Collected Precedents of the S.C.A.: Gaelic (Irish, Manx, Scottish)


Name Precedents: Gaelic (Irish, Manx, Scottish)

For names from Ireland and Scotland rendered in languages other than Gaelic, see:

Laurel: Date: (year.month.date)

Precedent:

Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 Submitted as Ailís inghean Muirgen of Derrybawn, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th-16th C Irish. We have changed the name to Ailís inghean Mhuirghein to partially comply with this request. Muirgen is a Middle Irish Gaelic name, and we have no evidence that this form remained in use into the the 14th C period; therefore, we substituted an appropriate Early Modern Irish spelling. The patronymic was in the nominative case; we have put it in the genitive case and lenited the the first letter to comply with Gaelic grammar. Finally, an Anglicized locative is out of place in an authentic Irish Gaelic name; it has been dropped. [Ailís inghean Mhuirghein, 05/04, East]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 Submitted as Constance inghean Conchobair, the patronymic mixes a Middle Irish Gaelic patronymic with the Early Modern Irish Gaelic patronymic particle. In addition, Gaelic grammar requires that patronymics beginning with the letter C must lenite or soften when used as part of a feminine name. Therefore, we have changed the name to Constance ingen Chonchobair to make the patronymic temporally consistent and to correct the grammar.

This name mixes English and Gaelic orthographies in a single name; this is one step from period practice.[Constance ingen Chonchobair, 05/04, A-Middle]

Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 Submitted as Cailean mac Eachduinn, the submitter requested authenticity for Scotland. The spelling of the given name was documented from Black, The Surnames of Scotland, as a Gaelic spelling. When Black marks a spelling as Gaelic, he means it is a modern Gaelic spelling. Occasionally, modern Gaelic forms are identical to late period Gaelic forms, but not always. In this case, Black provides a Gaelic spelling from 1467: Cailin. The patronymic appears in the same 1467 manuscript. Therefore, we have changed the name to Cailin mac Eachduinn to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Cailin mac Eachduinn, 05/04, A-East]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 The question arose whether the name Macha was registerable, since Macha is the name of one of the three war-goddesses of the Tuatha Dé Danann. However, Ó Corrain and Maguire also cite a Saint Macha; upon further investigation, Saint Macha is the patron saint of Kilkinney, who, according to her hagiography, with her five sisters founded a church around the 6th C. Therefore, the name is registerable as a saint's name. [Macha Drake, 05/04, A-Caid]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 This name combines English and Gaelic elements in a single name; this is one step from period practice. The double given names Caitlin Christiana are grandfathered to the submitter, whose name Caitlin Christiana Rosa del León was registered in 1987. The Grandfather Clause allows a submitter to register name elements from a previously registered name, so long as they are used in the same manner and exactly the same spelling as in the previously registered name and no new violations of the Rules for Submissions exist in the new name that did not exist in the registered name. Therefore, we must ask if the changes in byname and name construction introduce a new violation of the Rules for Submission that was not present in the original submission. They does not. Instead, the change from Rosa del León to Wintour reduces the number of languages in this name. Therefore, this name is registerable via the Grandfather Clause. [Caitlin Christiana Wintour, 05/04, A-Caid]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.05 As there is an Early Modern Irish descriptive byname, Maol, which means bald, this name is registerable under the Lingua Anglica allowance. A fully Early Modern Irish form of this name is Coileán Maol. [Cuilén the Bald, 05/04, A-Meridies]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 Submitted as Cairistiona inghen Raonuill, this name uses a significantly post-period Gaelic orthography for the spelling of the byname. Mac Raonuill is a modern Gaelic spelling; no evidence for this spelling is found prior to the 19th C. The Middle Irish Gaelic equivalent (900-1200) is Mac Ragnaill, while the Early Modern Irish Gaelic equivalent (1200-1700) is Mac Raghnaill. It is highly likely that the Scottish Gaelic forms in these periods would be identical to the Irish Gaelic forms. Furthermore, the patronymic particle uses a spelling occasionally found in the transitional period between Middle Irish Gaelic and Early Modern Irish Gaelic. We have changed the spelling of the patronymic to inghean Raghnaill, the Early Modern Irish Gaelic form. [Cairistiona inghean Raghnaill, 04/04, A-Lochac]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 There was some discussion among the commenters as to the correct form of the byname, noting that it fell somewhere between Senchaid, the normalized Middle Irish Gaelic form, and Seanchaidh, the Early Modern Irish Gaelic form. Since the submitter has documented the submitted spelling, Senchaidh, in the Annals of Ulster, the submitted form is fine. [Cúán Senchaidh Ua Suillebáin, 04/04, A-Northshield]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 The submitted form of the given name Daibhead is a modern form; barring evidence that this form is found before 1600, it cannot be registered. [Daibhídh suaimhneach uí Néill, 04/04, A-Caid]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 The submitter requested an authentic name with "the first name Norse and the second name Scottish." While there is a great deal of evidence for Norsemen adopting Gaelic names and vice versa, there is no evidence that Norse and Gaelic orthographies were combined in this manner. This name combines Norse and Gaelic orthographies, which has been ruled one step from period practice. As submitted, it's not authentic although it is registerable.

To make this name authentic, it should be in entirely in either Norse orthography or Gaelic orthography. An entirely Norse form would be Einarr Domnalsson; Talan Gwynek's draft article "Old Norse Forms of Early Irish Names" gives Domnall as the normalized form of the runic "tomnal", which is found in an inscription on a 12th C Icelandic sword hilt. As the College has been unable to find a Gaelic form of Einarr, we cannot speculate on a fully Gaelic form of this name. [Einarr mac Dhòmhnuill, 04/04, A-Calontir]

Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 This name combines Gaelic and Scots, which is one step from period practice. [Muireadhach Fairley, 04/04, A-Lochac]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 This name combines Gaelic and Scots orthographies, which is one step from period practice.

[Caitrina de Bruce the Fowler, 04/04, A-Artemesia]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.04 By longstanding precedent, the Gaelic name Deirdre is SCA-compatible. [Deirdre Oilithreach, 04/04, A-Caid]
Shauna of Carrick Point 2004.03 Mixing Gaelic and English orthography in the same name is vanishingly rare and is considered one step from period practice. [Eithne of Brechin03/04, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2004.03 The element a bíth (which the LoI translated as 'the quiet') was documented only as words in Modern Gaelic. No evidence was provided that these words existed in Gaelic in period, or that they are plausible in a descriptive byname. Lacking such evidence, a bíth is not registerable as a descriptive byname in Gaelic. As the submitter only allows minor changes, we were unable to drop this element in order to register this name.

There were two additional issues with this name.

The byname inghean Domnaill combines the Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form inghean with the Middle Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form Domnaill and, so, violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. The form ingen Domnaill is a fully Old Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form. The form inghean Domhnaill is a fully Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form.

Cyneswith is an Old English feminine given name dated to 656. Old English and Gaelic is registerable with a weirdness (see the discussion for Eithne of Cantwaraburg, registered in August 2002). In order to avoid a second weirdness for a temporal disparity, the byname would need to be dated no later than 300 years after the date for Cyneswith. Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 85 s.n. Eithne) give Eithne as the name of a woman who died in 795 and who was the daughter of "Domnall Mide, the high-king". This reference supports Domnall as a mid to late 8th C name, less than 300 years after the date for Cyneswith. Therefore, the name Cyneswith ingen Domnaill would be registerable with a single weirdness for combining Old English and Old Gaelic in a name. [Cyneswith a bíth inghean Domnaill, 03/2004, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2004.03 Listed on the LoI as Ailbe Mac Branáin uí Drisceoil, this name was submitted as Ailbe Mac Branáin ua Drisceoil, and the grammar was corrected at Kingdom. The submitter requested authenticity for 15th C Irish Gaelic and allowed minor changes.

Ailbe is a Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name. The corresponding Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form is Ailbhe. This name has been used as both a masculine given name and as a feminine given name. There were a couple of early Irish male saints named Ailbe, including one who was a bishop or archbishop (d. 528-541 according to various Irish annals). However, Gaels during our period generally considered the names of prominent saints too holy to use as names for their children. This likely explains why the use of Ailbe as a masculine given name fell out of use long before the submitter's desired time period (though it was still used as a feminine given name in the 15th C).

Based on the registerability of saints' names (summarized in the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR), the Early Modern Irish Gaelic form Ailbhe is registerable as a 15th C form of this masculine name. We have changed the submitted Ailbe to Ailbhe to make this name consistently Early Modern Irish Gaelic, which was used during the submitter's desired time period.

The form Ó Drisceóil is a corruption of the family name Ó hEidirsceóil (Woulfe s.n. Ó Drisceóil). There is some question as to whether this spelling change occurred during or after our period. The change is typical of the shift from Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) to Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1700 to present). The sound of the name c. 1600 (as heard by English speakers) can be found in the Anglicized Irish form O Driscole, dated to Elizabeth I-James I (Woulfe s.n. Ó Drisceóil). However, no evidence was found of the use of the form Ó Drisceóil, rather than Ó hEidirsceóil, in Gaelic records dated within or near our period.

The "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 4, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100005D/), shows examples of this family name in the listings for "Fínghin mac Mec Con mic Fínghin Uí Eidersceoil" (entry M1409.13) and "Mac Con Ua h-Eidirsceoil" (entry M1418.1). As these people lived during the submitter's desired time period of the 15th C, and the spellings used in the "Annals of the Four Masters" are generally appropriate for Early Modern Irish Gaelic (though this source is irregular regarding use of accents), which would have been used during the 15th C, we have lowercased mac and changed Drisceóil to Eidirsceóil in order to make this name partially authentic for the submitter's desired time period and language. Lacking evidence that Ailbhe was used as a masculine name in the 15th C, we were unable to make this name completely authentic. [Ailbhe mac Branáin uí Eidirsceóil, 03/2004, A-Drachenwald]

François la Flamme 2004.03 Submitted as Mughain Brecc inghean Dhonnghaile, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th to 16th C Irish, allowed all changes, and noted that sound was most important to her.

Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 140 s.n. Mugain) lists Mugain as the names of two women, one of whom is listed as a saint. Given that the other has a feast day, she is also most likely a saint. As Ó Corráin & Maguire mention no date for either of these women, they are most likely early figures. While we have no evidence of Mugain used as a given name in Gaelic except by saints, the name is registerable as a saint's name, though it is not authentic. (See the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR for more details regarding the registerability of saints' names.) Mughain is the Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name.

Brecc is found as the byname of two men who lived in the 7th C. No evidence was found that this byname was in use later. Brecc is an Old Irish (c. 700 to c. 900) form. The Early Modern Irish form of this word is Breac. This word is translated as 'freckled', but is often translated as 'speckled'. By the submitter's desired time period, breac is found most often in the phrase galar breac 'smallpox'. During that time, the descriptive byname Ballach 'freckled' was in use. Lacking evidence that Breac was used as a descriptive byname in the submitter's desired time period, we have dropped it from this name.

The submitted form of the byname inghean Dhonnghaile was not grammatically correct. In Gaelic, D does not lenite if the previous word ends in an n. Therefore, inghean Donnghaile is the grammatically correct form of this name.

Based on this information, Mughain inghean Donnghaile and Mughain Bhallach inghean Donnghaile are forms of this name that are partially authentic for 14th to 16th C Irish Gaelic. Lacking evidence that Mughain was used as a given name during this time period, these forms are not completely authentic. As the submitter indicated that sound was most important to her, we have registered this name as Mughain inghean Donnghaile rather than introducing a completely new element into the sound of this name. [Mughain inghean Donnghaile, 03/2004, A-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2004.03 Submitted as Muirne Caitlin Maguire, the submitter requested authenticity for "Northern Ireland 1590" and allowed any changes.

As submitted, this name had a number of problems.

First, this name had two given names in Gaelic, which has long been reason for return.

Second, the given name Muirne has been previously returned as being only a legendary name:

Unfortunately, Ó Corráin and Maguire, Irish Names, only cite Muirne as the mother of Finn mac Cumaill -- who, as they note under Finn, was really a Celtic god. The submitter might consider Muirenn instead; Ó Corráin and Maguire say it "was an extremely popular name in the early period". [Muirne inghean Séamus Ó Corcra, 09/00, R-Atlantia]

Lacking evidence that Muirne was used by real people in period, it is not registerable. We have dropped this element in order to register this name.

