Collected Precedents of the S.C.A.: Scottish (non-Gaelic)


Name Precedents: Scottish (non-Gaelic)

For names from Scotland rendered in Gaelic, see:

Laurel: Date: (year.month.date) Precedent:
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 Ian has been ruled SCA-compatible. [Ian Gordon, 05/04, A-Meridies]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 This name combines Welsh and Anglicized Gaelic elements, which is one step from period practice.[Kendal Macalpin, 05/04, A-Middle]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 Submitted as Kathelyne Fraser of Lochdoy, her name was registered in October 2003 as Katherine Fraser of Lochdoy to meet the submitter's request for an authentic Scottish name. The submitter requested a reconsideration of her originally submitted name, dropping the request for authenticity. The originally submitted form of her name, which combined a Flemish given name with Scots bynames, is certainly registerable. There is substantial contact between Flanders and Scotland from the 12th C on onward including large Flemish households in Scottish burghs. That names should combine elements from both naming pools is expected. [Kathelyne Fraser of Lochdoy, 05/04, A-Artemsia]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 Given the lack of double-given names in Scots and the classic Scots naming pattern of given+surname+placename, Alpin in this name must be interpreted as an unmarked patronymic. The registerability of this name hinges on whether there is a pattern in Scots of Anglicized or Latinized Gaelic personal names becoming unmarked patronymics. A search through Black shows a few examples including Kilschyn Gilcrist in 1296 and William Bran, 1629. This is sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt. [Aidan Alpin of Dunkeld, 05/04, A-Middle]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 This name mixes an English place name with an otherwise Scots name; such a mixture was declared one step from period practice in September 2001. However, many Scots name forms are identical to English name forms. Furthermore, many of the standard sources used by the SCA College of Arms, including the Oxford English Dictionary and Reaney & Wilson, Dictionary of English Surnames, make no distinction between English and Scots forms. We are therefore overturning this precedent, and declaring that names combining Scots and English forms are no longer considered a step from period practice. [Michael Duncan of Hadley, 04/04, A-Caid]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 This name combines Gaelic and Scots, which is one step from period practice. [Muireadhach Fairley, 04/04, A-Lochac]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 This name combines Gaelic and Scots orthographies, which is one step from period practice.

The byname combination "de Bruce the Fowler" is grandfathered to her; it is her husband's registered surname. [Caitrina de Bruce the Fowler, 04/04, A-Artemesia]

Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.03 This name combines a 12th C placename with an otherwise 16th C name. However, this temporal disparity is only one step from period practice. A possible 16th century form this of name is Fergus MacCarlich of Earlistoune; this spelling of the locative is dated to 1553 in Black. [Fergus MacCarlich of Ercildune03/04, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2004.03 Submitted as Máire Caitlín Macleod, there were several issues with this name.

No documentation was provided and none was found that the form Caitlin was used in period, though evidence was found of Caitlín as a Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. Lacking evidence that Caitlin is a plausible period form of this name, it is not registerable. The Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name is Caitilín.

This name had two given names in Gaelic, which has long been reason for return. Dropping one of the given names would resolve this issue. However, dropping Caitlín would result in the name Máire Macleod, which would conflict with Maura MacLeod (registered in September 2001). Dropping Máire (and replacing the post-period Caitlín with the period form Caitilín) would result in the name Caitilín Macleod, which would conflict with Caitlin MacLeod (registered in June 1989).

Members of the College offered a number of suggestions that may interest the submitter.

Fully Gaelic forms of this name that seem to be clear of conflict at this time are Máire inghean Leóid and Caitilín inghean Leóid.

Siren pointed out Scots (a language closely related to English) forms of this name that would retain forms of both given names:

[...] a fully Scots name, like <Mare Catrine Macleod>, which would have a single weirdness for the two names. <Mare> is from Talan's "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records"; <Catrine> is an interpolated form (given <Katrine>, <Katrina> and <Catrina>) from the same source. Both are 16th c. forms.

Of all of these changes, the Scots form Mare Catrine Macleod is the closest to the submitted form of this name. As the submitter allows major changes, we have modified this name to the Scots form suggested by Siren in order to register this name. [Mare Catrine Macleod, 03/2004, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2004.03 Listed on the LoI as Peter of Turnberry, this name was submitted as Petyr of Turnberry. The given name was changed at Kingdom because the submitter requested authenticity for Scotland, and the submitted documentation did not support Petyr as a Scottish name.

Boke was able to document Petir as a Scottish spelling: "Black s.n. <Cochran> has <Petir Couchran> 1487." Siren was able to document that i and y are sometimes used interchangeably in Scotland:

Effric's "Early 16th Century Scottish Lowland Names" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/lowland16/) has a few names that exist with both <-i-> and <-y-> in the middle of names, including <Cristane>/<Crystane>, <Kitte>/<Kytte>, <Dauyd>/<Dauid>, and <Martyne>/<Martine>.

Given this evidence, Petyr is a plausible Scots name, and the name can be restored to its original form.

All the dated forms of the placename that the College could find, as well as those that appear on the LoI, have only a single r in -bery. We have, therefore, made that change. [Petyr of Turnbery, 03/2004, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2004.03 Listed on the LoI as Alastair Kirkpatrick, this name was submitted as Alastar Kirckpatrick and changed to follow documented spellings. The submitter requested authenticity for 1300-1500 Scottish and allowed any changes.

The submitted form of this name was Scots, a language closely related to English. (The form Alastair, used by Kingdom, is a Gaelic rather than Scots form.) All information found by the College showed that forms similar to Alastar only appeared in Scots in the second half of the 16th C. Dated Scots forms of this name that were found by the College include Allester, 1581 (Black s.n. MacEwan), Alester Modrell, 1596 (Black s.n. Motherwell), and Alister McWilliam McPhadrik, 1579 (Black s.n. MacKay). Additionally, Effric Neyn Ken{gh}ocht Mcherrald found examples of this name in her research:

16th century (Inverness Records):
Allister Dow in Abertarff 1562
Allister Roy Mcken3ie 1562

During the submitter's desired time period, the form of this name in use in Scots was Alexander. For example, Black, s.n. Tod, dates Alexander Tode to 1467. As no evidence was found of any form of Alastar in use in Scots previous to the second half of the 16th C, we have changed the given name to Alexander in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Alexander Kirkpatrick, 03/2004, A-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2004.03 No documentation was presented and none was found that MacLean is a plausible period form. Black (p. 536 s.n. MacLean) dates a number of forms of this byname including those cited in the LoI:

The 14th and 15th century spellings that Black cites include M'Gilhon 1326, M'Gillon 1329, M'Gilleoin, 1485. M'Clane is found dated 1514 and Maklane is dated 1591.

None of these forms support the spelling MacLean. Lacking evidence that MacLean is a plausible period form, it is not registerable. As the submitter allows no changes, we were unable to modify this name to a period form in order to register this name. [Geoffrey MacLean, 03/2004, R-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2004.02 The submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 14th C "Scots-Gaelic" and allowed minor changes. This name combines a Gaelic given name with a placename documented to 1540 in Scots (a language closely related to English). In period, a man named Murchadh from Garrioch would have had his name written completely in Scots or completely in Gaelic depending upon the language of the document in which his name was recorded. At this time, no evidence has been found of placenames used in Gaelic names in Scotland except as part of chiefly titles, though some examples have been found of locative bynames used in Irish Gaelic in period. As the submitter only allowed minor changes, we were unable to change this name to a completely Scots form in order to meet his request for authenticity. [Murchadh Garrioch, 02/2004, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2004.02 As Johnston (s.n. Iona) notes that the form Iona was originally an error for Ioua, there was some concern whether the form Iona appeared within our period. Speed's The Counties of Britain (p. 266, map of Scotland, map dated 1610) lists this island as Colmkil or Iona Ile, providing support for the locative byname of Iona. [Diarmait Mainistrech of Iona, 02/2004, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2004.02 [Alternate name Effe Men{gh}eis] Submitted as Effric Neyn Ken3ocht Mcherrald, we have replaced the 3 with {gh} as the representation for the yogh character per the May 2001 LoAR:

The main question in this submission was how to represent the letter yogh. For most purposes within the College, Da'ud notation is likely to be used; in that notation, {gh} is the appropriate choice. [Effric Neyn Ken{gh}ocht Mcherrald, 05/2001 LoAR, A-West]

[Effric Neyn Ken{gh}ocht Mcherrald, 02/2004, A-West]
François la Flamme 2004.02 Sufficient contact existed between Flanders and Scotland in period to make a name combining Flemish and Scots registerable, though this combination is a weirdness. [Tanne Comyn, 02/2004, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2004.01 Submitted as Isabel McThomais, this is a case of Black and Whyte. The LoI stated that:

The surname is a variant of one in Black (p.566 at MacTavish) - the citation is for Doncan M'Thamais in 1355. This is a variant spelling. (The submittor cites <http://www.mactamhais.liquidweb.com/pswd2.htm> for her documentation -- and that website seems to be quoting Black, but the page number is different. The website gives the desired spelling. Copies from the website will be enclosed for Laurel's evaluation.)

The Web site implies that the information listed is from Donald Whyte's Scottish Surnames. Under the header "p. 173 - MacTAVISH", the Web page states that "Duncan McThomais is recorded at Glassary in 1355, when he served on an inquest regarding the lands of that parish". However, Whyte has no entry for MacTAVISH (or any spelling thereof). While Whyte gives dates, most of the listed names seem to be modernized. This factor, combined with his failure to note sources, makes this an unreliable source for our purposes.

Black (p. 566 s.n. MACTAVISH) states that "Doncan M'Thamais was one of those cited in 1355 to give evidence regarding the lands of Glassre in Argyllshire (HP., II, p. 139)". HP indicates that Black's source for this information was the Highland Papers. The Highland Papers are notorious for modifying spellings from the original documents and cannot be considered reliable for representing spellings of names from our period. In most cases, there are enough other spelling variants in Black's entries to support a dubious citation from the Highland Papers as being plausible in our period. However, the spelling -ais in the submitted name is indicative of a Gaelic rather than Scots form of this byname. As Black (s.nn. MacTavish, MacThomas) lists no other dated examples of a -ais spelling of this byname in period, we must assume that the single example of M'Thamais cited from the Highland Papers is a post-period "updated" form, and is, therefore, not registerable.

As the submitter allows any changes, we have changed this byname to the form McThomas, dated to 1537 in Black (s.n. McThomas), in order to register this name. [Isabel McThomas, 01/2004, A-West]

François la Flamme 2004.01 Submitted as Conall Mac Quarrie, no documentation was found that MacQuarrie is a period form. All of the examples of this name found in period, both presented in the LoI and those found by the College, that are spelled -Qu- also include the -h- in the middle of the name. As an example, Black (p. 558 s.n. MacQuarrie) dates the form McQuharrie to 1573. We have changed the byname to the form Mac Quharrie, a plausible period form based on the example from Black, in order to register this name. [Conall Mac Quharrie, 01/2004, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2004.01 Submitted as Maire of Glencoe, the spelling of the placename was a modern form, not found before 1600. Documented forms (from Johnstone s.n. Glencoe) include Glenchomore 1343, Glencole 1494, Glencowyn 1500, and Glencoyne 1500. We have changed the byname to a documented period form in order to register this name. [Maire of Glencole, 01/2004, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2004.01 This name has one weirdness for mixing the English Athelstan with an otherwise Scots name and a second weirdness for a double given name in Scots. As the submitter allows no major changes, we were unable to drop one of the given names in order to register this name.

Additionally, no evidence was found that the spelling MacKendry is a plausible period form. Metron Ariston found a spelling quite close to the submitted MacKendry:

Under MacHendrie in Surnames of Scotland, Black notes Gilchrist Makhenry from 1480, which is very close indeed.

[Malise Athelstan MacKendry, 01/2004, R-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.12 Submitted as Donnghal  Buchanan, Donnghal is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of a name found in Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) as Donngal. No evidence was found of this name used later than circa 1100. Lacking evidence that this name was in use when Early Modern Irish Gaelic was in use, we have changed this name to the Middle Irish Gaelic form Donngal in order to register this name.

Buchanan is a location in Scotland. It is found as a byname in Scots (a language closely related to English) and in Latin in period. Aryanhwy merch Catmael notes that "R&W s.n. Buchanan cite Black for <de Buchanan> c.1270, 1373, <Buchanan> 1506-82."

Based on this information, the submitted form of this name combined a Gaelic given name dated no later than circa 1100 with a Scots byname found in that form in the 16th C. As a result, it had one weirdness for combining Gaelic and Scots in a name and one weirdness for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years. We have changed the byname to a 13th C form in order to remove the weirdness for temporal disparity in order to register this name. [Donngal de Buchanan, 12/2003, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.12 Submitted as Deirdre Stewart, this name had two weirdnesses as submitted. Deirdre was ruled SCA compatible in March of 1998. This name combined the Gaelic form Deirdre with Stewart, which is Scots (a language closely related to English). There is one weirdness for use of an SCA compatible name element and one weirdness for combining Gaelic and Scots in a name. Black (p. 204 s.n. Deirdre) dates Deredere to 1166. Given which source Black cites for this reference, Deredere is undoubtably a Latinized form of a Gaelic given name. We have changed the given name to this form in order to remove the weirdness for use of an SCA compatible element in order to register this name. [Deredere Stewart, 12/2003, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.11 Listed on the LoI as Lachlan MacLoed, this name was submitted as Lachlan MacCloed and the byname was changed at Kingdom to better match the submitted documentation. However, Black (s.n. MacLeod) does not support the spelling -Loed, but only the spelling -Leod. Therefore, we have changed the byname to use that spelling in order to register this name. [Lachlan MacLeod, 11/2003, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Skara Skye, the only evidence found for Skara was as an accusative form of the Old Norse masculine given name Skári. As a given name needs to be in the nominative case, we have changed the given name to the nominative form Skári, as allowed by the submitter, in order to register this name.

This name combines an Old Norse given name with the byname Skye, which may be considered either English or Scots (a language closely related to English). However, no support has been found for the spelling Skye before 1610:

... the spelling Skye has only been found dated to circa 1610 (in Speed's The Counties of Britain, p. 266, map of Scotland, map drawn 1610). Johnston (p. 296 s.n. Skye) dates Skey 1292. [Cáel of Skey, 04/02, A-Caid]

Therefore, this name had two weirdnesses: one for combining Old Norse and English, and one for elements that are dated to more than 300 years apart. We have changed the byname to the form Skey in order to remove the temporal disparity and register this name. [Skári Skey, 11/2003, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as John Walter Connell of Glencroe, no evidence was presented nor could any be found that Glencroe was a period spelling of the documented placename Glencorse. Lacking such evidence, we have changed this placename to a documented form in order to register this name. [John Walter Connell of Glencorse, 11/2003, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Áine of Glencoe, the spelling of the placename was a modern form, not found before 1600. Documented forms (from Johnstone s.n. Glencoe) include Glenchomore 1343, Glencole 1494, Glencowyn 1500, and Glencoyne 1500. We have changed the byname to a documented period form in order to register this name. [Áine of Glencole, 11/2003, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Alane MacAonghais, the submitter requested authenticity for Gaelic and allowed minor changes.

As submitted, this name combines the given name Alane, which is Scots (a language closely related to English), with the Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) family name MacAonghais. The corresponding Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this family name, appropriate for late period Scotland, would be Mac Aonghais. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name.

