction. [Friða Sørkvisdóttir, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2003.08 No documentation was presented, and none was found, that Hrafnahamaringr is a reasonable byname in Old Norse. This element was documented from Academy of Saint Gabriel Report 390 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/390). This report was written in 1997 and is one of the older Academy reports. A warning has been added to the top that states, "Some of the Academy's early reports contain errors that we haven't yet corrected. Please use it with caution." Regarding the submitted byname, this report states:

If you're attached to the word "ravenhammer" and don't care about what it actually means, there is a way to use it. "hamarr" was a word for "a hammer-shaped crag, a crag standing out like an anvil." It's common in place names throughout Iceland and Norway. "Hrafn" is also found in placenames in the same area. Thus, it would be possible to create a place-name "Hrafnahamarr," or "raven's crag." You could be "Thorfinnr at Hrafnahamri," which means "Thorfinn at Raven's Crag." You could also use the name "Thorfinnr Hrafnahamaringr," which translates roughly as "Thorfinn Ravencragger."

This report contains no indication regarding where the information given above was found. Additionally, there is no indication that the element hamarr appeared in placenames in period. Given both of these issues, the submitted report is not sufficient to support Hrafnahamaringr as a plausible period byname in Old Norse. [Thorfinnr Hrafnahamaringr, 08/2003 LoAR, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2003.08 Listed on the LoI as Disa blatonn, this name was submitted as Disa Blatonn. The byname was changed at Kingdom to lowercase the byname to match standard transliteration conventions. However, the documented form of this byname is blat{o,}nn. While Old Norse names may be registered with or without accents, other diacritical marks cannot be omitted without documentation. Therefore, we have changed the o in the byname to {o,} (o-ogonek) in order to register this name. [Disa blat{o,}nn, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.08 The College only found one example of the name Auguste dated close to period. Aryanhwy merch Catmael's article "French Names from 1601" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french1601.html) lists the name August as appearing once, and the form Auguste as appearing once, in the source document. The College was unable to find any evidence that this name was used in France earlier than this time.

Therefore, this name combines a French given name dated to 1601 with an Old Norse byname. As Valason is documented from Old Norse sources that record names used before approximately 1100, this name has one weirdness for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years.

This submission did not provide information regarding the level of contact between French speakers and Old Norse speakers. Depending upon the level of contact between speakers of these languages, combining French and Old Norse in a name is either a weirdness or not registerable. Either status, when combined with the temporal disparity, is cause for return in this name. Therefore, we are declining to rule on whether the combination of French and Old Norse in a name is a weirdness or unregisterable at this time. We would ask the College to consider this issue, that they may offer advice if this combination is submitted in the future. [Auguste Valason, 08/2003 LoAR, R-Ealdormere]

François la Flamme 2003.08 This submission combines an Old Norse given name with a Middle High German locative byname. Old Norse was still in use in 1100. It is generally agreed that Middle High German came into use before 1100. Therefore, Old Norse and Middle High German were in use at the same time. Given this information, combining Old Norse and Middle High German in a name is registerable, though it is a weirdness. [Tyrfingr von Wolfsberg, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2003.08 Submitted as Ásbjórn Kolbrúnarskáld, the documentation showed the given name as Ásbj{o,}rn. We have made this correction. We have also lowercased the byname to use standard transliteration conventions. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.) [Ásbj{o,}rn kolbrúnarskáld, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Þorbjörn Rauðfeldr, Þorbjörn was documented from Aryanhwy merch Catmael's article "Viking Names found in the Landnámabók" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/landnamabok.html). This source notes that the character ö is used to represent an o "with a reverse-comma hook on the bottom". This is the character o-ogonek, which we represent as {o,}. We have made this correction. We have also lowercased the byname to use standard transliteration conventions. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.) [Þorbj{o,}rn rauðfeldr, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.07 There was some discussion regarding whether the byname Eyverska needed to be put into lowercase. The discussion "From Pelican: Regarding Capitalization in Norse Bynames" in the Cover Letter to the October 2002 LoAR states in part:

Therefore, we are upholding the current policy of requiring descriptive bynames in Old Norse to be registered in lowercase. The exceptions to this policy are (1) pre-pended descriptive bynames and (2) descriptive bynames based on proper nouns.

In this case, the byname Eyverska, refers to the Orkney Isles and falls into second category above, "descriptive bynames based on proper nouns". Therefore, this byname does not need to be put into lowercase. [Margrét Eyverska, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Hallbjorg hin Miskunnarlausa, we have changed the byname to lowercase in order to use standard transliteration conventions. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.) [Hallbjorg hin miskunnarlausa, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.07 The byname the Fierce is a Lingua Anglica translation of the Old Norse byname greypr. [Æsa the Fierce, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Magnus Ragnarson, the patronymic Ragnarson was not correctly formed. The patronymic byname formed from the masculine given name Ragnarr is Ragnarsson. We have made this correction. [Magnus Ragnarsson, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Birgir Bjórnson, the submitter requested authenticity for 10th C Norse. The patronymic Bjórnson was not correctly formed for Old Norse. The patronymic byname formed from the masculine given name Bj{o,}orn is Bjarnarson. We have made this change in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Birgir Bjarnarson, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Estrid Fairhair, the submitter requested authenticity for 10th C English/Viking and allowed any changes. A person living in the Viking-controlled areas of England would have their name written in Old Norse or Old English depending upon the language of the record in which their name was recorded.

Estrid was cited as appearing on p. 107 of Withycombe. However, the header that appears on that page is Estrild, not Estrid, and gives this name as deriving from Old English. Withycombe (pp. 34-35) lists Astrid (a different name from Estrild) as a header and gives this name as deriving from Norse.

A fully Old Norse name meaning 'Astrid Fairhair' would be Ástríðr in hárfagra (Geirr Bassi, pp. 10 and 22). We have changed the submitted name to this form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. As the College did not find Old English forms of these name elements, we are unable to suggest an Old English form of this name. [Ástríðr in hárfagra, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Lochac]

François la Flamme 2003.06 The submitter requested authenticity for 10th C Welsh/Norse. As the College was only able to find forms of Gawain in English, we were unable to make this name authentic for either Welsh or Norse. As this name is registerable as a mix of English and Old Norse, the question of whether a name mixing Welsh and Old Norse is registerable is not an issue. Therefore, we are declining to rule on such a combination at this time. [Gawain Ivarsson, 06/2003 LoAR, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2003.06 Listed on the LoI as Eld-hjörtr Eriksson, this name was submitted as Erik Eld-hjörtr and changed at Kingdom because no support was found for the submitted form of this name.

The submitted documentation was inadequately summarized on the LoI, which stated:

The submitter's originally submitted name, Erik Eld-hjörtr is not supportable, so we are going with his second choice. Hjörtr is found on p.11 of Bassi; the byname Eldr is found in the Landnámábok, and Eld- would be the prefix form. Erik is found on p.9 of Bassi; the patronymic is formed normally. He wishes a Viking name from the period of the Rus expansion.

This submission included a letter from Gunnvör silfrahárr (formerly Gunnora Hallakarva) which provided support for some elements in the submitted name. However, since Gunnvör's letter was not summarized in the LoI, that documentation could not be judged by the College. Therefore, the submitted name must be judged according to the documentation presented to the College in the LoI, along with other information found by the College during the commentary process.

Hj{o,}rtr and Eiríkr, not Erik as stated in the LoI, are found in Geirr Bassi as masculine given names. A man named Eiríkr whose father was Hj{o,}rtr would be Eiríkr Hjartarson. A man named Hj{o,}rtr whose father was Eiríkr would be Hj{o,}rtr Eiríksson.

The byname eldr 'fire' is also found in Geirr Bassi. Eld- was submitted as a theorized prefix form of this byname. However, not all Norse bynames had prefix forms. Gunnvör's letter listed some names that included Eld- as a protheme in the name (for example, Eldgrímr and Eldjárn), though no examples of Eld- as a byname prepended to a given name (such as in the theorized Eld-Hj{o,}rtr). Lacking evidence that eldr would have been used in a prefix form, Eld- is not registerable as a byname.

Therefore, registerable forms of this name are Eiríkr eldr Hjartarson and Hj{o,}rtr eldr Eiríksson. As the first is the closer of these to the originally submitted name, we have changed this name to that form in order to register this name. [Eiríkr eldr Hj{o,}rtsson, 06/2003 LoAR, A-West]

François la Flamme 2003.06 Submitted as Gormr inn Feitr, we have changed the byname to lowercase in order to use standard transliteration conventions. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.) [Gormr inn feitr, 06/2003 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2003.05 Listed on the LoI as Bárekr inn silfri, this name was submitted as Bárekr Silfri. The byname was modified at Kingdom to lowercase the byname to match documented usage and to add the article inn, which Kingdom believed was the normal format for descriptive bynames. In this case, Geirr Bassi (p. 19) shows that the byname silfri appears without an article. Therefore, we have removed the article that was added to this byname. [Bárekr silfri, 05/2003 LoAR, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2003.05 The submitter allowed no changes. Therefore, we were unable to put the byname Gyðja into lowercase to match the submitted documentation and to use standard transliteration conventions. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.)

Further, there was some question whether the byname gyðja was presumptuous. Geirr Bassi gives the meaning of this byname as 'priestess'. However, Metron Ariston noted that:

The doubts about the usage might be enhanced (and possibly raise an issue of presumption) since Zoega's Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic (p. 176) shows its primary meaning as "goddess" with "priestess" only secondary.

At this time, we are declining to rule whether use of gyðja is presumptuous. Any resubmission of this name that includes the element gyðja should address this issue. [Solveig Gyðja Christiansdottir, 05/2003 LoAR, R-Drachenwald]

François la Flamme 2003.05 The documentation provided in the LoI entry for this submission was inadequate. If this submission were judged solely on the evidence provided in the LoI, this name would have been returned for problems with both the given name and the byname. The LoI stated:

The name is Old Norse and English. Gunnar is a masculine given name, "Viking Names found in the Land-námabók," Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/landnamabok.htm <(http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/landnamabok.htm>). The second element is a descriptive byname consistent with Norse practice of referring to an individual's physical characteristics; the submitter is not interested in using a translated form of the byname.

The information provided in the LoI for the given name Gunnar does not match the information in the cited article. The statement that Silverbeard "is a descriptive byname consistent with Norse practice of referring to an individual's physical characteristics" provides no evidence that Silverbeard is a plausible byname in period.

Multiple members of the College went out of their way to provide the missing documentation as a courtesy to the submitter and we would like to thank them for their efforts.

Regarding the given name, the correct title for Aryanhwy's article is "Viking Names found in the Landnámabók" and it is now located at http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/landnamabok.html. However, the name found there (and in Geirr Bassi) is Gunnarr, not Gunnar. Lind, E. H. Norsk-Islädska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn från Medeltiden (column 404 s.n. Gunnarr) dates Gunnar to 1374 and 1393, supporting Gunnar as a 14th C Norse/Icelandic form of this name.

Sommelier found documentation to support Silverbeard as a plausible descriptive byname in English:

R&W (sn Silverlock, p. 409) date John Silverloc to 1268 (from silver lock, silver hair) and John Silvertop (sn Silverside, p. 409) is dated 1478 with the meaning silver hair. They similarly list Peter Blacloke 1275 and Adam Blakelok 1332 probably from black-beard (sn Blacklock, p. 47) and William Whytlok is dated to 1285 (among others, sn Whitelock, p. 487). Given the R&W citations for black-beard (sn Blackbird, p. 46 with William Blacberd 1206, Thomas Blakeberd 1275) and white-beard (sn Whitbread, p. 486 with William Witberd 1221, Walter Wyteberd 1297), "silver-beard" is a plausible English descriptive epithet.

We would like to remind submissions heralds that inadequate documentation has been and will continue to be a reason for return. [Gunnar Silverbeard, 05/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.05 Submitted as Leif Vagnsson, the submitter requested authenticity for Norse. The LoI stated that "Both elements are documented from Geirr Bassi. 'Leif' from 'Leifr', page 13. [...]" Geirr Bassi, as stated in the LoI, lists Leifr, not Leif. We have changed the given name to the documented Leifr in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity and to register this name. [Leifr Vagnsson, 05/2003 LoAR, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2003.04 Listed on the LoI as Grimkell Valgar{dt}sson, the submitter requested an authentic Viking name. The form included the accent in Grímkell. We have made this correction.

The correct Da'ud notation for the edh character, ð, is {dh}, not {dt}.

The patronymic Valgarðsson was not correctly formed. The patronymic byname formed from the masculine given name Valgarðr is Valgarðarson. We have made this correction. [Grímkell Valgarðarson, 04/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.04 Llisted as Evja R{o,}skva on the LoI, the form listed this name as Evja r{o,}skva. We have returned the byname to lowercase both to match the originally submitted form and to match standard transliteration conventions in order to register this name. [Evja r{o,}skva, 04/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.03 Submitted as Aelfgeirr Skytja, Aelfgeirr was submitted as an Anglo-Saxon form of the Old Norse name Álfgeirr. However, the Anglo-Saxon form of Álfgeirr was Ælfgar, not Aelfgeirr. Metron Ariston explains:

To quote Selten (Anglo-Saxon Heritage in Middle English Personal Names, Vol. II, p. 12), "The majority of the forms. . . probably reflect OE Ælfgar, which was much more common than Æðelgar in Old English to judge from the material in Searle's Onomasticon. ON Alfgeirr . . . may also be represented in the present material." In other words, the usual Old English form of Alfgeirr was in fact Ælfgar.

As the Old Norse Alfgeirr is closer than the Anglo-Saxon Ælfgar to the submitted Aelfgeirr, we have changed this name to the Old Norse form in order to register this name.

We have changed the descriptive byname to lowercase to match both the documentation and conventional Old Norse spelling. [Alfgeirr skytja, 03/2003, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2003.03 Submitted as Reginleif inn Hárfagra, we have put the byname in lowercase to use standard transliteration conventions. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.) Additionally, inn is the form used in masculine names. We have changed the byname to the completely feminine form in hárfagra in order to register this name. [Reginleif in hárfagra, 03/2003, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2003.03 Submitted as Brondolf the Stout, no documentation was presented and none was found that Brondolf is a proper Anglicized form of the Old Norse name Br{o,}ndólfr. Lacking such evidence, it is not registerable. We have changed the given name to the Old Norse form in order to register this name.