Third, no documentation was provided and none was found that the form Caitlin was used in period, though evidence was found of Caitlín as a Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. The Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name is Caitilín. Lacking evidence that Caitlin is a plausible period form of this name, it is not registerable.

Fourth, no documentation was included in the submission supporting Maguire as a form of this name used in period. Woulfe (p. 427 s.n. Mag Uidhir) lists Maguire as a modern Anglicized Irish form of this name and dates the Anglicized Irish forms Maguier, M'Guier, M'Gwire, and M'Guiver to temp. Elizabeth I-James I.

As a result, the minimum changes necessary to make this name registerable would be to drop the element Muirne and change the remaining elements to use forms documented to period. These changes would result in the name Caitilín Maguier.

The submitter requested authenticity for "Northern Ireland 1590". As submitted, this name combines Gaelic given names with an Anglicized Irish byname. In Ireland, in our period, a woman's name would be recorded completely in Gaelic or completely in Anglicized Irish depending upon the language of the record in which her name was recorded. A fully Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of this name appropriate for 1590 would be Caitilín inghean mhic Uidhir. The College was unable to find an Anglicized Irish example for the name Caitilín. Therefore, we have changed this name to the fully Early Modern Irish form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Caitilín inghean mhic Uidhir, 03/2004, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2004.03 Submitted as Máire Caitlín Macleod, there were several issues with this name.

No documentation was provided and none was found that the form Caitlin was used in period, though evidence was found of Caitlín as a Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. Lacking evidence that Caitlin is a plausible period form of this name, it is not registerable. The Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name is Caitilín.

This name had two given names in Gaelic, which has long been reason for return. Dropping one of the given names would resolve this issue. However, dropping Caitlín would result in the name Máire Macleod, which would conflict with Maura MacLeod (registered in September 2001). Dropping Máire (and replacing the post-period Caitlín with the period form Caitilín) would result in the name Caitilín Macleod, which would conflict with Caitlin MacLeod (registered in June 1989).

Members of the College offered a number of suggestions that may interest the submitter.

Fully Gaelic forms of this name that seem to be clear of conflict at this time are Máire inghean Leóid and Caitilín inghean Leóid.

Siren pointed out Scots (a language closely related to English) forms of this name that would retain forms of both given names:

[...] a fully Scots name, like <Mare Catrine Macleod>, which would have a single weirdness for the two names. <Mare> is from Talan's "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records"; <Catrine> is an interpolated form (given <Katrine>, <Katrina> and <Catrina>) from the same source. Both are 16th c. forms.

Of all of these changes, the Scots form Mare Catrine Macleod is the closest to the submitted form of this name. As the submitter allows major changes, we have modified this name to the Scots form suggested by Siren in order to register this name. [Mare Catrine Macleod, 03/2004, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2004.03 Submitted as Seán mac Conaill uí Braonáin, lenition was missing from the final element. As Effric Neyn Ken{gh}ocht Mcherrald explains in her article "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/):

The standard way to form a name using combined simple patronymic and Irish clan affiliation bynames for men is:

<single given name> mac <father's given name (in genitive case & sometimes lenited)> uí <eponymous clan ancestor's name (in genitive case & always lenited)>

We have added the missing lenition. [Seán mac Conaill uí Bhraonáin, 03/2004, A-Northshield]

François la Flamme 2004.03 Listed on the LoI as Matheus mac Eoin, this name was submitted as Matheus MacEoin and changed at Kingdom to follow documented patronymic byname construction patterns.

In Gaelic during our period, articles (such as Mac) found in patronymic-style bynames were indeed written as separate words from the patronym. However, capitalization of Mac in Gaelic bynames varied in period, though it was not completely random. (For more information, see "From Pelican: Capitalization of Gaelic Particles: mac versus Mac" found in the Cover Letter to the June 2002 LoAR.) In the case of this name, both Matheus Mac Eoin and Matheus mac Eoin are plausible forms. As the submitter did not request a particular meaning or form, we have returned the capitalization of Mac to the submitted form. [Matheus Mac Eoin, 03/2004, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2004.03 Submitted as Tuathal O'hAirt, the byname combined the Anglicized Irish O' with the Gaelic hAirt and, so, violated RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. As the submitter allows minor changes, we have changed this byname to the fully Gaelic form Ó hAirt in order to register this name. [Tuathal Ó hAirt, 03/2004, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2004.03 Submitted as Brian ó hUilliam, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed any changes. In period records, the standard practice was to uppercase Ó whenever any uppercase letters were included in the patronymic byname (as opposed to recording the name entirely in lowercase). We have made this change in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity.

François la Flamme 2004.03 [Order name Órd Seamair] No documentation was presented and none was found that Órd Seamair 'Order of the Shamrock' is a plausible period order name in Gaelic. Specifically, no evidence was found that the construction 'Order of the [heraldic charge]' was used in Gaelic in period. Lacking such evidence, this order name is not registerable. [Stromgard, Barony of, 03/2004, R-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2004.03 This name is being returned for lack of documentation of Taileshíthe as a plausible Irish Gaelic feminine given name in period.

Taileshíthe was submitted as a constructed Irish Gaelic feminine given name combining Taile-, found in the feminine given name Tailefhlaith dated to 782 in Ó Corráin & Maguire (s.n. Tailefhlaith), and -shíthe, found in the byname Mac Dhuibhshíthe that Woulfe (s.n. Mac Dhuibhshíthe) gives as meaning "the black-man of peace." The LoI also notes the feminine given name Síthmaith found in Ó Corráin & Maguire (s.n. Síthmaith) who derive this name "from síth 'peace.'".

The major issue with this construction is that, as several members of the College noted, Gaelic names are not generally dithemic - composed of a protheme (in this case, the proposed Taile-) and a deuterotheme (in this case, the proposed -shíthe). As a result, just because Taile- is shown to be the first portion of a name element and -shíthe is shown to be the final portion of a name element, it does not mean that the combination Taileshíthe 'abundance of peace' is reasonable as a Gaelic name.

The only confirmable example of Taile- used in a given name is the cited Tailefhlaith. No evidence was found of -shíthe used as the second element in a dithematic Gaelic feminine given name. Additionally, no evidence was presented supporting a name meaning 'abundance of peace' as following documented constructions of Gaelic feminine given names. Lacking evidence addressing these issues, this name is not registerable.

Additionally, Taile is Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) form, while -shíthe is an Early modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700). As a result, the submitted Taileshíthe violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. [Taileshíthe of the Greenwood, 03/2004, R-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2004.03 Dalriada was submitted as an English name for a Gaelic kingdom that existed from the 5th C to the mid-9th C. Primarily, Dal Riada was the name of the tribe who inhabited this area. The name used to refer to this kingdom derives from the name of this tribe.

The fundamental problem with this name is that no evidence has been found that any of the Dal tribe names (Dal Riada, Dal Cais, Dal nAriade, et cetera) were used in personal names except as part of a ruler's title. For example, Donnchadh Ó Corráin & Mavis Cournane, ed., "The Annals of Ulster" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100001/), entry U778.7, lists "Aedh Finn m. Echdach rex Dal Riati". The phrase "rex Dal Riati" indicates that Aedh was king of the Dal Riada.

Lacking evidence that the name of anyone other than rulers would include a Dal tribe name, a byname such as the submitted of Dalriada, even in a Lingua Anglica form, is a claim to be a ruler of this tribe and so violates RfS VI.1 "Names Claiming Rank" which states that "Names containing titles, territorial claims, or allusions to rank are considered presumptuous". [Robin of Dalriada, 03/2004, R-Drachenwald]

François la Flamme 2004.03 This name is being returned for a combination of linguistic and temporal compatibility issues.

Both elements of this name were documented from Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "Early Irish Feminine Names from the Index to O'Brien's Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/irish-obrien.html). The author has requested that this article be withdrawn, as it does not distinguish between legendary names and names known to have been used by real people in history, and other articles are now available covering this area of interest. However, the College was able to find other documentation for these elements.

As Colm Dubh's article, "The Ban-Shencus: A Dated Index", KWHS 2003 Proceedings (pp. 1-4), dates a Conandil to the 7th C, Conandil is registerable in that context.

Going to the source for Tangwysytl's article cited above, and comparing these entries to those in annals, it is possible to identify that the men who had Glass as a byname lived in time periods that must be considered legendary. One appears in the "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 1, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100005A/) in entries M4291.1 and M4296.1, which roughly correspond to 903 B.C. and 898 B.C. The earliest example of a non-legendary man with Glas as a byname occurs in the 14th C. Lacking evidence that this byname was used during the Old Irish (c. 700 to c. 900) period, the Old Irish form Glass is not registerable.

Based on this information, Conandil is supported as an Old Irish (c. 700 to c. 900) form of a name dated to the 7th C, and Glas is supported as an Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) byname dated to the 14th C. Therefore, this name has one weirdness for combining elements that are dated more than 300 years apart. A form of this name that would combine these documented forms would be Conandil Ghlas, which uses the documented form of this byname and adds lenition. However, it has been previously ruled that the differences between Early Modern Irish Gaelic and Middle Irish Gaelic are sufficient that a name mixing these forms of Gaelic carries a weirdness. Therefore, the form Conandil Ghlas would have a second weirdness for combining Early Modern Irish with Old Irish and, so, would not be registerable. [Conandil Glass, 03/2004, R-Northshield]

François la Flamme 2004.03 The submitter requested authenticity for 9th to 10th C Irish. The submitted byname Lách is a modern form of a period word that, before 1200, took the form lagach. Fause Lozenge was kind enough to research this word, and said:

<Lách> is a modern (mid-20th c. and later) spelling of <lághach>, from early <lagach>. According to the Dictionary of the Irish Language Based Mainly on Old and Middle Irish Materials, Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 1990, s.v. <lagach>, the word was an adjective 'with vaguely laudatory sense (always alliterating) gentle, pleasant, etc.'.

As this word was only used in alliterating contexts (where the modified noun begins with L), it is clearly not the kind of generally used word that might have led to a byname. Therefore, barring evidence that it was used in a more general context, or as a byname rather than simply a poetic description, it is not registerable.

The submitter might wish to know the submitted given name is a Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) spelling. In the 9th or 10th C, the given name would have been spelled Sétna. [Séadna Lách, 03/2004, R-Middle]

François la Flamme 2004.03 This name is being returned for having two weirdnesses: one for a lingual mix and one for temporal disparity. This name uses a given name that is dated no later than the 10th C and that has been ruled to be registerable only in its Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form Muirenn. The submitted byname is dated no earlier than the 16th C and would be registerable in a woman's name in the feminine Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form inghean uí Mhuirneacháin. It has been previously ruled that the differences between Early Modern Irish Gaelic and Middle Irish Gaelic are sufficient that a name mixing these forms of Gaelic carries a weirdness. As the given name and the byname in this name are dated approximately 600 apart, there is a weirdness for temporal disparity of greater than 300 years. Therefore, this name has two weirdnesses and must be returned.

The submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed any changes. There were a number of issues with this name. We have provided discussions of each of these issues below, for the submitter's consideration when she chooses a name for resubmission.

Muireann is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form. The corresponding Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name is Muirenn. Muirenn is found as the name of women who lived in the 7th through 10th centuries. No evidence has been found that any form of this name was used later than the 10th C. Lacking evidence that this name was used as a given name in Early Modern Gaelic, the form Muireann is not registerable.

There were several issues with the submitted byname O'Muirnea{c.}áin.

The spelling O'Muirnea{c.}áin combined the Anglicized Irish O' with an otherwise Gaelic name, violating RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase.

This byname was documented from Woulfe (p. 622), which lists the header Ó Muirnea{c.}áin where the notation {c.} represents a c with a "dot" over it. The "dot" over a letter in Gaelic is called a punctum delens. When Gaelic is being represented using the Roman alphabet, letters with the punctum delens are rendered with an appended h; thus, c with a punctum delens becomes ch in standard transliteration. For registration purposes, we use this standard transliteration method.

This entry in Woulfe lists the Anglicized Irish form O Murnyghan to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. The College was unable to find any evidence that this name was used earlier. Therefore, Ó Muirneacháin must be considered a 16th C byname.