A man with this name in period would have had his name recorded completely in Gaelic or completely in Scots, depending upon the language of the document in which his name was recorded. Black (p. 453 s.n. MacAngus) dates Duncan Makangus to 1492. This information supports Alane Makangus as a fully Scots form of this name. Black (p. 451 s.n. MacAllan) lists the Gaelic form of this family name as "MacAilin or MacAilein". However, these are Modern Gaelic forms. Skene's transcription of a manuscript dated to 1467 lists multiple instances of the spelling Ailin, showing support for Ailin as a form dated to period. Therefore, Ailin Mac Aonghais is a reasonable Gaelic form of this name. A form of this name that consistently uses spellings found in Skene would be Ailin mac Aengusa.

As the submitter only allowed minor changes, we were unable to change this name to a fully Gaelic form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Alane Mac Aonghais, 10/2003, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Cináed MacFie, this name combined the Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) given name Cináed with MacFie, which was documented as an undated byname in Scots (a language closely related to English).

No support was found for the submitter's desired form MacFie as a period form. Aryanhwy merch Catmael found dated forms of this byname in Black:

The dated forms of the byname with two syllables that Black has are <mcphe> 1531, <McFee> 1541, <McFeye> 1585. Unfortunately, this doesn't support <McFie>.

Based on these examples, MacFee is the closest supportable spelling to the submitted MacFie. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name.

As submitted, this name had one weirdness for combining Gaelic and Scots in a name. There was also a weirdness for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years, since the given name dates to pre-1200 and the submitted form of the byname is only documented post-period. We have changed the given name to the Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Cionaodh in order to remove the temporal disparity from this name. Thereby, having only the single weirdness for the lingual combination of Gaelic and Scots, this name is registerable. [Cionaodh MacFee, 10/2003, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Kathelyne Fraser of Loch Dubh, the submitter requested authenticity for 15th C Scottish and allowed any changes.

The submitted given name Kathelyne was documented as Flemish. The College found a number of forms of the name Katherine used in Scotland in period. However, all of those examples were -rine or similar variants of this name rather than -line variants. No evidence was found that the -line variant came into use in Scotland during our period. The examples of forms of Katherine found by the College that date to the submitter's desired time period include: Catharine Alanesoun dated to 1459 (Black, p. 19 s.n. Allanson), Katharine Monorgounde dated to 1470 (Black, p. 607 s.n. Monorgund), Katerina Unthank dated to 1477 (Black, p. 789 s.n. Unthank), and Katrine Yalloar dated to 1499 (Black, p. 826 s.n. Yallower). Based on these examples, Katherine is the closest Scots form of this name to the submitted Kathelyne. As the submitter allows any changes, we have changed the given name to this form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity.

The byname of Loch Dubh mixes the English of with the Gaelic words Loch and Dubh, thereby violating RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase.

Johnston lists dates a number of placenames in Scotland that include the elements Loch and Dubh, including (p. 240 s.n. Lochbuie) Lochbuy dated to 1549 and (p. 218 s.n. Kilduff) Rossdoy dated to 1595. From these examples, Lochdoy is a reasonable 16th C Scots form of this placename. We have changed the byname to the completely Scots form of Lochdoy in order to register this name. [Katherine Fraser of Lochdoy, 10/2003, A-Artemisia]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Iohne Mac Dhaidh, the submission form noted that if the submitter's name must be changed, the submitter indicated that meaning was most important to him and indicated his desired meaning of 'Scotts[sic] for John Dade - Gunn sept'.

The surname Dade derives from two sources - one English and one Irish. Metron Ariston provided information regarding the English surname Dade:

[B]y the evidence of Reaney and Wilson (Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Deed), the surname Dade actually has nothing to do with the name David, but is from the Old English dŠd meaning "deed" or "exploit".

Woulfe (p. 348 s.n. Mac Daibhéid) lists Dade as a modern Anglicized Irish form of Mac Daibhéid, which means 'son of David'.

No documentation was provided to support the submitted spelling Mac Dhaidh as a plausible name in period. Lacking such evidence, Mac Dhaidh is not registerable. On its surface, Mac Dhaidh appears to be Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present). An Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name would be Mac Dabhídh. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name.

As submitted, this name combines Iohne, which is Scots (a language closely related to English), with a Gaelic byname. As the submitter indicated a desire for a Scottish name meaning 'John Dade', he may wish to know about Scots forms of this byname which would have the meaning 'son of David' and which would match the language of his submitted given name Iohne. Black's Surnames of Scotland (s.nn. David, Davidson, Davie, Davies, Daw, Dawes, Dawson, Day, Deasson, MacCavat, MacDavid, MacDawy) lists a number of Scots names that derived from bynames meaning 'son of David' (including diminutives of David, such as Davy, et cetera). The forms listed by Black in these entries are too many to provide a complete list here. Of the dated names listed in these entries, MacDavid (1562) and M'Cade (1547), found in Black under the header MacDavid, are the closest in sound and appearance to the submitted Mac Dhaidh. [Iohne Mac Dabhídh, 10/2003, A-East]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Ian MacPherson of Lee, the submitter requested authenticity for Scottish and allowed any changes. Ian is a post-period Scots form of John. Aryanhwy merch Catmael found period Scots forms of this name:

Effrick neyn Kennyeoch's article "Early 16th Century Scottish Lowland Names" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/lowland16/) lists a number of forms of <John>. The most common spelling is <Johne>.

Additionally, Symon Freser of Lovat's article "13th & 14th Century Scottish Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/symonFreser/scottish14/) lists other Scots forms of this name: Ihon, Ihone, Iohn, and Iohne.

As Iohn is the closest of these to the submitted Ian, we have changed the given name to Iohn in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Iohn MacPherson of Lee, 10/2003, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2003.09 Submitted as Matheus Mac  Tavish MakMychell, the submitter allowed minor changes.

All examples found of Scots names having two Mac bynames either (1) used the same spelling for both forms of Mac, or (2) used a V spelling for the second particle - representing the pronunciation of the lenitied form mhic that appears in Gaelic.

Some examples of this construction may be found in Black: (p. 451 s.n. MacAllan) dates Alexander roy McAllane McReynald and Innes McAllane McRenald to 1541, (p. 556 s.n. MacPhail) Maria M'Kane M'Fale to 1548, (p. 566 s.n. MacThomas) Aye M'Ane M'Thomas to 1543, and (p. 570 s.n. MacWerich) John M'Patrik M'Vyrricht to 1573.

Based on these examples, we have changed both particles in this name to Mc- in order to register this name.

While Black (s.n. MacTavish) dates a number of forms of this byname to period, none show the submitted spelling Tavish. Lacking evidence that this is a plausible period form, we have changed the byname to use the form McTaevis, which is dated to 1515 in this entry. [Matheus McTaevis McMychell, 09/2003, A-Ansteorra]

François la Flamme 2003.09 Submitted as Elena neyn Duhile, the submitter requested authenticity for 13th C Scots and allowed all changes.

Scots, a language closely related to English, was spoken in the lowlands and towns of Scotland by the end of our period. The earliest surviving records written in Scots date from c. 1375. Lacking any evidence that Scots was used in the 13th C, it is not possible to make this name authentic for "13th C Scots".

The submitted byname neyn Duhile combined the Scots neyn with Duhile, found in Black (s.n. MacDoual), which states: "Fergus McDuhile in Wigton was juror on inquest at Berwick, 1296, and in the same year as Fergus MacDowilt rendered homage." Given the date, time, and location of the inquest cited by Black, this record was most likely written in Latin or Anglo-Norman French. The Scots form neyn would not be found in a Latin or Anglo-Norman French document, or in any 13th C document. Lacking evidence that any form McDuhile is a Scots form, the byname neyn Duhile combines Scots with either Anglo-Norman French or Latin, and so violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. Without evidence of a Scots form of McDuhile, we are unable to hypothesize a feminine Scots form of this byname.

However, the vast majority of Scottish records that survive from the period desired by the submitter are written in Latin. These records provide enough information to construct a fully Latin form of the submitted name that is appropriate for 13th C Scotland. Black (p. 6 s.n. Achmuty) dates Elena la Suchis to 1296. Typical Latin construction for a woman's name may be seen in the name Muriella filia Coneval, which Black (pp. 620-621 s.n. Muriel) dates to 1284. Black (s.n. MacDoual) shows that this name corresponds to the modern Scottish Gaelic MacDh¨ghaill 'son of Dougal'. This origin can be seen in Dugalli, the Latin byname form corresponding to the submitted Duhile, which is found in the seal for a man who lived in 1296 which reads S' Will' f' Dugalli (Black, p. 217 s.n. Dougalson).

Based on this information, a fully Latin form of the submitted name, appropriate for 13th C Scotland, would be Elena filia Dugalli and would most likely belong to a woman of Scoto-Norman descent. [Elena filia Dugalli, 09/2003 LoAR, A-Trimaris]

François la Flamme 2003.08 Listed on the LoI as Anastasia MacEwan da Ravenna, this name was submitted as Anastasia de Ravenna MacEwan. The order of the bynames was changed at Kingdom to follow period examples of names having a surname first, followed by a locative byname. The form indicates that the submitter accepts only minor changes, and no indication was given on the LoI that the submitter was contacted and that she permitted reversing these bynames. Lacking evidence that the submitter allowed major changes, or specifically allowed the switch of the order of these bynames, this change should not have been made.

However, without this change, the name is not registerable. There is no evidence that patronymic bynames such as MacEwan appeared after locative bynames such as da Ravenna in either Scots or Italian. Therefore, this name must be returned. [Anastasia de Ravenna MacEwan, 08/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.08 Listed on the LoI as Lachlan Munro, this name was submitted as Lachlann Munro and changed at Kingdom as no documentation was found for the spelling Lachlann "as a personal name". Black (s.n. Lachlan) dates Lachlann to 1436 as a surname. In Scots, given names used as unmarked surnames routinely retain the given name spelling. Therefore, the example of Lachlann as an unmarked surname in 1436 implies that the same spelling is plausible as a given name. [Lachlann Munro, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2003.07 [Household name MacLeod Keep] This name implies that the submitter is head of the real-world Clan MacLeod and so violates RfS VI.1, "Names Claiming Rank", which states, "Names containing titles, territorial claims, or allusions to rank are considered presumptuous." (Designators, such as Keep and Clan, are transparent for conflict and presumption purposes.) Precedent states:

Household names may not be the names of actual places, as that would imply the head of the household was the ruler of that place. Household names may not be the surnames of actual families or clans, as that would imply that the head of the household was the head of that family or clan. [...] WVS [71] [CL 18 Jun 82], pp. 2-3

In this case, the submitted household name claims rank in the same way as a name submission of [given name] MacLeod of MacLeod. Both imply the submitter is the head of Clan MacLeod.

Additionally, in the submitted household name MacLeod Keep, Keep is solely English and MacLeod is Scots. While Scots is a language closely related to English, they are not actually the same language. Therefore, the submitted MacLeod Keep violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase.

Changing the household designator from Keep to Clan (i.e. Clan MacLeod) would resolve the linguistic consistency issue, but does not resolve the presumption issue with Clan MacLeod. The submitter may clear this conflict by adding an element that explicitly indicates that this household name is not the real-world Clan MacLeod. For example, Clan MacLeod of [a Scottish placename] would be registerable so long as the placename specified was not associated with the mundane Clan MacLeod. [Simon MacLeod, 07/2003 LoAR, R-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Magaidh of Kreiton, the submitter requested authenticity for "Scots Gaelic" and allowed any changes. Multiple languages were used in Scotland in period including Scottish Gaelic (sometimes modernly referred to as "Scots Gaelic") and Scots (a language closely related to English).

Magaidh was documented from Peadar Morgan's Ainmean Chloinne/Scottish Gaelic Names for Children (s.n. Magaidh), which states that this name is a diminutive of Mairead. This entry provides no evidence that Magaidh was used in period. Lacking evidence that Magaidh is a plausible period name, it is not registerable.

Máiréad is a Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. The corresponding Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) is Máirghréad. It is a Gaelic rendering of the name Margaret. Therefore, Máirghréad is the closest period Gaelic form to the submitted Magaidh. However, it has a markedly different appearance and pronunciation than the submitted Magaidh.

Effric neyn Kenyeoch vc Ralte's article "Early 16th Century Scottish Lowland Names" (http://www.MedievalScotland.org/scotnames/lowland16/), s.n. Margaret on the "Women's Given Names" pages, lists a number of Scots forms of this name. Forms found in this article that would be pronounced similar to the submitted Magaidh include Mage and Magy.

While locative bynames (like of Kreiton) appear in Scots and Anglicized Irish records, their use in Gaelic is quite different. Current research has found no examples of locatives in Scottish Gaelic that are not part of chiefly titles. In Irish Gaelic, locative bynames appear but are vanishingly rare. While a few refer to countries outside of Ireland, none have yet been found that refer to a region outside of Ireland that is smaller than a country. Given this information about locatives in Gaelic, as well as the College being unable to find a Gaelic form of of Kreiton, we are unable to meet the submitter's request for authenticity for Gaelic.

As the submitter allowed any changes, we have registered this name in the Scots form Magy of Kreiton, because the Scots form Magy is closer than the period Gaelic Máirghréad, in both pronunciation and appearance, to the submitted name Magaidh. [Magy of Kreiton, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2003.06 The submitted byname nic an Ghabhann combines nic, which is a Scots (a language closely related to English) rendering of the Gaelic inghean mhic, with an Ghabhann, which is Gaelic. This combination of Scots and Gaelic in a single name phrase violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a single name phrase. Forms of this byname appropriate for Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) are inghean mhic an Ghabhann and inghean mhic an Ghobhann. [Broinninn nic an Ghabhann, 06/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.06 Listed on the LoI as Megge Gwyneth, this name was submitted as Meg Gwyneth. The submitter allowed Meg to be changed to Megge (which is dated to 1273 in Reaney & Wilson, p. 305 s.n. Meggs) if no documentation could be found for the form Meg. Kingdom was unable to find documentation for Meg as a period form and so made this change.

Crescent found documentation for Meg in Scots (a language closely related to English):

Meg is found in Talan Gwynek's "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/scottishfem.html), where it is dated to 1408 and 1590. Scots-Welsh is registerable with a single weirdness (qv Anton Cwith, 08/01).

As the spelling Meg was most important to the submitter, and she had no request for authenticity, we have used the documentation found by Crescent in order to register the submitter's desired spelling of Meg. [Meg Gwyneth, 06/2003 LoAR, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2003.04 Listed on the LoI as Gillian  Holroyd, this name was submitted as Gillian Holroyd macLachlan. The element macLachlan was dropped at Kingdom. The LoI explained that Kingdom was "unable to reconcile the use of 'mac' with a woman's given name, and we were unable to find evidence for use of a geographic surname followed by a patronymic." The submitter requested authenticity for the 13th to 15th C and allowed any changes.

Examples of women's given names used with Mac- style bynames appear in Scots (a language closely related to English) in the 15th C and later. Some examples from Black include: Joneta Makgillumquha dated to 1406 (p. 471 s.n. MacClumpha), Agnes Makcalpyn dated to 1475 (p. 26 s.n. Aquhonan), and Margaret Makrerik dated to 1490 (pp. 480-1 s.n. MacCririck). The example given in the LoI of Gillaspy MacLachlan, dated 1308 in Black (p. 553 s.n. MacLachlan), is in Scots, not Gaelic. Therefore, MacLachlan is an appropriate form of this name that may be used with a feminine given name in Scots. Therefore, we have restored the element MacLachlan to this name, though we have changed the capitalization to match documented forms in Scots.