The byname the Stout is a Lingua Anglica translation of the Old Norse byname inn digri. [Br{o,}ndólfr the Stout, 03/2003, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2003.03 Submitted as Sveinn Thorwolfson, no documentation was presented and none was found to support Thorwolf as a variant of the Old Norse masculine given name Þórólfr. Also, the patronymic form of this name is spelled -fsson, not -fson. We have made these changes to the byname in order to register this name. [Sveinn Thorolfsson, 03/2003, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.03 No documentation was provided and none was found that a byname meaning 'cat-slinger' is a plausible period byname. Lacking such evidence, the byname Sløngvandkottu is not registerable. [Kristrøðr Sløngvandkottu, 03/2003, R-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Listed on the LoI as Ragnar Gunnarsson, both the submission form and the submitted documentation list the given name as Ragnarr. We have made this correction. [Ragnarr Gunnarsson, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Thorbjorn inn sterki, the submitter requested authenticity for 10th C Norse and allowed minor changes. Thorbjorn was documented from Nara no Jebu's article "The Old Norse Name" (http://www.meridies.org/as/dmir/heraldry/1304.html). However, this article silently Anglicizes many characters, including thorn (þ), edh (ð), o-ogonek ({o,}), and any characters containing accents. We have changed the given name to match the form shown in Geirr Bassi in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Þorbj{o,}rn inn sterki, 02/2003 LoAR, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Listed on the LoI as Gudrin in spaka, this name was submitted as Gudrin inn spaki. The byname was changed at Kingdom from the masculine form inn spaki to the feminine form in spaka. No evidence was found to support Gudrin as a variant of the documented Gudrun. Therefore, we have changed the given name to the documented Gudrun in order to register this name. [Gudrun in spaka, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Hákon Refr, we have lowercased the byname to use standard transliteration conventions. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.) [Hákon refr, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Osa Hrafnsdóttir, the submitted form of this name had two weirdnesses. Osa was documented as a Swedish given name dated to 1406. Hrafnsdóttir is an Old Norse patronymic byname. Combining Swedish and Old Norse in a name has previously been ruled a weirdness (Bjarki Einarson, April 2002). Since Old Norse dates to the 11th C and earlier, this name had a second weirdness for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years. We have changed the given name to Asa, the Old Norse form of Osa, in order to register this name. [Asa Hrafnsdóttir, 02/2003 LoAR, A-West]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Úlfr Sigmundsson, the submitter requested authenticity for 10th C Norse. The Old Norse patronymic formed from the masculine given name Sigmundr is Sigmundarson rather than Sigmundsson. We have made this correction. [Úlfr Sigmundarson, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Svana Lútasdottir, the byname formed from the given name Lúta is Lútudóttir, not Lútasdóttir. We have made this correction. Old Norse names are registerable with accents used consistently or omitted consistently. As the byname used an accent for one letter, we have added the missing accent to the byname in order to register this name. [Svana Lútudóttir, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.02 The LoI stated that Hunda-Maðr "is found in Bertil Thuresson's Middle English Occupational Terms s.n. Hundeman. Thuresson says the name is Old Norse." This source is not included in the Administrative Handbook under "Appendix H - Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel". As photocopies from this source were not included with this submission, the required standard of documentation was not met and this name must be returned.

Additionally, there was some question regarding whether Hunda-Maðr is an appropriate form for Old Norse. Hund notes:

The correct form of the by-name would be hundamaðr see Geirr Bassi for Hrafna- which becomes, in combination hrafnasveltir with all lower case and no hyphens.

[Matheus Hunda-Maðr, 02/2003 LoAR, R-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Sigriðr inn rauða Þorvaldsdottir, inn is the form used in masculine names. We have changed the byname to the completely feminine form in rauða in order to register this name. [Sigriðr in rauða Þorvaldsdottir, 02/2003 LoAR, A-East]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Dýrfinna Eyverska, the submitter requested authenticity for 10th to 12th C Norse and allowed minor changes. We have lowercased the byname to follow the submitted documentation. [Dýrfinna eyverska, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Saeunn Egilsdottir, the submitter requested authenticity for "Viking/Icelandic" and allowed minor changes. The submitted form of this name uses spellings found in a modern translation of The Sagas of Icelanders. We have modified this name to use forms listed in Geirr Bassi to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Sæunn Egilsdóttir, 02/2003 LoAR, A-West]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Regarding Thorgeirrson, the LoI stated that, "The submitter is using this as a marriage name, as Haakon Thorgeirrson is her legal husband." There are two problems with this name. First, no documentation was presented for this relationship other than this statement in the LoI. Lacking such evidence, the submission is not eligible for the Grandfather Clause. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR "Clarification of the Grandfather Clause" for more details.)

Were documentation provided as required for the Grandfather Clause, her husband's Norse patronymic byname would still not be registerable with a feminine given name. Precedent states:

As is explained in the 22 February 1993 Cover Letter, we have extended the principle in two ways. First, we allow the original submitter to register further instances of the problematic element provided that they introduce no new violations of the rules; and secondly, we extend the allowance to the original submitter's nearest kin. [Roxanne Blackfeather, December 1995 LoAR, R-East]

Throughout period, bynames were literal in Scandinavia. Metron Ariston explains:

[This byname] would not in period have been used as to indicate the wife of someone whose patronymic was Þorgeirsson as married women in Scandinavia retained their own patronymics as they do to this day in Iceland. And, if you changed it to the period Þorgeirsdóttir, you would be implying she was her husband's sister, which I suspect she does not want to be. (Also note that the heading on Haakon'[s] name submission has the patronymic as Thorgiersson, not the form used here.)

Therefore, a name combining any form of Thorgeirrson with a feminine given name is grammatically incorrect and is not registerable. Further, because her husband's name does not have this violation, her name submission introduces a new violation of the rules as prohibited in the precedent cited above. [Alizaunde Thorgeirrson, 02/2003 LoAR, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.02 Listed on the LoI as Haakon Thorgiersson, the form showed the submitted name as Haakon Þorgeirsson. The submitter requested authenticity for Icelandic/Norse and allowed minor changes. The only documentation presented for the spelling Haakon was a list of kings of Norway that had been assembled for this submission. Included in the listing for each king was an abbreviation indicating source(s) for the reference. However, a bibliography was provided for only one of the abbreviations, and that source was a modern genealogical website. Additionally, no photocopies were provided for any of these sources. As none of them are included in the list provided in the Administrative Handbook "Appendix H - Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel", this documentation is not complete and so does not support the submitted name. Lacking evidence that Haakon is a period form, it is not registerable. Geirr Bassi (p. 11) lists the form of this name as Hákon. Therefore, we have changed this name to Hákon Þorgeirsson in order to register this name and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Hákon Þorgeirsson, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Halla Gullihar, we have lowercased the byname to use standard transliteration conventions. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.) As shown by various descriptive bynames in Geirr Bassi, including gullskeggr 'golden beard', gulli 'gold' takes the form gull- when used as a protheme in a descriptive byname. We have, therefore, removed the i from this byname. [Halla gullhar, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.02 There was some discussion whether the use of Odin in this name was presumptuous. Indeed, the byname Odinsson was ruled unregisterable long ago:

Of course he can't be "Odinsson" without proof of his parentage. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 9)

[N. Odinsson.] Let him submit a history form documenting whose son he is, or change his name. (HB, 5 Aug 72 [56], p. 1)

In this case, the submitted documentation shows that Odin is found as "a man's name found once in Nicolaa de Bracton's article, 'A Statistical Survey of Given Names in Essex Co., England'" (http://members.tripod.com/nicolaa5/articles/names.html). Sommelier also found that Reaney & Wilson (pp. 327-328 s.n. Oden, Othen) "date Oudon 1066, Odin Goldeberd 1327, and Thomas Oden 1332 (among others)." These examples are sufficient to support the use of Odin as a rare name used by humans in English. As such, it is registerable in the patronymic form FitzOdin so long as there are no additional references to the mythological Odin or a child of Odin.

Note, though, that no documentation was found of Odin used by humans in period in Old Norse. Lacking such evidence, it is continues to be unregisterable in an Old Norse patronymic byname. [Alan FitzOdin, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Snorri Hrafnauga Hrólfsson, we have lowercased the descriptive byname hrafnauga in order to use standard transliteration conventions. (See the Cover Letter for the October 2002 LoAR for more information.) [Snorri hrafnauga Hrólfsson, 01/2003 LoAR, A-East]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Listed on the LoI as Kýlan Magnússon, this name was submitted as Kylan Magnusson. Old Norse names are registerable with accents used consistently or omitted consistently. Therefore, we have returned this name to the submitted form, which did not include any accents. [Kylan Magnusson, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Bjarki Bíldr, we have put the byname into lowercase in order to match the submitted documentation and to register this name. [Bjarki bíldr, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Listed on the LoI as Ævarr inn viðf{o,}rli, the submitter requested authenticity for Viking culture. As both the form and the documentation included an accent on the first i in the byname, we have included that accent in the name. [Ævarr inn víðf{o,}rli, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Listed on the LoI as Vi{dt}arr Grimsson, the submitter requested authenticity for 9th to 11th C Norse. The Da'ud notation for the edh character, ð, is {dh}, not {dt}. We have added the accent to the í in the byname to follow the submitted documentation and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Viðarr Grímsson, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Tyrvi Úlfkellsson, the patronymic byname derived from the masculine given name Úlfkell is Úlfkelsson, not Úlfkellsson. We have made this correction. [Tyrvi Úlfkelsson, 01/2003 LoAR, A-East]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Thóra Ottarsdóttir, the submitter requested authenticity for Norse. Old Norse names are registerable if accents are used consistently or omitted consistently. We have added the missing accent to the byname in order to register this name. We have changed the Th in the given name to use the thorn character, Þ, in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Þóra Óttarsdóttir, 01/2003 LoAR, A-East]
François la Flamme 2002.12 [House Njalsson] documentation was presented and none was found that House Njalsson follows a pattern "of period names of organized groups of people" as required by RfS III.2.b.iv. Examples of House + [inherited surname] are found in English and other languages in late period. In these cases, the house name refers to the inherited surname shared by members of this family. Since Norse used literal patronymics in period, different members (generations, et cetera) of a family would not necessarily have the same byname. Lacking evidence that house names would be derived from a patronymic byname in Old Norse, this name is not registerable.

The submitter may wish to know that Argent Snail found information in Magnus Olsen's Farms and Fanes of Old Norway that "some farm names in Old Norway (including Old Norse, since some of the names go back to far enough) were formed from personal names." So, a household name using the given name Njal as a root would be plausible in some form, though the submitted House Njalsson is not plausible. [Nonna the Midwife, 12/2002, R-Middle]

François la Flamme 2002.12 Submitted as Sigrid Finnsdóttir, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 13th C Norse. However, this request was not included on the Letter of Intent. Please see the Cover Letter for a further discussion of this issue.

In the 12th C, Old Norse began to give way to regional languages including Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, etc. As submitted, this name combines Sigrid, which was documented as a 16th C Swedish name, and Finnsdóttir, which was documented as an Old Norse patronymic byname. The fully Old Norse form of this name would be Sigriðr Finnsdóttir. Argent Snail found that the 13th C Norwegian form of this name would be Sigrid Finnsdottir, based on Sigrid and Finnr, which are both dated to the 13th C in Lind, E. H. Norsk-Islädska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namm från Medeltiden. As the 13th C Norwegian form is closer than the Old Norse form to the originally submitted name, we have changed the name to that form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Sigrid Finnsdottir, 12/2002, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.12 This name is registerable as a combination of Anglicized Irish and 14th C Icelandic, though this combination carries a weirdness. [Davin Steingrimsson, 12/2002, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2002.10 From Pelican: Regarding Capitalization in Norse Bynames

In the Cover Leter to the April 2002 LoAR, I called for comments regarding the requirement that descriptive bynames in Old Norse be written in lowercase.

When registering transliteration of non-Roman alphabets (including Norse runes), we register the name using modern transliterations standards. We will also register period transliteration standards where such exist. In the case of Old Norse, there are period manuscripts of sagas and other works that are rendered using the Roman alphabet. From these, we can determine that the period standard was to transliterate descriptive bynames in lowercase. (See the cover letter for the April 2002 LoAR for more information.) The modern transliteration standard, both in Europe and the U.S., is to transliterate descriptive bynames in lowercase.

It is important to remember that transliteration is different than translation. Mass-market modern English translations of Old Norse sagas show a wide variety of levels of scholarship. In general, these translate Old Norse names using modern English naming standards - and so capitalize bynames. But these are translations and so are not relevant to the current issue under discussion.

Gold Phoenix provided examples from E.V. Gordon's An Introduction to Old Norse and describes this work for those not familiar with Old Norse resources:

The work in question is one of the standard texts in the study of the Old Norse language. It was first published in 1927 by the University of Oxford. After several reprints, a revised edition was edited by A.R. Taylor in 1957. This edition was corrected at its second printing in 1962, and subsequently reprinted at least seven times, including the 1983 printing that is in my possession. The author and editor appear to have been professors at the University of Leeds at the time of their writing.

An important part of this discussion is whether or not the transliteration standards used by Gordon follow accepted standards. Gunnvör silfrahárr (formerly Gunnora Hallakarva) provided an evaluation of Gordon's work and compared a number of the capitalized bynames found in Gordon to period manuscripts:

(1) Alexandr PauePope Alexander. From a Vita of King Eric the Saint, who ruled 1150-1160. This is a translation into Old Norse from a now-lost Latin Vita. Occurs in a phrase of Latin, "...quinto decimo Kalendas Iunii, i Alexandri Paua..."

(2) Áslákr HólmskalliAslakr the bald of Holm. From the Jómsvíkinga saga, in Heimskringla, authored by Snorri Sturluson. The best text we have of this is ca. 1260, but it was lost in a fire in 1728, and we're now working from paper copies. Other mss. exist, from c. 1325. Going to the normalized Icelandic text at Netútgáfan (http://www.snerpa.is/net/forn/jomsvik.htm), it has "...en annar heitir Áslákur og er kallaður >>>>Áslákur hólmskalli<<<< ..."

(3) Awair StrabainAvarr Straw-legs, from Gutasaga, c. 1350. When you go look at a non-normalized text, this appears as *all* lower case:

"Mangir kunungar stridu agutland mithan hathit war. thau hieldu gutar e iemlica sithri Oc ret sinum. Sithan sentu gutar sendumen manga tjl suiarikis En engin thaira fic frith gart fyr than >>>>awair strabain<<<< af alfha socn hann gierthi fyrsti frith withr suja kunung." http://www.lysator.liu.se/runeberg/gutasaga/04.html or http://spraakdata.gu.se/ktext/Delsingfiler/Mos-KS_mfl/Kronikor/GS-txt for instance...

(4) Björn SvíakonungrBjorn Swedes'-king, capitalized because "Swede" and "Sweden" are proper nouns.

(5) Búi DigriBui the Stout. From the Jómsvíkinga saga. Going to the normalized Icelandic text at Netútgáfan (http://www.snerpa.is/net/forn/jomsvik.htm), it has "Og hefir heitið son þeirra Búi er kallaður var >>>Búi hinn digri<<< ..."

(6) Böðvarr BjarkiAs Gordon is at pains to point out, "Concerning Böðvarr Bjarki's name, however, it is to be noted that Bjarki is not really the cognomen, as it is taken to be in Hrólfs saga, but is his original name; as he says in the Bjarkamál (in the Latin translation of Saxo): belligeri (=Böðvarr) accepti cognomen. The name in Icelandic would properly be Böðvar-Bjarki, 'battle-Bjarki'." p. 26-27. In other words, this one is [odd] just to start with and shouldn't be relied upon in this particular controversy.

(7) Domnal SelshöfuðThis one is from a runic inscription. Having access to the actual Rundata database (http://www.nordiska.uu.se/forskn/samnord.html) of all runic inscriptions, this one is from Ireland and is known as "IR 1": < tomnal selshofoth a soerth| |theta >. In normalized Old Norse this would be "Domnal selshöfuð á sverð þetta" or "Domnall seal's-head owns this sword."

(8) Eadmund inn HelgiSt. Edmund, king of England. This is from Islendingabók, aka Libellus Islandorum, written by Ari Þórgilsson, who lived from 1067-1148. The text depends on two 17th century copies of a lost 12th century vellum ms. Gordon says of this, "The copyist, Jón Erlendson, reproduces the spelling of the old manuscript, but in the following selections the spelling has been normalized on the same plan as the other Icelandic texts in this volume." p. 34.

I had a tough time finding a source of the Old Norse text other than Gordon, but finally found the paragraph mentioning Edmund in normalized Icelandic (http://netla.khi.is/greinar/2002/001/005.htm):

"...er Ívar Ragnarsson loðbrókar lét drepa >>>>Eadmund hinn helga<<<< Englakonung..."

(9) Eiríkr BlóðøxErik Blood-axe. This is from Egils saga Skallagrímssonar, which we have from vellum mss. from ca. 1350 and paper mss. from the 17th century, with some fragments from one ms. ca. 1250.

Going to the normalized Icelandic at Netútgáfan (http://www.snerpa.is/net/isl/egils.htm), it is shown as:

"Eiríkur, son Haralds konungs, er kallaður var blóðöx..." (Eric, son of King Harald, who was called blood-axe...)