Precedent requires that when a Gaelic byname is used, it agree in gender with the given name, since bynames were used literally in Gaelic. Since Ó Muirneacháin is a masculine form, it cannot be registered with a feminine given name. The corresponding feminine form is inghean uí Mhuirneacháin [Muireann O'Muirnea{c.}áin, 03/2004, R-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2004.02 The submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 14th C "Scots-Gaelic" and allowed minor changes. This name combines a Gaelic given name with a placename documented to 1540 in Scots (a language closely related to English). In period, a man named Murchadh from Garrioch would have had his name written completely in Scots or completely in Gaelic depending upon the language of the document in which his name was recorded. At this time, no evidence has been found of placenames used in Gaelic names in Scotland except as part of chiefly titles, though some examples have been found of locative bynames used in Irish Gaelic in period. As the submitter only allowed minor changes, we were unable to change this name to a completely Scots form in order to meet his request for authenticity. [Murchadh Garrioch, 02/2004, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2004.02 Submitted as Diarmid Mainistrech of Iona, the submitter allowed minor changes. The LoI stated that:

Diarmid is documented from Tangwystl's "100 Most Popular Men's names in Early Medieval Ireland" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystl/irish100/)

However, that article lists the form Diarmait, not Diarmid. Lacking evidence that Diarmid is a plausible period form, it is not registerable. The Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name is Diarmait, while the Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form is Diarmaid. As the submitter indicated that, if his name must be changed, he was most interested in 12th to 13th C Irish, we have changed this name to the Middle Irish form in order to register this name.

No documentation at all was presented on the LoI for the elements Mainistrech or of Iona. Had a number of members of the College not gone out of their way to document these elements from scratch, this name would have had to be returned for lack of documentation of these elements.

Multiple members of the College provided support for Mainistrech. The submitter may wish to know that, though the byname Mainistrech literally means '[of the] Monastery', the four period examples of this byname found so far all refer to the monastery known today as Monasterboice, located in County Louth.

As Johnston (s.n. Iona) notes that the form Iona was originally an error for Ioua, there was some concern whether the form Iona appeared within our period. Speed's The Counties of Britain (p. 266, map of Scotland, map dated 1610) lists this island as Colmkil or Iona Ile, providing support for the locative byname of Iona. [Diarmait Mainistrech of Iona, 02/2004, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2004.02 Submitted as Rumhann MacDuibhsidhe, the submitter allowed minor changes.

Rumhann is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form. The corresponding Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name is Rumann. This is found as the name of men who lived in the 8th through 10th centuries. No evidence has been found that it was used as a masculine given name later than the 10th C. Lacking evidence that this name was used as a given name in Early Modern Gaelic, we have registered this name in the Middle Irish form Rumann in order to register this name.

The submitted byname MacDuibhsidhe was constructed based on information in Black (s.n. MacFee), which lists MacDhubhshith as the modern Gaelic form of this byname. It is important to note that during our period, even in late period bynames where the name refers to a family rather than a father's name, Mac is written as a separate word from the rest of the byname. Black (s.n. MacFee) also states that "The AFM. record Dubside (mod[ern] G[aelic] Dubhsidhe) as fer-leiginn or reader of Iona in 1164 [...]". In this case, Black seems to have misidentified his source. His notation of AFM indicates that this information came from "Annals of the kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters. Edited by John O'Donovan. Dublin, 1848-51. 7 v." (Black, p. lix). However, the rendering of O'Donovan's Annals of the Four Masters available at the CELT (Corpus of Electronic Texts) website shows that the entries for 1164 (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100005B/) do not list any person by this name. However, the "The Annals of Ulster", also at the CELT site (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100001/), entry U1164.2, includes the text "in fer leiginn (.i., Dub Sidhe)", where Dub Sidhe is a man's given name.

Later examples of forms of this byname show -th- forms rather than -dh- forms. For example, the "Annals of Loch Cé A.D.1014-1590" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100010B/), entry LC1577.10, includes the name Ferdorcha mac Dhuibhsith. Therefore, we have changed this byname to mac Duib Sidhe, based on the example from the "Annals of Ulster", in order to retain the -sidh spelling which the submitter used consistently throughout his submission form. [Rumann mac Duib Sidhe, 02/2004, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2004.02 Submitted as Máel Brigte inghean Néill, the submitter requested autheticity for "Irish (as early as possible)" and allowed any changes.

No identifiable examples have yet been found of Máel Brigte 'servant of [Saint] Bridget' used as a woman's name, rather than as a man's name. However, it is reasonable given other patterns of construction found in women's names. Máel Muire 'servant of Mary' and Máel Mide 'servant of [Saint] Ide' have both been found as women's names. In both of these cases, the object (Mary and Ide) are women. Additionally, Calybrid can be found as a woman's given name on the Isle of Man (Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "Manx Names in the Early 16th Century", http://www.medievalscotland.org/manxnames/jonesmanx16.shtml). As this is an Anglicized form of Caillech Brigte 'nun/veiled one [of Saint] Bridget', this lends additional support to the plausibility of Máel Brigte as a woman's given name in Ireland in period. Therefore, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt and are registering this given name as a feminine given name.

As the submitter requested authenticity for "Irish (as early as possible)", we have changed the byname to ingen huí Néill, which is an Old Irish (c. 700 to c. 900) or Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) form, in order to match the spelling of the submitted given name Máel Brigte. [Máel Brigte ingen huí Néill, 02/2004, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2004.02 Listed on the LoI as Siobhan ingen Chamsroin, this name was submitted as Siobhan ingen Camsroin. The byname was corrected at Kingdom to add the missing lenition to the byname as required by Gaelic grammar. Since Camsroin is a descriptive term meaning 'crooked-nose' rather than a masculine given name, it would appear in a woman's byname in the form ingen in Chamsroin 'daughter [of] the crooked-nose [man]' rather than ingen Chamsroin 'daughter [of] crooked-nose [man]'. The byname ingen in Chamsroin is a fully Middle Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this byname. The previously registered form inghean an Chamsroin is a fully Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this byname. We have added the article in 'the' to this byname in order to make this byname grammatically correct for Middle Gaelic in order to register this name. [Siobhan ingen in Chamsroin, 02/2004, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2004.02 Submitted as Artúr Ó Láegaire, the byname Ó Láegaire combined the Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) Ó with Láegaire, which is an Old Irish (c. 700 to c. 900) or Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) form. As a result, this byname violated RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. We have changed this byname to the fully Old Irish form hua Láegaire in order to register this name. [Artúr hua Láegaire, 02/2004, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2004.02 Submitted as Séamus O'MaoLiriain, the submitter requested authenticity for "1560's Ireland/Scotland (lowlands)" and allowed any changes.

The submitted byname combines the Anglicized Irish O' in an otherwise Gaelic byname. As such, it violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. Additionally, the submitted documentation supported Ó Maoilriain as a modern Gaelic form of this name, rather than O' MaoLiriain. The Annals of the Four Masters were written in 1632-1636 and, for the most part, use spellings appropriate for 16th C Ireland. In the Annals of the Four Masters, vol. 5, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100005E/), entry M1585.8 includes the name Conchobhar na Moinge, mac Uilliam Chaoích, mic Diarmata Uí Mhaoil Riain tigherna Uaitne Uí Mhaoil Riain (the underlined e represents the "long e" character in Gaelic, which is sometimes rendered as ea and sometimes as e in Roman characters, depending upon the word). Based on this example, we have changed the byname to Ó Maoil Riain in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Séamus Ó Maoil Riain, 02/2004, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2004.02 Submitted as Brighid Óg inghean Neill, accents were sometimes left out of period Irish Gaelic documents. Therefore, as with Norse names, the accents should be used or omitted consistently throughout the name. As the submitted form included the accent in Óg, we have added the accent to Néill. [Brighid Óg inghean Néill, 02/2004, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2004.02 As submitted, this name combined a 7th C Gaelic feminine given name with a byname using a modern French placename.

Combining Gaelic and French in the same name is registerable, though it is a weirdness. The temporal disparity between these name elements is greater than 300 years and may be more than 1000 years. Names with a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years but less than 1000 years carry a weirdness. Names having a temporal disparity of greater than 1000 years have long been unregisterable. In either case, the name had at least two weirdnesses and, so, was unregisterable.

Maurienne is the modern French name for this location. The College was unable to find an example of this spelling dated to period, though it may (or may not) be reasonable as a late period form. The original Old French version of La Chanson de Roland, written circa 1090, mentions this valley in section CLXXII: "vals de Moriane" (http://www.fh-augsburg.de/~harsch/gallica/Chronologie/11siecle/Roland/rol_ch04.html). Based on this information, de Moriane would be a plausible form of this byname for the late 11th C. Dauzat & Rostaing (p. 480 s.n. Morienval) date the Latin form Mauriniane vallis to circa 570. Based on this example, a locative byname form appropriate for circa 570 would be de Maurinianum.

Combining the byname form de Maurinianum with the submitted given name would remove the weirdness for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years, but it would raise a different issue.

In the 6th C, people in the area that is now France were speaking Frankish and a kind of vulgar Latin that evolved to become Old French. Old French appeared in the 9th C and evolved for some time after that. The ruling allowing names combining Gaelic and French to be registered, but carry a weirdness, was based on the significant contact between Anglo-Normans who settled in Ireland beginning in the late 12th C. The Normans who invaded England in the 11th C spoke a form of Old French. Their descendants who settled in Ireland also spoke some form of this language. Therefore, we have support for significant contact between speakers of Gaelic and Old French (or a variant thereof). However, no evidence was found of significant contact between speakers of Gaelic and either Frankish or the vulgar Latin precursor of Old French. Lacking such evidence, a name combining these languages is not registerable.

As we were unable to find a way to combine these name elements in a registerable manner, we must return this name. [Faílenn de la Maurienne, 02/2004, R-Ansteorra]

François la Flamme 2004.02 The submitter requested authenticity for 9th to 10th C Irish. The submitted byname ingen Dochartaigh combines the Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) ingen with the Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) Dochartaigh and, so, violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. A fully Middle Irish Gaelic form of this byname would be ingen Docartaig. A fully Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of this byname would be inghean Dochartaigh.

The submitter's name form has the "no minor changes" box checked (though the "no major changes" box is unchecked). A common problem with the current form is that it is not uncommon for submitters to interpret the major and minor changes boxes as a "pick one" setup, where checking the minor changes box also implies that major changes are not allowed. Therefore, in cases where the forms are marked in this manner, we interpret the changes allowed as "no changes".

Regardless, the changes necessary to modify the byname to a registerable form are minor changes, which the submitter does not allow. [Nem ingen Dochartaigh, 02/2004, R-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2004.01 Submitted as Padraig Ó Taidc, the submitter allowed minor changes to the byname only. The submitted byname Ó Taidc combines Ó, which is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form, with Taidc, which is a Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form. As a result, this byname violated RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. We have changed this byname to the fully Early Modern Irish Gaelic form Ó Taidg in order to register this name. [John de Duglas, 01/2004, A-East]
François la Flamme 2004.01 Submitted as Ríonach de Fae, Ríonach is an Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. Lacking evidence that it is a plausible form in period, it is not registerable. The Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name is Ríoghnach. We have changed the given name to this form in order to register this name. [Ríoghnach de Fae, 01/2004, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2004.01 Submitted as Caitríona inghean Guaire, the patronym was not lenited in the byname, as is required by Gaelic grammar. We have made this correction. [Caitríona inghean Ghuaire, 01/2004, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2004.01 Submitted as Eithni ingen Talorgan, the submitter requested authenticity for Pictish and allowed any changes. The submitted byname ingen Talorgan has Talorgan as a nominative form. We have changed this to the genitive form Talorgain, as required by Gaelic grammar, in order to register this name. [Eithni ingen Talorgain, 01/2004, A-Northshield]
François la Flamme 2003.12 Listed on the LoI as aghnait inghean Dhonnchaidh, this name was submitted as Séaghnait Dhonnchaidh and changed at Kingdom because unmarked patronymics were not used in Gaelic in period. The submitter requested authenticity for Gaelic and allowed any changes.

Séaghnait is listed as a header form in Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 164 s.n. Ségnat). It appears to be an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name. Ó Corráin & Maguire state that Ségnat was the name of an "abbess whom St Abbán placed in charge of his foundations in Meath", as well as being the name of a saint, but give no date for this saint. In the entry for Abbán Ó Corráin & Maguire date St. Abbán to the "late sixth or early seventh century". In Gaelic, unlike in English, children were not given the names of prominent saints because those names were viewed as too holy to use. Therefore, an authentic name using the given name Ségnat would only have appeared in or near the time that the saint lived.