As the College was unable to find support for a locative byname preceeding a Mac- style byname in Scots, we have reversed the order of the bynames in order to register this name. Reaney & Wilson (p. 236 s.n. Holroyd) dates de Holrode to 1327. We have changed the byname to this form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Gillian MacLachlan de Holrode, 04/2003 LoAR, A-East]

François la Flamme 2003.04 Submitted as Caelan MacRobb, all the period examples of this byname found by the College use one b. Lacking evidence that the double-b form is plausible in period, we have dropped one b. [Caelan MacRob, 04/2003 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2003.02 The submitter requested authenticity for Scots Gaelic and allowed minor changes. Mouren was documented from Black (p. 616 s.n. Mouren). However, this entry does not support the form Mouren as being used in period. No time frame for the form Mouren is mentioned in this entry at all, implying that the name is a modern Scots (a language closely related to English) name. Instead, this entry gives Muirgen as Old Irish and Morgen as Old Welsh forms of this name. Lacking evidence that Mouren is a plausible name in period, it is not registerable.

As the submitter only allowed minor changes, and changing the language of the given name from Scots to Welsh or Gaelic is a major change, we were unable to change this name to a documentable form in order to register this name.

Similar sounding names that may interest the submitter include Muirenn, an Irish Gaelic name dated to the 9th C in Ó Corráin & Maguire p. 131 s.n. Muirenn, and Morina, which is a Latinizied Irish name dated to the 14th C in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "Names & Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/lateirish/ormond.html). Tangwystyl's article gives Morin as the hypothetical Gaelic name represented by the Latin Morina. [Mouren Muir, 02/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.02 The submitter requested authenticity for "Scottish" and allowed minor changes. As submitted, this name combines the Scots (a language closely related to English) James with the Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) Mac Murchadha. An authentic name combining these elements in period would have been written completely in Scots or completely in Gaelic depending upon the language of the document in which this name was recorded. Black (p. 546 s.n. MacMurchie) dates a number of Scots forms of this byname to the 15th and 16th C, including Makmurche to 1492, M'Murquhe to 1500, McMurthe to 1539, and McMurkka to 1541. A fully Scots form of this name would combine James with one of these forms, such as James McMurche. A fully Gaelic form of this name would be Seamus Mac Murchadha. As the submitter does not allow major changes, we were unable to change this name to a fully Scots or fully Gaelic form in order to make this name authentic. [James Mac Murchadha, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Listed on the LoI as Roes Meurdoch, this name was submitted as Roes' Meurdoch. The apostrophe was removed at Kingdom as the College does not register scribal abbreviations. The submitter requested authenticity for 14th to 16th C Scottish and allowed minor changes.

Reaney & Wilson (p. 383 s.n. Rose) date Roes' de Killum to 1219. The apostrophe in this entry indicates a scribal abbreviation. However, none of the forms listed in this entry support Roes as a form of this name. Instead, the form Roese, listed in this entry, seems to be the form of this name that is abbreviated as Roes' in the above citation. We have, therefore, expanded the scribal abbreviation Roes' to its full form of Roese in order to register this name.

Both elements of this submission were documented as English. No evidence was found that any form of Roese/Rose was used as a given name in Scotland in period. While forms of Murdoch appear as a byname in Scotland (Black, p. 620 s.n. Murdoch), the College found no examples of this byname in the submitter's desired period in Scotland. Therefore, we have registered this name in the form submitted, but were unable to make it authentic for the submitter's requested time and culture. [Roese Meurdoch, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Bran Hammer MacNaughton, the construction in this name seemed particularly implausible. Pennon summarized these bynames:

[The byname] le Hammer (rather than Hammer) [is documented] as 1332 English, and MacNaughton (while documented from Reaney & Wilson as a header form) is Scots. [...] The 'le Hammer' appears to be a locative (Dweller in the hamme) or an occupational (metronymic for a maker or user of hammers) dated to period.

No evidence was found that an occupational or locative byname would appear before a Mac- byname in Scots. We have reversed the order of the bynames in order to register this name. Additionally, all examples found of bynames following a Mac- byname in Scots included a marker in the second byname. Therefore, we have added le to follow these patterns. [Bran MacNaughton le Hammer, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2003.02 No support was found for the form fitzMalcolm. Reaney & Wilson (s.n. Malcolm) date Aleyn fitz Maucolum to 1296 with Black as the source. As the submitter allows minor changes, we have added a space after fitz in the byname in order to follow documented period practice in order to register this name. [Beowulf fitz Malcolm, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Ăthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Eibhlin Macewan of Kynblathmund, the submitter requested authenticity for a woman with an Irish Gaelic mother and a Scottish father. An authentic name combining these elements would have been written all in Gaelic or all in an Anglicized form depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. Since no evidence has yet been found of locative bynames used in Scottish Gaelic except as part of chiefly titles, the most likely completely Gaelic form of this name would be Eibhlin inghean mhic Eoghainn. Evelyn Macewan of Kynblathmund would be the completely Anglicized form of this name. As the Anglicized form is closer to the submitted form than the Gaelic form, we have changed this name to the completely Anglicized form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Evelyn Macewan of Kynblathmund, 01/2003 LoAR, A-East]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Greylond of Dowgla▀ deGalloway, the submitter requested authenticity for late 12th - early 15th C "Scoto-Norman borderland" and allowed any changes. The forms also indicated that he is from the Douglas clan. No documentation was presented and none was found that two locative bynames, both containing particles, would be used in a name. We have dropped of and added a space between de and Galloway to follow documented forms of names recorded in Scots (a language closely related to English). Current research has not found evidence that clan affiliations were included in Scottish names. So, this name means that Dowgla▀ is his family name or inherited surname and that he is from Galloway. [Greylond Dowgla▀ de Galloway, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Ragnailt Morgane, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th to 15th C Irish and allowed minor changes. Ragnailt is the Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name. We have changed it to the Early Modern Irish (c1200-c1600) form Raghnailt in order to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity. Morgane was documented as a Scots surname derived from Welsh. Lacking evidence that it was used in 14th to 15th C Irish Gaelic, we were unable to make this name fully authentic for the submitter's desired time and culture. [Raghnailt Morgane, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Charles Rodney McIam, no documentation was presented and none was found that McIam is a plausible period variant of the Scots (a language closely related to English) byname McJames. Additionally, no support was found for Iam as a period form of James in Scotland. Black (p. 520 s.n. MacJames) dates Alexander McJames to 1529, Johannes McJamis doy to 1537, and William McJames to 1602. As the submitter allows any changes, we have changed the submitted byname to the documented form McJames in order to register this name.

The documentation for Rodney shows Rodney to be a surname derived from an English placename. No support was found for Rodney as a given name in period. No evidence was found to support a construction [given name] [English surname] [Scots Mc-style byname]. Therefore, in order to register this name, we have changed this name to use Rodney as a placename since [given name] [byname] of [placename] is documented for both English and Scots. Charles Rodney and Charles McJames would also be registerable forms of this name. [Charles McJames of Rodney, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Malcolm MacLean, the submitter requested authenticity for late 16th C Scot and allowed any changes. Clarion found forms of this byname dated to the submitter's desired time period:

Black, s.n. Maclean has the following in the 16th century:

Mackcline, MackCleiden, Mackelein, Macclen, Makclen (all 1588), Macklayne, Maklayne, Makelyne (1536), M'Clane (1514), Maclein (1586), Maclane (1545), Makclayne (1573), Makclane, M'Clan, M'Klane (1591).

Of these, the form Maclein is closest in appearance to the submitted MacLean. We have changed the byname to this form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Malcolm Maclein, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]

François la Flamme 2003.01 As submitted, Gordon was only documented as a surname. To be used with of, Gordon would need to be documented as a placename. Fortunately, the College found such documentation. Kraken stated:

The LoI does not show that Gordon is a placename, which is necessary if the byname is to be of Gordon as desired. Reaney & Wilson provides the needed evidence, noting the town of Gordon in Berwickshire and citing Richer de Gordun (d.1160).

Given this information, the byname of Gordon is registerable. As previously stated, "[p]lease make sure the submitter understands that the byname is not a patronymic; it is a toponymic, 'of Gordon', the latter being a place" (James o' Gordon, October, 1993, pg. 1). [Giles of Gordon, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2003.01 This name is being returned for lack of a given name. Jardine is well documented as a surname, but is not found as a given name in any standard sources.

This name was originally submitted as Jardine Mac en Leah and changed at Kingdom to Jardine Mac Enlea to use a documentable form of the byname. The submitter requested authenticity for 16th C Scottish.

Two pieces of documentation were provided for Jardine.

First, the LoI stated that Jardine "is found as a given name in The Steel Bonnets. (Fraser, George MacDonald. London: Harper Collins, 1971.) in a footnote on p.167 [which states] 'An entry in the Scottish Privy Council's Register for 15th Nov, 1571 mentions that a John Graham of Canonby attacked one Jardine of Applegirth.'"

Metron Ariston explains that Jardine of Applegirth is actually a byname and locative (Applegirth is the clan seat of Jardine per Way of Plean and Squires, Scottish Clan and Family Encyclopedia, p. 176) and does not include a given name:

A quick look at Black (Surnames of Scotland, s.n. Jardin) not only reveals that the given name is not a given name at all but is probably French. Black notes that it means "of the garden" and cites the first of the name in Scotland to be Winfredus de Jardine in the twelfth century. That Fraser is simply following his common custom of referring to someone by their byname and locative (e.g., Graham of Claverhouse for John Graham of Claverhouse) is supported by many references to the Jardine family of Applegarth. These include Black's reference to John Jardin or Jarding of Applegarth who granted a charter in 1476.

Second, the LoI stated that Jardine "is also found in The Clans and Tartans of Scotland (Bain, Richard, Glasgow: Collins, third reprint, 1978.) on p.74 where it states 'The Cummings of Culter traced their descent from Jardine Comyn, son of the Earl of Buchan in the 13th century.'"

Bain and sources directly quoting him appear to be the only sources that list Jardine Comyn. Bain is not known for his historical accuracy. Other clan encyclopedias, most notably Way of Plean and Squire's Scottish Clan and Family Encyclopedia, and even other books on tartans, do not include a reference to a Jardine Comyn in any of the entries for Comyn, Cummings, et cetera. There are other sources that cover the Comyn family as earls of Buchan in depth, including Alan Young, Robert the Bruce's Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, and John Mackintosh, LL.D., "Historic Earls and Earldoms of Scotland" (http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/earldoms/), s.n. "Chapter II - Earldom and Earls of Buchan". These sources indicate that there were only three Comyns who held the title earl of Buchan: William (d. 1233), Alexander (d. 1289), and John (d. 1313). William Comyn came by the title earl of Buchan via his second wife, Marjory, who was countess of Buchan. They had three sons: Alexander (who followed his father as earl of Buchan), William, and Fergus. By his first wife, William had four sons: Richard, Walter, William, and David. Alexander Comyn, earl of Buchan, had four sons: John (who followed his father as earl of Buchan), Roger, Alexander, and William. John Comyn, earl of Buchan, had one son John, who predeceased him. Neither of these sources lists any person named Jardine Comyn.

Therefore, we have only the reference from Bain for Jardine as a given name in period. This constitutes a single dubious reference from a work not known for historical accuracy and whose author does not list his sources. Further, more dependable sources cast doubt upon the existence of Jardine Comyn. This issue, combined with the unlikely nature of Jardine as a given name in period, is not sufficient support for registration of Jardine as a given name. Lacking corroborating evidence of Jardine as a given name, this submission must be returned for lack of a given name.

No documenation was presented and none was found that the originally submitted byname Mac en Leah is a plausible variant of the Gaelic Mac an Leagha. Woulfe (p. 314 s.n. Mac an Leagha) lists a number of Anglicized Irish forms of this name that are dated to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. These are the forms included after the header that are given in italics. Modern forms of the name are listed not italicized and follow the italicized forms. Of the italicized forms listed in this entry, M'Enlea is the closest in appearance to the submitted Mac en Leah. Based on other Anglicized Irish names used in this time period, reasonable variants of M'Enlea would include the cited M'Enlea, as well as McEnlea and MacEnlea. [Jardine Mac Enlea, 01/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.01 [Alternate name Caitriona MacDuff] The submitter requested authenticity for the 16th C in the "Scots lowlands, Moray firth area" and will accept minor changes. Regarding changes, the LoI notes that "she will not accept the English or Scots equivalent given name ('no Catherine/Katherine, please')". Given her stated preference, we have left her given name in the submitted Gaelic form.

An authentic name combining these elements would have been written all in Gaelic or all in Scots depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. Aryanhwy merch Catmael found a number of Scots forms of Caitriona. We are including that information here as a courtesy to the submitter.

<Caitriona> is a Gaelic form, not appropriate for 16th C Scottish Lowlands. Talan's "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/scottishfem/) lists the following 16th C Scots forms of <Katherine>:

Katherine 1512, 1542, 1564; Katheryne 1509; Kathrine 1589; Katrina 1548; Katrine 1512; Katryne 1528; Catharine 1549, 1571; Catrina 1551

This last one corresponds the closest in sound and spelling to the submitted <Caitriona>.

Of the forms Aryanhwy found, both Katrina and Catrina have the same pronunciation as the period Gaelic pronunciation for Caitriona. [Catriona Mairghread nic Dhuibh of Moray, 01/2003 LoAR, A-East]

François la Flamme 2002.12 No documentation was presented and none was found that Ashie Moor is a plausible Scottish placename in period. Lacking such evidence, this name is not registerable. As the submitter allowed no major changes, we were unable to drop this element in order to register this name. [Lochlan MacBean of Ashie Moor, 12/2002, R-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.12 In this name, Ryan and Murdoch may be considered as two given names. Therefore, this name is registerable, though use of two given names in Scots is a weirdness.

Note: Ryan, which is his legal given name, is grandfathered to him from his previously registered name. [Ryan Murdoch Mackenzie, 12/2002, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2002.12 Submitted as Avilina Mac Andrew, the submitter requested authenticity for 13th C English and allowed any changes. Mac Andrew is a modern form of a Scots (a language closely related to English) name. The earliest surviving Scots documents date from the late 14th C. Black (p. 452 s.n MacAndrew) dates the forms Makandro to 1502 and MacAndro to 1550. Reaney & Wilson (p. 11 s.n. Andrew) show English forms of the byname Andrew, which originally indicated a father named Andrew just as Mac Andrew did in Scots, and date Moricius Andrewys to 1275 and William Andreu to 1237. Since the submitter allows any changes, we have changed the byname to the form Andreu in order to make this name authentic for her requested time and culture. [Avilina Andreu, 12/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.12 Combining Scots and Danish in a name is registerable, though this combination carries a weirdness. [Krag MacYntier, 12/2002, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.12 The element Aonghus, which is a Gaelic form, is problematic in this position in the name. The August 2001 LoAR includes the explanation:
... in the name Aislinn Fiona of Rumm, Fiona can only be interpreted as a second given name or as an unmarked matronymic. Use of double given names and unmarked matronymics in Gaelic have both been cause for return in the past. [Aislinn Fiona of Rumm, 08/01, R-An Tir]

Similarly, in this name, Aonghus can only be interpreted as a second given name or an unmarked patronymic, neither of which were used in Gaelic in period. In a patronymic byname in Gaelic, the form mac Aonghusa would be used rather than simply Aonghus. Since Robert is a Scots form (Scots is a language closely related to English), rather than a Gaelic form, the submitter may be interested in one of the Scots forms of this byname. Black dates Duncan Makangus to 1492 (p. 453 s.n. MacAngus) and John Angus to 1555 (p. 24 s.n. Angus).

The second problem with this name is with the locative byname of Loch Mohr. The only documentation provided for Loch Mohr was the statement in the LoI that "Loch Mohr is a small Scottish lake, 2.5 miles from the more renown[sic] Loch Ness." This sentence gives no indication of where this information was gathered from. Additionally, it gives no information regarding whether Loch Mohr is a plausible Scottish placename in period. Lacking such evidence, this name element is not registerable.