Just looking at this handful, I believe that Gordon's normalizations don't bear much resemblance to current scholarly usage (nor to what modern Icelanders do with it). Reviewing the Icelandic normalized saga texts at Netútgáfan, I am unable to find any by-names that are capitalized, unless they are (a) prepended bynames or (b) contain a proper noun such as a place-name or god-name.

Gordon is an excellent and indispensable tool for students learning Old Norse. But it should be remembered that this is a basic, introductory text for first year students of Old Norse. It's most certainly not a text on Old Norse name usage or normalization.

Given the analysis above that was provided by Gunnvör, to the best of our knowledge Gordon does not follow either period transliteration standards or modern transliteration standards. Therefore, we are upholding the current policy of requiring descriptive bynames in Old Norse to be registered in lowercase. The exceptions to this policy are (1) pre-pended descriptive bynames and (2) descriptive bynames based on proper nouns. [Cover Letter for the 10/2002 LoAR]

François la Flamme 2002.10 The submitter requested a name authentic for "15th C Norse" and allowed no changes. By the 15th C, the Norse language had given way to regional languages including Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, etc. In both Old Norse and English, the name of this location is Hvalsey not Hvalsoy. In fact, the Landnamabok (LANDNÁMABÓK (Sturlubók), http://www.snerpa.is/net/snorri/landnama.htm) lists the spelling Hvalsey. Lacking documentation for the spelling Hvalsoy, it is not registerable. As the submitter does not allow changes, we were unable to change the spelling of this byname in order to register this name. [Jón of Hvalsoy, 10/2002, R-East]
François la Flamme 2002.10 Submitted as Gorm Bola, the submitter requested authenticity for early Norse/Russian. There was sufficient contact between the Norse and Russia to make a name mixing these languages registerable, though it is a weirdness. In period, a name combining elements from these languages would have been written all in Norse or all in Russian depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. Lacking a Russian form of Gorm or a Norse form of Bola, we were unable to suggest authentic forms of this name. [...] [Gorm Bolin, 10/2002, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2002.10 No documentation was provided and none was found that Vigahamarr is a plausible byname in Old Norse. Aryanhwy merch Catmael found information regarding the elements Viga- and hammar:

<Víga-> (note accent) is found in the Landnamabok (and Geirr Bassi) as a prefixed byname meaning "battle"; the appropriate usage of such a byname would be the construction <Víga-Sigurðr>. <Hamarr> is not found in the Landnamabok, though <sleggja>, "sledge-hammer" is; however, I don't believe we have any evidence for the use of two descriptive bynames in Norse names. [...] [T]he following information from Academy of S. Gabriel report #2431, [...] discusses <hamarr> as a byname:

"The Old Norse word for "hammer," <hamarr>, does occur by itself as a byname; however, it was usually not used to refer to the tool. Rather, <hamarr> was often used in place names to denote a rocky crag, and bynames using <hamarr> most likely reflected that fact. Examples that we found are <garðhamarr> 'cliff [near a] farm' and <vegghamarr> 'wall-hammer, precipitous cliff.' Only two bynames that we found appeared to use the word to refer to the tool: <dráttarhamarr> 'pull-hammer' 1240-1244, and <hnióðhamarr> 'riveting hammer' 1243. [2] We cannot say for sure that these last two bynames were used literally of someone who worked with such tools; it is just as likely that they were used metaphorically, likening the bearer in some way to such a tool."

[2] is Lind's Personbinamn. On second thought, if the client is more interested in something like <Vígahamarr>, he might be interested in <vegghamarr>.

Lacking evidence that Vigahamarr is a plausible byname in Old Norse, it is not registerable. As the submitter did not allow major changes, we were unable to change this name to a registerable form since the changes suggested significantly affected the meaning and/or sound and appearance of the name. [Sigurðr Vigahamarr, 10/2002, R-East]

François la Flamme 2002.10 Submitted as Ulfr Blasleggja Bjornsson, the submitter requested authenticity for 9th to 10th C Norse and allowed minor changes. The accents were added at Kingdom and the byname was lowercased to match the submitted documentation.

The byname blásleggja was submitted as a constructed byname combining the elements blá- 'black' and sleggja 'sledge-hammer'. There are several issues with this construction. First, the color referred to by blá- is a blue-black. The color we normally refer to as black (the same one seen in a box of Crayola markers) is refered to by the Old Norse term svartr.

More of an issue is the construction itself. No evidence was found a byname would be formed as [color]+[tool] in Old Norse. Lacking such evidence, blásleggja is not registerable. As the submitter did not allow major changes, we were unable to change the byname to sleggja in order to register this name.

Additionally, the construction of the patronymic Bjórnsson is incorrect. Information on p. 18 of Geirr Bassi shows that Bjarnarson would be the patronymic byname formed from the given name Bjórn. [Ulfr blásleggja Bjórnsson, 10/2002, R-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2002.09 This name is being returned for lack of documentation of the byname totiþjalfi as a plausible period byname. The byname toti, meaning 'breast' (well, not quite, but this is a family forum), is listed in Geirr Bassi (p. 29). However, there are no examples of this byname being used in a compound byname. Additionally, no evidence was found that the byname þjalfi (also found in Geirr Bassi on p. 29), meaning 'embracer, conqueror' would be combined with an element refering to a body part. Lacking support for this construction, it is not registerable. As the submitter only allows minor changes, we were unable to drop an element and register this name as Styrkárr toti or Styrkárr þjalfi.

There was also a good bit of discussion regarding whether the constructed byname was offensive. We are declining to rule on that issue at this time. [Styrkárr totiþjalfi, 09/2002 LoAR, R-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Arnóra inn hárfagri, the submitted byname is a masculine form. Since the given name is feminine, we have changed the byname to the feminine form in hárfagra in order to register this name. [Arnóra in hárfagra, 09/2002 LoAR, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Listed on the LoI as Oláfr Eiriksson, this name was originally submitted as Olaf Ericson and changed at Kingdom to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. The submitter requested authenticity for an unspecified language/culture, which Kingdom interpreted as Old Norse because all of the documentation for this name came from Geirr Bassi. In an Old Norse name, accents should be used or omitted consistently. Therefore, a fully Old Norse form of this name would be Oláfr Eiríksson.

Argent Snail found that the originally submitted form of this name is authentic for 15th C Swedish:

Another language and culture the original submission, "Olaf Ericson", would fit is Medieval Scandinavia. Probably even anywhere in Scandinavia any time 1100-1500, but there aren't really good sources for all areas.

For example Swedish Medieval Names have under Erik "Olaff Erixsson" 1479, "Olaff Ersson" (from "Erik") 1484 and "Olef Erichzsson"1486. Furthermore, there's under "Anna" "Anna Olafz dotther" 1459 and "Anna Olafsdotter" 1491. The spelling "Ericson" is somewhat rarer, but appears under Erik at least 1464 ("Magnus Ericson") and 1478 ("Per Ericson"). Thus the submitted spelling would be a perfectly fitting 15th century Swedish name.

Since the originally submitted form is authentic for a culture (15th C Swedish) and the submitter did not specify a culture in his request for authenticity, we are registering this name in the originally submitted form. [Olaf Ericson, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Kolfinna inn barnakarl, barnakarl is a masculine gender noun. Descriptive bynames that are nouns do not have to agree with the gender of the given name. Therefore, Kolfinna barnakarl is grammatically correct. Kolfinna inn barnakarl is not grammatically correct because the article inn is feminine and the word it modifies, barnakarl, is masculine. [Kolfinna barnakarl, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Listed on the LoI as Isrið inn glaða, this name was submitted as Isrið inn glöða and changed at kingdom to match the documentation (Geirr Bassi, p. 21, which lists glaði as a descriptive byname meaning 'glad, happy') and to feminize the epithet. The byname form inn glaða is not completely a feminine form since the particle inn is a masculine form. The completely feminine form of this byname would be in glaða. We have made this change in order to register this name. [Isrið in glaða, 09/2002 LoAR, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2002.09 [Order name Order of the Ulftönn of Starkhafn ] Listed on the LoI as Order of the Tönn frá Úlfr of Starkhafn, this name was submitted as Tönn frá Úlfur and changed at Kingdom to match available documentation. The submitting group requested authenticity for "Icelandic" culture.

Argent Snail provided grammar correction information for this item:

The correct grammatical form of the Old Norse phrase is probably "tönn frá Úlfi" as the preposition "frá" always takes dative form and that's what I get with my somewhat rusty Old Norse Grammar. However, this construction is somewhat unscandinavian - especially Old Norse and even the Scandinavian languages today would be more likely simply to form a compound word: "ulftönn" = wolf's tooth. The construction is supported by Lind bynames that has "ulffotr" (wolffoot) and "ulfhamr" (taking/in the form of a wolf, looking like a wolf). The current suggestion sounds more like "a tooth given by/gotten from Úlfr (a person)" so it isn't what the submitter wants.

We have corrected the grammar in the main element in this order name to Ulftönn according to Argent Snail's recommendation. [Starkhafn, Barony of, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Rannveig upplending R{ø-}riksdóttir, upplending was submitted as a feminine version of the byname upplendingr, meaning 'Upplander (Sweden)', listed in Geirr Bassi (p. 29). However, upplendingr is a noun, not an adjective, and so does not take a different form when used in a woman's name. We have made this correction.

The submitted R{ø-}riksdóttir violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a name phrase, because it combines the Old Swedish or Old Danish R{ø-}rik with the Old Norse -dóttir. Argent Snail provided a consistently Old Norse form of this byname:

Rørik is also found in the Swedish Runenamelexicon (http://www.dal.lu.se/runlex/pdf/lexikon.pdf) under HrøríkR where it is said that the Old Swedish and Danish (both about 1100-1500) form of the name was Rørik. However, changing the spelling into Hrøríksdóttir will not affect the sound of the name, so it can be considered a minor change and one desirable to the submitter (as she wants an authentic name). As to the patronymic, Lind has this name under Hrórekr and states that -s is the genitive ending as with the other names ending -rekr (Alrekr, Hárekr, Sigrekr, Úlfrekr etc.).

We have changed the byname to the form Hrøríksdóttir as suggested by Argent Snail in order to register this name. [Rannveig upplendingr Hrøríksdóttir, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2002.09 Listed on the LoI as Rognvaldr Viljálmsson, the name was submitted as R{o,}gnvaldr Viljálmsson. We have corrected the given name to the submitted form. The masculine given name listed on p. 16 of Geirr Bassi is Vilhjálmr, not Viljálmr. We have corrected the patronymic byname accordingly. [R{o,}gnvaldr Vilhjálmsson, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.09 This name combines Anglicized Irish and Old Norse in a single name, which has been ruled unregisterable:

The submitted name is a combination of an Anglicized Irish given name and an Old Norse byname. Mixing Scots and Old Norse in a name has been ruled unregisterable:

The combination of an Old Norse given name and an Anglicized Scots patronymic had too severe a temporal disparity. We have therefore changed the spelling of the given name to medieval Norwegian. [Ulvar MacVanis, A-Lochac, LoAR 07/2000]

Anglicized Irish and Scots existed in similar time period. Therefore, just as a mix of Scots and Old Norse is not registerable, a mix of Anglicized Irish and Old Norse is not registerable. [Davin Steingrimsson, R-An Tir, LoAR 01/2002]

Additionally, the byname 6zveginn is incorrect. Geirr Bassi (p. 26) lists this byname as óþveginn - with the initial character being an accented o, not the number 6, and the second character being a thorn, not a z. [Turlough 6zveginn, 09/2002 LoAR, R-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Kárr inn danski Ivarsson, accents should be used or omitted consistently throughout the name. We have added the accent to the patronymic byname to match the use of the accent in the given name. [Kárr inn danski Ívarsson, 08/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Finnr bogsveiger Úlfsson, the form listed in Geirr Bassi (p. 20) is bogsveigir rather than bogsveiger. We have made this corrrection. [Finnr bogsveigir Úlfsson, 08/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Tyrvaldr Berserkr, we have changed the descriptive byname to lowercase to match conventional Old Norse spelling. [Tyrvaldr berserkr, 08/2002, A-East]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Listed on the LoI as Thorstein Gullsmithr Ragnarsson, the submitter requested an authentic Scandinavian name for 700-1000 and allowed minor changes. This name was submitted as Thorstein Ragnarsson Gullsmithr. The byname order was reversed at Kingdom to follow the standard practice of placing the descriptive byname before the patronymic byname. However, switching the order of the bynames changes the meaning of the name significantly enough that it is a major change, which the submitter does not allow. Thorstein Ragnarsson Gullsmithr means 'Thorstein, Ragnarr goldsmith's son'. Thorstein Gullsmithr Ragnarsson means 'Thorstein goldsmith, Ragnarr's son'. In the first order, Ragnarr is the goldsmith. In the second order, Thorstein is the goldsmith. We have returned the bynames to the originally submitted order.

We have changed the name to use 'Þ' and 'ð' characters rather than the Anglicized 'Th' and 'dh', and have lowercased the descriptive byname gullsmiðr, to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Þorsteinn Ragnarsson gullsmiðr, 08/2002, A-Drachenwald]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Ælfric gylðir, the submitter requested authenticity for 11th C Norse. As submitted, this name combined an Anglo-Saxon given name with an Old Norse byname. Given the amount of contact, a name mixing Old English and Old Norse is registerable with a weirdness. Regarding authenticity, though, in period this name would have been written all in Old English or all in Old Norse depending upon the language of the document. Argent Snail found an Old Norse form of the given name:

Danmarks Gamle Personnavne: Fornavne, under Alfrik, date Alfric to 1047-75. So the form Alfric gyðir would be a reasonably Norse form, and very close to what was submitted.

We have changed the given name to the form documented by Argent Snail to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Alfric gylðir, 08/2002, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Listed on the LoI as Alaric Svartøx, this name was submitted as Alaric svartøx. We have corrected the typographical error in the byname. The submitter requested authenticity for 8th to 10th C Norse and allowed any changes. We have changed the given name to the Old Norse form Alrekr listed in Geirr Bassi (p. 7) to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Alrekr svartøx, 08/2002, A-East]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Axel Haroldsson, the submitter allowed any changes. He specified 8th to 11th C "Scandanavian[sic] Dansk Norge Svenska" in the authenticity section but noted that he did not wish changes to make his name authentic.

As submitted, the byname Haroldsson used the English name Harold in an Old Norse patronymic form. As such, it violated RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a single name element. Heralds attending the decision meeting at Pennsic found the byname Haroldsøn dated to 1424 in Sveriges Medeltida Personnamn (vol. 11, column 118, s.n. Harald). This is the closest form found to the submitted byname. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. Argent Snail noted that "Lind dates Axel in this spelling to 1366, while Sveriges Medeltida Personnamn dates this spelling of Axel to 1397 and 1398." So, Axel Haroldsøn is a fine name for late 14th C or early 15th C Swedish.

Regarding the time period and culture in which the submitter noted an interest, Geirr Bassi (p. 8) lists the given name Áskell, and (p. 11) Haraldr. From this information, an authentic Old Norse name appropriate for the submitter's desired time period would be Áskell Haraldsson. As the submitter noted he did not wish changes to make his name authentic for this time and culture, we have made the minimum changes necessary in order to register this name. [Axel Haroldsøn, 08/2002, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Ginnir sleggja Dagsson, Ginnir was documented only as the name of an Old Norse rune. Lacking documentation that it was used as a given name in period, it is not registerable. As the submitter allowed changing the given name to Gunnar if Ginnir was unregisterable, we have made this change in order to register this name. [Gunnar sleggja Dagsson, 08/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Ságadís Duncansdaughter, documentation was provided supporting the construction of Norse feminine given names formed by combining the name of a Norse goddess with the deuterotheme -dis. The LoI provided documentation for Sága as the name of a Norse goddess:

Sága is the name of a Norse Goddess, and was probably used in a period farm name, spelled Saagho- or Saghones. While these are not given names, but rather household names, this shows the use of Sága in a period name. That Sága was a name of a Goddess is confirmed by Kvaran and Jónsson in Nöfn Íslendinga where they say that Sága was the name of one of the Ás (Norse Gods).