In the 7th C, the language spoken in Ireland was Oghamic Irish, which is significantly different in sound an appearance from the submitted form of this name which is Early Modern Irish. By the 8th C, Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) was in use. It is possible that the given name Ségnat was still in use at that time. Therefore, we have changed this name to a fully Old Irish Gaelic form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Ségnat ingen Donnchada, 12/2003, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2003.12 Listed on the LoI as Brénainn mac Giolla Phádraig, this name was submitted as Brénainn Mac Giolla Phádraig. The submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed minor changes. As submitted, this name combined the Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) given name Brénainn with the Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) byname Mac Giolla Phádraig.

Brénainn was the name of a number of prominent saints, including two that lived in the 6th C. Brénainn can also be found listed in various Irish annals as the name of men, most of whom lived in the 6th C, who are not saints.

In Gaelic, unlike in English, children were not given the names of prominent saints, because those names were viewed as too holy to use. Not surprisingly, the name Brénainn fell out of use soon after the 6th C - probably due to the prominence of these saints. Therefore, an authentic name using the given name Brénainn would only have appeared in or near the 6th C.

Giolla Phádraig is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic form. Gilla Pátraic is the corresponding Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name. Gilla Pátraic came into use as a masculine given name in the late 10th C. Therefore, while Brénainn mac Gilla Pátraic is a consistently Old Irish and Middle Irish form of this name, it cannot be made fully authentic because there is no time period where the names Brénainn and Gilla Pátraic were in use such that a man named Gilla Pátraic would have had a son named Brénainn.

We have changed this name to the fully Old Irish and Middle Irish form in order to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Brénainn mac Gilla Pátraic, 12/2003, A-Ansteorra]

François la Flamme 2003.12 Listed on the LoI as Crimthann MacGiolla Phadraig, the form listed this name as Crimthann Mac  Giolla Phadraig. We have replaced the missing space in the byname. [Crimthann Mac Giolla Phadraig, 12/2003, A-West]
François la Flamme 2003.12 In period, Mac was not connected to the patronym in Gaelic. We have added a space to follow documented period examples. [Gavine Mac Cormaic, 12/2003, A-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2003.12 Bynames were literal in Gaelic in period. Ó Ríoghbhardáin means 'grandson/male descendant of Ríoghbhardán'. As a woman cannot be a grandson or male descendant, Ó Ríoghbhardáin is not registerable with a feminine given name. The corresponding feminine byname would be inghean uí Ríoghbhardáin. We have made this change in order to register this name. We have also added the accent missing from the byname. [Aliannsa inghean uí Ríoghbhardáin, 12/2003, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.12 Submitted as Donnghal  Buchanan, Donnghal is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of a name found in Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) as Donngal. No evidence was found of this name used later than circa 1100. Lacking evidence that this name was in use when Early Modern Irish Gaelic was in use, we have changed this name to the Middle Irish Gaelic form Donngal in order to register this name.

Buchanan is a location in Scotland. It is found as a byname in Scots (a language closely related to English) and in Latin in period. Aryanhwy merch Catmael notes that "R&W s.n. Buchanan cite Black for <de Buchanan> c.1270, 1373, <Buchanan> 1506-82."

Based on this information, the submitted form of this name combined a Gaelic given name dated no later than circa 1100 with a Scots byname found in that form in the 16th C. As a result, it had one weirdness for combining Gaelic and Scots in a name and one weirdness for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years. We have changed the byname to a 13th C form in order to remove the weirdness for temporal disparity in order to register this name. [Donngal de Buchanan, 12/2003, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.12 Submitted as Deirdre Stewart, this name had two weirdnesses as submitted. Deirdre was ruled SCA compatible in March of 1998. This name combined the Gaelic form Deirdre with Stewart, which is Scots (a language closely related to English). There is one weirdness for use of an SCA compatible name element and one weirdness for combining Gaelic and Scots in a name. Black (p. 204 s.n. Deirdre) dates Deredere to 1166. Given which source Black cites for this reference, Deredere is undoubtably a Latinized form of a Gaelic given name. We have changed the given name to this form in order to remove the weirdness for use of an SCA compatible element in order to register this name. [Deredere Stewart, 12/2003, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.12 Submitted as Deirdre inghen ui Bardáin, the submitter indicated that she desired her name to mean 'Deirdre daughter of the Bard'. The submitted byname, inghen ui Bardáin, means either 'grandaughter [of a man named] Bardán' or 'female descendant [of the] Ó Bardáin [family]'. Additionally, lenition was missing from the patronym and accents were not used consistently in the byname. A more typical and grammatically correct form of this byname would be inghean uí Bhardáin.

A byname meaning 'daughter of the Bard' would be inghean an Bháird. We have changed the byname to this form in order to give it the meaning desired by the submitter. [Deirdre inghean an Bháird, 12/2003, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2003.12 Submitted as Lassar Fhina ingen Niell, the byname was spelled incorrectly. In Middle Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200), a woman's byname indicating that her father was named Niall would be ingen Neill, not ingen Niell. We have made this change. [Lassar Fhina ingen Neill, 12/2003, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2003.12 No documentation was presented and none was found that Cú-Liath is a plausible Gaelic name.

Cú-Liath was submitted as a constructed given name combining the elements 'hound' and Liath 'gray' based on the example of Cú Dub, which combines 'hound' and Dub 'black', found in Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 64 s.n. Cú Dub).

One example has been found of Liath as a descriptive byname meaning 'grey-haired, aged' in 1332.

However, dub 'black' is a common element in Gaelic masculine names such as Dubán, Dubdae, Dubgall, Dubthach, etc. Additionally, Donnchadh Ó Corráin & Mavis Cournane, ed., "The Annals of Ulster" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100001/), entry U967.1, lists Dub as the given name of a king of Scotland: Dub m. Mael Coluim, ri Alban 'Dub son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland'. No evidence was found of liath used as an element in masculine given names. Lacking such evidence, the constructed Cú-Liath is not a plausible Gaelic masculine given name and is not registerable.

The LoI documented Morrissay as an Irish surname found in MacLysaght (p. 222 s.n. Morrissay). Multiple members of the College noted that the submitted documentation was incorrect. Aryanhwy merch Catmael cited Woulfe for period examples of this byname:

[L]ooking at my copy of MacLysaght, there is no entry for <Morrisay>, but only for <Morrisey>, and the entry says: = "This name can be Irish <Ó Muirgheasa> or Norman <de Marisco>." There is no evidence that <Morrisay> or <Morrisey> is a period form. The name is not in R&W. Woulfe s.n. Ó Muirgheasa has <O Murrissa>, <O Morisa>, <O Morrissy> as forms from late 16th C England.

The forms referenced by Aryanhwy are found as italicized secondary headers in Woulfe and are forms found in records from the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. While they were recorded in English documents, the names recorded were Anglicized Irish forms of people living in Ireland. Lacking evidence that the submitted form Morrissay is a plausible period form, it is not registerable. [Cú-Liath Morrissay, 12/2003, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2003.12 This name submission was an appeal of the return of this name in the February 2003 LoAR, which explains:

No documentation was found that Siridean was used as a given name in period.

Siridean was submitted based on the Gaelic surname form Ó Sirideáin found in MacLysaght's The Surnames of Ireland (s.n. (O) Sheridan). However, not all Mac and Ó surnames derive from given names. Some derive from descriptive bynames. For example, the surname Ó Balbháin (Woulfe, p. 433 s.n. Ó Balbháin) means 'descendant of the stammerer'. Metron Ariston describes the uncertainty regarding the origin of this name:

There has been a great deal of controversy over the etymology of Sheridan and its Irish antecedent over the years. Some people state that the putative Ó Sirideáin meant "son of the Searcher", i.e., is an attributive patronymic rather than a patronymic formed from a given name. Others insist it must have been derived from a rare given name (based largely on its use as a patronymic as far as I can tell). The Clan Sheridan web site itself (www.longfordtourism.com/genealogy/sheridan.html) notes "O' Shiridean literally translates as decendants of Sheridan the meaning of which is uncertain." I was not able to find a clear instance of its use as a given name (as opposed to a portion of a patronymic) in period [...].

Lacking evidence that Siridean is plausible as a given name in Gaelic in period, it is not registerable as a given name.

This appeal is based solely on the text of the ruling for the return of the name Sirideain ui Neill in the January 1993 LoAR (Caid returns), which states:

Sirideain is the genitive form of the given name Siridean; it's how the latter would mutate when used in a patronymic, for instance. As a given name, the unmutated form should be used. Furthermore, the patronymic particle should be ua; ui, the submitted spelling, is the plural. The submitter forbade any changes; this must therefore be returned.

The LoI quoted this ruling, then stated:

Thus the Laurel office was stating at that time that the given name form of this name would be Siridean. And while previous registrations and notes do not guarantee future registration, we feel with this previous statement and the current return statement that says, "Others insist it must have been derived from a rare given name (based largely on its use as a patronymic as far as I can tell). The Clan Sheridan web site itself (www.longfordtourism.com/genealogy/sheridan.html) notes "O' Shiridean literally translates as decendants of Sheridan the meaning of which is uncertain.", we feel that benefit of the doubt should be given to the submitter.

The cited 1993 return was considered when this submitter's name was returned in February 2003. The documentation provided for the 1993 submission was the same citation from Woulfe cited as documentation for the current submitter's name. Prior registration is no guarantee of current registerability; even less so is a prior return support for current registerability.

Knowledge of Gaelic naming practices has increased dramatically within the College during the last ten years. At any point, the registerability of name elements, in the case of "benefit of the doubt" situations, must be judged on a case by case basis according to the current level of knowledge of the College. An argument may be made for recent knowledge - knowledge that may have been current at the time when the name was submitted. Regardless of the validity of such an argument, it is not applicable to the current submission. The cited return is over ten years old and more recently given names documented only as byname elements in Gaelic have been returned:

The documentation for the given name consisted of a S. Gabriel report that says O Corrigan is an English form of the Gaelic name Ó Corragáin. That name may derive from a given name Corrigán, but we have no evidence that such a name existed. Not all O surnames derive from given names, but Corragán certainly looks like a given name. If it existed, it was extremely rare and probably used only in the early Middle Ages. Please note that the report explicitly says that the Academy did not find evidence that the given name existed. Until such evidence is provided, we have to return this. [Corrigan mac Cainnich, 07/2001, R-Calontir]

Further, RfS II.1, "Documented Names", states that:

Documented names, including given names, bynames, place names, and valid variants and diminutives formed in a period manner, may be used in the same manner in which they were used in period sources.

The current RfS is more recent than the cited 1993 return and supercedes it. As the current submission does not provide evidence of Siridean as a given name in period, and no such evidence was found by the College, the reason for return cited in February 2003 is still valid.

In addition, this was not an adequate appeal. The Administrative Handbook, section IV.E, states in part:

A submitter shall have the right to appeal any return to Laurel. All appeals must be supported by new documentation, other proof that the original submission was returned in error or by compelling evidence that the submission was not properly considered at the time of return.

None of these requirements were present in the current appeal. Barring clear evidence of Siridean used as a given name in period, it is not registerable as a given name. [Siridean MacLachlan, 12/2003, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Listed on the LoI as Adriana inghean Labhruinn mhic Fhionghuin, this name was submitted as Adriana inghean Labhruinn MacFhionguin and changed at Kingdom to correct grammar issues.

The elements Labhruinn and Fhionghuin were documented from Black (s.nn. MacLaren, MacKinnon). Black uses the notation "G." in reference to these forms. The notation "G." indicates a Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. In a number of cases, though not all, these forms are also Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) forms. Black (p. 534 s.n. MacLaren) dates the "MG." [Middle Gaelic] form <Labhran> to 1467. A manuscript from 1467 (likely the same one referred to by Black) lists the form Finguine. Middle Gaelic was mostly in use from 900 to 1200. Since some manuscripts used older spelling conventions, a manuscript written in 1467 may use Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700), appropriate for the 15th C, or may use older form such as Middle Gaelic. A fully Middle Gaelic form of this byname would be ingen Labhrain meic Fhinguine. A fully Early Modern Gaelic form of this byname would be inghean Labhrain mhic Fhionghuine. As the Early Modern Gaelic form of this byname is the closer of these forms to the submitted byname, we have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [Adriana inghean Labhrain mhic Fhionghuine, 11/2003, A-East]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Liadan Cu Teach Càirdeas, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish/Gaelic and allowed any changes. No evidence was presented nor could any be found that Teach Càirdeas was a plausible byname for a period person. While the submitter asserted that it had been previously registered, the name does not appear in the Armorial. Even if it did, it would be irrelevant; previous registration has long been no guarantee of current registerability. We have dropped this phrase in order to register this name.