In regards to the location specified in the LoI, Loch Mohr seems to be an error for Loch Mhor, which Siren found to be a modern lake described at the "Gazetteer for Scotland" Web site (http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz/features/featurefirst3870.html). This site (s.n. Mhor, Loch) describes Loch Mhor: "Located 2 miles (3 km) south east of Loch Ness, above Foyers, Loch Mhor was created by the British Aluminium Company in 1896 by joining two small lochs to provide a reservoir for their hydro-electric power plant at Foyers."

We would have modified Aonghus and dropped the byname of Loch Mohr in order to register this name. However, dropping the byname of Loch Mohr would be a major change, which the submitter does not allow. [Robert Aonghus of Loch Mohr, 12/2002, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.12 Submitted as Elena inghean Ronáin, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th C Scottish and allowed any changes. This name combines the Latin Elena with the Irish Gaelic byname inghean Ronáin. An authentic name in 14th C Scotland would be recorded all in Latin, Scots (a language closely related to English), or in Scottish Gaelic depending upon the language of the document in which the name is recorded. Lacking evidence that any form of the masculine given name Rónán was ever used in Scotland (either as a given name or in a byname), we were unable to suggest authentic forms of this name for the submitter's desired time and culture. [Elena inghean Rónáin, 12/2002, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2002.12 Submitted as Blaise Mac Whinney, no documentation was presented and none was found that Mac Whinney is a plausible period form. Woulfe (p. 409 s.n. Mac Shuibhne) dates the Anglicized Irish forms M'Queyn and M'Quine to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. Black (p. 571 s.n. MacWhinnie) dates the form Makkynnay in 1593. We have changed the byname to the documented form Makkynnay in order to register this name. [Blaise Makkynnay, 12/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.11 Submitted as Finn Kirkpatrick, the submitter requested authenticity for 11th to 12th C Irish. As submitted, this name combined a Gaelic given name with a Scottish placename in Scots (a language closely related to English). In period, a name would have been written all in Gaelic or all in Scots depending upon the language of the document in question. We have changed the byname to the form de Kirkpatrick dated to 1194-1211 in Black (p. 407 s.n. Kirkpatrick) for authenticity for the submitter's requested time period. Lacking examples of Kirkpatrick used in Ireland in period, we were unable to make this name completely authentic for the submitter's requested culture. [Finn de Kirkpatrick, 11/2002, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.10 Submitted as Esa inghean Talorcan mac Dubh, the submission form noted that the submitter desires the name Esa mac Dubh but "after researching it thought she may need to register the name as above. If the name elements can be dropped, that is preferable."

As submitted, this name combines Gaelic and Scots (a language closely related to English). Esa is Scots and mac Duibh, meaning 'son of Dubh', is Gaelic.

Bynames in Gaelic were literal in period. A woman who was the daughter of a man named Dubh would have the byname inghean Duibh, meaning 'daughter of Dubh'. Alternatively, a woman whose father had the byname mac Duibh could have the byname inghean mhic Dhuibh, meaning 'daughter of mac Duibh'.

Bynames in Scots were sometimes literal and sometimes inherited. In the case of inherited surnames, women sometimes had Mac- style surnames. For example, Black (p. 471 s.n. MacClumpha) dates Joneta Makgillumquha to 1406. In the case of the submitter's desired name, Black (p. 488 s.n. MacDuff) dates a number of Scots forms including Malisius mc Duf (1284), David M'Duif of Fandowie (1594), and James Makduf (1594).

Of both the Gaelic and Scots forms of this name, mac Duf (a reasonable variant of the Scots form mc Duf) gives the submitter the closest name to her desired form. Therefore, we have changed the byname to this form. [Esa mac Duf, 10/2002, A-East]

François la Flamme 2002.10 Submitted as Artus Bayn, the submitter requested authenticity for "Scottish" and allowed any changes.

Artus was documented from D. J. Conway, The Celtic Book of Names (s.n. Artair). This source has various problems and should be avoided for our purposes. For a complete discussion, please see the Cover Letter. The LoI also stated that "'Artus de Bretania' is inscribed on a portrayal of King Arthur of Britain in the cathredral of Modena, Italy, dated to early 12th century" (http://www.millersv.edu/~english/homepage/duncan/mideng/). Given that De Felice Dizionario dei nomi Italiani (p. 78 s.n. Arturo) lists the form Artus, the form Artus found in the inscription cited in the LoI seems to be an Italian form of King Arthur's name.

Since the submitter requested authenticity for Scottish, an inscription found in Italy is not relevent when compared to actual forms of the name found in Scotland. Black's Surnames of Scotland (p. 32 s.n. Arthur) dates Arthur of Kyncorth to 1435. We have changed the given name to use this form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Arthur Bayn, 10/2002, A-East]

François la Flamme 2002.10 There are several issues with this name.

This name combines the Old English name Bubba with a name that is otherwise Scots. Combining Old English and Scots in a single name is not registerable (see the ruling for Dunno Jamesson in the March 2002 LoAR for details).

Ian was ruled SCA compatible in April 1997. The name Ian is a modern name found in Scots (a language closely related to English). Similar constructions appeared in Scots in period as shown in Black (p. 228 s.n. Duncanson, p. 260 s.n. Ferguson, p. 577 s.n. Malcolmson). Given these examples, Ianson is registerable, though it carries a weirdness for use of an SCA compatible element.

The Caves of Smoo was documented from Johnston (s.n. Smoo). However, since Johnston gives no dated examples of this name, we do not know if this name was used for these caves in period. Were such documentation found, there is an additional problem with this byname. No evidence was provided and none was found that a byname formed from the name of this location would take the form of the Caves of Smoo rather than of Smoo. These issues make this byname unregisterable. [Bubba Ianson of the Caves of Smoo, 10/2002, R-West]

François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Iain mac Caradoc, the submitter requested authenticity for 15th C Scots and allowed any changes. Iain is a Gaelic masculine given name, ruled SCA compatible in April 1997. However, no evidence has yet been found that it was used in period. The submitted byname mac Caradoc combined the Scots or Anglicized Irish particle mac with the Welsh name Caradoc. RfS III.1.a requires linguistic consistency in a single name phrase. Therefore, the phrase mac Caradoc is in violation of this rule and is not registerable. No examples were found of any form of Caradoc in either Gaelic or Scots (a language closely related to English). Therefore, we have changed the byname to the form Cradoc, which is a plausible form based on the examples of Philip Craddoc dated to 1205 and Robert Cradock dated to 1301, both in England, in Reaney & Wilson (p. 114 s.n. Craddock). Morgan & Morgan (p. 67 s.n. Caradog) explain that the change in this name from Caradoc to Cradoc forms is due to an accent shift in early Welsh. Use of an element that is only SCA compatible (Iain in this case) counts as a weirdness. Combining English and Gaelic in a single name is also a weirdness. To avoid having two weirdnesses in this name, which would cause the return of this name, we have changed the given name to the form Ian, which is also SCA compatible. Since Ian is Scots, and mixing Scots and English in a single name carries no weirdness for the lingual mix, Ian Cradoc is a registerable form of the submitted name. [Ian Cradoc, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.09 The submitter requested authenticity for Gaelic. Grania is an Anglicized Irish version of the Gaelic Gráinne. While Gráinne is documented to the 14th to 16th C in Ireland, no evidence was found of this name being used in Scotland. Buchanan is Scots (a language closely related to English) and is a byname derived from a location. No evidence has yet been found of locative bynames in Scottish Gaelic, except when used as part of a chiefly title. In the case of Irish Gaelic, in locative bynames formed from the names of areas smaller than provinces (such as towns, villages, and baronies), the locations referred to are all locations in Ireland. None have been found that refer to a similar location outside of Ireland. Lacking an appropriate Gaelic form of this name, we have left it in the submitted form. [Grania Buchanan, 09/2002 LoAR, A-West]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Faolan MacFarland, the submitter requested authenticity for 15th C "Scottish/Irish" and allowed any changes. This name combines the Gaelic Faolan with MacFarland, which is Anglicized Irish or Scots (a language closely related to English). In period, this name would have been recorded completely in Gaelic or completely in Anglicized Irish or Scots depending upon the language used for the document in which the name is recorded. Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 92 s.n. Fáelán) gives Faolán as the Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name. Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "Names and Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond (Ireland 14th Century)" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/lateirish/ormond.html), lists ffolan and ffoulin as Anglicized Irish forms (or possibly Latinized) forms of Faolan. Woulfe (p. 399) lists the header Mac Parthaláin, which is a Gaelic form of MacFarland. So Faolán Mac Parthaláin is a completely Gaelic form of this name. Since accents in Gaelic need to be used or omitted consistently, Faolan Mac Parthalain is also a completely Gaelic form of this name. ffolan MacFarland and ffoulin MacFarland would be fully Anglicized Irish forms of this name. Since, of the options found, the form Faolan Mac Parthalain only changes the form of the byname, we have complied with the submitter's request for authenticity by changing this element. [Faolan Mac Parthalain, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as John Wallace of Loch Maree, Loch Maree is a modern name for this location. No evidence was found that it is a plausible period form. Johnston (p. 248 s.n. Marée) dates the form Maroy to 1633. We have changed the locative to use this form in order to register this name. [John Wallace of Loch Maroy, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Listed on the LoI as Jonathan Drake of Skey, this name was submitted as Jonathan Drake of Skye and changed at Kingdom to match documented period spellings. Speed's The Counties of Britain (p. 266, map of Scotland, map drawn 1610) lists the spelling Skye. As the submitter did not request authenticity for a particular time period, and the spelling Skye is dated to the gray area, we have returned this name to the originally submitted spelling. [Jonathan Drake of Skye, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Slaine Aschenane, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th C Irish and allowed any changes. As submitted, this name combines an Irish Gaelic feminine given name with a byname that is Scots (a language closely related to English). An authentic name would have been rendered all in one language depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. Black (p. 720 s.n. Shannan) dates Gilqwhongill Aschenane to 1376 and gives the origin of this name as the Irish O'Seanáin [sic]. Woulfe (p. 642) lists the header Ó Seanáin. The byname indicating a woman belonging to this family in the 14th C would be inghean Uí Sheanáin. As accents were often omitted in examples of names in Irish annals, Sláine inghean Uí Sheanáin and Slaine inghean Ui Sheanain are forms of this name authentic for the submitter's requested time and culture. Since the submitted form included no accents, we have registered the authentic form without accents in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Slaine inghean Ui Sheanain, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.09 This name combines the Anglo-Saxon given name Willoc with the Scots byname Dulglass. Combining Anglo-Saxon and Scots in a name is not registerable (per the ruling for Dunno Jamesson in the March 2002 LoAR). [Willoc Dulglass, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Listed on the LoI as Raibeart MacKeever, this name was submitted as Raibert MacKeever and changed at Kingdom to match available documentation. No evidence was found that MacKeever is a plausible period form. Black (p. 520 s.n. MacIver) dates Duncan Campbell or M'Keuir of Stronesschero to 1562 and the surname form Makewer to 1572. From these examples, a form such as MacKever is plausible. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [Raibeart MacKever, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.09 This name has two weirdnesses. There is one weirdness for use of an element (in this case Corwyn) that is only SCA compatible. Corwyn is a variant of Corwin, which is an English surname that is SCA compatible as a given name. There is a second weirdness for combining English and Scots in a name (per the ruling for Katrina Rosehearty in the LoAR of September 2001). [Corwyn MacCamie, 09/2002 LoAR, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Brude mac Bruide, the submitter requested authenticity for 10th to 12th C "Scot or Pict". By this time period, the language spoken by the Scottish/Pictish culture was Scottish Gaelic. Very few Scottish Gaelic records remain from that time period. So, to determine Scottish Gaelic names appropriate for that time period, we often have to rely on Irish Gaelic records of the period. This is possible because the Scottish Gaelic and Irish Gaelic languages were very similar at that time.

In the case of this submission, Brude and Bruide are both nominative forms, documented from records written in the 11th C (in Irish Gaelic) and in the 14th C (in Latin in Scotland) that discussed people who lived earlier than the submitter's desired time period. The nominative form of this name is Bruide in Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900). It is listed in several annals entries, including entry U693.1 of Donnchadh Ó Corráin & Mavis Cournane, "The Annals of Ulster" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100001/), which mentions Bruide m. Bili, rex Fortrend. The genitive form of this name in Old Irish Gaelic is Bruidi, as is shown in entry I691.1 of Donnchadh Ó Corráin, ed., "Annals of Inisfallen" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100004/), which mentions (Bruidi m. Bili), rig Cruithnech. The latest use of Bruide that we have found dates to the 8th or early 9th C. If some form of this name was still in use among the Scottish/Pictish people in the submitter's desired time period, it would have taken a Gaelic form. So the name of a man named Bruide who was the son of a man named Bruide would be Bruide mac Bruidi. We have changed this name to this form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Bruide mac Bruidi, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Ságadís Duncansdaughter, documentation was provided supporting the construction of Norse feminine given names formed by combining the name of a Norse goddess with the deuterotheme -dis. The LoI provided documentation for Sága as the name of a Norse goddess:

Sága is the name of a Norse Goddess, and was probably used in a period farm name, spelled Saagho- or Saghones. While these are not given names, but rather household names, this shows the use of Sága in a period name. That Sága was a name of a Goddess is confirmed by Kvaran and Jónsson in Nöfn Íslendinga where they say that Sága was the name of one of the Ás (Norse Gods).

Documentation was also provided demonstrating the survival of this type of name in Swedish and Danish in the 14th through 17th C. Therefore, Ságadís is plausible as an Old Norse feminine given name that was also used later in Swedish and Danish. Black (p. 412 s.n. Lambie) dates Mariora Lammeis dothyr to 1527, which supports a byname using a form of daughter in Scots. We have changed the byname to follow this example. Mixing Swedish or Danish with Scots in a name is registerable with a weirdness. [Ságadís Duncans dothyr, 08/2002, A-Drachenwald]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Duncan MacAengus of Skye, MacAengus is neither a Gaelic nor a Scots spelling. The closest Gaelic form is Mac Áengusa. The closest Scots form is MacAngus, based on Duncan Makangus dated to 1492 in Black (s.n. Macangus). We have changed the byname to MacAngus in order to register this name. [Duncan MacAngus of Skye, 08/2002, A-Ăthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Listed on the LoI as Seth MacMychel, this name was submitted as Seth MacMichael and changed at Kingdom to use a byname form documented to 1490 in Scotland to meet the submitter's request for authenticity for Scotland. Black (p. 543 s.n. MacMichael) dates the bynames M'Ilmichael to 1577 and McMychel to 1490. Given these examples (and others listed in this entry), the submitted form is reasonable as an authentic form for late period Scotland. Therefore, we have returned the byname to the submitted form. [Seth MacMichael, 08/2002, A-Ăthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Elspeth le Fayre filia Dunecan, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th C Lowland Scot and allowed minor changes. Documented examples of Latin forms of the genitive of Duncan, including those in Bruce Webster, ed., Regesta Regum Scottorum VI: The Acts of David II (which covers the years 1329-1371), show the genitive form of Duncan appropriate for the submitter's desired time period to be Duncani. We have made this change to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity.

We were unable to find examples of a woman's name in Scotland containing a descriptive byname (regardless of whether or not it was followed by a patronymic byname). As the submitter only allows minor changes, we were unable to drop the descriptive byname in order to make this name authentic for the submitter's desired time and culture. [Elspeth le Fayre filia Duncani, 08/2002, A-East]

François la Flamme 2002.08 This name combines a Welsh name dated to the 5th to 9th C with a Scots byname dated to 1590. Therefore, this name has two weirdnesses (one for mixing Welsh and Scots, and one for a temporal disparity of more than 300 years), which is cause for return.