Documentation was also provided demonstrating the survival of this type of name in Swedish and Danish in the 14th through 17th C. Therefore, Ságadís is plausible as an Old Norse feminine given name that was also used later in Swedish and Danish. Black (p. 412 s.n. Lambie) dates Mariora Lammeis dothyr to 1527, which supports a byname using a form of daughter in Scots. We have changed the byname to follow this example. Mixing Swedish or Danish with Scots in a name is registerable with a weirdness. [Ságadís Duncans dothyr, 08/2002, A-Drachenwald]

François la Flamme 2002.07 Submitted as Ivarr Bearshoulders, the LoI noted that the submitter "would gladly accept [the byname] being translated into Old Norse, Icelandic or Norwegian". Multiple members of the College found bynames using elements meaning 'bear' and 'shoulders' in Old Norse, along with descriptive bynames that support a byname meaning 'bear-shoulders' as being plausible in Old Norse. Therefore, we have changed the byname to the form bjarnherðar as suggested by the College. We have also added the accent to the Í in the given name, as accents should be used when ð is used in the name. [Ívarr bjarnherðar, 07/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.07 Listed on the LoI as Kjalvor Eyjadotter, this name was submitted as Kjalvor Eyjadatter. No notation was made in the LoI regarding this change. The submitter requested authenticity for 10th to 11th C Viking and allowed minor changes. Clarion found that, "According to page 18 of Geirr Bassi, the genitive form of Eyja is Eyju, so the matronymic should be Eyjudóttir. Geirr Bassi also notes that matronymics exist." We have changed the byname to this form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. We have also changed the given name to the form documented in Geirr Bassi. [Kjalv{o,}r Eyjudóttir, 07/2002, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2002.07 The LoI supported the submitted phrase the Hun by documenting the Old Norse term húnar:

According to the Compact Oxford English Dictionary, the ON term is Húnar, and they are referred to in written literature c. 900 A.D.

Therefore, the Hun is a Lingua Anglica form of húnar. Eiríkr húnar would be a fully Old Norse form of the first two elements in this name. [Eric the Hun of Alta, 07/2002, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.07 Submitted as Sigulf Bjornsson, the Old Norse form of a patronymic byname formed from the given name Bjorn is Bjarnarson. Mention was made in commentary of a precedent ruling Bjornsson to be a valid patronymic formed from Bjorn. The precedent in question is:

In October, 1988 ... Laurel stated "we would dearly like to see some clear period documentation for the genitive form of "Bjorns", but have not thus far been presented with any. [Some] have responded to this challenge ... in providing period examples from Sveriges Medeltida Personnama (col. 318-326, 343-346). This compilation of period personal names from Swedish sources contains dates for each documented form. This tome documents such period genitive forms as "Biornar", "Biorns", and "Byorns", showing the precise sort of alternations of form for which Laurel had asked ("Biorns" is shown as early as 1360). The feminine patronymic form is demonstrated from the fourteenth century as well ("Marghet Bjronsdotter" from 1368, "Cecilia Biornsdoter" from 1377, etc.). (LoAR 26 Feb 89, p. 9)

This information supports Bjornsson as a 14th C Swedish byname, not as an Old Norse byname. While mixing Old English and Old Norse in a name is registerable with a weirdness, mixing Old English and Swedish in a name is not registerable. We have changed the byname to the Old Norse form in order to register this name. [Sigulf Bjarnarson, 07/2002, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2002.07 Listed on the LoI as Signy Halfdanarsdottir, this name was submitted as Signy Halfdansdottir. We have corrected the patronymic to the proper Old Norse form. [Signy Halfdanardottir, 07/2002, A-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2002.07 Submitted as Thorkatla in mána, Geirr Bassi lists máni as a byname without the article in. Also in the bynames section, Geirr Bassi lists Mana- as an element that is prepended to a given name. Therefore, Þorkatla máni is a fully Old Norse form of this name, of which Thorkatla máni is a registerable variant. Lacking evidence that this byname is one that would include a definite article, the form in mána is not registerable. The LoI noted that:

The client's first choice for her name is <Thorkatla in mana> with the "Th" in place of the "Þ". [...] If "in mana" is not acceptable, the client prefers the byname "Mánadottir".

Mánadóttir is a patronymic byname based on the given name Máni, of which Mána is the genitive form, hence Mánadóttir. As the submitted in mána is not registerable, we have followed the instructions in the LoI and registered this name using the submitter's preferred alternative. Accents in Old Norse names need to be included or omitted consistently throughout the name. We have added the accent on the 'o' in the byname since the accent was included on the 'a'. [Thorkatla Mánadóttir, 07/2002, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2002.06 Submitted as Æsa in bjard{oe}lska, bjard{oe}lska was submitted as a constructed byname meaning 'woman from Bear-Dale'. Geirr Bassi lists the bynames Bjarneyja- (p. 20) meaning 'Bear Island-', eyverska (p. 21) meaning 'woman from the Orkney Islands', and inn haukd{oe}lski (p. 22) meaning 'man from the Hawk-Dale'. From these examples, and other information found by the College, a byname meaning 'woman from Bear-Dale' would take the form bjarnd{oe}lska or in bjarnd{oe}lska. We have added the missing n to the byname. [Æsa in bjarnd{oe}lska, 06/2002, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2002.06 Listed on the LoI as Gunnarr skald Þorvaldsson, the forms and the documentation had an accent on the 'a' in the descriptive byname. The LoI noted that the "[s]ubmitter would like one of: 'Truthsinger' or something that means truthsinger or truthpoet if possible. We were unable to find out if truth is possible or, of so, how it would be used with skald." The College was unable to find any evidence that a descriptive byname meaning 'truthsinger' or 'truthpoet' is plausible in Old Norse. Therefore, we have left the byname as the submitted skáld, meaning 'skald, poet'. [Gunnarr skáld Þorvaldsson, 06/2002, A-Ealdormere]
François la Flamme 2002.05 The summary of supporting documentation provided in the LoI was inadequate. The names of a number of sources were listed, but no indication was given regarding what information in these sources was pertinent to this submission. Additionally, only one of those sources was listed in Appendix H of the Administrative Handbook, "Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel". Photocopies are required for supporting documentation for any sources not on this list. No photocopies of any documentation was provided with this submission.

The submitted name was intended to mean 'Sandy Forest'. No examples were provided of similar constructions in Old Norse to demonstrate that such a pattern is plausible for that language. Metron Ariston found some support for this name:

Smith would seem to support this name, though not the exact meaning, giving Sand from Old Norse sandr meaning "sand" and showing a large number of instances where it appears as the first element in an English place name: Sandford, Sandbeck, Sandhurst, Sandtoft, Sandwich, etc. (English Place-Name Elements, Vol. II, p. 97). Smith (ibid., p. 43) also shows m{o,}rk as Old Norse meaning "a border, a boundary" rather than the "forest" shown on the Letter of Intent. As the Canton is on the longest sand bar in the world (Long Island), the meaning given by Smith is actually more accurate!

The information provided by Metron Ariston addresses the documentation of the elements. However, the lack of a valid petition prevents registration of any form of this name. [Sandmork, Canton of, 05/2002, R-East]

François la Flamme 2002.05 Listed on the LoI as Eiríkr häggvandi Ivarrson, the submitter requested authenticity for 7th C Norse and allowed minor changes. This name was submitted as Eiríkr Ivarrson Häggvandi and changed at kingdom to follow the more typical byname order of having the descriptive byname preceed the patronymic byname. The descriptive byname was also put into lowercase to follow the documentation.

An Old Norse patronymic byname formed from the given name Ívarr would be Ívarsson rather than Ívarrson. Geirr Bassi (p. 23) shows that the proper spelling of this byname is h{o,}ggvandi rather than häggvandi. We have made these corrections.

Changing the order of the bynames is a major change, which the submitter does not allow. Lacking documentation that the submitter approved this change, we have returned the byname order to the originally submitted order to remove this major change. In addition to the change in sound and appearance caused by the changing of the bynames, this change also changes the meaning of the byname in this case. The original order indicates that h{o,}ggvandi, meaning 'hewer' or 'herdsman', refers to Ívarr rather than his son Eiríkr. [Eiríkr Ívarsson h{o,}ggvandi, 05/2002, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2002.05 This name combines the given name Kristin, which was documented as a Swedish feminine given name dating to 1318, with the Old Norse byname in hárfagra. Mixing Old Norse and Swedish is registerable, though it is a weirdness. [Kristin in hárfagra, 05/2002, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.05 This name contains two non-patronymic bynames in Norse, which has previously been cause for return. Gunnvör silfrahárr (formerly Gunnora Hallakarva) found examples of people who were referred to using two non-patronymic bynames simultaneously. She provided the following examples and translations so each name may be viewed in context:

(1) Þórsteinn surts inn spaka (Thórsteinn Black the Wise) - Laxdæla saga (c. 1245), ch. 6. Ósk hét hin fjórða dóttir Þórsteins rauðs. Hún var móðir Þorsteins surts hins spaka er fann sumarauka. [Ósk was the name of the fourth daughter of Þórsteinn rauðr. She was the mother of Þórsteinn surts inn spaka, who found the "Summer eke".]

(2) Ari prests hins fróði (Ari the priest the wise) - Landnámabók ch. 83. Þórsteinn Hallsson var faðir Gyðríðar, móður Jóreiðar, móður Ara prests hins fróða. [Þórsteinn Hallsson was the father of Gyðríðr, who was the mother of Jóreiðr, who was the mother of Ari prests hins fróða.]

(3) Þórolfr Mostrarskeggr - Eyrbyggja saga ch. 3 (prepended and appended by-names) Hrólfr var höfðingi mikill og hinn mesti rausnarmaður. Hann varðveitti þar í eyjunni Þórshof og var mikill vinur Þórs og af því var hann Þórólfr kallaður. Hann var mikill maður og sterkur, fríður sýnum og hafði skegg mikið. Því var hann kallaður Mostrarskegg. [Hrólfr was a mighty chief, and a man of the greatest largesse. He had the ward of Thór's temple there in the island, and was a great friend of Thór, and therefore he was called Þórolfr. He was a big man and a strong, fair to look on, and had a great beard; therefore was he called Mostrarskeggr, and he was the noblest man in the island.

Given these examples, a name using two non-patronymic bynames in Old Norse is registerable so long as the bynames could reasonably be used to simultaneously describe the same person. In the case of the submitted name, the two bynames mean 'shrieking' and 'woman from the Orkney Islands'. These bynames have different meanings and could both have described the same person at the same point in her life. Therefore, this name is registerable. [Þórdís gjallandi eyverska, 05/2002, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2002.05 Submitted as William bogsveigir, the submitter requested an authentic "masculine 11th Century Danelaw" name and allowed any changes. His desired meaning was 'William the archer'. William was documented from Reaney & Wilson (s.n. Williams) which date Henry Fitz William to 1300. bogsveigir was documented from Geirr Bassi (p. 20) as an Old Norse byname meaning 'bow-swayer, archer'. Metron Ariston provided commentary on the forms of this name:

I'd think the Old Norse would be wrong for so late a date in the Danelaw. A bit earlier and I would suggest the purely Norse Vilhjálmr bogsveigr. Going the English route for around the Norman Conquest which appears to be more or less the time he wants, I'd suggest Willelm Bogamann. The given name is in a spelling given from 1067 by Withycombe (Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, s.n. William) The byname is an Old English occupational construct from boga ("bow") and mann ("mann") and may be presumed to be the antecedent of Middle English bowman which Reaney and Wilson (Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Bowman) document as early as the first quarter of the thirteenth century.

We have changed this name to the form recommended by Metron Ariston to meet the submitter's requested time and culture. [Willelm Bogamann, 05/2002, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2002.05 Submitted as Bryndís rauðkinnr Ragnarsdóttir, the submitter requested authenticity for "8th to 12th C Rus Viking" and allowed minor changes. Bryndís was submitted as a feminine given name constructed from the elements Bryn- and -dís. The meanings of these elements were documented as bryn 'armour' and dís 'noble and/or beautiful' respectively from the Web article "Nafnasafnið: Icelandic and Heathen names" by Haukur Þorgeirsson (http://www.irminsul.org/arc/012ht.html). Metron Ariston provided an evaluation of this site for SCA name documentation purposes:

The site www.irminsul.org is published by the Irminsul Ættir, who describe themselves as "an Ásatrú church organization, a voluntary association of Ásatrúar to practice the religion, facilitate networking, sharing of resources, developing educational material and programs, fostering cooperation and the promotion of Ásatrú". As such, while I find it has a lot of interesting material, I also find most of it is strongly subordinated to their basic proselytizing intent and must be used with care. They certainly are not focused on chronological or linguistic accuracy in onomastics. [...] In this case, while the Icelandic Names listing has a lot of names and gives "meanings" (many of which the Norse would not have cared about), none of the names are dates apart from a statement that "This is a list of Icelandic names that were used in heathen times. Many, indeed most, are still used today. The spelling used is more or less appropriate for the later part of the saga-writing period." The intent of this group, which seeks to restore "heathen" religion is to provide a name pool for use names in religion and the desire for authenticity is strongly subordinated to that intent.

Since this site contains very few dates for the names listed, and given that there is no information regarding whether the forms of the names listed were normalized, this is a site that should be avoided for name documentation.

The elements Bryn- and -dís both appear in feminine given names in Geirr Bassi. Given these examples, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt on the constructed Bryndís. Lacking evidence that this name was actually used in period, we do not know if it is authentic for her desired time and culture.

The byname rauðkinnr, 'red-cheek', is a masculine byname found in Geirr Bassi (p. 26). We have changed it to the feminine form rauðkinn found on the same page. [Bryndís rauðkinn Ragnarsdóttir, 05/2002, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2002.05 [Bear Clan] The submitter requested authenticity for a 10th C Norse Clan and allowed minor changes. The submission form gave the submitted household name as "Bear Clan (Bjarn Aett in Old Norse)". The LoI presented Bear Clan as the submitted household name, based on a Lingua Anglica equivalent of a Norse Bjarn Aett. In order to determine both registerable and authentic forms of this name, there are several steps that need to be addressed:

  • Did "clan" type structures exist in Old Norse culture?
  • If they did exist, what were the names used for these groups?
  • Assuming they existed and we know what the names of these groups were, how would an SCA household name be based on this model?

The vast majority of the documentation for this submission came from two sources: Mark Harrison and Gerry Embleton, Viking Hersir, 793-1066AD, volume 3 of Osprey Military Warrior Series; and Nurmann, Schulze, & Verhülsdonk, The Vikings, "Europa Militaria Special No. 6". These are tertiary sources at best and their purpose is not onomastics. Therefore, they must be used with care when used as documentation for name submissions. A number of Norse sagas were mentioned in the LoI, but no photocopies of any of them were provided. As none of them are included in the Admin Handbook under Appendix H, "Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel", these mentions may not be considered documentation. Additionally, no sections of those sagas were cited with specific references to "Norse clans". Such references would be necessary as part of documentation from these sagas. Viking Hersir (p. 6) defines an aett as an "extended family group". However, no documentation was provided that aett would be included as part of the name of such a family group. The Vikings (p. 53) defines the term Vikinge-lag as "brotherhoods of mercenaries". On the same page, it specifically mentions a particular group whose name includes this term:

Jomsvikinge-lag or Jomsvikings, who were probably established in the fortified camp and harbour of Jomsburg. ... The Jomsvikings were the subject of their own saga, which was written down in Iceland in about 1200. They are also mentioned in other sagas: that of King Olaf Tryggvasson states that hiring them was a question of prestige (although they seem to have been on the losing side in a number of important battles). The brotherhood was fading away by about 1010, and the remnant was destroyed by King Magnus of Norway in 1043.