Feminine bynames in Gaelic are lenited except in certain circumstances. Therefore, we have changed the spelling of the byname from Cu to Chu to meet that grammatical requirement. [Liadan Chu, 11/2003, A-Ealdormere]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Listed on the LoI as Derborgaill Buitiler, this name was submitted as Derborgaill an Chomhaidh Buitiler. The submitter requested authenticity for 15th C "West Ireland" and allowed any changes. The first byname was dropped at Kingdom for lack of documentation of use of two descriptive bynames in Irish Gaelic.

Derborgaill is a Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form. The corresponding Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form is Dearbhforgaill. We have changed the given name to this form to meet the submitter's requested time period.

The byname an Chomhaidh is a descriptive byname meaning '[of] the Coad' (the Coad being an area in Ireland).

The name Buitiler is a Gaelic adaptation of the Anglo-Norman name Butler and was used as an inherited surname.

An example of a Gaelic descriptive byname used by a man with an Anglo-Norman surname may be found in the "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 6 (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100005F/), entry M1590.7, which mentions "Uater Ciotach a Búrc mac Seain mic Oiluerais" (which appears in the translation as "Walter Kittagh Burke, the son of John, son of Oliver"). (The byname Ciotach means 'Left-handed'.) This entry supports the order [given name] [Gaelic descriptive byname] [Gaelic form of an Anglo-Norman surname]. Therefore, the submitted name Derborgaill an Chomhaidh Buitiler, which follows this construction pattern, is registerable, though it contains a weirdness for combining the Middle Irish Gaelic form of the given name with bynames that have Early Modern Irish Gaelic forms. Dearbhforgaill an Chomhaidh Buitiler would be a fully Early Modern Irish form of this name.

However, as yet no evidence has been found that any Anglo-Norman families in Ireland (including the Butler, Burke, de Courcy, and FitzGerald families) gave their children Gaelic given names during our period. Instead, their children were given Anglo-Norman names, many of which were eventually adopted into use by Gaelic families. An example of this pattern seen in the Butler family is found in the "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 6, entry M1597.10, which lists "Oilen Buitiler inghen iarla Urmumhan .i.Piarus Ruadh, mac Semais, mic Emainn, mic Risdeird ben an dara h-iarla do h-oirdneadh ar Thuadhmumhain .i. Donnchadh, mac Concobair mic Toirrdhealbhaigh Uí Briain" (which appears in the translation as "Ellen Butler, the daughter of the Earl of Ormond (Pierce Roe, the son of James, son of Edmond, son of Richard), and wife of the second Earl of Thomond (Donough, the son of Conor, son of Turlough O'Brien)"). Based on this information, the combination of the Gaelic given name Derborgaill (in any spelling) with an Anglo-Norman surname such as Buitiler is not authentic. Therefore, we have dropped the byname Buitiler in order to make this name authentic for the submitter's desired time and location. [Dearbhforgaill an Chomhaidh, 11/2003, A-East]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Seán úa Lochlainn, the submitter requested that his name be made authentic for the 14th C. At that time Ua is the expected form of the particle. We have made that change to meet his request for authenticity. [Seán Ua Lochlainn, 11/2003, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2003.11 Submitted as Seamus in Boghanna Bernaig Mac an tSaoi, the submitter requested authenticity for Gaelic and allowed any changes. The submission form indicated that the submitter desired the meaning 'Seamus of the broken bows, Mac an tSaoi'. However, the LoI stated that "The submitter would prefer the singular 'of the broken bow', please."

The byname in Boghanna Bernaig was submitted as a constructed byname meaning '[of] the Broken Bow'. This phrase combines elements in Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) forms (in and Bernaig) with an element in an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) or Modern (c. 1700 to present) form (Boghanna). The name Seamus was brought into use in Ireland by the Anglo-Normans. By the time it came into use among Gaels, the language in use was Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700). Therefore, we have changed this byname to a fully Early Modern Irish Gaelic form to meet his request for authenticity.

Additionally, the submitted Boghanna means 'bows'. All of the period descriptive bynames found so far refering to a weapon (axe, spear, etc.) use a singular word for a weapon rather than a plural. The Early Modern Irish Gaelic word for 'bow' is Bogha. Effric Neyn Ken3ocht Mcherrald explains:

Since Early Gaelic <in> (Strachan, _Old-Irish Paradigms_) and modern Scottish Gaelic <an> (Dwelly) in genitive masculine singular lenite, EMIr <an> should also lenite what follows.

Therefore, a byname meaning '[of] the bow' in Early Modern Irish would be an Bhogha, with '[of] the broken bow' being an Bhogha Bhearnaigh. Effric also provided a rough approximation for a pronunciation of this byname. We have included it her as a courtesy for the submitter:

It would be pronounced very roughly \ahn VOH-ghah VAIR-nee\ (or with a vowel rather like the one in <egg> or <vet> instead of \AI\; in very late period <-ghah> can also get pronounced as \-ah\, \ahn VOH-ah VAIR-nee\).

[Seamus an Bhogha Bhearnaigh Mac an tSaoi, 11/2003, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2003.11 Precedent states:

Names of saints are registerable, regardless of whether they are apocryphal or not. This policy is due to the practice in many cultures (though not in Gaelic) of naming children for saints. (For more details, see the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR.) As Dáirine was not herself a saint and the name has not been documented as having been otherwise used in period, it falls into the category of a legendary name and is not registerable. [Dáirine ingen Chiaragain, 06/02, R-Caid]

Similarly, Fiamuin is only found as the name of the mother of Saint Berchán of Clonsast. As she was not herself a saint and as the name has not been documented as having been otherwise used in period, it falls into the category of a legeendary name and is not registerable. [Fiamuin Kareman, 11/2003, R-East]

François la Flamme 2003.11 Deibhiosdan was documented from Black (p. 202 s.n. Davidson). However, when Black lists a "Gaelic" form of a name, he is referring to a modern form. In some cases, the name also appeared during our time period, but in many cases, the Gaelic form is recent.

In the case of Deibhiosdan, no documentation was presented and none was found that any form of Davidson appeared in Gaelic in period. Lacking such evidence, Deibhiosdan is not registerable.

As the submitter does not allow major changes, we were unable to change the byname to an English form in order to register this name. [Sarah Deibhiosdan, 11/2003, R-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Listed on the LoI as Cineád O'  Hosey, this name was submitted as Cináed O' Hosey and two letters were transposed in the given name on the LoI. The submitted documentation supported the byname form O'Hosey rather than O' Hosey. We have made this change.

As submitted, this name combined the Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) Cineád with the Anglicized Irish byname O'Hosey, which was dated to the mid-16th C to the early 17th C. This name had one weirdness for combining Gaelic and Anglicized Irish in a name. There was a second weirdness for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years since the given name dates to pre-1200 and the byname dates to mid-16th C to early 17th C. We have changed the given name to the Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Cionaodh in order to remove the temporal disparity and register this name. [Cionaodh O'Hosey, 10/2003, A-Ansteorra]

François la Flamme 2003.10 The submitter requested authenticity for Ireland, but allowed no changes. This submission combines a Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) given name with an English byname that is plausible for the late 13th C or early 14th C. In period, a child of mixed Anglo-Norman and Gaelic parentage would have had his name recorded completely in Gaelic or completely in English (or Anglicized Irish) depending upon the language of the record in which his name was recorded. Additionally, while evidence has been found of Anglo-Norman given names being adopted into use by Gaels, evidence has not yet been found of Gaelic given names being used in families with Anglo-Norman surnames.

Lacking evidence that the name elements Cael and Saunders were in use in Ireland during the same time period, and lacking evidence that Gaelic and English would have been combined in period in this manner, this name is not authentic for the submitter's requested culture. [Cael Saunders, 10/2003, A-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Cináed MacFie, this name combined the Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) given name Cináed with MacFie, which was documented as an undated byname in Scots (a language closely related to English).

No support was found for the submitter's desired form MacFie as a period form. Aryanhwy merch Catmael found dated forms of this byname in Black:

The dated forms of the byname with two syllables that Black has are <mcphe> 1531, <McFee> 1541, <McFeye> 1585. Unfortunately, this doesn't support <McFie>.

Based on these examples, MacFee is the closest supportable spelling to the submitted MacFie. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name.

As submitted, this name had one weirdness for combining Gaelic and Scots in a name. There was also a weirdness for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years, since the given name dates to pre-1200 and the submitted form of the byname is only documented post-period. We have changed the given name to the Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Cionaodh in order to remove the temporal disparity from this name. Thereby, having only the single weirdness for the lingual combination of Gaelic and Scots, this name is registerable. [Cionaodh MacFee, 10/2003, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Iohne Mac Dhaidh, the submission form noted that if the submitter's name must be changed, the submitter indicated that meaning was most important to him and indicated his desired meaning of 'Scotts[sic] for John Dade - Gunn sept'.

The surname Dade derives from two sources - one English and one Irish. Metron Ariston provided information regarding the English surname Dade:

[B]y the evidence of Reaney and Wilson (Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Deed), the surname Dade actually has nothing to do with the name David, but is from the Old English dæd meaning "deed" or "exploit".

Woulfe (p. 348 s.n. Mac Daibhéid) lists Dade as a modern Anglicized Irish form of Mac Daibhéid, which means 'son of David'.

No documentation was provided to support the submitted spelling Mac Dhaidh as a plausible name in period. Lacking such evidence, Mac Dhaidh is not registerable. On its surface, Mac Dhaidh appears to be Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present). An Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name would be Mac Dabhídh. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name.

As submitted, this name combines Iohne, which is Scots (a language closely related to English), with a Gaelic byname. As the submitter indicated a desire for a Scottish name meaning 'John Dade', he may wish to know about Scots forms of this byname which would have the meaning 'son of David' and which would match the language of his submitted given name Iohne. Black's Surnames of Scotland (s.nn. David, Davidson, Davie, Davies, Daw, Dawes, Dawson, Day, Deasson, MacCavat, MacDavid, MacDawy) lists a number of Scots names that derived from bynames meaning 'son of David' (including diminutives of David, such as Davy, et cetera). The forms listed by Black in these entries are too many to provide a complete list here. Of the dated names listed in these entries, MacDavid (1562) and M'Cade (1547), found in Black under the header MacDavid, are the closest in sound and appearance to the submitted Mac Dhaidh. [Iohne Mac Dabhídh, 10/2003, A-East]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Alane MacAonghais, the submitter requested authenticity for Gaelic and allowed minor changes.

As submitted, this name combines the given name Alane, which is Scots (a language closely related to English), with the Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) family name MacAonghais. The corresponding Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this family name, appropriate for late period Scotland, would be Mac Aonghais. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name.

A man with this name in period would have had his name recorded completely in Gaelic or completely in Scots, depending upon the language of the document in which his name was recorded. Black (p. 453 s.n. MacAngus) dates Duncan Makangus to 1492. This information supports Alane Makangus as a fully Scots form of this name. Black (p. 451 s.n. MacAllan) lists the Gaelic form of this family name as "MacAilin or MacAilein". However, these are Modern Gaelic forms. Skene's transcription of a manuscript dated to 1467 lists multiple instances of the spelling Ailin, showing support for Ailin as a form dated to period. Therefore, Ailin Mac Aonghais is a reasonable Gaelic form of this name. A form of this name that consistently uses spellings found in Skene would be Ailin mac Aengusa.

As the submitter only allowed minor changes, we were unable to change this name to a fully Gaelic form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Alane Mac Aonghais, 10/2003, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Listed on the LoI as Bróccin mac Gille Críost, this name was submitted as Bróccin mac Gille Crist and changed at Kingdom in an attempt to correct grammatical issues with the byname.

The submitted documentation supported Bróccín and Gille Críst as Gaelic masculine given names used in 12th C Scotland. In Middle Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200), Gille Críst is both a nominative and genitive form. Therefore, Bróccín mac Gille Críst is a grammatically correct Middle Gaelic form of this name.