The LoI noted that the submitter originally wanted Ryon as a given name, but could not document that spelling. Given that information, the submitter may want to consider the Irish Gaelic given name Rian. Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 155 s.n. Ríán) which lists a saint of this name and notes that the modern surname Ó Riain (O Ryan) derives from this name. Rian is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this given name and would be registerable under the guidelines for the registerability of saints' names given in the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR. Therefore, Rian McHenrik would have a single weirdness for mixing Gaelic and Scots in a name, but would not have the temporal disparity that exists in the name Rhain McHenrik. As the submitter did not allow major changes, we were unable to make this change in order to register this name. [Rhain McHenrik, 08/2002, R-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Randal Gartnait, the submitter requested authenticity for the 13th C along the Scottish border. It is not completely clear what form the language spoken in the submitter's desired time and location took, because the vast majority of the surviving Scottish records from that time period are written in Latin. However, the form Gartnait is a Gaelic spelling of a Pictish masculine given name. As neither unmarked patronymics nor double given names were used in Gaelic, a standalone Gaelic given name cannot be registered in this position. The patronymic form in Gaelic would be mac Gartnait. Black (p. 290 s.n. Gartnait) dates the non-Gaelic byname forms Gartnet and Gartenethe to 1297. As the first of these non-Gaelic forms is closer to the submitted form (and because Randal is not a Gaelic form), we have changed the byname to this form in order to register the name and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Randal Gartnet, 08/2002, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Brianna Maharg, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish. The spelling was changed at Kingdom to Briana Maharg because, when the status of Briana changed from SCA-compatible to registerable as a literary name in Spanish and English (see the Cover Letter for the December 2001 LoAR for details), registration of the form Brianna was discontinued beginning with the July 2002 decision meeting.

Black (p. 508 s.n. Macharg) dates the form Maharg to 1684, which is too late to be registerable. As the submitter indicated that sound is most important to her, we have changed the byname to the form found in this entry where Martin M'Quharg is dated to 1597.

We were able to find no evidence that any form of Briana was used as a name by real people (as opposed to human characters in period literature), and found no evidence that the name was known in Ireland. Lacking examples of this name used in Ireland in period, we were unable to make this name authentic for Irish as requested by the submitter. [Briana M'Quharg, 08/2002, A-East]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Caelainn McFers, this name combined a Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) given name with a Scots (a language closely related to English) surname, dated to 1539 in that form. Combining Gaelic and Scots in a single name is a weirdness. Black (pp. 493-4 s.n. MacFerries) only shows examples of this surname in the 16th C and later. Earlier forms are listed on p. 493 s.n. MacFergus, are all in Latin, and all retain the 'g' in the byname. So, the submitted form combines a given name which dates from before 1200 and a byname which is dated no earlier than 1527. As the temporal disparity is more than 300 years, this disparity carries a weirdness. Therefore, the submitted form had two weirdnesses, which is cause for return. We have changed the given name to the Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form in order to eliminate the temporal disparity and register this name. A fully Middle Irish Gaelic form of this name would be Cáelainn ingen meic Fhergusa. A fully Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of this name would be Caoilinn inghean mhic Fhearghusa. [Caoilinn McFers, 08/2002, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.08 This submission generated some discussion, both in the College of Arms and in private e-mail to Laurel. This name arguably has a small potential of being mispronounced by less knowledgeable readers as "Damn Bastard". Therefore, the registerability of these two elements, whether combined or separate, must be examined. RfS IV.1 (Vulgar Names) states, "Pornographic or scatological terms will not be registered. Obscene terminology, sexually explicit material, bathroom or toilet humor, etc. are considered inherently offensive by a large segment of the Society and general population."

Daimhin (properly pronounced approximately "dahv-in") is an Irish Gaelic masculine given name that yielded the Anglicized form Davin. It has been registered without comment as recently as September of 2001 (Daimhín Sinna). No previous submissions of this element have generated any question of possible offensiveness. Since Daimhin when properly pronounced does not fall within names which should be considered "inherently offensive by a large segement of the Society," it continues to be registerable.

Bastard is a period descriptive byname documented in Scots and English and has been registered in various forms at least six times dating from 1983 to 1998. Most recently, it was registered without comment in March 1998 (Guy le Bastard) and April 1998 (Duftach Scott the Bastard). (In fact, in the form Lebatarde, and formerly le Batard, it is the registered byname of a former SCA Inc. Board member.) The registrations demonstrate that this element is not "considered inherently offensive by a large segment of the Society and general population" and so is registerable. Questions regarding public listing of a name containing this element have already been addressed by the kingdoms when printing lists of board members.

Given that both elements are registerable on their own, the only issue that could be a reason for return would be the combination of these two name elements. In this case, a fully Anglicized form Davin Bastard would certainly be no more of an issue than the registered Guy le Bastard and Duftach Scott the Bastard. Given that Daimhin has not generated so much as a murmur of a possible violation of RfS IV.1, it is demonstratedly not an issue on its own. Given this information, including previous registrations, this submission does not violate RfS IV.1 and is registerable. [Daimhin Bastard, 08/2002, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2002.08 There was some discussion of possible temporal incompatibility in this name as the submitted documentation dated Aidan to c608 and Cambel to 1296. Aidan is an Anglicized form of the Gaelic masculine given name Áedán. Ó Corráin & Maguire (pp. 13-14 s.n. Áedán) say that this was the name of some "twenty-one saints". Farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (pp. 8-9 s.n. Aidan), identifies one of these saints and gives his death date as 651. Therefore, Aidan is registerable as an Anglicized form of this saint's name under the guidelines for registerability of saints' names (see the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR for more details). An Anglicized form of this saint's name is reasonable for the time period of the byname. Therefore, as both elements are Anglicized and use of a saint's name carries no weirdness in and of itself, this name is registerable with no weirdnesses. [Aidan Cambel, 08/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Morgan MacOwain of Staghold, MacOwain combined the Scots (a language closely related to English) or Gaelic Mac with Welsh Owain. This is in violation of RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a name phrase. As the submitter allows minor changes, we have dropped Mac in order to register this name. [Morgan Owain of Staghold, 08/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.08 This name was submitted as Caitriona Gordon, which combined an Irish Gaelic given name and a Scots byname. The submitter requested authenticity for 1500s Border Scots. In this period, Scots (a language closely related to English) was the language used on the Scottish/English border. Clarion found Scots forms of this given name:

The Scots forms of Catherine that I can find in 1600 are (from the article "Early 16th Century Scottish Lowland Names" and not including suspect spelling) Catte, Katherene, Katherin, Katherine, Katring, Katryne, Katty, Kitte, and Kytte and (from the article "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records") Katherine, Katheryne, Kathrine, Katrina, Katryne, and Catrina.

Therefore, a name using one of these forms (for example, Catrina Gordon) would be authentic for the submitter's requested culture. As the submitter does not allow major changes, we were not able to change the language of the given name from Gaelic to Scots to meet the submitter's request for authenticity.

However, Aryanhwy merch Catmael did find a Scottish Gaelic form of this given name:

[A documented] form of <Catherine> found in Scottish Gaelic before 1600 is <Caitrina>, according to Effrick neyn Kennyeoch's "Scottish Gaelic Given Names" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/gaelicgiven/) updated 11Feb02; this spelling is found in the 1467 manuscript.

We have changed the given name to this form to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Caitrina Gordon, 08/2002, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2002.07 Submitted as Ealusaid  Rose, the submitter requested authenticity for "mid to late 15th century" and allowed any changes. The submitted form mixes Gaelic and Scots (a language closely related to English) in a single name. In period, this name would have been written all in Gaelic or all in Scots depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. Black (p. 773 s.n. Tod) dates Elizabeth Tode to 1467, and (p. 699 s.n. Rose) Andrew de Rose to 1440. We have changed the name to a completely Scots form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Elizabeth de Rose, 07/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.05 Initially, Glencairn did not look like a Scots (as opposed to Scottish Gaelic) period spelling. (Scots is a language closely related to English.) Black (s.n. Glencairn) dates Fergus de Glencarn to 1222. Given that Black (s.n. Cairncross) dates Robert Cairncorse to 1571, a cairn-based spelling is plausible in Scots in period. [Gregory of Glencairn, 05/2002, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.05 [Bear Clan] A question was raised during commentary regarding whether Bear Clan was registerable using the model of a Scottish clan as cited in the Rules for Submission (RfS III.2.b.iv). In this model, Clan precedes the clan name (Clan [Surname]) rather than follows it ([Surname] Clan). Also, clan is a Scots word derived from the Gaelic word clann, meaning 'children'. (Scots is a language closely related to English.) The name of the clan is a Scots surname. While some of these surnames are also found in English, not all English surnames are found in Scots. Therefore, to comply with RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase, the clan name must be documented as a Scots surname. Occasionally, a locative may be included in the clan name, taking the form Clan [Surname] of [Location].

There is also a clan name model found in Ireland. However, in Ireland, the model that includes the word Clann in Gaelic (Clan in Anglicized Irish) is based on a given name found in Gaelic. Examples are found that include both Gaelic given names and Anglo-Norman given names that migrated into Gaelic.

The Rules for Submission were most recently updated on July 20, 2001. Previous to that, the most recent update was November 1, 1995. All household names, except one, registered since that date that use some form of clan as a designator follow either the Scottish or Irish models described above. The single exception is Clann an Chullaich Bhain (registered February 1996) which was submitted as a "sign name" meaning 'the white boar'. As our knowledge of naming practices has expanded, doubt has been shed on the theory that Scottish or Irish clan names would be based on the English sign name model. Lacking evidence of such a construction, they are no longer registerable. Several registrations of clan names were specifically mentioned during commentary. Clan Baldwin (registered June 1996) follows the Scottish model since Baldwin is a plausible Scots surname. (Black, s.n. Baldwin, gives only dated examples of forms of Baldwin as a given name, but it could easily have followed the pattern of other Anglo-Norman given names that became surnames in Scotland.) Clan Hubert (registered February 1999) follows the Irish model since Hubert was among the Anglo-Norman given names that appear in Ireland. Clan Gara (registered September 1996) and Clan Gillemore (registered March 1998) also follow the Irish model as Gara and Gillemore are Anglicized forms of the Irish Gaelic masculine given names Gadra and Gilla Muire.

Since Bear Clan does not follow either the Scottish clan name model or the Irish clan name model, it is not registerable as either a Scottish or an Irish clan name. [Erik the Bear, 05/2002, R-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2002.05 The LoI stated that "[t]he client indicated that he wishes a name authentic to the 'Early 1600's late 1500's' but prefers the name Connor of Kilsyth, over any period consideration." In this time period, a patronymic byname or a surname would typically be included in the name, Connor [Surname] of Kilsyth. Connor was documented as Anglicized Irish. No evidence was found that it was used in Scotland during the submitter's desired time period. As the submitter prefers the submitted form to his request for authenticity and the submitted name is registerable, we have made no changes. [Connor of Kilsyth, 05/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Listed on the LoI as Sigfrid McLure, the name was originally submitted as Siegfried McClure and changed at kingdom because a combination of Gaelic and German is not registerable. While kingdom is correct that mixing Gaelic and German in a name is not registerable, mixing Scots and German is registerable, though it is a weirdness. As McClure is a Scots form, not a Gaelic form, it is registerable with a German given name. Siegfried is dated to "Up to 1300" in Talan Gwynek's article "Late Period German Masculine Given Names: Names from 14th Century Plauen" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/germmasc/plauen14.html) Both Robert McLure and Robert McClure are dated to 1526 in Black (p. 472 s.n. MacClure). Therefore, there is less than 300 years between the dates for the given name and byname, so there is not an additional weirdness for temporal disparity and this name is registerable. [Siegfried McClure, 04/2002, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Cáel of Skye, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th C Scottish. As submitted, this name had two weirdnesses: one for mixing an Old Irish (c. 700 to c. 900) or Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) given name with a Scots byname, and one for temporal disparity because this form of the given name is dated no later than 1200 and the spelling Skye has only been found dated to circa 1610 (in Speed's The Counties of Britain, p. 266, map of Scotland, map drawn 1610). Johnston (p. 296 s.n. Skye) dates Skey to 1292. We have changed the byname to this form to remove the temporal disparity in order to register the name.

An authentic name would have been written all in Gaelic or all in Scots depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. As we were able to find no evidence of Cáel used in Scotland, and no documentation has yet been found for locative bynames in Scottish Gaelic except as part of chiefly titles, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's desired time and culture. [Cáel of Skey, 04/2002, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2002.04 The submitter specifically allowed addition of the element Andrew to clear this conflict. Use of two given names in Scots is registerable, though it is a weirdness. [Donald Andrew MacDonald, 04/2002, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Vaska was submitted under the Legal Name Allowance. However, since no documentation was provided (such as a photocopy of a driver's license, et cetera) that Vaska is the submitter's legal name, it is not registerable under the Legal Name Allowance. Since Wickenden (3rd ed., p. 387 s.n. Vasilii) dates Vaska Nozdria to c. 1495, Vaska is registerable as a Russian masculine given name.

Therefore, this name combines a Russian masculine given name with a Scots byname. Mixing Russian and Scots in a name has previously been ruled unregisterable:

There was sufficient contact between England and Russia to allow mixed names under our rules. There was no such contact between Scotland and Russia, but we have seen documentation that MacNeill appears as a surname in England as well. Note, however, that mixed Scots / Russian names are not acceptable, barring new evidence. [Nastasiia MacNeill, 09/00, A-Caid]

As no evidence has been found that McCormick was used in English in addition to Scots (and Anglicized Irish), this combination is not registerable. Documentation that the submitter is entitled to use the Legal Name Allowance would not resolve this problem since names which contain elements used via the Legal Name Allowance are not registerable if the combination of the elements are excessively obtrusive:

While we allow real-world name elements in SCA names without further documentation, this is restricted to cases where "such elements are not excessively obtrusive." Combining a Gaelic Irish given name with what appears to be a non-European surname falls afoul of this restriction. [Ciarmhac Sayenga, 07/00, R-Æthelmearc]

[...] Combining an English given name with a Hindi byname is no less obtrusive. [Margaret Singh, 02/01, R-Outlands]

Combining a Russian given name with a Scots byname is no less obtrusive and so would be returned. [Vaska McCormick, 04/2002, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.03 [Alternate name Risteárd Ruadh Macleod] Listed on the LoI as Risteárd Ruadh Macleod, this name was submitted as Risteard Ruadh Macleod. The accent was added to the given name at kingdom to meet the submitter's request for authenticity for 15th to 16th C Gaelic. The submitted Macleod is a Scots form, not a Gaelic form. (Scots is a language closely related to English.) A fully Scottish Gaelic form of this name would be Risteárd Ruadh Mac Le˛id. Forms of this name appropriate for 16th C Irish Gaelic are Risteard Ruadh Mac Leoid and Risteárd Ruadh Mac Leóid. As the submitter does not allow major changes (and changing the language of an element is a major change), we were unable to change the byname to a Gaelic form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Torcall mac Grigair, 03/2002, A-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2002.03 Listed on the LoI as Dugal Nachti, this name was submitted as Dugal Mac Nauchti and changed at kingdom to a form dated to 1480 in Black (p. 624 s.n. Naughty) because no support could be found for the use of Mac with a form of this byname. This entry in Black says that this byname originated as a locative byname. As Mac, meaning 'son', was not used in locative bynames, it makes sense that no evidence was found of the submitted form. This entry in Black also dates the spelling Nauchti to 1531. As this form is closer to the submitted form than Nachti is, we have changed the byname in this submission to that form. [Dugal Nauchti, 03/2002, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.03 Submitted as Dunno Jameson, Dunno was submitted as a hypothetical Old English given name based on Dunne and Dunna, which are listed in Black (p. 227 s.n. Dun) as undated forms of an Old English given name. Metron Ariston found that Dunno existed as an ablative form of the given name (nominative form) Dun or Dunn:

Black is not a really good source for Anglo-Saxon names unless a specific dated reference is offered that can be confirmed. However, Redin (Studies on Uncompounded Personal Names in Old English, pp. 12 - 13) clarifies the issue of the given name. He does cite the form Dunno from Birch's Cartularium Saxonicum, but makes it clear that it is an ablative form which is inappropriate for use in a Society name (though it could be used in a Latin scroll text!). He does give several documented nominative forms appropriate for use here: Dun and Dunn as well as the Latinized form Dunus.