Based on this example, vikinge-lag (as in Jomsvikinge-lag) is an acceptable designator for an SCA household based on the model of the Jomsvikings. The Lingua Anglica equivalent for this designator would be the suffix -vikings, as in the example Jomsvikings. The submitted documentation implies that Jomsvikinge-lag is a reference to the location Jomsburg. Geirr Bassi (p. 20) lists the descriptive byname Bjarneyja- meaning 'Bear Island-', which documents this location in Old Norse, and so dates it to period. A household name referring to this island, based on the Jomsvikings example, would be Bjarnavikinge-lag in Old Norse. Lingua Anglica equivalents for placenames are based on their English rendering, not on a literal translation of the meaning of the placename. For example, the Lingua Anglica form of Tokyo (which means 'Eastern Capital') is Tokyo, not Eastern Capital. The submitter's documentation shows Bjarn Isle as the English form of the place referred to in the byname Bjarneyja-. Therefore, a Lingua Anglica form of Bjarnavikinge-lag would be Bjarnavikings, not Bearvikings or Bear Clan.

A question was raised during commentary regarding whether Bear Clan was registerable using the model of a Scottish clan as cited in the Rules for Submission (RfS III.2.b.iv). In this model, Clan precedes the clan name (Clan [Surname]) rather than follows it ([Surname] Clan). Also, clan is a Scots word derived from the Gaelic word clann, meaning 'children'. (Scots is a language closely related to English.) The name of the clan is a Scots surname. While some of these surnames are also found in English, not all English surnames are found in Scots. Therefore, to comply with RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase, the clan name must be documented as a Scots surname. Occasionally, a locative may be included in the clan name, taking the form Clan [Surname] of [Location].

There is also a clan name model found in Ireland. However, in Ireland, the model that includes the word Clann in Gaelic (Clan in Anglicized Irish) is based on a given name found in Gaelic. Examples are found that include both Gaelic given names and Anglo-Norman given names that migrated into Gaelic.

The Rules for Submission were most recently updated on July 20, 2001. Previous to that, the most recent update was November 1, 1995. All household names, except one, registered since that date that use some form of clan as a designator follow either the Scottish or Irish models described above. The single exception is Clann an Chullaich Bhain (registered February 1996) which was submitted as a "sign name" meaning 'the white boar'. As our knowledge of naming practices has expanded, doubt has been shed on the theory that Scottish or Irish clan names would be based on the English sign name model. Lacking evidence of such a construction, they are no longer registerable. Several registrations of clan names were specifically mentioned during commentary. Clan Baldwin (registered June 1996) follows the Scottish model since Baldwin is a plausible Scots surname. (Black, s.n. Baldwin, gives only dated examples of forms of Baldwin as a given name, but it could easily have followed the pattern of other Anglo-Norman given names that became surnames in Scotland.) Clan Hubert (registered February 1999) follows the Irish model since Hubert was among the Anglo-Norman given names that appear in Ireland. Clan Gara (registered September 1996) and Clan Gillemore (registered March 1998) also follow the Irish model as Gara and Gillemore are Anglicized forms of the Irish Gaelic masculine given names Gadra and Gilla Muire.

Since Bear Clan does not follow either the Scottish clan name model or the Irish clan name model, it is not registerable as either a Scottish or an Irish clan name. [Erik the Bear, 05/2002, R-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Idonea Svensdöttir, the submitter requested authenticity for Old Norse and allowed any changes. Svensdöttir was documented from a Web article not on the Laurel website. As such, printouts are required as documentation. Since printouts were not included, this documentation is not sufficient for registration. In any case, the Old Norse form of this byname is Sveinsdóttir. We have changed the byname to this form per the submitter's request for authenticity.

Idonea is a Latin form of a 12th to 14th C English given name derived from the Old Norse Iðunn (listed in Geirr Bassi, p. 12). An authentic name for a time period appropriate for Old Norse would have been rendered all in Old Norse or all in a Latinized form depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. Gösta Tengvik, Old English Bynames, dates Eduuardus filius Suani to 1066 on p. 198. Iðunn Sveinsdóttir would be a completely Old Norse form of this name. Idonea filia Suani would be a completely Latinized form of this name. As the submitter requested authenticity for Old Norse, we have changed this name to the form Iðunn Sveinsdóttir to comply with her request. [Iðunn Sveinsdóttir, 04/2002, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.04 The descriptive byname, gylðir, was submitted as Gylðir and changed at kingdom to match the documented form gylðir found in Geirr Bassi (p. 22). A question was raised regarding whether the descriptive byname could be registered with the initial letter capitalized. Current precedent regarding this issue is:

Submitted as Emma inn Draumspaki, we have changed the gender of the byname to match the given and changed it to lowercase to match conventional Old Norse spelling. [Emma in draumspaka, 04/00, A-An Tir]

Gold Phoenix submitted a Letter of Comment in December that raised the issue of what is appropriate capitalization for descriptive bynames in Old Norse. Since there has been no commentary on his letter, we are including this topic as an item for discussion in the Cover Letter accompanying this LoAR. [Magnús Daggson gylðir, 04/2002, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2002.04 Gulli was documented as dated to 1325 in Lind's Norsk-Isländska Dopnamn (p. 400). However, it does not appear in that entry as a given name. Metron Ariston summarizes this issue:

Close examination of the entry for Gulli in Lind indicates that it is not in fact a given name but a byname meaning gold. Both the examples use it as a byname rather than a patronymic and it is specifically associated with the adjective gull meaning gold. This byname, frequently prefixive, as it also appears in Lind, is given as well in Geirr Bassi (The Old Norse Name, p. 22).

Lacking documentation that Gulli was used as a given name, it is not registerable as a given name.

Grendelag was documented as meaning "a neighborhood or group of farms" according to Einar Haugen, Norwegian-English Dictionary, p. 161. No documentation was presented that Grendelag is a period term or even that a byname with this meaning is plausible in period Norwegian. Lacking support for av Grendelag as a plausible byname in period, it is not registerable. [Gulli av Grendelag, 04/2002, R-Middle]

François la Flamme 2002.04 The byname Ingridsdottir combines Ingrid (documented as Norwegian from E. H. Lind, Norsk-Isländska Dopnamn från Medeltiden, col. 639 s.n. Ingiriðr, which dates Ingridh to 1430 and Ingerid to 1461), and -dottir (documented as Swedish in Sveriges Medeltida Personamen (vol. IV, column 543), which lists Cecelia Ingadottir). By the 15th century, Norweigian and Swedish had diverged and were different, though related, languages. Therefore, the constructed Ingridsdottir violates RfS III.1.a by combining Norwegian and Swedish in a single name phrase. Lindorm Eriksson's article "Swedish Feminine Names from ca. 1300" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/lindorm/swedish1300female.html) lists the form Ingrid and includes the names Helena Ormsdotyr uxor Johannis Ingason and Ingeborg filia Tunædotir domina. Sveriges Medeltida Personamen (vol. III, column 636, s.n. Elena) dates Elena Anundadottir to 1312. From these examples, Ingridsdotir and Ingridadotir are plausible Swedish forms of this byname close to the originally submitted Ingriddotir. We have changed the byname to the first of these in order to register the name. [Karen Ingridsdotir, 04/2002, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2002.04 The only documentation found for Laufey was as the name of the non-human mother of the Norse god Loki. Lacking documentation of Laufey used by humans in period, it is not registerable.

The closest name to Laufey that the College was able to find was Ljúfa which is listed on p. 13 of Geirr Bassi. As the submitter did not allow major changes, we were unable to change the given name to a different name in order to register this name. [Laufey rauðrefr, 04/2002, R-Lochac]

François la Flamme 2002.04 The byname Gulliagra was documented as being constructed from gulli, meaning 'gold, golden', and agrai, meaning 'fair'. No documentation was provided for either of these elements, though Gull- was found in Geirr Bassi (p. 22) as a descriptive element that is prepended to the given name. Coincidently, another submission ruled on in this LoAR also referred to Gulli; specifically, Gulli was documented as dated to 1325 in Lind's Norsk-Isländska Dopnamn (p. 400). Metron Ariston summarizes the information in this entry:

Close examination of the entry for Gulli in Lind indicates that it is [...] a byname meaning gold. Both the examples use it as a byname rather than a patronymic and it is specifically associated with the adjective gull meaning gold. This byname, frequently prefixive, as it also appears in Lind, is given as well in Geirr Bassi (The Old Norse Name, p. 22).

In addition to the undocumented element agrai, no documentation was found that a descriptive byname combining 'gold, golden' and 'fair' is plausible in Old Norse. Lacking such documentation, this name is not registerable. [Halla Gulliagra, 04/2002, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.04 The submitter requested authenticity for 8th C "Vendel", and allowed no changes. All of the elements of this name were documented as Old Norse. Einarsson, not Einarson, is the correct patronymic form of the Old Norse name Einarr. As the submitter allows no changes, we were unable to correct the byname to be authentic for Old Norse. As Sveriges medeltida personnamn (vol. 5, s.n. Enar) dates Thorgyl Enarson to 1439 and Einar Suenson to 1435, Einarson is plausible for Swedish in the 1430s. The byname went through some evolution over the years. Examples in this entry show that that a double 's' form, such as Einarsson, would exist before that point, and En- forms, such as Enarson, would exist after that point. Given the linguistic relationship between Old Norse and Swedish, a name mixing these two languages is registerable, though it is a weirdness (similar to mixing Old English and Middle English in a name). Therefore, the submitted name has one weirdness for combining Old Norse and Swedish. As documentation for Bjarki was only found in Old Norse (c. 800-c. 1100), and Einarson is only plausible for the 1430s, this name has a temporal disparity of over 300 years, which is a second weirdness, and so is cause for return. [Bjarki Einarson, 04/2002, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.04 The submitter requested authenticity for 8th C "Vendel", and allowed no changes. No documentation was provided for Ulf. The LoI documented Ulfr from Geirr Bassi (p. 15).

Einarsson, not Einarson, is the correct patronymic form of the Old Norse name Einarr. As the submitter allows no changes, we were unable to correct this name to Old Norse to match the submitted language. As Sveriges medeltida personnamn (vol. 5, s.n. Enar) dates Thorgyl Enarson to 1439 and Einar Suenson to 1435, Einarson is plausible for Swedish in the 1430s. Danmarks Gamle Personnavne: Fornavne (s.n. Ulf) dates Ulf to assorted dates including the 12th C, the 13th C, 1379, and 1498. Mixing Danish and Swedish in a name is registerable, though a weirdness. As the name elements date to within 300 years of each other, there is not a second weirdness for temporal disparity and this name is registerable. [Ulf Einarson, 04/2002, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.03 Submitted as Estrid Henningsdatter, no support was found for the submitted spelling of the byname. We have changed it to match submitted documentation. [Estrid Henningsdotter, 03/2002, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.03 The submitter requested authenticity for "1200 Northern England" and allowed minor changes.

Rognvald was documented from A History of the Vikings by Gwyn Jones. This source seems to use English normalized forms of names when referring to historical people. Metron Ariston identified Rognvald as "the usual anglicization of the given name Rægnvaldr which appears on page 14 of Geirr Bassi". However, this gives us no indication if the form Rognvald is authentic for the submitter's desired time period.

The LoI provided hypothetical Old Norse bynames (suggested by Mistress Gunnora) meaning 'long arm'. However, the LoI did not included any indication of what sources she used to assemble this information. It has long been the policy of the College that we require supporting documentation, even when the there is no doubt regarding the expertise of the individual:

Despite our high respect for [Name] and her expertise in [language] (it's what she does for a living), we have to have some idea of why she thinks it is O.K. to register this name form. Specifically we need to have documentation of the meaning and construction of the elements in this name, information not included on the letter of intent or on the forms. (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 30 Sep 89, p. 14)

In the case of this name, had the missing documentation been provided, it would have been of little help since the submitter does not allow major changes. Changing the language of the byname is a major change, so we would not be able to change this to an Old Norse form even if the documentation had been provided. Lacking the supporting documentation, Longarm cannot be considered a Lingua Anglica translation of a Norse descriptive byname.

No documentation was provided and none was found for an English byname Longarm. Reaney & Wilson (p. 283 s.n. Longenow) date Wlter le Longebak ('long back') to 1332, Godric Langhand ('long hand') to c1095, and Reginald Lungeiaumbe ('long leg') to 1212-23 among others. These examples support long + [body part] as a descriptive byname in this time frame. Reaney & Wilson (p. 14 s.n. Armstrong) dates William Arm(e)strang to 1250 and gives the meaning of this byname as 'strong in the arm'. This example documents the use of arm in an English descriptive byname. Therefore, Longarm is a plausible descriptive byname in English. [Rognvald Longarm, 03/2002, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2002.02 Pre-1100 Dutch and Old Norse were ruled registerable, though a weirdness, in the registration of Aldgudana Gunnarsdóttir in the LoAR of November 2001. [Rothin in flamska, 02/02, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2002.02 No documentation was presented and none was found for bani 'slayer' as a byname on its own. All examples of bynames that include the element bani also include an element indicating what was being slain (berserkjabani 'berserker slayer', selsbani 'seal slayer'). [B{o,}ðvarr bani, 02/02, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.02 The submitter's file shows Vakkerfjell documented only as a branch name. No evidence has been provided that a placename would come between a given name and a patronymic in Old Norse. Lacking such documentation, this combination is not registerable. [Thorvaldr Vakkerfjell Thórólfsson, 02/02, R-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2002.02 The forms show that the spelling ihghean listed on the LoI was a typo for inghean. This name was originally submitted as Ealasaid inghen Domhnaill and changed at kingdom with the submitter's approval to avoid a conflict with Ealasaid MacDonald (registered February 1994). Under the current precedents, the conflict spotted by kingdom was correct and the change made by kingdom did clear that conflict. Unfortunately, it brought the name into conflict with Elzasif O'Donnell (registered March 1986). Her file shows that Elzasif was submitted as a Norse variant of Elizabeth. As Ealasaid is also a variant of Elizabeth, these two elements conflict. Since O'Donnell conflicts with inghean uí Domhnaill, these two names conflict. [Ealasaid ihghean uí Domhnaill, 02/02, R-An Tir] (Ed. Note: the byname conflict was overturned in December 2001. The conflict between inghean Domhnaill and MacDonald was overturned in the Cover Letter to the April 2002 LoAR.)
François la Flamme 2002.01 Ságadís was proposed as a constructed feminine given name. Examples of feminine given names have been found which are formed from major figures in the Norse pantheon (Thor, Odin, Freya) and use the deuterotheme dís. However, no documentation was provided that Sága falls into the same category as Thor, Odin, and Freya. The only documentation provided for Sága was as "a female mythological name" in E. H. Lind, Norsk-isländska dopnamn ock fingerade namn från medeltiden. Simply saying "a female mythological name" gives no indication what type of character Sága was in mythology, whether she was a goddess, a human, or some other type of creature. Therefore, we have no evidence that Sága is falls into the category of names combined with dís to form feminine given names in period. Lacking such documentation, this name is not a plausible construction. [Ságadís Duncansdaughter, 01/02, R-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2002.01 The submitter requested "assistance in finding the Norse word for 'tanner', so that the entire name can be rendered into a single language." Unfortunately, doing so would make this name unregisterable, as double nicknames have been ruled unregisterable in Old Norse, lacking supporting documentation of use of multiple nicknames simultaneously:
.. the double nickname is even more problematical. It's true that Geirr Bassi says that some Norseman had more than one nickname simultaneously; however, he does not say that more than one would actually have been used in a given instantiation of the name, and we have no examples to show what kinds of combinations were actually used. Two purely descriptive nicknames with roughly the same sense seems an unlikely combination. It seems especially unlikely for someone who is apparently a slave: Geirr says that in general only slaves had no patronymic or metronymic. Had one of the nicknames been preposed, we'd have given the construction the benefit of the doubt on the grounds that in some of the historical examples a preposed nickname seems almost to have become part of the given name; unfortunately, it is not clear that either of them can be. It is possible that with further research this name could be adequately justified; at present, however, it contains too many problematic elements for comfort. (Grímr Blóðúlfr Berserkr, 2/96 p. 18)
Reaney & Wilson (p. 439 s.n. Tanner) date William le Tanner to 1256. This is early enough to avoid a weirdness for temporal disparity, so the submitted name only has a weirdness for mixing Old Norse and English. In English, the pattern [given name] [descriptive byname] [occupational byname] is unexceptional. As the problematic element (the occupational byname as a second byname in a Norse name) is unexceptional in this position in the language in which it is submitted (English), this name is registerable.