The submitter requested authenticity for 1400s Scottish and allowed all changes. Effric Neyn Ken3ocht Mcherrald provided information that Gille Críst took on two Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) nominative forms in Scotland, Gille Críost and Gille Críosd, and that the corresponding genitive forms were Gille Chríost and Gille Chríosd. Lacking evidence that any form of the name Bróccín was used in Scotland in the 1400s, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's requested time and culture.

Accents were sometimes left out of period Irish Gaelic documents. Therefore, as with Norse names, the accents in a name should be used or omitted consistently throughout the name. The submitted form included some, but not all, of the accents in this name. We have added the missing accents in order to register this name. [Bróccín mac Gille Críst, 10/2003, A-Meridies] [Bróccín mac Gille Críst, 10/2003, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Cáelainn ingen uí Raghailligh, the byname ingen uí Raghailligh combined the Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) ingen uí with Raghailligh which is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form. Combining these languages in the byname ingen uí Raghailligh violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. We have changed this byname to the fully Early Modern Irish Gaelic form inghean uí Raghailligh in order to register this name. [Cáelainn inghean uí Raghailligh, 10/2003, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Alastar Marcellius, the submitted requested authenticity for 6th C Irish/Roman and allowed any changes.

Since the submitter requested authenticity, there are several points that should be addressed.

In the 6th C, the language used in Ireland was Oghamic Irish. Very few examples of Oghamic Irish inscriptions remain and it is not possible, with the information provided in the LoI and that found by the College, to postulate any form of the submitted name in Oghamic Irish.

The combination of "Irish/Roman" is problematical. There was significant Roman occupation and influence in the area that is today England. However, no definite archaeological evidence has yet been found that Romans invaded or settled in Ireland as a group, though the "coastal site of Drumanagh, 15 miles north of Dublin ... 'may well have been (and probably was) a major trading station linking Ireland and Roman Britain. It was probably populated with a mixture of Irish, Romano-British, Gallo-Roman, and others, doubtless including a few genuine Romans as well'" (http://www.archaeology.org/magazine.php?page=9605/newsbriefs/ireland). This article notes that Roman coins found at this site date to the 1st and 2nd C A.D.

An additional issue is that Roman influence in Britain ended well before the submitter's desired time period of the 6th C. By this time period, Romano-British as a culture had mostly faded as well, though a few Latin names continued in use.

From this information, the culture that come closest to the submitter's desired 6th C Irish/Roman is a Romano-British man who lived before the 6th C and who could have visited or traded with Ireland.

The submitted given name Alastar is an undated Gaelic form of the name Alexander. The name Alexander was in use among Romans, though no evidence was found that it was used among Romano-British.

The name Alexander came into use among Scottish Gaels sometime after Alexander I ruled Scotland (reigned 1107-1124). This Alexander was a son of Malcolm III "Canmore" and his Anglo-Saxon wife Margaret. All of Malcolm and Margaret's children were given non-Gaelic names: Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander, David, Matilda, and Mary.

The name Alexander was in use among Scottish Gaels by the end of the 13th C. It first appeared in the forms such as Alaxandar, and Alaxandair. The first diminutive form of this name to appear was Alasdrann, which is found in reference to Scottish Gaels who died in the mid to late 15th C. Annals of Connacht (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100011/), entry 1522.6, note a man from Scotland with the name Alusdur. The spellings that appear in the Annals of Connacht are not typical for Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700). Alasdar and Alasdair would be forms more typical for Early Modern Gaelic.

The first known instance of a Gael in Ireland with the name Alaxandair is a man whose sons are mentioned in annals entries for the years 1504 and 1508. No evidence has yet been found of any Irish Gaelic man in period whose name was any form of the diminutive Alasdar.

No documentation was submitted and none was found to support Marcellius as a period variant of the documented Marcellus. Lacking such support, we have changed this element to the documented form Marcellus in order to register this name.

The form of this name closest to being authentic for the submitter's desired time and culture would be the Latin Alexander Marcellus. It is an authentic name for a Roman who would have lived somewhat earlier than his desired time period. Though surviving records show no sign that the name Alexander came into use among Romano-British, it is a possibility. If it did, Alexander Marcellus would be a plausible name for a Romano-British man who could have visited or traded with Ireland. Therefore, we have changed the submitted name to this form to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Alexander Marcellus, 10/2003, A-Ansteorra]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Muireann inghean Chonaill, the submitter requested authenticity for after the 12th C and allowed any changes.

Muireann is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form. The corresponding Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name is Muirenn. This is found as the name of women who lived in the 7th through 10th centuries. No evidence has been found that it was used as the name of women later than the 10th C. As a result, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's requested time period. Lacking evidence that this name was used as a given name in Early Modern Gaelic, we have registered this name in the Middle Irish form Muirenn in order to register this name. A fully Middle Irish form of this name would be Muirenn ingen Chonaill. [Muirenn inghean Chonaill, 10/2003, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Submitted as Cu-Connacht O'Tighernain, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 14th C Irish and allowed minor changes.

The elements of this name were documented from translations of the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Loch Cé. These translations are modern and do not necessarily represent period forms of these names. In this case, the form Cu-Connacht has not been found in period. Rather, this name is Cú Connacht in Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) and Cú Chonnacht in Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700). Additionally, the form O'Tighernain is a partially Anglicized form of the Early Modern Irish Gaelic Ó Tighearnáin. In fact, the form that appears in the location cited in the LoI is Ó Tighearnáin, not O'Tighearnain.

We have changed this name to the fully Early Modern Irish form Cú Chonnacht Ó Tighearnáin in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity and to register this name. [Cú Chonnacht Ó Tighearnáin, 10/2003, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2003.10 Listed on the LoI as Anu ingen Áeda, this name was submitted as Ana inghean Áed and changed at Kingdom to correct this name for the submitter's desired time period. The submitter requested authenticity for 10th to 12th C Irish and allowed minor changes.

Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 22 s.n. Anu: Ana) gives Anu as the name of an Irish goddess and mentions the "virgin St Ana". As Ó Corráin & Maguire specifically indicate that this saint was named Ana, the only documentation for the form Anu is in reference to a goddess. Lacking evidence that Anu was used by normal human women in period, it is not registerable. We have returned this given name to the submitted form Ana in order to register this name. [Ana ingen Áeda, 10/2003, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2003.09 Submitted as Gobbán Fahy, the submitter allows any changes. As submitted, this name combined Gobbán, which is an Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) or Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form, with Fahy, which is an Anglicized Irish form. Woulfe (p. 522 s.n. Ó Fathaigh) dates the Anglicized Irish form O Fahy to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. Therefore, the submitted form of this name contained two weirdnesses: one weirdness for combining Gaelic and Anglicized Irish in the same name and one weirdness for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years. We have changed the given name to the Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Gobán in order to remove the temporal disparity and register this name. [Gobán Fahy, 09/2003, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.09 Submitted as Caitlín ni Killian, there were some issues with this name.

No documentation was provided and none was found that the form Caitlín was used in period, though evidence was found of it as a modern name. We have changed the given name to the documented Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Caitilín in order to register this name.

This submission raised considerable discussion regarding the element ni. A good bit of the confusion occurs because of the similarity of the Gaelic and the Anglicized Irish ny (which has often been registered as ni).

The Gaelic is a post-period contraction of inghean uí and is not registerable, lacking documentation that it was used in period.

The Anglicized Irish ny is found in records from 1603-1604 (C. L'Estrange Ewen, A History of Surnames of the British Isles, p. 210 which lists names from Patent Rolls of James I) and in wills from 1629 and 1639 (John O'Donovan, ed., Annals of Ireland, by the Four Masters, vol. 6, pp. 2446, 2460-2461). The element ny is used in two ways in Anglicized Irish records. The examples from 1629 and 1639 show the construction [feminine given name] ny [father's given name]. For example, Joane ny Teige is identified as the daughter of Teige Donovane in his will dated 1639. In the examples from 1603-4, relationships are not listed, so any analysis of these names involves some measure of uncertainty. Some time ago, Talan Gwynek examined these names via email and suggested that the entry Marie ny Dowda, widow most likely represented a Gaelic form Máire inghean Uí Dhubhda.

At this point, no examples of ni rather than ny have been identified in this type of construction in late period Anglicized Irish records. However, the lack of such documentation may well be due to the scarcity of women's names in this type of record. Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "Fourteenth to Sixteenth Century Irish Names and Naming Practices" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/lateirish/) lists Slany Enynimolan as dating to the 14th C. Tangwystyl identifies this byname as meaning 'inghean uí Mhaoláin'. The form Enynimolan lends support to ni as a variant of the documented ny.

No documentation was provided and none was found to support Killian as a plausible Anglicized Irish form in period. Woulfe (s.n. Ó Cilleáin) dates the Anglicized Irish form O Killane to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. Woulfe (s.n. Ó Cillín) also dates the Anglicized Irish forms O Killine and O Killen to the same time period. Based on these examples, registerable forms of this byname would include ni Killane, ni Killine, and ni Killen. As the first of these forms is closest to the submitted ni Killian, we have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [Caitilín ni Killane, 09/2003, A-Trimaris]

François la Flamme 2003.09 The documentation given in the LoI for the byname inghean Fhathaigh was:

The patronym derives from the listing under Fahey in MacLysaght's Surnames of Ireland where the masculine form is given as Ó Fathaigh and this is stated to be "A sept of the Ui Maine centred near Loughrea where their territory was known as Pobal Mhuintir Ui Fhathaigh, wherein we now find the modern place-name Fahysvillage. The use of Green as a synonym arises from the similar sound of the word faithche, which means a lawn or green. The name is said to be derived from fothadh, foundation, which is conjectural."

Metron Ariston provided information regarding the origin of this byname:

Further research indicates that, while MacLysaght is correct in his citation of the name of the sept of the Uí Maine, the etymology may be erroneous. The Dictionary of the Irish Language Based Mainly on Old and Middle Irish Materials (s.v. fáthach) shows this as a personal attributive adjective meaning "possessed of knowledge or skill; wise, sagacious". It is specifically noted as a sobriquet as in the name of Fachtna Fathach. This form would have a predicted genitive in -aig, -aigh and in fact the oblique form of fathaig is shown in the source cited above.

It was noted in commentary that Woulfe (s.n. Ó Fathaigh) says that this name is derived from a given name Fathadh. However, a genitive ending in -aigh is formed from a nominative ending in -ach, not a nominative ending in -adh.

Lacking evidence that Fathaigh would be a reasonable genitive either of faithche, as cited in MacLysaght, or of Fathadh, as cited in Woulfe, we must assume that the family name Ó Fathaigh is one of the class of family names that derives from a descriptive byname, in this case Fathach cited in the Dictionary of the Irish Language, rather than from a masculine given name.

Therefore, the submitted byname inghean Fhathaigh is not supported by the documented family name Ó Fathaigh. Instead, the appropriate feminine byname would be inghean uí Fhathaigh.

As the submitter allows no changes, we were unable to change this byname from inghean Fhathaigh to inghean uí Fhathaigh in order to register this name. [Áine inghean Fhathaigh, 09/2003 LoAR, R-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.09

Submitted as Lasairiona inghean Uilliam na Seoltadh, the submitter requested authenticity for 1600s Irish. No evidence was found that Lasairíona (with or without the accent) was used in period. The spelling shift from the Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Lasairfhíona to the Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form Lasairíona is typical of the shift from Early Modern Gaelic to Modern Gaelic, which occurred around 1700. Lacking evidence that Lasairíona was used in period, we have changed the given name to the documented form Lasairfhíona, in order to register this name and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Lasairfhíona inghean Uilliam na Seoltadh, 09/2003, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2003.09 Submitted as Órla Carey, Órla is a Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. Lacking evidence that it was used in period, it is not registerable. We have changed the given name to the Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c1200-1700) form Órlaith in order to register this name. [Orlaith of Storvik, 08/2003, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.09 There was some question regarding whether de Rath is a period byname in Ireland. Annales Hiberniae (Grace's Annals) (http://celt.ucc.ie/published/L100001/index.html) lists Johannes White de Rath on p. 90. As this document is in Latin, it provides support for de Rath in Latin, though not in Gaelic or Anglicized Irish. [Quhinten de Rath, 09/2003, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.09 Submitted as Tomás of Inisr, the submitter requested authenticity for 13th to 15th C Irish and allowed any changes.

The submitted byname of Inis Mór combined the English of with the Gaelic placename Inis Mór and, so, violated RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a name phrase. Additionally, the placename Inis Mór was not grammatically correct. The word Inis 'island' is a feminine noun, Inis being the nominative singular case of this word. When the adjective Mór follows Inis, it lenites - taking the form Mhór. Therefore, the correct form of this placename is Inis Mhór.