A single example of Dunno as a nominative form has been found in Olof von Feilitizen, The pre-Conquest Personal names of the Domesday Book (p. 228 s.n. Dunna). This is sufficient documentation to register Dunno in a given name position, which requires the nominative case.

There is a second issue with this name. Jameson was documented as Scots from Black (p. 382 s.n. Jameson). Old English existed in approximately the same time period as Old Norse. The earliest surviving examples of Scots (a language closely resembling English) date to the late 14th century. Mixing Old Norse and Scots in a name is not registerable:

Submitted as Ùlfarr MacVanis, he requested an authentic Norse/Scots name. The combination of an Old Norse given name and an Anglicized Scots patronymic had too severe a temporal disparity. We have therefore changed the spelling of the given name to medieval Norwegian. (Ulvar MacVanis, Lochac-A, LoAR 07/2000)

Similarly, mixing Old English and Scots in a name is as unregisterable for the same reason. Reaney & Wilson (p. 252 s.n. Jameson) date William Jamesson to 1379 and John Jameson to 1440. Mixing Old English and Middle English in a name is registerable, though it is a weirdness (see Saxsa Corduan, LoAR of October 2001). Since Dunno is documented from the Domesday Book, it is dated to 1086. Since the spelling Jamesson is dated to 1379, combining these two elements avoids a weirdness for temporal disparity since they are dated less than 300 years apart, leaving only a single weirdness for lingual mix of Old English and Middle English in a name. As the submitter allows major changes, we have changed Jameson (documented as Scots) to Jamesson (documented as English dated to 1379) in order to register this name. [Dunno Jamesson, 03/2002, A-Ansteorra]

François la Flamme 2002.02 Applecross was submitted as a header form in Johnston. In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. However, precedent (most notably regarding modern forms in Ó Corráin & Maguire) has ruled that header forms which are modern may not be registerable. (This has been handled on a case by case basis.) Johnston (p. 84 s.n. Applecross) dates Aporcrosan to 673, Apuorcrossan to 737, Appillcroce to 1510, and Abilcros to 1515. The early forms are spelled with an 'r' in the second syllable. The 16th C forms are spelled with an 'l' in the second syllable. Even these 16th C spellings do not show the Appl- spelling. Therefore, the submitted spelling Applecross is not a plausible period variant. [Muirgen of Applecross, 02/02, R-Calontir] [Ed.: returned for problems with the locative]
François la Flamme 2002.02 Submitted as Brigitte MacFarlane the Red, this name combined a given name that is Swedish, French, or German with a Scots byname followed by an English descriptive byname. No documentation was provided that such a combination is plausible. Brigitte was documented from Withycombe (p. 54 s.n. Bridget), who gives this form as the name of a Swedish saint who lived in the 14th C and as an undated French and German name used to refer to this Swedish saint or to the Irish Saint Bridget. MacFarlane was documented from Reaney & Wilson (s.n. MacFarlan). However, all examples in this entry are cited from Black. Therefore, they are Scots, not English. Black (s.n. Reid) dates Gilbert 'le Rede' to 1296. This takes English out of the lingual mix. However, the bigger problem is placing a the or le style of literal descriptive byname after a Mac- style of surname. Very few types of bynames appear after a Mac- style surname in Scots. Most of these are locatives (i.e. of Edinburgh). All other bynames that have been found after a Mac- byname modify the object of the Mac- byname, and so form a compound byname. For example, Black (p. 475 s.n. MacConachie) dates William M'Ane Makconquhye to 1543. This name means 'William son of John [who was the] son of Duncan'. So William has one patronymic byname that contains multiple generations: M'Ane Makconquhye is his patronymic byname, and it is a single name phrase. In the case of this submission, the Red refers to MacFarlane, not to Brigitte. MacFarlane is a Scots rendering of a Gaelic byname. The cited le Rede is a Scots or English rendering of an English byname. While both elements are Scots, no evidence was presented that they can be combined in a compound patronymic byname MacFarlane the Red. Since Black (s.n. Reid) states that "Reid is also used as an Englishing of Gaelic Ruadh", and Ruadh (meaning 'red') is a logical descriptive to follow Mac Pharlain in Gaelic, MacFarlane Reid is a logical Scots form of this combination. As Black shows Red and Reid to be variants of each other, MacFarlane Red is also a plausible Scots form. As the submitter allows minor changes, we have dropped the in order to register this name. [Brigitte MacFarlane Red, 02/02, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.02 Submitted as Brigid of Kincairn, the submitter requested authenticity for Scottish language/culture and allowed minor changes.

Kincairn was submitted as a constructed locative. The submitted form combines the Anglicized Irish or Scots Kin- and the Gaelic -cairn RfS III.1.a requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. Therefore, the submitted form is in violation of this rule.

There was some question about whether these elements would have been combined in a period placename. Members of the College found Kincairn as the name of a World War II-era RAF station near Stirling and as a parish in Perthshire in the 18th C. However, no evidence was found that either location existed in period. Speed's The Counties of Britain (map of Leinster, p. 279, map drawn 1610) lists Can Karne al. Karone on the coast of Ireland. This location combines the same elements as in the hypothesized Kincairn, though in an Anglicized Irish form. This location also appears in a second map in Speed (p. 271, map of Ireland, map drawn 1610) as Can Carne. Therefore, the elements may be combined as the submitter constructed and a locative byname using one of these spellings (Can Karne, Can Karone, or Can Carne) would be registerable. However, they would refer to an Irish placename.

Since the submitter requested authenticity for Scottish, we have changed the byname to Kincarn, which is dated to 1536 as an alternate spelling of Kincardine in Johnston (s.n. Kincardine). We were unable to meet the submitter's request for authenticity because we were unable to find evidence that Brigid was used in Scotland in our period except as the name of foreign saints. [Brigid of Kincarn, 01/02, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.02 [...] the submitter requested that the Gaelic form of of Cumbrae be used. She also requested authenticity for Scottish/Irish Gaelic language/culture and allows any changes. While locatives (like of Cumbrae) appear in Scots and Anglicized Irish records, their use in Gaelic is quite different. Current research has found no examples of locatives in Scottish Gaelic that are not part of chiefly titles. In Irish Gaelic, locative bynames appear but are vanishingly rare. While a few refer to countries outside of Ireland, none have yet been found that refer to a region outside of Ireland that is smaller than a country. Given this information about locatives in Gaelic, as well as the College being unable to find a Gaelic form of of Cumbrae, we are unable to meet the submitter's request for authenticity for Gaelic. [Jeane of Cumbrae, 02/02, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.02 Mixing Italian and Scots in a name was ruled a weirdness in August 1999:
While there is little evidence for mixed Scots/Italian names, there is enough contact between the cultures for this to be allowable. It is, however, a "weirdness." (Laertes McBride, A-Caid, LoAR 08/99)
[Cassia MacWilliam, 02/02, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.02 [Kenneth Pyke] There was some question regarding the plausibility of the spelling Kenneth as a period spelling. Black (p. 393 s.n. Kennethson) dates Alexander Kennethson to 1430. Therefore, Kenneth is a reasonable period spelling. [Cynwrig ap Rhys, 02/02, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.01 [Andrew MacGregor Toberlivet] The submitted element Toberlivet was submitted as an Anglicized form of a constructed Scottish Gaelic place name. While Tober- is well documented, -livet is only found in one location, Glenlivet. Additionally, this element is particularly problematic since different sources cannot agree on its origin. Darton, Dictionary of Scottish Place Names, (p. 174) describes it as the "elided form of liobhaite: 'of the slippery place'." Johnston (p.193 s.n. Glenlívet) lists the Gaelic as Gleann Liòmhaid, says that MacBain and Watson think that it comes from the same root as Glenlyon. Under the header Glenlyon on the same page, Johnston says of this name's meaning and origin "Doubtful. Perh. G. lì omhuinn, 'coloured river'; perh. fr. lighe, 'a flood'." Lacking solid evidence of the meaning of this element and having only the single example of its use in a placename, no pattern has been established that supports its use in other Gaelic placenames, including Scots forms of those placenames. [Andrei Grigorievich Topolev, 01/02, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.01 ... this name combined a hypothetical Old Norse name and a Scots byname. Mixing Scots and Old Norse in a name has been ruled unregisterable:
The combination of an Old Norse given name and an Anglicized Scots patronymic had too severe a temporal disparity. We have therefore changed the spelling of the given name to medieval Norwegian. [Ulvar MacVanis, A-Lochac, LoAR 07/2000]
[Ságadís Duncansdaughter, 01/02, R-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2002.01 Regarding a form of this name authentic for 12th C Scottish, the problematic element is Maut. The first known example of the name Matilda (of which Maut is a diminutive) used in Scotland is a daughter of Malcolm III, king of Scotland, and his Anglo-Saxon wife Margaret. All of Malcolm and Margaret's children were given non-Gaelic names. As a result, their names cannot be taken as use of these names by normal Scottish Gaels. Examples of forms of Matilda begin showing up in the 13th C and it is possible to determine an authentic form of this name for the late 13th C. At that time, most official documents in Scotland were recorded in Latin. Maut filia Alpini would be an authentic Latin form of this name for late 13th C. As we have yet to find an example of the name Matilda (in any form) in Gaelic, it is impossible to determine what an authentic Gaelic form of this name would be. [Maut MacAlpin, 01/02, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.01 The construction [feminine given name] + a Mac- style surname is documented in Black (p. 471 s.n. MacClumpha), which lists Joneta Makgillumquha in 1406, dating this construction to at least that early. [Maut MacAlpin, 01/02, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Submitted as Breccnat of Inverness, Breccnat is a Middle Irish (pre-1200) form of a saint's name. The Early Modern Irish form of this name is Breacnait. Black (s.n. Inverness) dates the spelling Invernys to 1361. Johnston (p. 211 s.n. Inverness) dates Invernis to a. 1300, Invirnisse to c. 1310, and Innernis to 1509. Speed, The Counties of Britain (p. 266, map of Scotland, map drawn 1610) lists Invernes. Of these, only the spelling dated to 1610 has an "e" in the -ness element. Therefore, the submitter's desired spelling Inverness is only supported for c. 1610. The name, as submitted, had two weirdnesses: one for lingual mix and one for temporal disparity (since the given name is dated no later than 1200 and the desired spelling of the byname is appropriate to c. 1610). As the LoI stated that the submitter preferred the spelling Inverness, we have changed the given name to the post-1200 form to remove the temporal disparity in order to register this name. [Breacnait of Inverness, 12/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Submitted as Elizabeth Cameron of Skye, the submitter requested authenticity for 16th C Scottish and allowed any changes. Black (p. 518 s.n. MacInstrie) dates Elizabeth McKynnestrie to 1565. Black (pp. 128-129 s.n. Cameron) dates the spelling Cammeron to 1532. Johnston (p. 296 s.n. Skye) dates Skey to 1292. Speed's The Counties of Britain (p. 266, map of Scotland, map drawn 1610) gives the spelling as Skye. As we could find no spelling of Skye in the 16th C, we do not know whether this form is authentic for the submitter's desired time period. [Elizabeth Cammeron of Skye, 12/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Submitted as Michael Mackay, the submitter requested authenticity for Scottish and allowed minor changes. The spelling Mackay is a header form in Black, but is not actually dated to period. Effrick neyn Kenneoch explains:
The specific form Mackay is not dated to 1408 in Black. Black (s.n. MACKAY) does say The unique Gaelic charter of 1408 was granted by Donald, lord of the Isles, to Brian Vicar Mackay of Islay, however, the spelling Brian Vicar Mackay is Black's (or his source's) modern English translation of the Gaelic of the charter. The actual period Gaelic spelling found in the 1408 Islay Charter is Bhrian Bhicaire Mhagaodh (Munro, no. 16, p. 21). [Munro, Jean, and R. W. Munro. Acts of the Lords of the Isles: 1336-1493. Scottish History Society, 4th Series, vol. 22. Edinburg [sic]: Scottish History Society, 1986.]
[Michael McCay, 12/01, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2001.12 This name mixes the Gaelic Colum with the English or Scots Maxwell, which is registerable though it counts as a weirdness. [Colum Maxwell, 12/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Submitted as Síthmaith nic Aoidh, the byname combined the Scots particle nic with the Gaelic Aoidh. This combination violates RfS III.1.a, which requires lingual consistency within a single name phrase. The LoI noted that, "She specifically desires the very late 'nic' form to match her persona from late Elizabethan Ireland," though she did not have a request for authenticity. Unfortunately, we have no evidence that nic was used in the names of Irish women in Ireland, though there is plently of evidence for use of the particle in the Scots language in Scotland. Therefore, we have changed the byname to the all Gaelic form inghean mhic Aoidh in order to register this name. [Síthmaith inghean mhic Aoidh, 12/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Mixing Gaelic and Scots is a weirdness. [Coilín de Kirkpatrick, 12/01, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Mixing Scots and Norse is registerable, though it counts as a weirdness. [Skafte Waghorne, 12/01, A-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2001.12 ... Cornelian found evidence for the name Mungo in The Court Book of the Barony of Carnwath, 1523-1524, which includes:
The quhilk day my l[ord] foloit mungo morpet & Jhon vyld & Jhon anderson on the tane part & mungo lows on the toder part for the tylin of his grund with violent blud...
Cornelian notes this section as dating to 1525. This quote documents the name Mungo in the names mungo morpet and mungo lows. These examples are enough to support Mungo as a 16th C Scots masculine given name. [Mungo Maglinchie, 12/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Submitted as Kalum Nickerson, no documentation was provided and none could be found that that Kalum is a reasonable period variant of Calum. Without such evidence, it is not registerable. The only documentation provided for Nickerson was from a genealogy webpage. As genealogy sources routinely normalize spellings, they are not suitable for documentation of SCA name submissions on their own. Without independent evidence that Nickerson is a period surname, it is not registerable. The closest dated form found was Nickeson, which is dated to 1601 in Hitching and Hitching References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602. We have therefore used this spelling. [Calum Nickeson, 11/01, A-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Submitted as Michael MacCalluim of Edinburgh... The submitted MacCalluim is neither a Scottish Gaelic spelling nor a Scots spelling. We have changed it to a completely Scots spelling in order to register the name. [Michael MacCallum of Edinburgh, 11/01, A-East]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Submitted as Úna ingen Ranald, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 13th C Scottish Gaelic and allowed any changes. Ranald is a Scots language form. (Scots is a language similar to English.) The corresponding name in Gaelic is Ragnall. [Úna ingen Ragnaill, 11/01, A-East]
François la Flamme 2001.11 The submitter requested authenticity for Scots-French. In period, a name with mixed elements would have been rendered all in one language depending upon the language of the document where the name was recorded. In this case, if the record would have been written completely in Scots or completely in French. Therefore, this name is not authentic. It has one weirdness for mixing Scots and French. [Laurensa Fraser, 11/01, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Submitted as Mungo Amadan Mor, it was changed to Cosmungo Amadan Mor at kingdom because Mungo was documented only as a nickname for the 6th C saint. Cornelian found evidence for the name Mungo in The Court Book of the Barony of Carnwath, 1523-1524, which includes:
The quhilk day my l[ord] foloit mungo morpet & Jhon vyld & Jhon anderson on the tane part & mungo lows on the toder part for the tylin of his grund with violent blud...
Cornelian notes this section as dating to 1525. This quote documents the name Mungo in the names mungo morpet and mungo lows. These examples are enough to support Mungo as a 16th C Scots masculine given name. [Mungo Mor, 11/01, A-West]
François la Flamme 2001.11 This name is being returned for combining the name of a clan with the clan seat of that clan. This is a long-standing precedent best summarized in the LoAR of March 1993:
We will continue to prohibit the use of a Scots clan name with the seat or territory of that clan (e.g. Cameron of Lochiel), or a surname with the phrase of that Ilk (or its functional equivalent, e.g Macintosh of Macintosh). That usage, with or without the given name, is the title of the actual chief of the clan or his immediate kin; its use in the SCA represents a direct infringement on actual nobility, and also appears to be a claim to rank, either of which is grounds for return. (Alexander MacIntosh of Islay, March, 1993, pp. 7-8)
[Iain Macquarrie of Ulva, 11/01, R-East]
François la Flamme 2001.11 ... we have no evidence that the given name Avelyn was used in Scotland... [Avelyn MacGregor, 11/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Upon further review, the few examples of matronymics in Gaelic that are currently known are in Irish Gaelic and date from after 1200. Therefore, barring examples that such constructions were used in Old Irish or Middle Irish, matronymics are only registerable for Early Modern Irish Gaelic (after 1200). A matronymic construction using name elements dated only to before 1200 would add a lingual disparity and make the name unregisterable. [Ceara ingen uí Líadnáin, 10/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Therefore, there is only one weirdness in this name: the one for mixing the French name Maura with the Scots byname MacPharlane. [Maura MacPharlane, 10/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Using a Mac-style byname with a feminine given name is a pattern seen in late period Scots, mainly in records that refer to a woman by her father's byname. Black (p. 471 s.n. MacClumpha) dates Joneta Makgillumquha to 1406, dating this construction to at least the early 15th C. [Maura MacPharlane, 10/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 The submitter requested authenticity for Scots language/culture. As we were unable to find evidence that Arabella was used in Scotland, we were unable to make this name authentic. [Arabella Macgrath, 10/01, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Caitriona of Lochaber, the submitter requested authenticity for Scottish language/culture. In period, a name would have been written completely in Scottish Gaelic or completely in Scots. As Caitriona is Gaelic and of Lochaber is Scots, the name is not authentic as submitted. Since locative bynames are vanishingly rare in Gaelic, we have put the name entirely in Scots to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Catrina of Lochaber, 10/01, A-Lochac]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Derdriu de Dubhglas, the byname combined the Gaelic Dubhglas with the non-Gaelic de in a single name phrase. This violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a single name phrase. We have changed the byname to a completely Scots form to resolve this issue. [Derdriu de Duglas, 10/01, A-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2001.09 The submitter requested authenticity for Scottish language/culture. Double given names were not known in Scotland in period (though they are registerable as a weirdness). As the submitter does not allow major changes, we were unable to make this name authentic. [Joseph Angus Wilson, 09/01, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Submitted as Beatrice Lindsay MacBean, the submitter requested authenticity for "any" time period. Lindsay is a locative byname. All examples of multiple bynames in Scots found by the College have the patronymic byname (or inherited surname) before the locative byname. Therefore, lacking evidence that a locative byname would precede the patronymic in Scots, that byname order is not registerable. Authentic forms of this name would be Beatrice Lindsay, Beatrice de Lindsay, Beatrice MacBean, or Beatrice MacBean de Lindsay. As the last option is the closest to her submitted name, we have made this change. [Beatrice MacBean de Lindsay, 09/01, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Submitted as Katrina Celeste Rosehearty, this name had one weirdness for mixing the English Celeste with an otherwise Scots name and a second weirdness for a double given name in Scots. We have dropped Celeste to resolve this issue. [Katrina Rosehearty, 09/01, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2001.09 The given name ... is Gaelic and the byname ... is Scots. While this lingual mix is registerable, it is a weirdness. [Ailill Lockhart, 09/01, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Submitted as Allasan Woulfe, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish Gaelic language/culture and allows minor changes. Unfortunately, neither Allasan nor Woulfe is Irish Gaelic. She states that, if the name must be changed, the meaning/sound Wolf is most important to her.