Regarding the submitter's request for a form of 'tanner' appropriate to Old Norse, Geirr Bassi lists brák 'a tanner's tool, spreader' and hvitaleðr 'white leather'. Either of these bynames would be appropriate to a tanner. Given the information in Geirr Bassi, a man named Oddr who was a tanner and who had acquired the descriptive byname ölfúss ('desirous of beer') would sometimes be called Oddr ölfúss and sometimes Oddr brák (or Oddr hvitaleðr). [Oddr ölfúss the Tanner, 01/02, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.01 The submitted name is a combination of an Anglicized Irish given name and an Old Norse byname. Mixing Scots and Old Norse in a name has been ruled unregisterable:
The combination of an Old Norse given name and an Anglicized Scots patronymic had too severe a temporal disparity. We have therefore changed the spelling of the given name to medieval Norwegian. [Ulvar MacVanis, A-Lochac, LoAR 07/2000]
Anglicized Irish and Scots existed in similar time period. Therefore, just as a mix of Scots and Old Norse is not registerable, a mix of Anglicized Irish and Old Norse is not registerable. [Davin Steingrimsson, 01/02, R-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2002.01 ... this name combined a hypothetical Old Norse name and a Scots byname. Mixing Scots and Old Norse in a name has been ruled unregisterable:
The combination of an Old Norse given name and an Anglicized Scots patronymic had too severe a temporal disparity. We have therefore changed the spelling of the given name to medieval Norwegian. [Ulvar MacVanis, A-Lochac, LoAR 07/2000]
[Ságadís Duncansdaughter, 01/02, R-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2002.01 Eplaheimr was submitted as a constructed name for a Viking-era farm meaning 'world of apples'. RfS III.1.a requires name phrases to be constructed of a single language. Eplaheimr does not meet this requirement, since eple is stated to be Norwegian and heimr is Old Norse. Just as we would not register a place name mixing Old English and Middle English in a single name phrase, a mix of Old Norse and Norwegian is not registerable in a single name phrase. [Ságadís Duncansdaughter and Sigmundr Hákonsson, 01/02, R-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2002.01 [Eplaheimr] There was some question about whether a Viking-era farm name is an appropriate model for a household name. Since we register household names based on late-period English manors, a Viking-era farm name is similarly registerable. [Ságadís Duncansdaughter and Sigmundr Hákonsson, 01/02, R-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Listed on the LoI as Ethelfleda Davidsdohter, the name was originally submitted as Ethelfleda Davidsdottir. David was documented as English and -dottir as Old Norse, so it was changed at kingdom to be lingually consistent. Metron Ariston found that Geirr Bassi (p. 9) lists Dávíð as a Norse name. Therefore, Dávíðsdóttir is a reasonable patronymic in Old Norse. As Old Norse names may use or not use accents, we have left them off. Mixing Old English and Old Norse is a weirdness. [Ethelfleda Daviðsdottir, 12/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Mixing Scots and Norse is registerable, though it counts as a weirdness. [Skafte Waghorne, 12/01, A-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2001.12 The name has a weirdness for mixing Swedish and Norse. [Iodis Ebbesdottir, 12/01, A-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Mixing Old English and Old Norse is a weirdness. [Ethelfleda Daviðsdottir, 12/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Submitted as Amber Roriksdottír, Amber is grandfathered to the submitter. Roriksdottír combined the Danish Rorik with the Old Norse -dóttir (with the accent misplaced). Such a mix is a violation of RfS III.1.a which requires lingual consistency in a name prase. Therefore, the byname is registerable as the completely Danish Roriksdatter or the completely Old Norse Hrœreksdóttir. From examples of bynames listed in E. H. Lind, Norsk-isländska dopnamn ock fingerade namn från medeltiden (columns 594-595 s.n. Hrórek) the form Roreksstadir would be registerable as medieval Norse. As the submitter allowed minor changes, we have registered this name in the Danish form Roriksdatter since it is the closest form to the submitted Roriksdottír. [Amber Roriksdatter, 12/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.11 A character has been used from time to time, and I would like to formally introduce it and specify its representation. The letter o ogonek is used in Geirr Bassi (because it was used in Old Icelandic). It is usually seen as an o with a small comma-like hook under it, though a Unicode reference says Various hooks, commas, and squiggles may be substituted for the nominal forms. It isn't in Latin-1, the standard Western European character set. In fact, it doesn't appear to be in any font that we currently have available. Therefore, I will represent it without further explanation as {o,}, not just in Da'ud notation text files but also in LoARs. [11/01, CL]
François la Flamme 2001.11 This name combines a pre-1100 Dutch given name with a Norse byname. Given the wide sphere of influence of Norse traders/raiders/et cetera, it seems reasonable that these two cultures had significant contact. Therefore, this combination is registerable, although a weirdness. [Aldgudana Gunnarsdóttir, 11/01, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Submitted as Brynhildr Róbertsdottir, Geirr Bassi lists Róbert as a given name in Norse. However, none of the examples in his section explaining how to form patronymic bynames address how to create a patronymic from a given name that ends in "t". We are therefore not certain that this is the correct form, but it seems reasonable. When registering Norse names, accents need to be used or omitted consistently. We have therefore added the accent to the second "o" in the byname. [Brynhildr Róbertsdóttir, 11/01, A-Artmesisia]
François la Flamme 2002.11 The byname Ingv{o,}ldarson is not quite correct. The patronymic based on the masculine name Ingv{o,}ldr is Ingvaldarson rather than Ingv{o,}ldarson. We have made this correction. [Dómarr Ingvaldarson, 11/2002, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Submitted as Styrr Oláfsson, Geirr Bassi lists the spelling Óláfr. In Norse names, the accents need to either be used consistently or omitted consistently, so we have added the missing accent to the byname. [Styrr Óláfsson, 11/01, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Jorid Bielke, the submitter requested an authentic Swedish name. The spelling Jorid was documented as "a Norse (Icelandic) name, runic Swedish 'Jofridh'". No documentation was found that the spelling Jorid was in use in period Swedish. As Bielke was dated to the 16th C, it would not have been combined with the significantly earlier Jofridh. Therefore, we have changed the given name to the documented spelling Iyrid, which Lind's Norsk-isländska dopnamn ock fingerade namn från medeltiden (s.n. Ióríðr) dates to 1356. [Iyrid Bielke, 10/01, A-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Skade från Disavi, the submitter wished to use the Lingua Anglica Allowance to use the modern Swedish particle från meaning 'from' with Disavi, a placename from the Viking era. The submitter wished to use this particle since it is in the modern language spoken by her group. ...

As the Lingua Anglica allowance is limited to the official language of the SCA (which is English), it cannot be applied to other languages. Therefore, we have changed the particle to the period frá, which is the submitter's second choice. [Skade frá Disavi, 10/01, A-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Thrandr Surtr, we have changed the capitalization of the byname to match documented forms for Old Norse names. [Thrandr surtr, 10/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Óláfr Úlfbrandsson, names that end in -brandr form patronymics with the ending -brandarson. We have corrected this byname accordingly. [Óláfr Úlfbrandarson,10/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Páll Úlfsson, Geirr Bassi indicates that the correct patronymic form of the byname is Úlfarson. We have made this change. [Páll Úlfarson, 10/01, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2001.09 The documentation submitted for the byname Vigamerr was "Viga is found in GierBassi[sic] on p. 29., meaning 'battle' and merr is found on p. 25 with the cited meaning 'mare.'" This documentation supports a byname of viga and an unrelated byname of merr. It does not provide support for combining the two elements into a byname. Without evidence that a byname meaning 'battle-mare' is reasonable in Old Norse, the byname Vigamerr is not registerable. [Emeline Vigamerr, 09/01, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2001.09 The submitter requested authenticity for Norse. The byname Trymsen is documented as 15th C Danish. As such, we were unable to make this name authentic for Norse. The submitter may wish to know that Koira noted that Eirik Trymsen would be the authentic form of this name for late period Norwegian. [Eiríkr Trymsen, 09/01, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Conflict with Leifr Jóhansson (reg. Aug 1992 via Atlantia). As noted by Kraken, "Both names mean 'Leifr son of John' and RfS V.1.a.ii.(a) indicates that as such the two bynames conflict." [Leifr Jónsson, 09/01, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2001.09 ... as with Norse names, the accents should be used or not used throughout the name. [Roise inghean ui Ruaidhri, 09/01, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Submitted as Bjórn Hilditonn, Geirr Bassi shows the "o" in the given name and in the byname as being "o ogonek", an "o" with a small hook below it, here represented as "{o,}". Geirr Bassi also shows descriptive bynames as not being capitalized. We have made these changes. [Bj{o,}rn hildit{o,}nn, 09/01, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Submitted as Bjorn Svarthúr, Geirr Bassi shows the "o" in the given name as being "o ogonek", an "o" with a small hook below it, here represented as "{o,}". We have made this change.

The byname Svarthúr was intended to mean "black hair". However, examples of descriptive bynames in Geirr Bassi that reference hair color all have the "hair" element first and the color element second. Therefore, in this case, the proper forms would seem to be inn húrsvarti and húrsvartr. As the second is closer to the submitted form, we have changed the byname to that form. [Bj{o,}rn húrsvartr, 09/01, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2001.08 Submitted as Kaaren Håkonsdóttir. ... As the submitted form combined Old Norse and 15th C Swedish, it violated RfS III.1.a by mixing languages. To clear this problem, we have changed the patronymic to the 15th C Swedish form Håkonsdotter as that is closer to the submitted byname than the Old Norse form Hákonardóttir. [Kaaren Håkonsdotter, 08/01, A-West]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.04 Submitted as Smiðr-Hákon blánef, he desired an authentic Norse name. Since the College could not find evidence of using both an occupational and descriptive byname in that culture we have dropped the first byname. [Hákon blánef, 04/01, A-Drachenwald]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.08 The byname Kálsvísa, justified as a kenning based on the name of a legendary horse, has serious problems. No evidence was submitted that proper names appeared as kennings, that is, allusive names used primarily in scaldic poetry; the most the College could find was that names were used as parts of kennings. Furthermore, the argument presented in the submission does not address the issue of whether Kálsvísa as a name refers to a particular legendary individual in such a way that its use should be prohibited. It is also unclear whether the byname is a claim to superhuman powers and therefore presumptuous. [Kormákr Kálsvísa, 08/00, R-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.07 Contrary to what the submitter thinks, -rún is not simply a feminine suffix. It is rather a deuterotheme meaning, roughly, 'secret'. Adding it to the compound name Snæúlfr would result in a three-part compound name, for which we do not have evidence. [Snæúlfrún Rauðúlfsdottir, 07/00, R-Atlantia]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.07 Unfortunately for the submitter, Geirr Bassi does not actually say that all Old Norse male names can be feminized. His example of Helgi ~ Helga is especially irrelevant in this case since Helgi is a weak masculine and Háleygr is a strong one; that is, their declinations are quite different. Since none of our sources show a feminine form of Háleygr or a pattern of similar feminizations we have to return this.