Locative bynames are rare in Gaelic. When they are found, those that refer to the proper name of a specific location use an unmarked genitive construction. "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 4, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100005D/), entry M1415.1, lists "Emann Mag Findbairr prióir Insi Móire Locha Gamhna". In this entry, "prióir Insi Móire", meaning 'prior of Inis Mhór', shows an example of this placename in the genitive case. Effric Neyn Ken3ocht Mcherrald explained that an adjective (such as Mór) must match the noun it modifies in gender, case, and number and that the feminine genitive singular of Mór is Móire. Additionally, an adjective should not be lenited when it follows a genitive singular feminine word (such as Insi). As a result, a genitive form of Inis Mhór is Insi Móire.

Therefore, the grammatically correct form of the submitted name would be Tomás Insi Móire in the submitter's desired time period and would mean 'Tomás [of] Inis Mhór'. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name.

As the submitter has requested authenticity, he may be interested in knowing that a man's name in his desired time period would typically include a patronymic byname. For example, a man named Tomás who was from Inis Mhór and whose father was named Cormac (as an example), would have the full name of Tomás Insi Móire mac Cormaic. [Tomás Insi Móire, 09/2003, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.09 This name is being returned because Gormlaith is a feminine given name and Ó Néill is a masculine form.

Bynames were used literally in Gaelic in period. The form Ó Néill means 'grandson/male descendant of Niall'. As a woman cannot be a grandson or male descendant, the form Ó Néill is not compatible with a feminine given name in period.

If the submitter wishes to indicate that her father's name is Niall, then the appropriate byname is inghean Néill 'daughter of Niall'. If she wants to indicate that she is a member of the Ó Néill family, then the appropriate byname is inghean uí Néill.

As the submitter allows no changes, we were unable to change the byname to a feminine form in order to register her name. [Gormlaith Ó Néill, 09/2003 LoAR, R-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2003.09 Submitted as Ainfean inghean Risdeag, the submitter requested authenticity for 8th to 10th C Irish Gaelic and allowed any changes.

The spelling Ainfean is a Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. Lacking evidence that Ainfean is a period spelling, it is not registerable. We have changed the given name to the Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) form Ainbthen in order to register this name.

Risdeag is listed as a "later medieval diminutive" in Ó Corráin and Maguire (p. 155 s.n. Ricard). However, it is a nominative form. Effric Neyn Ken3ocht Mcherrald has provided a theoretical genitive form of Risdeig for this name. Therefore, we have changed the submitted byname to inghean Risdeig in order to register this name. Lacking evidence that any form of the Anglo-Norman name Richard was used in Ireland in the submitter's desired time period, we were not able to make this name authentic for the submitter's requested time and language. [Ainbthen inghean Risdeig, 09/2003, A-Trimaris]

François la Flamme 2003.08 Submitted as Lochlainn mac Faoláin Bhain, Gaelic names are registerable with accents either used or omitted consistently. As there was an accent in the element Faoláin, we have added the missing accent to final element of this name.

There was some discussion about whether the element Bháin should include lenition, or whether it should not include lenition and take the form Báin. The "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 4, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100005D/), entry M1453.6, lists an example of the byname Bán 'white' used as a descriptive byname for a man's father: Eoghan mac Domhnaill Bháin Ui Raighilligh. As this example has the descriptive byname lenited, we have registered it in the lenitied form Bháin. [Lochlainn mac Faoláin Bháin, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2003.08 The byname inghean ui Chumaráin was submitted as a feminine form of Ó Cumaráin, which was documented from MacLysaght (p. 35 s.n. Cameron). No documentation was provided and none was found that the name Ó Cumaráin existed in period. Lacking such evidence, the submitted byname is not registerable.

As the submitter only allows minor changes, and changing the language of the byname is a major change, we were unable to change this name from the Irish Gaelic inghean ui Chumaráin to the Scots Cameron in order to register this name. [Brigit inghean ui Chumaráin, 08/2003 LoAR, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.08 Submitted as Caitilín ingen Aodha, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed any changes. The submitted byname ingen Aodha combined the Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) particle ingen with the Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) Aodha and so violated RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. We have changed this byname to the fully Early Modern Irish form inghean Aodha, which is appropriate for use with the given name Caitilín, in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity and to register this name. [Caitilín inghean Aodha, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.08 Submitted as Rioghnach ni Rose, the submitter requested authenticity for "Irish/English" and allowed minor changes. In period, a Gaelic woman's name would have been written entirely in Gaelic or entirely in Anglicized Irish depending upon the language of the record in which her name was recorded.

The byname ni Rose was submitted as an Anglicized Irish form of the byname inghean Roiss, where Roiss was intended to be a genitive form of the Gaelic masculine name Rosa. However, Roiss is not a genitive form of Rosa. Instead, the genitive form of Rosa in late period is simply Rosa. The "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 5, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100005E/) shows an example of this genitive in entry M1518.2, which lists Aedh mac Rosa mic Tomais Óicc Még Uidhir in the year 1518.

For the most part, period Anglicized Irish forms of names use English spelling conventions of the time to represent the sound of Gaelic names. The difficult part of constructing period Anglicized Irish forms of names is determining how the English or Anglicized Irish spelling conventions of that time would have rendered the sound of a name. In this case, there is an example of -rosa in a byname. Woulfe (p. 513 s.n. Ó Dubhrosa) dates the Anglicized Irish form O Dubrise to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. This example supports Rise as a period Anglicized Irish form of the Gaelic Rosa.

Regarding the use of ni in Anglicized Irish, there are some gray-area documents that show examples of this type of construction. John O'Donovan, ed., Annals of Ireland, by the Four Masters, vol. 6, p. 2446, lists a transcription of the will of Daniell O'Donovane dated to 1629. This document mentions Juane Ny Teige O'Donovane, the daughter of my sonne Teige O'Donovane. The same page lists a transcription of the will of Teige O'Donovane dated to 1639. In this document, Teige lists his daughters: Joane ny Teige, Ellen ny Teige, Eilene ny Teige, Shilie ny Teige, and Honora ny Teige. These examples support Ny [Anglicized Irish form of father's given name] and ny [Anglicized Irish form of father's given name] as byname forms for women in Anglicized Irish. Therefore, Ny Rise and ny Rise are plausible period Anglicized Irish forms of the submitted byname. As the latter is the closer of these to the submitted byname, we have used that form in registering this name in order to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity.

A fully Gaelic form of this name would be Rioghnach inghean Rosa. As the submitter only allowed minor changes, we were unable to change this name to a fully Gaelic form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Rioghnach ny Rise, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2003.08 Mealla is the modern form of Mella, which Ó Corráin & Maguire state was the name of the mother of Saint Manchán of Lemanaghan. Precedent states that the names of people mentioned in saints' legends are not registerable:

Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 46 s.n. Cassair) gives this as the name of a holy virgin included in the legend of Saint Kevin. No evidence has been found that this name was used by humans in period. Names of saints are registerable, regardless of whether they are apocryphal or not. This policy is due to the practice in many cultures (though not in Gaelic) of naming children for saints. (For more details, see the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR.) As Cassair was not herself a saint and the name has not been documented as having been otherwise used in period, it falls into the category of a legendary name and is not registerable. [Cassair Warwick, 02/02, R-Atlantia]

Similarly, as Mealla was not herself a saint and the name has not been documented as having been otherwise used in period, it falls into the category of a legendary name and is not registerable. [Mealla Caimbeul, 08/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.08 The submitter requested an authentic 12th to 14th C Irish-Gaelic feminine name. As submitted, this name uses a masculine given name and the masculine form of the byname. As the College was unable to find evidence that Pádraigín was used as a feminine name in period, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's requested gender. [Pádraigín Ó hIfearnaín, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Sorcha inghen Cú Mara, there was some discussion regarding the submitted inghen. This spelling has been addressed previously:

[T]he Annals of Connacht [...] also includes examples of the spelling inghen which seems to be a conservative spelling of the standard inghean. [Temair Brecc inghen Choluim, 01/02, A-West]

When the masculine name Cú Mara is used in a woman's byname, it needs to be put into the genitive case and lenited. Therefore, inghen Chon Mhara and, more typically, inghean Chon Mhara are forms of this byname appropriate for Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700). We have changed the byname to the first of these forms, as it is the closer of the two to the submitted form of this byname, in order to register this name. [Sorcha inghen Chon Mhara, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2003.07 Listed on the LoI as Angus O'Coildáin, this name was submitted as Angus O'Coileáin. We have corrected the typographical error in the byname. The byname O'Coileáin uses the Anglicized Irish O' in this Gaelic byname and so violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a name phrase. We have changed this byname to a fully Gaelic form in order to register this name. A fully Gaelic forms of this name would be Aonghus Ó Coileáin. As the submitter did not request authenticity, we have only made the changes necessary in order to register this name. [Angus Ó Coileáin, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Aine Maguire of Kilarney, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 15th C Irish and allowed all changes.

As submitted, this name combines the Gaelic Aine in an otherwise Anglicized Irish name. In Ireland, during the submitter's desired time period, a woman's name would be recorded completely in Gaelic or completely in Anglicized Irish depending upon the language of the record in which her name was recorded.

Aine was documented from Withycombe. Withycombe's strength lies in English. In most cases, when she discusses names in languages other than English, she is referring to modern forms. In this case, the name Áine is found in various Irish annals referring to women mentioned in the years dating from 1169 to 1468.

No documentation was included in the submission supporting Maguire as a form of this name used in period. Woulfe (p. 427 s.n. Mag Uidhir) lists Maguire as a modern Anglicized Irish form of this name and dates the Anglicized Irish forms Maguier, M'Guier, M'Gwire, and M'Guiver to temp. Elizabeth I-James I.

No documentation was provided in the submission or the LoI for the element Kilarney. The College found evidence that the present location of Killarney in County Kerry, Ireland existed in period. The earliest Anglicized Irish example of this placename that was found was in Speed's The Counties of Britain (p. 282, map of "The Province of Mounster", map dated 1610), which lists the name of this location as Kylharnon.

Our best guess of a fully Anglicized Irish form of this name would be Anne Maguier of Kylharnon. While locative bynames (such as of Kylharnon) appear in late period Anglicized Irish records, they are vanishingly rare in Gaelic and none have yet been found in a woman's name when a patronymic byname is also used. Therefore, a woman called Anne Maguier of Kylharnon in Anglicized Irish records, would most likely be called simply Áine inghean Mhic Uidhir in Gaelic.

As the Anglicized Irish form of this name is closer than the Gaelic form to the submitted name, we have changed this name to the fully Anglicized Irish form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Anne Maguier of Kylharnon, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Lochac]

François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Sorcha Searraigh, the submitter requested authenticity for the 10th to 11th C.

The "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 2, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100005B/), entry M1032.16, lists Murchadh, mac Searraigh. However, this entry shows an Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) spelling. The Annals of the Four Masters were written in 1632-1636 and many of the entries show orthography appropriate for the 17th C. The corresponding Middle Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form would be mac Serraig. In a woman's name, the byname would be ingen Sherraig in Middle Gaelic and inghean Shearraigh in Early Modern Gaelic.

The only examples found of the name Sorcha date from the 16th C. Therefore, we could not make this name completely authentic for the 10th to 11th C as requested by the submitter. We would have changed the byname to ingen Sherraig to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity. However, the name Sorcha ingen Sherraig would have two weirdnesses - one for combining Middle Gaelic and Early Modern Gaelic and one for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years between the elements. Therefore, we have registered this name in the fully Early Modern Gaelic form Sorcha inghean Shearraigh. [Sorcha inghean Shearraigh, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Aine Fion, this name was submitted as a feminine given name followed by a masculine given name. Unmarked patronymic bynames were not used in Gaelic in period and are reason for return. Additionally, no documentation was presented and none was found that Fion is a period variant of the documented masculine given name Fionn. Lacking such evidence, Fion is not registerable. A woman named Aine whose father was named Fionn would be Aine inghean Fhionn.

There is also a Gaelic descriptive byname Fionn 'fair' (referring either to hair color or complexion). When used as a woman's descriptive byname, it lenites, taking the form Fhionn. A woman named Aine who has fair hair or a fair complexion could be referred to as Aine Fhionn.