The name Allasan was documented as a Scottish Gaelic feminine name using the article "Some Scottish Gaelic Feminine Names" at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/scotgaelfem/. This article has been updated and the name Allasan removed with the comment:
We had previously listed Allasan here; after further research, we have concluded that it was a mistake to include it. We have found no convincing evidence that this name was used in Scottish Gaelic before modern times.
The problem here is that Allasan is a modern Gaelic name. Evidence for Scottish Gaelic names in period is very hard to find as most documents were written in Scots or Latin. The Academy of Saint Gabriel article in question is a compilation of information from many sources to try and determine what feminine given names were in use in Scottish Gaelic in period by examining Gaels whose names were recorded in Latin, Scots, etc. Recently, the Academy re-reviewed the evidence that led to the inclusion of Allasan in that article and came to the conclusion that there is no convincing evidence that a form of Alison was used by Scottish Gaels in any spelling during our period. Given this new information, barring other documentation of the spelling Allasan being used as a period name, we will discontinue registering this name beginning at the decision meeting in April of 2002. This does not affect the registerability of the Scots form Alesone or other documented forms of Alison in other languages.

Regarding this submission, no evidence has been found that the name Alison migrated into Ireland in any form. The Annals of Connacht list two isolated instances of the name Alis in 1267 and 1285. We would have made this change, but felt that the change from Allasan to Alis was a major change.

Woulfe (p. 862 s.n. Ulf) dates the Anglicized forms Ulfe and Wulf to the time of Elizabeth I - James I. We have changed the byname to a dated Anglicized Irish form to partially comply with the submitter's request. [Allasan Wulf, 09/01, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2001.09 The submitter requested authenticity for English language/culture. The citations for the byname Buchanan came from Reaney and Wilson. However, those citations each reference Black. As such, we only have Buchanan documented from Scotland. Therefore, we were unable to comply with the submitter's request for authenticity. [Morgan Buchanan, 09/01, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2001.09/TD> Submitted as Iosobail de Lockford, the submitter requested a name authentic for the 15th C. The Gaelic form Iosobail and the Scots form de Lockford would not have been mixed in period. As such, we have changed the given name to a Scots form to comply with the submitter's request. [Issobell de Lockford, 09/01, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2001.09 [Maura MacLeod] This is an appeal of a change made at Laurel. The ruling that appears in the October 1999 LoAR is:
Submitted as Maura MacLeod, no documentation was given showing that Maura was a period given name. The Irish Gaelic form Maire appeared so late in Irish as a solitary given name that we are doubtful that English diminutives appeared within our period. We therefore replaced the given name with a documented form.
The documentation provided in the appeal includes references to four saints. Many modern dictionaries of saints index the saints under modern spellings of their names. As such, they contain unmarked normalization of the saints' names and often mask the forms by which they were known in period.

While names of saints are registerable, they are not exempted from weirdness counts. So the question we must ask about the submitter's desired name of Maura is what language(s) this spelling appropriate for.

Among the documentation submitted with this appeal were references that asserted that a church in Kilmaurs, Ayrshire, Scotland is dedicated to a Saint Maura and therefore Maura was the name of a saint known in Scotland. This derivation does not match what we currently know of Gaelic. The letter s is not used to indicate possessive in Gaelic. A placename meaning '[name]'s church' is formed by adding the genitive form of [name] after Cill. As such, the meaning "'Church of Saint Maurus' (a French saint)" which Johnston gives for this placename is plausible where 'Church of Saint Maura' is not.

Other submitted documentation mentioned a Saint Maura in conjunction with a Saint Beya (also spelled Baya) who are supposed to have flourished in the 9th C in "Little Cumbrae". Lacking supporting evidence for these names in the 9th C, we must assume they are later renderings, likely post-period, of the names of those saints since neither Maura nor Beya are appropriate for the languages that were spoken in 9th C Scotland.

Searches of period English parish registers and other documents turned up no evidence of the name Maura. As such, we have no evidence that the name Maura was used at all in the British Isles during period. Until such time as documentation is uncovered that provides such evidence, the name Maura must be limited to the languages and time periods for which it can be proven. Of those, 12th C French is the most helpful to the submitter.

Dauzat and Rostaing (p. 636 s.n. Ste-Maure) date S. Maura as a form of this placename in 1136. Therefore, at least one saint (probably the saint known as Maura of Troyes, d. 850) was certainly known by this name in France in the 12th C. As such, the name Maura may be registered in the context of a 12th C French name. The submitter may wish to know that the similar-sounding name Mora, a Latinized form of the Gaelic feminine name Mór is dated to 1541 in Scotland.

Black (p. 538 s.n. MacLeod) dates Gillandres MacLeod to 1229.

These citations date the two elements of the name to a little over a century apart. The last question left is whether there is a temporal disparity weirdness for using a 12th C feminine given name with a Mac-form byname. Using a Mac-style byname with a feminine given name is a pattern seen in late period Scots, mainly in records that refer to a woman using her father's byname. Black (p. 471 s.n. MacClumpha) dates Joneta Makgillumquha to 1406, dating this construction to at least that early.

Therefore, there is only one weirdness in this name--the one for the lingual mix of French with Scots. Since the given name Maura, the byname MacLeod, and the construction (feminine given name + Mac-form byname) are all dated within a 300-year period, there is not a second weirdness for temporal disparity. Therefore, this name is registerable as it only has one weirdness for the lingual mix.