The submitter should know that metronymics, like the submitted one (which would be grammatically correct as Ólöfardóttir), were extremely rare in the Viking culture. Essentially, a metronymic byname signifies not only a bastard but one whose father is not even known. She might consider the similar-sounding patronymic Óláfsdóttir instead. [Haleya Olofsdottir, 07/00, R-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.07 Submitted as Úlfarr MacVanis, he requested an authentic Norse/Scots name. The combination of an Old Norse given name and an Anglicized Scots patronymic had too severe a temporal disparity. We have therefore changed the spelling of the given name to medieval Norwegian. [Ulvar MacVanis, 07/00, A-Lochac]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.06 [Gullinkambi Herald] As noted, Gullinkambi is Old Norse for 'Golden Comb'. While names of deities are not as such appropriate for heraldic titles, names of the type <tincture> <charge> are, when both tincture and charge are specified in everyday language. We also allow heraldic titles in languages where such titles were not used. [Ansteorra, Kingdom of, 06/00, A-Ansteorra]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.05 Submitted as Freydís Sigurðardóttir in tryggva , we have switched the elements to the correct order: given name + descriptive byname + patronymic byname. [Freydís in tryggva Sigurðardóttir, 05/00, A-Middle]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.04 Submitted as Emma inn Draumspaki, we have changed the gender of the byname to match the given and changed it to lowercase to match conventional Old Norse spelling. [Emma in draumspaka, 04/00, A-An Tir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.04 The submitter is interested in an authentic 10th–11th century Norse name, so we have changed the name from medieval Swedish to Viking-era Norse by adding one r to the given name. [Gunnarr Einarsson, 04/00, A-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.04 Submitted as Gunnarr Egilsson av Uppsala, the submitter is interested in an authentic 8th–10th century Norse name. However, this would be inconsistent with the locative byname, as the name of Uppsala is several centuries and linguistic changes younger. We have dropped the locative to get Gunnarr Egilsson, which is a plausible Viking-era name; Gunnar Egilsson av Uppsala would be a fine medieval Swedish one. [Gunnarr Egilsson, 04/00, A-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.03 Submitted as Kára MacLeod, the submitter requested an authentic 10th century Scottish name. The name itself is a mix of a Norse name and a Scots spelling of a Gaelic patronymic derived from a Norse name. Scots did not appear as a separate language after the 10th century. Furthermore, the mixture of two spelling systems is not plausible for 10th century Scotland. While elements from Gaelic and Norse may have been used in a single name, the name itself would be written either entirely in Gaelic or Norse, although the same name could have been written in either language depending on the context. For registration we chose to make the name entirely Gaelic both because it is more "Scottish" and because the resulting name is closer in sound to the original. A fully Norse form would be Kára Ljótsdottír. [Cera ingen Leoid, 03/00, A-Meridies]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.02 Submitted as Hrothgar Hrothgarsson, Hrothgar is the Anglo-Saxon form of the name so cannot be used with Norse grammar.[ Hróðgierr Hróðgierson, 02/00, A-Artemisia]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.02 There is no evidence that Volsung was ever used outside of legend. [Ingunn Völsungsdöttir, 02/00, R-Meridies]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.10 Ravenlocks does not follow any pattern for Norse names; "raven" refers only to the bird. [Astrid Ravenlocks Thorvaldsdottir, 10/99, R-Meridies]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.08 We are returning the name because the word drakkar has not been documented as a Norse (or any Scandanavian) word. It appears that the word was not used in period. Lind (Norsk-Isländska Personinamn från Medeltiden, col. 202) shows the late medieval personal name Draki with a genitive form Draks so Draksfjord looks to be a likely name. [Drakkarfjord, Canton of, 08/99, R-Lochac]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.08 No evidence was given to show that a locative taken from a river name is a valid byname in either Norse or Russian. [Bjorn of the Kuma, 08/99, R-Caid]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.07 There is no documentation indicating that "strong merchant-ship" is a reasonable epithet in Norse. We could not register the name as Magnús Thorvaldsson ... because it would then conflict with the already registered name Magnus Torvaldson. [Magnús balliknarr Thorvaldsson, 07/99, R-Atlantia]
Jaelle of Armida 1999.04 [Snorri Bjarnarson] Submitted as Snorri Vatnsalfur Bjarnarson, Vatnsalfur was glossed as a constructed epithet meaning water-sprite. However, no documentation was presented to show it was an epithet that a human being would using. We have eliminated it in order to register the name and device. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1999, p. 3)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.10 [Gerbrich Syth dochter] A very good job was done in documenting the Frisian name. However, the element Syth needs to be put in the genitive case, per the following exemplars: Marie Wouters 1460 (Marie, daughter of Wouter), Bele Henrix Scillinx dochter 1389, Lijsch Menne dochter (1511). In each instance the patronym takes the genitive case. The name Syth is an i-stem feminine name, and should take an '-e' in the genitive, to make Sythe. However, the submitter does not allow changes, so we have returned the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR October 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.09 [Sigrid de la Mare] Found on the LoI as Sigerith de la Mare, it was originally submitted as Sigrid De la Mare, and changed in kingdom. Documentation has been presented for Sigrid as a likely form since Von Feilitzen's The Pre-Conquest Names of Domesday Book, p. 364, shows the forms Sigreda, Segrid and Segrida. [9/98] (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Astridr in kyrra] Submitted as Astridr inn kyrri, the given name is feminine and the byname is in the masculine form. Since the byname must agree with the given name in gender we have corrected it. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Idhunn Thorlaksdottir] Submitted as Idhunna Thorlaksdottir, no documentation was found for the form Idhunna and none could be found. We have changed it to the closest documentable form. According to the submitter's forms she has documented Idunna in the past, but that documentation was not provided to us. If the documentation is sent to us and it is acceptable, we will change her name to Idhunna.
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Ingelri Kelvin] The name is being returned for lack of documentation. While the submitter provides copies from The Medieval Knight which said Ingelri was a name found on a Viking era sword, no documentation could be found for Ingelri in any other source. Since there is no way to know if the book was accurate, and or if the name was in the correct format, barring documentation we are forced to return the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Ragnarr Járnhauss Thorgrimsson] Submitted as Járnhuss Ragnarr Thorgrimsson, while Járnhuss is a nickname, it is not a prefix nickname, but rather goes after the given name. Therefore, we have moved it to the proper place in the name. It was also misspelt on the LoI, the correct spelling is Járnhauss. We have also corrected this. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.07 [Dis Egilsdottir] Submitted as Disa Egilsdottir, the only documentation presented for the given name was for Dis, which is a Norse female name. Since there was no documentation for Disa and none could be found, we have changed it to the documentable form.
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Freyia av Bergen] According to the LoI "[Lind's Norsk-Islandsk Personnamen col.283] has a reasonable entry for Freyia." This is not correct. While it is true that Freyia is found in Lind, the references are all to the Goddess, and not to a human being. Barring documentation that the given name was used by humans in our period as a given name, this name must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Landa Jökull Haraldsson] Submitted on the LoI as Landi-Jökull Haraldsson, the dated citations in Lind's Norsk-Islandsk Personnamen show Landa, not Landi. We have corrected this. Additionally, we have removed the out of period hyphen. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Rafn Mýra] While Mýra is found in Geirr Bassi's The Old Norse Name, it is found being used as a prefix. When it is not a prefix, it changes spelling to Mryi. However, since the submitter forbade changes, we are forced to return this name.
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Sigrid Bríánsdotter] Submitted on the LoI as Sigrid Bríansdotter, it left off an accent in the patronymic. We have corrected this. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Snorri Snarfari Bjornsson] Found on the LoI as Snorri Snarfari Bjarnarson, it was originally submitted as Snorri Snarfari Bjornsson, and changed to the form found on the LoI. Since documentation has been presented for the submitter's original form, we are restoring it. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.03 [Skald-Bragi Bragason] Submitted as Bragi Skald Bragason, Geirr Bassi (p. 27) documents skald as one of that relatively small group of bynames (like skalla) that prefix the given name. Therefore, the epithet should appear before Bragi. We have made that required change. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1998, p. 14)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Andreas Björn] Submitted as Andreas Björnlik, no documentation was presented and none could be found for this formation (Bear-corpse) as a period byname. However, since Old Norse used Fox as a byname, Björn by itself no more than one weirdness. We are dropping the lik in order to register the name and the armory. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 4)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Thora Wolframsdochter] Submitted as Thora Wolframsdottir, Wolfram is not a Norse given name, but rather German. As such it cannot be combined with a Norse patronymic suffix. We have changed the suffix to a German form [Wolframsdochter]. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 6)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.09 The article does not get capitalized in Old Norse. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1997, p. 1)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.08 [returning the byname Wolfbane][Rowan Wolfbane] Bynames of the form X-bane don't seem to have been used in our period, though it's just possible that the ON cognate bani was so used. In ON one could construct úlfsbani, meaning either `wolf's killer' or `Ulf's killer', but this doesn't justify Wolfbane. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1997, p. 24)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.08 in the past we have returned names using Skallagrim as being unique names, since the only reference we had to it was the father of Egill of Egil's Saga. The name Ivar Skallagrim (Ansteorra) was returned 4/88 on those grounds An appeal of the return was denied 12/89. On the 1/89 LoAR the submitted Thjodulf Skallagrimsson (Meridies) was changed to Thjodulf Grimsson for the same reason. However, we now have more information. Although Skallagrímr is in origin a combination of the nickname Skalla- 'bald' and the forename Grímr, Lind, Norsk-Isländska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namm från Medeltiden, s.n. Skallagrímr notes that there is at least one instance of the compound Skallagrímr as a forename in its own right: a Skallagrimr Audvnar son died in 1353. Egils saga Skallagrímssonar is thought to have been written c.1220; Egill himself was a contemporary of Eirík Blóðøx, so he can be dated to the 10th c. A 14th c. Úlfr Skallagrímsson is therefore entirely possible. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1997, p. 11)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.08 Old Norse doesn't capitalise descriptive names. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1997, p. 7)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.07 No documentation was provided, not could anyone provide any, for the name Thor being used in Scandinavia in period for human beings. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1997, p. 12)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.05 [returning Freyja the Cunning] The byname is also problematic: on the 5/94 LoAR the name Eirik the Wandering was returned because `[n]o one was able to document an authentic English byname formed from the present participle of a word'. Cunning, earlier cunnand, is in origin the present participle of can `to know'. This is a borderline case, since it seems to have acquired independent status as an adjective fairly early, but it at least needs to be mentioned. (By the way, the LoI slightly misleads in appearing to date cunning to 1382; the actual citation is for kunnynge.) If she wants an attested English byname, she might try Slei, Slegh, Sley, le Slege, Sly, etc. These citations, all from the 13th c., are in Reaney & Wilson s.n. Slay and represent the modern English sly, from ON sloegr `sly, cunning, crafty'. Of course, if she returns with an ON forename, the ON byname would be even better. Its feminine forms would be sloeg and, with the definite article, in sloega. There are other possibilities if she prefers another shade of meaning, e.g., gör `skilled, accomplished' (or in göra `the accomplished'). Another possibility, this one etymologically related to cunning, is kunnandi `cunning, knowing, learned' (or in kunnandi). Freygerðr in sloega (in göra, in kunnandi) would be a perfectly acceptable ON feminine name.
Jaelle of Armida 1997.05 [returning Freyja the Cunning] There is no documentation for the name Freya/Freyja being used for anyone but the Goddess in our period. SCA given names must be given names used by Human beings in our period. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR May 1997, p. 9)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.04 The spelling Alrik is taken from a book by Gwyn Jones. While Gwyn Jones is a well known scholar, he is not a linguist or an onomasticist, and does not really care too much on how he transliterates Scandinavian names. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1997, p. 3)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.03 [Owain ap Einar] Although Einar is a Scandinavian name, we are allowing the use of ap, which is Welsh in front of it, since the spelling would be reasonable in Welsh. Welsh has a habit of adopting non-Welsh names as is into Welsh, and there is a long history of Welsh/Scandinavian cultural proximity and contact. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1997, p. 1)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.02 [returning Haki Longswimmer] The byname obviously requires the lingua anglica allowance. This may be used provided that one of two conditions is met. The byname may be an English translation of a documented period byname in the source language, here ON, so long as the translation is chosen so as not to be obtrusively modern; or it may be a fairly generic period English byname in a period form. (See the discussion of the name Arianna othe Windisle (An Tir) in the 2/96 LoAR.) Longswimmer meets neither of those criteria: it's not a normal ME form of byname, and it's not a translation of a known ON byname. The attested byname skjótandi `shooter, archer' is a present participle corresponding to English shooting; an ON byname modelled on this one would be langsvimmandi, literally `long-swimming'. Haki Langsvimmandi, however, is probably reasonable enough. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1997, p. 25)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.01 No documentation was presented to show that Fafnir was used by humans in period, and Lind, from where the name was documented, marks it as mythological. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1997, p. 20)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.01 Submitted as Katrinn Maddalena Damiani de Ferrara, no evidence was presented to support the combination of an Old Norse and Italian names in the same name. We have substituted the Italian form of Katrinn and replaced the French "of" with the proper Italian form. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1997, p. 10)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.12 [Ivar Snaebjorn] Old Norse does not use unmarked patronymics, so the proper ON name formed from these elements would be Ívarr Snæbjarnarson. The Old Norse nickname for ice bear (polar bear) is hvítabjörn, not snaebjorn. Since the submitter refuses to take changes, we have no choice but to return the name. [This suggests that either problem is sufficient reason for return.] (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR December 1996, p. 14)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.11 [Odinkar the Distress Bringer] The byname "Distress Bringer" does not follow any period exemplars in either Old Norse or English. [The submission was returned.] (, (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR November 1996, p. 14)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.05 Old Norse naming practice apparently didn't extend to double given names, and we have no evidence for double nicknames, either (except possibly when one is preposed, as in Skalla-Grímr). (Talan Gwynek, LoAR May 1996, p. 7)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.05 The name was submitted as Blund-Úlfr Kleykir. Though we have no evidence for Old Norse use of more than one nickname at a time, there is some indication that at times a preposed nickname combined with the given name to produce what was effectively a new given name. We are therefore giving the name the benefit of the doubt, though we have followed what seems to have been normal documentary practice in fusing nickname and name. (Blundúlfr Kleykir, 5/96 p. 15)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.03 [Wulfric Gylðir] The combination of Old English and Old Norse can probably be justified for the Danelaw, though the available evidence suggests that such spellings as Ulfric and Wlfric (probably representing Old Swedish or Old Danish Ulfrik) were the norm. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR March 1996, p. 8)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.02 [Eadwine Rune-Deniga] No evidence has been presented that kennings and other poetic expressions were used as bynames. Previous returns for this reason involved Old Norse names, but the limited evidence available for Old English bynames suggests that they were equally down-to-earth. We are therefore returning this name and broadening the precedent to include Old English as well as Old Norse bynames. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR February 1996, p. 18)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.02 [returning Grímr Blóðúlfr Berserkr] Blóðúlfr 'blood-wolf' was justified in the LoI on the basis of the attested bynames blóðøx 'blood-axe' and kveldúlfr 'evening-wolf, werewolf'. We aren't sure that these are sufficient justification for the meaning 'blood-wolf', but we agree with the Caidan CoH that it is likelier than 'wolf-blood'; had there been no other question about the name, we'd have given it the benefit of the doubt. However, the double nickname is even more problematical. It's true that Geirr Bassi says that some Norseman had more than one nickname simultaneously; however, he does not say that more than one would actually have been used in a given instantiation of the name, and we have no examples to show what kinds of combinations were actually used. Two purely descriptive nicknames with roughly the same sense seems an unlikely combination. It seems especially unlikely for someone who is apparently a slave: Geirr says that in general only slaves had no patronymic or metronymic. Had one of the nicknames been preposed, we'd have given the construction the benefit of the doubt on the grounds that in some of the historical examples a preposed nickname seems almost to have become part of the given name; unfortunately, it is not clear that either of them can be. It is possible that with further research this name could be adequately justified; at present, however, it contains too many problematic elements for comfort. (Grímr Blóðúlfr Berserkr, 2/96 p. 18)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1996.01 Some commenters questioned the plausibility of the byname in combination with a Norse given name. There are at least two possible justifications; neither is wholly convincing, but they are enough to justify giving the name the benefit of the doubt. She may be a Spaniard living in Scandinavia who has adopted (or been given) a more familiar name. Alternatively, the byname may be an example of a phenomenon well-attested in the Middle Ages, at least for men's names: traders were sometimes named for the place with which they traded, and similarly, those who had lived abroad were sometimes named for the place where they had lived. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR January 1996, pp. 10-11)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1996.01 The byname was originally submitted as Bölvisbörr, which the submitter mistakenly thought meant `mischievous warrior'. Bölvíss is `detestable, mischievous' (literally `bale-wise'), but börr is a kind of tree. The error stems from a misunderstood entry in Zoëga's Old Icelandic Dictionary in which börr skjaldar, literally `shield's tree', is glossed as a poetic term (i.e., kenning) for a warrior. The Caidan CoH caught the error and added skjaldar in an attempt to rectify it.

Unfortunately, there is no evidence that such poetic expressions were actually used as bynames, which were much more down to earth. We therefore reaffirm the precedent set in the 9/94 return of Hrolfr sverö-Freyr (Atenveldt), in which Laurel declined to register a similar kenning with the following explanation:

The relevant entry in Gordon is sverð-Freyr, literally `sword-Frey'. The usual transliterations without the edh would be sverd-Freyr and Sverdh-Freyr. However, as the context of the poem from which the phrase is taken shows, sverð-Freyr is not a straightforward word for `warrior'; rather it is a kenning taken from a form of court poetry. It is quite different from the more straightforward, earthy examples of bynames shown in Geirr Bassi and other sources. Without evidence for the use of such fanciful bynames by real people, we are reluctant to register it here. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR January 1996, p. 25)

Da'ud ibn Auda 1996.01 There was certainly enough mediæval traffic between northeastern England and Scandinavia to justify combining an Anglo-Scandinavian patronymic with a Scandinavian given name. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR January 1996, p. 9)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.12 [Aesilief inn Harlogi] The byname, given as inn Hárlogi on her form, is incorrectly constructed for the desired meaning of `the Flame-hair', which in any case does not appear to be compatible with the literal nature of Old Norse bynaming. (The only period language in which a byname with this meaning has been found is Greek; synonymous constructions in other languages have consistently been returned, most recently Fiona Flamehair (5/93 LoAR, An Tir).) The actual meaning of the byname seems to be no more suitable... Hárlogi, from hár `hair' and logi `[a] flame', isn't analogous to the attested hárfagri `fair-hair', since fagri `fair' is an adjective. Such noun-noun compounds are possible in Old Norse, but as in similar English compounds (e.g., sunrise) the first noun modifies the second. The construction hárlogi would therefore mean something like `hair-like flame, filamentous flame'; log(a)hár would be `hair of flame', but probably only in an unfortunately literal sense. Similarly, hárbrandr would mean `hair-like firebrand'. Two attested Old Norse words with meanings close to the desired sense are hárbjartr `bright-haired' (which probably refers to a very blond person) and rau hárr `red- haired'; as feminine adjectival bynames with the definite article these would become in hárbjarta and in rau hára, respectively. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR December 1995, p. 15)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.12 No Room for Runes. The submission of Thyra Thorkilsdottir (Middle) raised another interesting question. The submitter justified some unusual spellings on the grounds that she was transliterating Scandinavian runes. On the face of it this should be acceptable enough, since we allow a variety of transliterations of Arabic, Hebrew, and Cyrillic writing, among others. On further investigation, however, this proved to be a rather different situation. It's true that transliterations of runic inscriptions are often quite different from the usual forms of the same words and names when they are written in Roman letters. The most common Scandinavian runic alphabets had fewer letters than the Roman alphabet, and as a result several runes can represent more than one letter or combination of letters. For example, a single rune was used for o and u. But when a word was written in the Roman alphabet, the distinction between the two was maintained; we do not find simple transliterations from the runic futhark to the Roman alphabet. Thus, for example, the name Gormr, when written in Roman letters, is written Gormr, even though the runic version is generally transliterated kurmR. We record a Roman alphabet version of registered names; when necessary, we transliterate. In the case of Arabic names, say, transliteration is necessary, though we may use either ours or some mediæval version. But in the case of Old Norse names, transliteration is unnecessary, because there was already a standard way to write these names in the Roman alphabet. Therefore we will follow period usage and write Old Norse names as they would have been written in the Roman alphabet. Of course, just as Demetrios, Vasilii, and Haroun are welcome to write their names in Greek, Cyrillic, and Arabic script, respectively, Steinólfr and Ingrí r may surely write theirs in runes; but for documentary purposes we will use only the Roman alphabet forms. (CL 12/95)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.10 [registering the epithet Greyslátr] The byname, a compound of grey `a greyhound, a bitch; a paltry fellow, a coward' and slátr `butcher's meat; meat that has been slaughtered', is clearly derogatory, but so were many Old Norse bynames. A weaker form of the same idea is found in the attested slagakollr `brisket; cut of meat'. (An attested Old Norse byname for a mercenary is hei menningr, from hei `stipend'.) (Eiríkr Greyslátr, 10/95 p. 1)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.10 [registering the patronymic Haraldson] Haraldsson is the usual Old Norse form, but there are a few examples showing loss of the genitive marker -s. (Mikjal Haraldson, 10/95 p. 10)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.09 Andvari was `documented' from Kolatch as the Old Norse form of Andrew, thereby providing further evidence of Kolatch's uselessness. According to Lind, Andvari is mythological, the name of a dwarf in the Sæmundar Edda hins fróda; we need evidence of its use by human beings. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR September 1995, p. 29)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.02 [Eric Ibrahim Mozarab] No documentation has been found for combined Norse-English/Arabic names. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR February 1995, p. 14)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.12 The Althing was specifically the national assembly of Iceland held at Thingvellir. Thus, Althing is not a place one could be "from" or "of"; the name makes no more sense that way than "John of Parliament" or "Elizabeth of Congress". However, a person present at a thing was a thingmadr, literally `thing-man'. This refers specifically to men; the feminine analogue would be thingkona (though it is probably unhistorical.) (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR December 1994, p. 1)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.09 [returning the byname sverð-Freyr] Sverð-Freyr is not a straightforward word for 'warrior'; rather it is a kenning taken from a form of court poetry. It is quite different from the more straightforward, earthy examples of bynames shown in Geirr Bassi and other sources. Without evidence for the use of such fanciful bynames by real people, we are reluctant to register it here. (Hrolfr sverð-Freyr, 9/94 p. 18)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.09 A mixture of ON and Gaelic isn't in itself out of the question, and both in ON and in Gaelic a two-generation patronymic is possible, but none of the commenters could find support for a mixed-language, two-generation patronymic. [The name was returned.] (Eirik Gunnolfsson Mac an Ghabhann, 9/94 15)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.05 [Returning Krista al Kamil.] The example of combined Arabic/Spanish names is not sufficient support for combined Swiss/Arabic names. (The submitter seemed to be confusing the Swedes and the Swiss in her documentation. Caches of Arab silver coins have been found in Scandinavia, not Switzerland. And the presence of Arabic silver coins in Sweden is only evidence that the trade routes extended that far, not that the people at the two ends of those trade routes had any direct dealings with each other.) [5/94, p.22]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.05 [Returning Mredyth Vetrgaupa.] [T]he combination of an Anglicized Welsh masculine given name with a compound Icelandic byname [is] highly improbable ... . [5/94, p.14]
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.10 [Borhe Olafs] Lacking any direct evidence to the contrary, we will assume that the genitive form of the father's name [Olafr], with no suffixes or particles, is as acceptable here as it would be in English (e.g. Stevens). (Borhe Olafs, October, 1993, pg. 6)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.10 Swedish-Italian interaction is documented in the Saga of Harald the Ruthless, the story of a Viking's expedition to Sicily: "Actually, King Harald the Ruthless didn't do so well in southern Italy because he met up with compatriots, tribal brothers. Normans from Normandy had moved down there ...even threatening Byzantine properties." ( The Norsemen by Count Eric Oxenstierna, p. 279). Swedes, of course, formed the original Verangian guard in Byzantium, and from there they sailed the Mediterranean. The Italian historian Liudprand (ca. 922-972) wrote in Byzantium, "There is a race living in the north whom the Greeks, because of a peculiarity [he is referring to their red-blond coloring] call Rusii, whereas we call them Normans, according to the location of their homeland. " (quotes in original text, ibid., p. 107). An Italian-Scandinavian name would therefore be acceptable. (Sylvia Stjarnstirrare, October, 1993, pg. 10)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.09 [Magnus Bjornsson Fairhair] The current construction describes the submitter's father Bjorn as "fairhair" and not himself. If the submitter wishes to be the blond, he should resubmit as Magnus Fairhair Bjornsson. (Magnus Bjornsson Fairhair, September, 1993, pg. 13)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.10 [Asbjornsson] Though Asbjarnarson is the standard patronymic form for Old Norse, there are period examples (e.g. Bjornsson) of this variation. (Thorsteinn Asbjornsson, October, 1992, pg. 10)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 [Arianna Gunnarsdottir] The Italian given name does not seem compatible with the Old Norse patronymic. Per Rule III.2, we need evidence of period Old Norse/Italian interaction before we can register this name. (Arianna Gunnarsdottir, September, 1992, pg. 43)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 [Thorfinn Skull Splitter] The byname is the translation of the Old Norse hausakljúlfr (Geirr Bassi, p.22); and having recently accepted the epithet Fence Splitter, we feel we must accept the lingua franca translation of a period byname. (Thorfinn Skull Splitter, September, 1992, pg. 26)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 [Thyrin] The LOI attempted to justify [the given name] as a variant of Thorin. However, the Y/O shift appears implausible for the period in which Thorin was a name [old Norse]. [The documented Norse name Thyrnni was registered instead.] (Thyrnni of Wolfskrag, September, 1992, pg. 36)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.08 [Magnidottir] Magni is indeed the genitive form of Magnus --- in Latin. The correct form of the name would be either Magnadottir (if her father is Magni) or Magnúsdottir (if her father is Magnus) [name returned as submittor permitted no corrections]. (Ingfridh Magnidottir, August, 1992, pg. 30)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.08 [Stormrkartr] The byname is incorrectly formed: in combination, stormr loses its final R. Even were it correctly formed, it wouldn't mean what the submitter claims: stormkartr means "storm cart", not "storm bringer". Finally, even if the name meant "storm bringer", it would be a claim to superhuman powers, forbidden under Rule VI.2. (Knutr Stormrkartr, August, 1992, pg. 24)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.07 [Fence Splitter] While this is registerable, perhaps you could suggest to the submitter a more authentic byname: e.g. Trandill ("split-stick"), or Timbrklofandi ("timber-splitter"). (Eirikr Fence Splitter, July, 1992, pg. 4)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1992.03 "Lord Treblerose... documented Norse patronymics in period using the genitive 's' as well as their more 'correct' genitive forms. Thus Bjarnisson is as acceptable as the technically more correct Bjarnasson." [Supersedes LoAR of 1/92 p.5] (LoAR 3/92 p.4).
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1992.03 [Asbjarnarson] "Submitted as... Asbjornson. The name has been modified to correct the grammar of the patronym. Laurel is hesitant to extend the allowance made for Bjornsson to include compound names without more period evidence for support." [overruled LoAR 3/92 p.4] (LoAR 1/92 p.5).
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1992.01 [Asbjarnarson] "Submitted as... Asbjornson. The name has been modified to correct the grammar of the patronym. Laurel is hesitant to extend the allowance made for Bjornsson to include compound names without more period evidence for support." [overruled 3/92 p.4] (LoAR 1/92 p.5).
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1991.11 "While there are a number of Scottish patronymics formed from Old Norse personal names, no evidence was presented that the reverse ever occurred. This makes sense as the migration of settlers appears to have been pretty much one-way, from Scandinavia to Britain." (LoAR 11/91 p.17).
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1991.10 [Runamagi, meaning "Rune-belly"] "A pattern of usage of similar epithets in Norse, particularly Hrísmagi ('brushwood stomach'), lends credence to this formation. It was pointed out, however, that Orramagi ('scarbelly') would have been much more likely." (LoAR 10/91 p.1).
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1991.04 "Given that Gandalfr is cited in Geirr Bassi as a name clearly given to a human in period, and that there are no other references to Gandalf the Gray, I can see no real bar to registering the name. It seems to me to be in the same class as the name Conan, which may have very strong associations for many people with one specific character, but which is none the less an acceptable Society name." (LoAR 4/91 p.4).
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1991.04 "Kveldulf is a unique name, applied to the grandfather of Egil Skallagrimsson, given to him because he came alive only at night and apparently had werewolf-like tendencies. As a unique name, its use in a patronymic form is a claim to relationship, which is disallowed by RfS V.5." (LoAR 4/91 p.14).
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1990.08 [Thor, used to form the byname Thorsen] "No documentation was presented supporting the use of Thor, by itself, as a given name in period. All of the examples found by commenters used it as part of a compound (Thorvald, Thorbjorn etc.)" (LoAR 8/90 p.16).
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.09.30 The name "Aegir" is not Celtic, as stated on the letter of intent, it is the name of the Norse god of the sea and, as such, is not eligible for use in the Society unless it has been documented to be used by normal human beings in period. Such documentation has not been forthcoming. (LoAR 30 Sep 89, p. 14)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1989.02.26 In October, 1988 ... Laurel stated "we would dearly like to see some clear period documentation for the genitive form of "Bjorns", but have not thus far been presented with any. [Some] have responded to this challenge ... in providing period examples from Sveriges Medeltida Personnama (col. 318-326, 343-346). This compilation of period personal names from Swedish sources contains dates for each documented form. This tome documents such period genitive forms as "Biornar", "Biorns", and "Byorns", showing the precise sort of alternations of form for which Laurel had asked ("Biorns" is shown as early as 1360). The feminine patronymic form is demonstrated from the fourteenth century as well ("Marghet Bjronsdotter" from 1368, "Cecilia Biornsdoter" from 1377, etc.). (LoAR 26 Feb 89, p. 9)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.10.30 "Kveld-Ulfr" may well be a unique name like "Skalla-Grimr": the adjective "kveld" was added to the given name "Ulfr" for the grandfather of Egil Skallagrimsson, a famous berserker. He was apparently given the name because he only came alive in the evenings and possibly because he was considered by some to be a werewolf in actuality. (LoAR 30 Oct 88, p. 13)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.10.30 As the given name was English, we felt that it was proper to use the Old English form of the patronymic [Beornsson] which is closer in sound to the form submitted [Bjornsson]. [The Norse form is Bjarnarson] (LoAR 30 Oct 88, p. 3)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.11.27 The definite article is suffixed to the noun in Norwegian. (LoAR 27 Nov 88, p. 2)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.04.23 [Bakersdatter] There is significant doubt about the use of occupational surnames formed with the feminine patronymic particle in period Scandinavian languages and the submission gives no evidence to support this. (LoAR 23 Apr 88, p. 14)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.02.21 While there is a tendency in modern sources to apply the term Scylding to the Danes in general, when distinguishing them from the other "Viking" peoples, the term more properly applies to the early Danish royal house ... and it is in this sense that it would be most commonly interpreted by a member of our Society. (LoAR 21 Feb 88, p. 11) [Name returned]
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.10.31 You cannot use a German article with an Old Norse noun. (LoAR 31 Oct 87, p. 11)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.03.29 This is, unfortunately, a case where context makes this name unacceptable. Thora is a perfectly good Norse theophoric name and has been registered in the past. The submittor also provided maps showing that Asgardur is, on modern maps at least, a location in Iceland.... However, to almost everyone in the Society Asgard (Old Norse Asgardr) means but one thing: the home of the gods in the Scandinavian pantheon. This is just not an acceptable "home town" for someone in the Society. That this place name is combined with a name which differs by only one letter from that of one of the most prominent of the Aesir only makes the twitches produced by the name more pronounced. (LoAR 29 Mar 87, p. 22)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.04.26 The [Norse] citations noted ... unfortunately are all from the Penguin English translations, which are notoriously random in their forms: although they seldom obscure the given names and patronymics often take modern English forms or are compounded of modern and period forms. (LoAR 26 Apr 87, p. 12)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.01.25 Unfortunately, "t" is not interchangeable with the character transliterated as "th" in Old Norse, the language specifically stated to be the language of intent. The submittor clearly indicated that he wished the second part of the name to mean "Thor" so the "th" consonant must be used. (LoAR 25 Jan 87, p. 19)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1986.12.28 The elements in the given name could not be documented as name elements, rather than independent words and the period Scandinavian languages, where they were not "borrowing" Biblical names, generally were like Old German, Old English and Old Norse in drawing "prothemes" and "deuterothemes" from a fixed pool of words. (LoAR 28 Dec 86, p. 15)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1986.09.27 Since the submittor indicated that the name should be Old Norse, I have modified the patronymic [(Name)datter] to the proper Old Norse form [(Name)dottir]. (LoAR 27 Sep 86, p. 2)
Baldwin of Erebor 1986.08.03 We are familiar with Thrym only as the name of one of the Norse frost giants, and find the idea of being a giant's fosterling a bit excessive. [BoE, 3 Aug 86, p.13]
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1981.01.27 The rule is that the surname of a royal family or clan, membership in which means one has a claim to the throne, however tenuous, is not to be used in the SCA. An example is Yngling, the royal house of Norway. WVS [33] [CL 27 Jan 81], p. 3
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1980.01.22 Halftrollson is an accepted Viking nickname indicating fierceness, and not parentage. Halfelfson would not be acceptable. WVS [9] [LoAR 22 Jan 80], p. 5
Karina of the Far West 1979.06.30 [N. Thorsson.] Between the patronymic and the charge [a hammer], no way. We are all mortals here and none of us can claim to have a god for a father unless he can prove it, and we take a lot of convincing (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 66)
Karina of the Far West 1979.06.30 Skallagrim, Bald-Grim, was a real person and what sons he had are known. Take another surname or patronymic and resubmit. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 68)
Karina of the Far West 1978.08.17 Of course he can't be "Odinsson" without proof of his parentage. (A few ash leaves in midwinter?) (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 9)
Karina of the Far West 1977.08.11 Nifelheim is not a land inhabited by mortals. (KFW, 11 Aug 77 [14], p. 5)
Karina of the Far West 1976.01.30 What, if anything, is this name supposed to mean? My resident Norse expert says it's nonsense. (KFW, 30 Jan 76 [2], p. 4) [The submission was approved.]
Harold Breakstone 1972.01.31 Why can't people put together halfway consistent medieval identities? N. touched me off, but I could cite you several dozen examples almost as bad. Name should agree with surname and ekenames, and arms should be in keeping. I wish more people followed the Scandinavian practice of taking a surname that corresponds to the coat of arms -- most people had patronymics, and when a man was ennobled he took arms and surname together. Thus Hammarskjold has crossed hammers with four roundels, Oxenstjerna a bull's head with a star, and Papegoy -- I'm not kidding " a parrot. (KFW, 31 Jan 72 [23], p. 2)