(Note: see the Cover Letter for further clarification regarding the registerability of saints' names.) [Maura MacLeod, 09/01, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2001.08 [Michael Ian Sinclair] ... double given names in Scots have also been ruled a weirdness. [Michael Sinclair, 08/01, A-Merides]
François la Flamme 2001.08 The combination of Scots and Welsh is registerable, though it is considered a weirdness. As such, Anton Cwith is registerable as a mix of Scots and Welsh. Note: this ruling does not alter previous rulings prohibiting mixed Gaelic/Welsh names, as Scots is a different language than Scottish Gaelic. [Anton Cwith, 08/01, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2001.08/TD> In our period, the particle nic was not used in Gaelic. The period Gaelic equivalent was inghean mhic. RfS III.1.a requires that all elements in a name phrase be in one language. We have made the change in the particle to comply with this rule. Note: As the patronym (Criomhthainn) begins with a "C" and the preceeding particle (mhic) ends with a "c", the patronym does not lenite. [Muirenn inghean mhic Criomhthainn, 08/01, A-Caid]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.05 The main question in this submission was how to represent the letter yogh. For most purposes within the College, Da'ud notation is likely to be used; in that notation, {gh} is the appropriate choice. [Effric Neyn Ken{gh}ocht Mcherrald, 05/01,A-West]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.12 Kinchyle appears to be the clan seat of the MacBean, so the two names cannot be combined in this manner. [Lachlan McBean of Kinchyle, 12/00, R-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.11 Submitted as Isabele nic Giolla Bhríde, the byname mixed Anglicized and Gaelic spellings. As mixed-language name elements are not allowed we have changed the patronymic to an entirely Anglicized spelling. [Isabele nic Gilvride, 11/00, A-Meridies]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.09 Submitted on the LoI as Tom MacGrimm, the name was changed to that form in Kingdom; it was originally submitted as Tam MacGrimm. However, Reaney and Wilson's Dictionary of English Surnames has "Peter Tamelyn 1327 SRsf. A double diminutive of Tam (Tom). cf. Tomlin." and "William Tamson 1395 EA (OS) iv (C); Walter Tampson 1641 PrSo; John Tampson 1642 PrD. 'Son of Tam', a variant of Tom, a pet-form of Thomas." Therefore Tam appears to be an acceptable given name. However, there is no documentation for adding mac to the documentable Grimm. We have therefore changed the given name back to the original form and removed mac from the byname. [Tam Grimm, 09/00, A-Outlands]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.09 There was sufficient contact between England and Russia to allow mixed names under our rules. There was no such contact between Scotland and Russia, but we have seen documentation that MacNeill appears as a surname in England as well. Note, however, that mixed Scots / Russian names are not acceptable, barring new evidence. [Nastasiia MacNeill, 09/00, A-Caid]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.07 The submitted documentation had this as a mixed Hungarian/Scots name. No evidence was presented that these cultures were in contact to an extent that would justify registering the name. However, Ladislaus is actually a Latinized form of a relatively common Slavic name, found almost all over Eastern Europe; also, de Brody is found in Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames. We can therefore simply refer to the precedent from March 1993 that says a Russian/English mixed name is registerable. [Ladislaus de Brody, 07/00, A-Meridies]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.07 Submitted as Úlfarr MacVanis, he requested an authentic Norse/Scots name. The combination of an Old Norse given name and an Anglicized Scots patronymic had too severe a temporal disparity. We have therefore changed the spelling of the given name to medieval Norwegian. [Ulvar MacVanis, 07/00, A-Lochac]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.06 Of the Scots variants of Alan, the -eyn spellings are all in French constructions and thus not be appropriate in a Gaelic byname construction. ... Either Alexandria nic Allayn or Alexandria Alleyn would be possible. [Alexandria nic Alleyn, 06/00, R-Calontir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.06 Bynames of the type of Clan X, not found in period, have been disallowed since late 1998. [Dùghall Bàn of Clann Mhuirich, 06/00, R-Atlantia]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.05 ... the construction of Clan X has been disallowed since June 1998. [Aeron Aschennen of Clan MacKenzie, 05/00, R-Ansteorra]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.04 There are several problems with the name. Brenna is not Gaelic, but is justfiable as possibly Italian. This makes the name acceptable by itself, but not with the rest of the name. The mixture of English and Gaelic spellings in the name is a weirdness. Furthermore, there is no evidence of Scottish or Irish names with two given names, much less three. Also, there is no evidence of the use of Clan <X> in names. Lastly, the Macghie of MacKay implied that the submitter is the clan chief or the clan chief's daughter, which is presumptuous. The submitter should also be informed that Michaela is not Irish. [Brenna Michaela Sine Macghie of Clan MacKay, 04/00, R-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.04 Submitted as Ewan MacLaren of Balquhidder, the point was made in commentary that Balquhidder figures prominently enough in the MacLaren history to be considered a clan seat. As such, while there is no clan title of MacLaren of Balquhidder, this byname would imply that the person belongs to the immediate family of the chief. Since dropping Balquhidder would result in a conflict with the already registered name of Eoin MacLaren, we have dropped MacLaren instead. [Ewan of Balquhidder, 04/00, A-An Tir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.03 Submitted as Kára MacLeod, the submitter requested an authentic 10th century Scottish name. The name itself is a mix of a Norse name and a Scots spelling of a Gaelic patronymic derived from a Norse name. Scots did not appear as a separate language after the 10th century. Furthermore, the mixture of two spelling systems is not plausible for 10th century Scotland. While elements from Gaelic and Norse may have been used in a single name, the name itself would be written either entirely in Gaelic or Norse, although the same name could have been written in either language depending on the context. For registration we chose to make the name entirely Gaelic both because it is more "Scottish" and because the resulting name is closer in sound to the original. A fully Norse form would be Kára Ljótsdottír. [Cera ingen Leoid, 03/00, A-Meridies]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.02 Maura is not justifiable as a period Irish name, as it is a diminutive of Maire, which did not appear in Ireland until the end of our period. There is a possible justification of Maura as a feminization of an 8th c. Frankish male name, but there are other problems. Morlet lists Maura to 739, while MacPharlain is first cited in 1385 (Black, s.n. MacFarlane). Thus the name would have two weirdnesses: the combination of French and Scots Gaelic and temporal incompatibility. [Maura MacPharlain, 02/00, R-Atlantia]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.02 ... the mixture of Scots and Gaelic spelling is a weirdness and not returnable... [Elspeth O'Shea, 02/00, A-Middle]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.08 While there is little evidence for mixed Scots/Italian names, there is enough contact between the cultures for this to be allowable. It is, however, a "weirdness." For a fuller discussion, see the cover letter [see Compatible (Language)]. [Laertes McBride, 08/99, A-Caid]
Jaelle of Armida 1999.05 [Hamish Robertson] Black 's Surnames of Scotland (p. 719 under Seumas) says "Seumas. The Gaelic spelling of James. Often incorrectly Englished Hamish, which is the English pronunciation of the vocative form (G. Sheumais)." Withycombe's The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names (p. 144 under Hamish) says, "an attempt to render phonetically Sheumais, the vocative of Seumas, the Gaelic form of James (q.v.). Scott has a Hamish MacTavish, but the present vogue of the name seems to be due to the novels of William Black (1841-98), very popular in their day." Presumably Withycombe is referring to the author Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) in this reference. No evidence has been found to show that Hamish is anything but a post-period form. In-period renderings of Hamish are Seumas in Gaelic and James in English. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR May 1999, p. 13)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.11 [Isabel Kelsey de Cameron] Submitted as ... of Clan Cameron, The available evidence indicates that the way membership in such a clan (no matter what "clan" word was used for the group) was indicated in a personal name was by the use of ó (or older ua) plus the clan eponym in the genitive, not by using a construction equivalent to 'of Clan X'. We have removed the word clan, and changed the name to the closest registerable form to the originally submitted form. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR November 1998, p. 1)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Kinga MacKinnon] This is being returned for two reasons. First no period exemplars were presented and none could be found for Kinga as a period abbreviated form of Kunegunda. Secondly, no documentation was presented, and none could be found for regular contact between Hungary and Scotland. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Osandrea Elspeth Gabrielle de le Bete] The name is being returned for several reasons. ů Fourth, despite what the LoI says, Gaelic does not share much in common with French, and Elspeth is not a reasonable French variant. ů Osanne Gabriel would be an acceptable name. But as she does not allow any changes, we were forced to return the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998) [Note: Elspeth is actually a Scots for of the name Elizabeth; not a Gaelic form ľ Mari]
Jaelle of Armida 1998.07 [Eoghan MacFhearguis] Submitted as Eoghan MacFhearguis of Dunfallandy, this combines the name of the clan with the clan seat which is presumptuous. We have removed the placename in order to register the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1998, p. 2)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Lorn Mac Ewen] Submitted as Lorn Mac Ewen of Otter, this combines the clan name and the name of the seat of that clan. We do not permit that, as it is a format found only in association with clan chiefs. We have dropped the place name in order to register the rest of the name and the armory. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 12)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.01 [Moira of the Meadows] Moyra is an undocumented variant spelling of the Anglicized spelling of the Gaelic equivalent of Mary. Since the Gaelic form of Mary was a rare usage during our period, we do not feel that the Anglicized form was used enough to form variant spellings. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1998, p. 4)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.01 [Rowan Elvesham] Please inform the submitter that Rowan is a masculine name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1998, p. 11)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.08 It appears that the submitter has been misled by an inexactitude in Black: Nicgriogair is not Gaelic for 'daughter of Gregor', but rather for 'daughter of the MacGregor'. 'Daughter of Gregor' would be inghean Ghriogair. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1997, p. 23)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.08 Submitted as Morgaine nic Gavin, the only non-literary citation for Morgaine is Morgaine Hubble, who in 1583 had a license to marry Tomison (i.e., Thomasine) Halestone (Bardsley s.n. Hailstone). In other words, Morgaine as a real name is attested only as a variant of the masculine Morgan. A Morgaine therefore cannot be nic Gavin `daughter of a Mac Gavin'. We have therefore dropped the "nic" in order to register the name. (Morgaine Gavin, 8/97 p. 9)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.07 [registering Brenda Lynne of Clan Neil] Submitted as Brenda Lynne of the Clan MacNeil, the form Clan Neil or MacNeil would have been used, not the two in combination. We have changed it to the closest Anglicized form. [previously registered name was Brenda Lynne] (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1997, p. 3)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.04 [registering the given name Ian] [Ian Mac Tawisch] It is not clear as to whether this spelling of Ian is a period form. While we would like to see some conclusive research on this subject, we also feel that this is a name that is popular in the SCA. Since it has been registered over 100 times, we are declaring it SCA compatible, and hope that further research will prove that this was unnecessary. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1997, p. 11)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.04 registering the given name Iain] [Iain Kyle the Red] It is not clear as to whether this spelling of Iain is a period form. While we would like to see some conclusive research on this subject, we also feel that this is a name that is popular in the SCA. Since it has been registered over 40 times, we are declaring it SCA compatible, and hope that further research will prove that this was unnecessary. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1997, p. 8)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.04 Submitted as Angus Campbell of Argyll, the combination of Campbell of Argyll is not allowed in the SCA. "The use of the name Campbell of Argyll in modern mundane usage is tantamount to a claim of kinship with the chief and it will be so taken by the bulk of members of the Society, causing offense to some." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR August 1987, p. 16) "As Tir Connell was the seat of the chief sept of the O'Donnells, it may not be used with the name O'Donnell just as Argyll may not be used with Campbell." (Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane, LoAR 25 January 1987, p. 10). We could not just drop the "of Argyll", as because of V.1.a.ii.(a), "Bynames of Relationship." While it is true that Angus Campbell need not be a member of Clan Campbell, we believe that someone named Angus who wanted to indicate his membership of Clan Campbell could legitimately be called Angus Campbell. The rules are not clear whether two bynames differ when their meanings are neither precisely the same nor completely different, and so this falls into a gray area. After much thought and discussion it was our conclusion that the two names are in conflict. We have dropped the conflicting element in order to register the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1997, p. 7)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.01 Submitted as Cáelán MacGraith, this name mixes Gaelic and non-Gaelic orthographies in the same name. Therefore, a Gaelic form is needed to match the Gaelic forename. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1997, p. 3)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.09 [Campbell of Glenlyon] Glenlyon is one of the seats of the Campbells. Current precedent states: "The Society considers the use of a clan name (Guinne, Gunn) with the seat of the clan (Kilernan) to be presumptuous; the only examples we've found of such usage are by clan chiefs and their immediate families." (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, LoAR January 1993, p. 24) Therefore, this name is presumptuous. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1996, p. 16)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.04 It seems increasingly doubtful that English Ian is a period form. (The status of Gaelic Iain is less clear.) Black has relevant information in his articles on Macaneduff, Macanemoyll, Macian, Mackain, Mackean, and Iain, in his introduction, and doubtless elsewhere as well. In these we find Mackaneduff 1498 'son of black John'; here the John element is the part spelled ane. In 1559 we find the same spelling in M'Anevoill 'son of bald John'. Mackain and Mackean are forms of Macian; some actual citations are McAan and McAyn 1519, M'Ean 1538, M'Kaine 1601, M'Kane 1480, Makkaane 1570, and McKeane 1600. Finally, Black notes that Iain replaced an older Eoin but unfortunately does not say when this occurred. The English spellings suggest a variety of pronunciations ranging from 'ay-un' to '(y)ahn', but not modern 'EE-un'. Whatever the pronunciation, however, it appears that the usual English spellings were Ean and Ane when the name wasn't simply replaced by John. (This last seems to have been usual in the case of given names.) On the available evidence, Ian doesn't rate the benefit of the doubt, but much of the evidence is fairly indirect; can anyone add to it? (Talan Gwynek, Cover Letter to the April 1996 LoAR, pp. 2-3)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.04 The upper-case N in Nic may be seen in Jannet Nik Kerkyll 1561 (Black, s.n. Maccorkill). (Talan Gwynek, LoAR April 1996, p. 4)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.08 Submitted as Curnán MacDowell, we have been unable to find fully Gaelic given names combined with Anglicized Gaelic patronymics. As the submitter allowed minor changes, and since Curnan (without the accent) is a reasonable englishing, we have substituted it as the closest form to that submitted. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR August 1994, p. 13)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.05 [Returning Eibhlin Niccluir.] The "patronymic" is unattested in the documentation. The only variant discussed in the documentation (dated to 1637) is Makcluir. Further, as an anglicized variant it is unlikely to have been combined with a Gaelic borrowing of the Norman Avelina and Emeline. The combination of two unlikely components is sufficient to cause return for rework and/or better documentation. [5/94, p.18]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.03 Though it was noted by a couple of commenters that clan names are generally generated from given names or occasionally from nicknames, Bain's The Clans and Tartans of Scotland notes a number of clan name derived from surnames. [3/94, p.1]
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.10 Note that we have in the past allowed the use of Mac with English given names. (Logan Mersc Macjenkyne, October, 1993, pg. 11)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.08 ...the combination of a clan name with the seat or territory of the clan is the prerogative of the chief of the clan, and is thus disallowed in the Society. (Magdalene Katherine MacDonald of Sleat, August, 1993, pg. 17)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.03 Lord Obelisk has noted a Laurel precedent (v. Duncan Forbes of Crathes, LoAR of Nov 90) that disallowed any use of a Scots surname with a Scots toponymic, as it "implies landedness in possession of a feudal barony." I suspect this was not intended to be a permanent change in our policy, which hitherto had disallowed the use of a Scots clan surname with the seat of the clan. Certainly, in the months following the above ruling, we registered Duncan MacFergus of Kintyre (Dec 90, p.7), John MacRobert of Grandloch (Feb 91, p.6), Fergus MacKillop of Skye (April 91, p.5), Gareth MacGunther of Gordon (April 91, p.8), etc. I believe that, in practice if not explicitly, the Nov 90 precedent has been overturned.

Moreover, there is counter-evidence suggesting that Scots surname-toponymic combinations don't necessarily imply possession of a feudal barony. Frank Adams (Clans, Septs and Regiments of the Scottish Highlands) gives an instance (p.402) of a small homestead, about five acres, being sufficient to warrant the addition of the toponymic. Adams notes that clan names could be modified for a number of reasons, not all of which concern nobiliary claims: he cites "those who, though unconnected by blood with the clan, had become bound to it by bonds of manrent", and "those of the clan who were ...distinguished by the name of the part of the clan territory occupied by them" (p.398). Black ( Surnames of Scotland) corroborates this in several of his entries; for instance, on p.xxiv we find two examples (Jhon Mour de Sanchar, Robert Mour de Skeldowy), taken from a guild roster of 1431: non-noble, unconnected to the chief of Clan Muir, but definitely combining a Scots surname with a Scots patronymic.

We will continue to prohibit the use of a Scots clan name with the seat or territory of that clan (e.g. Cameron of Lochiel), or a surname with the phrase of that Ilk (or its functional equivalent, e.g Macintosh of Macintosh). That usage, with or without the given name, is the title of the actual chief of the clan or his immediate kin; its use in the SCA represents a direct infringement on actual nobility, and also appears to be a claim to rank, either of which is grounds for return. But by and large, the use of a Scots surname with a Scots placename is acceptable for SCA use. (Alexander MacIntosh of Islay, March, 1993, pp. 7-8)

Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.01 The Society considers the use of a clan name (Guinne, Gunn) with the seat of the clan (Kilernan) to be presumptuous; the only examples we've found of such usage are by clan chiefs and their immediate families. (Sine Guinne of Kilernan, January, 1993, pg. 24)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 [Kara of Kirriemuir] The given name was submitted as Kara, documented as a Russian diminutive of Karina. However, no evidence was presented for the period Russian/Scots interaction such a name would require [the first name was converted to a Latin name with a similar sound]. (Cara of Kirriemuir, September, 1992, pg. 30)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 [MacFlandry] The surname does not appear to be correctly constructed. The LOI attempted to justify MacFlandry as meaning "son of the man from Flanders". There are examples in Black of MacX surnames, where X is an ethnic name: e.g., MacBrabner, "son of the Brabanter", and MacBretny, "son of the Breton". Based on those names, we could accept "son of the man from Flanders" --- but unfortunately, the term for "man from Flanders" is Fleming, which sounds nothing like Flanders (or Flandry). The surname de Flandre, also cited in the documentation, means "of Flanders"; Mac (de) Flandre would mean "son of Flanders", which (except in a metaphoric sense) is impossible. Either Lyulf de Flandry or Lyulf MacFleming would be a valid construction; MacFlandry is not. (Lyulf MacFlandry, September, 1992, pg. 43)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 The submitter, on his submission forms, tried to justify MacFlandry as "a made-up Scots-sounding name", ...The name [however] cannot be considered "made-up" when it's documented from period elements; it's the incorrect grammar, not the choice of elements, that mandates the return. (Lyulf MacFlandry, September, 1992, pg. 43)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.07 No commenter was comfortable with the argument in the LOI supporting Kithwall ["Kithwall is a constructed place name base on the patter found in Kirkwall (the county seat of Orkney) with the initial element coming from Kithehilt (1296) found in Black as a variant of the locative surname Kinhilt"]. A better case can be made, though: Ekwall cites instances (as well he should) of -wall used as a deuterotheme in English place names (e.g. Thirlwall, from OE thirel, "perforation" + weall, "wall"). Hall's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary gives cith, cyth, "seed, germ, shoot" -- so kithwall means essentially "grassy wall", a reasonable toponymic. (Rorius Domhnall Kithwall, July, 1992, pg. 15)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1991.11 "Hamish is not a name. It is a phonetic rendering of the Gaelic name Seumas in the vocative case, and only became misconsidered a given name by mistake by non-Gaelic speakers in post-period times. It is no more a given than would be the possessive James'. If the submitter would consider the given Seumas, this would work." (LoAR 11/91 p.19).
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1991.10 "By the submitter's own documentation Kennaquhair is 'Scottish for a place which does not exist; a name for some imaginary place.' This does not appear to be a place from which a person could be." (LoaR 10/91 p.10).
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1990.12 "The use of the Gaelic patronymic is inappropriate with an anglicization of the patronymic name." [the name was returned: note that this is may be anomalous as it is contrary to later acceptances in LsoAR of 1/91, 2/91, which allowed combinations such as nic Lowry, nic Andrew and nic Bryan] (LoAR 12/90 p.14).
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1990.09 "Submitted as <given name> <locative> of <locative>, such a form (X of X, or X of that Ilk) is a claim not only to chieftanship of a clan but implies overlordship of a territory, and rank and title. Such a claim is improper in the SCA." (LoAR 9/90 p.7).
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1990.06 "The Scottish patronymic particle [Mac] was sometimes used with an English given name." (LoAR 6/90 Symposium pps. 1-2).
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.08 The use of the name Campbell of Argyll in modern mundane usage is tantamount to a claim of kinship with the chief and it will be so taken by the bulk of members of the Society, causing offense to some. (LoAR Aug 87, pp. 15-16)
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1981.02.23 You cannot use two given names in a patronymic. You can be "nic M." or "nic N.," but not "nic M. N." WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 6
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1980.11.28 Stuart is a very large clan in Scotland, and we have already allowed some people to use the name, so Stuart is a specific exception to the rule against using the surnames of royal families and clans. WVS [30] [LoAR 28 Nov 80], p. 4