As the submitter allows any changes, we have passed this name using the descriptive byname Fhionn, rather than the patronymic byname inghean Fhionn, as the descriptive byname form is closer to the submitted form of this name. [Aine Fhionn, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]

François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Cadhla Ultachan, Ultachan was documented from Woulfe (p. 682 s.n. Ultachan). However, Woulfe gives no evidence that this form is period. While Ultach 'the Ultonian' (refers to a person from Ulster) is a byname found in period, no examples of diminutives (including -an forms) have been found of this type of byname in period. Lacking evidence that a diminutive of a descriptive byname would have been used in period, we have changed the byname to the documented form Ultach in order to register this name. [Cadhla Ultach, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Siban an Fheadha, the submitter requested authenticity for 9th to 12th C Irish and allowed minor changes. The submitted name combines the Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form Sibán with the Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form an Fheadha.

The name Siobhán is a Gaelic adaptation of Jehanne, which was introduced into Ireland by the Anglo-Normans. The earliest example of Siobhán found so far dates to 1310 - well after the submitter's desired time period.

In the submitter's desired time period, Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) was the language in use. It was replaced by Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700). However, as with any lingual shift, the change was gradual. After 1200, some documents were still written in Middle Irish, though these were fewer and fewer over time.

Siobhán an Fheadha is a fully Early Modern Irish form of the submitted name. A woman with this name in the 14th C would have been recorded as Sibán in Feda in a document that was written in Middle Irish. We have changed this name to the Middle Irish form to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity. Lacking evidence that any form of Sibán was used in Ireland in the submitter's desired time period, we were unable to make this name authentic according to the submitter's request. [Sibán in Feda, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Lochac]

François la Flamme 2003.07 Submitted as Magaidh of Kreiton, the submitter requested authenticity for "Scots Gaelic" and allowed any changes. Multiple languages were used in Scotland in period including Scottish Gaelic (sometimes modernly referred to as "Scots Gaelic") and Scots (a language closely related to English).

Magaidh was documented from Peadar Morgan's Ainmean Chloinne/Scottish Gaelic Names for Children (s.n. Magaidh), which states that this name is a diminutive of Mairead. This entry provides no evidence that Magaidh was used in period. Lacking evidence that Magaidh is a plausible period name, it is not registerable.

Máiréad is a Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. The corresponding Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) is Máirghréad. It is a Gaelic rendering of the name Margaret. Therefore, Máirghréad is the closest period Gaelic form to the submitted Magaidh. However, it has a markedly different appearance and pronunciation than the submitted Magaidh.

Effric neyn Kenyeoch vc Ralte's article "Early 16th Century Scottish Lowland Names" (http://www.MedievalScotland.org/scotnames/lowland16/), s.n. Margaret on the "Women's Given Names" pages, lists a number of Scots forms of this name. Forms found in this article that would be pronounced similar to the submitted Magaidh include Mage and Magy.

While locative bynames (like of Kreiton) appear in Scots and Anglicized Irish records, their use in Gaelic is quite different. Current research has found no examples of locatives in Scottish Gaelic that are not part of chiefly titles. In Irish Gaelic, locative bynames appear but are vanishingly rare. While a few refer to countries outside of Ireland, none have yet been found that refer to a region outside of Ireland that is smaller than a country. Given this information about locatives in Gaelic, as well as the College being unable to find a Gaelic form of of Kreiton, we are unable to meet the submitter's request for authenticity for Gaelic.

As the submitter allowed any changes, we have registered this name in the Scots form Magy of Kreiton, because the Scots form Magy is closer than the period Gaelic Máirghréad, in both pronunciation and appearance, to the submitted name Magaidh. [Magy of Kreiton, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2003.07 The submitter requested authenticity for 6th to 10th C Irish. However, the only examples found of Brigit used in Gaelic in period were as names of saints. Lacking evidence that Brigit in common use among regular people, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's desired time and culture. [Brigit ingen Taidc, 07/2003 LoAR, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2003.06 Submitted as Rowan O'Coilen, no documentation was presented and none was found that O'Coilen is a plausible period form of this name in either Gaelic or Anglicized Irish. Woulfe (p. 470 s.n. Ó Coileáin) dates the Anglicized Irish forms O Collaine and O Collan to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. As Woulfe shows surname forms that are spelled O'[name] in addition to O [name], we have changed this byname to O'Collan, as the closest plausible period form to the submitted O'Coilen, in order to register this name. [Rowan O'Collan, 06/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.06 Listed on the LoI as Brygyt d'Arcy of Glen Meara, this name was submitted as Brighid d'Arcy of Glen Meara. The submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 13th C Irish and allowed minor changes.

Brighid is found as a header in Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 36 s.n. Brigit). It is the Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form and is registerable as a saint's name. Lacking evidence that this name was used in Ireland in period except as the names of saints, it is not authentic for the submitter's requested time and culture. As changing the language of Brighid from Gaelic to the English form Brygyt is a major change, which the submitter does not allow, we have returned this element to the submitted form Brighid when registering her holding name.

Glen Meara was submitted as an invented locative byname. No documentation was provided for this element in the LoI and Kingdom requested help from the CoA in finding support for this name element. The closest the College was able to come was to find support for placenames in Ireland that had the form Gleann [genitive lenited form of a masculine given name]: for example, Gleann Charthaigh 'Carthach's glen'. Woulfe (p. 614 s.n. Ó Meadhra) gives the meaning of this name as 'descendant of Meadhair' and dates the Anglicized Irish form O Mary to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. In this entry, O'Meara is given as a modern Anglicized form of this name. It was theorized that Glen Meara could be an Anglicized form of a place named Gleann Mheadhair in Gaelic. However, no evidence was found that Meara is a period form, either in Gaelic or in Anglicized Irish. Further, not all Irish family names derive from given names. In this case, Meadhair means 'mirth' and likely originated as a descriptive byname. Lacking evidence of its use as a given name, it does not fit the pattern of Gleann [genitive lenited form of a masculine given name]. If evidence were found of Meadhair as a masculine given name, that would support a hypothetical Gaelic placename of Gleann Mheadhair. Based on period examples, a corresponding period Anglicized Irish form would be Glenmary.

As no support was found for Glen Meara as a plausible placename in period, and the submitter allows no major changes, we are unable to drop this element in order to register this name. [Brygyt d'Arcy of Glen Meara, 06/2003 LoAR, R-Trimaris]

François la Flamme 2003.06 No documentation was provided, and none could be found, that the feminine given name Fionnabhair was used outside of legend. Lacking evidence that it was used by humans in period, it is not registerable.

Additionally, in Gaelic, T does not lenite if the previous word ends in an n. Therefore, inghean Tighearnaigh is the grammatically correct form of this byname. [Fionnabhair inghean Thighearnaigh, 06/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.06 The given name Broinninn was documented from Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 38 s.n. Broinnfind), which gives this as the name of the sister of one saint and the mother of another. No other evidence was found that this name was used by humans in period. As such, it falls afoul of the precedent:

Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 46 s.n. Cassair) gives this as the name of a holy virgin included in the legend of Saint Kevin. No evidence has been found that this name was used by humans in period. Names of saints are registerable, regardless of whether they are apocryphal or not. This policy is due to the practice in many cultures (though not in Gaelic) of naming children for saints. (For more details, see the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR.) As Cassair was not herself a saint and the name has not been documented as having been otherwise used in period, it falls into the category of a legendary name and is not registerable. [Cassair Warwick, 02/02, R-Atlantia]

Lacking evidence that Broinninn was used by humans in period, or that it was the name of a saint (and so would be registerable under the guidelines for registerability of saints' names), this name is not registerable.

The next question is whether Broinninn should be considered SCA-compatible as was the case with Aislinn:

The question was raised whether Aislinn was a medieval name, and if not, whether it should be considered SCA compatible. While evidence suggests that the name is post-period, the name has been registered over 30 times in the past two decades, with at least one registration each year save one. This suggests that the name is commonly enough used to be considered SCA compatible. [Aislinn inghean an Shionnach, 08/00, A-Meridies]

In the case of Broinninn, this name has been registered only eight times: in the forms Broinnfind (twice in 1993, 1999), Broinnfinn (2001), and Broinninn (1996, 1997, 1999, 2002). While this shows some recent popularity of the name, it does not demonstrate the same level of popularity shown in Aislinn. Therefore, it is not SCA-compatible.

The submitted byname nic an Ghabhann combines nic, which is a Scots (a language closely related to English) rendering of the Gaelic inghean mhic, with an Ghabhann, which is Gaelic. This combination of Scots and Gaelic in a single name phrase violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a single name phrase. Forms of this byname appropriate for Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) are inghean mhic an Ghabhann and inghean mhic an Ghobhann. [Broinninn nic an Ghabhann, 06/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.06 The submitter requested authenticity for Irish. The given name Aislinn is SCA-compatible and so is registerable. However, no evidence has yet been found that Aislinn was used as a given name in period. Lacking such evidence, we were unable to make this name authentic for Irish as requested by the submitter. [Aislinn inghean an Bhaird, 06/2003 LoAR, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2003.06 Submitted as Donal Mac Brandubgh, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed any changes.

Donal was documented as an Irish name listed in Withycombe (2nd ed., p. 81, s.n. Donald). When discussing non-English names, Withycombe is usually referring to modern forms. Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 75, s.n. Domnall) shows that Dónal is a Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. As such, it is not registerable. The Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name is Domhnall.

No documentation was presented and one was found that Mac Brandubgh is a plausible variant of the name Mac Branduibh. Lacking such evidence, it is not registerable.

We have changed this name to use documented period Gaelic forms in order to register this name and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Domhnall Mac Branduibh, 06/2003 LoAR, A-Trimaris]

François la Flamme 2003.06 Listed on the LoI as Ríoghnach inghean Chonchobhair na Áth Dara, this name was submitted as Rioghnach inghean Chonchobhair de Ath Dara. The byname was modified at Kingdom to put the locative byname (meaning 'of Adare') into a single language and to add accents to this name. Irish Gaelic names are registerable with either accents used consistently or omitted consistently. As the submitted form of this name used no accents, we have dropped all accents from this name.

In Irish Gaelic in period, locative bynames referring to a town do not use a particle such as na. Rather, they simply use the genitive form of the placename. The genitive form of Áth Dara is Átha Dara. As it appears in a woman's byname, it is also lenited: Átha Dhara. Therefore, the grammatically correct form of this name is Rioghnach inghean Chonchobhair Atha Dhara. We have changed the submitted name to this form in order to register this name.

The submitter may wish to know that the order of bynames in an Irish Gaelic name can significantly change the meaning of the name. In the case of the name Rioghnach inghean Chonchobhair Atha Dhara, this name means that Rioghnach is the daughter of Conchobhar, who was from Adare. The form of this name that would indicate that Rioghnach is from Adare is Rioghnach Atha Dhara inghean Chonchobhair. [Rioghnach inghean Chonchobhair Atha Dhara, 06/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.06 Listed on the LoI as Seamus mac Maoláin, Gaelic names are registerable with accents used consistently or omitted consistently. Therefore, registerable forms of this name are Séamus mac Maoláin and Seamus mac Maolain. The form shows that this name was submitted without accents. As a result, we have registered the form of this name that uses no accents. [Seamus mac Maolain, 06/2003 LoAR, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2003.06 Submitted as Ailionóra inghean Thighearnaigh, in Gaelic T does not lenite if the previous word ends in an n. Therefore, inghean Tighearnaigh is the grammatically correct form of this byname. We have made this change in order to register this name. [Ailionóra inghean Tighearnaigh, 06/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.06 Submitted as Talorgen mac Brude, Brude is a nominative form of this name. We have changed it to a genitive form as required when it is used in a patronymic byname. [Talorgen mac Brudi, 06/2003 LoAR, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2003.05 Submitted as Ryan De Caergybi, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th C English and allowed minor changes.

There was some question regarding the registerability of the name Ryan. Both Ryan and Rian are plausible Anglicized Irish forms of the Gaelic masculine given name Ríán, which was the name of a saint (per Ó Corráin & Maguire, p. 155 s.n. Ríán). Therefore, Ryan and Rian are registerable as Anglicized Irish forms of this saint's name under the guidelines for registerability of saints' names (see the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR for details).

The byname was submitted as De Caergybi. However, the submitted documenation supports de Caergybi. We have made this correction.

There was some question whether the combination of Anglicized Irish and Welsh is registerable. Anglicized Irish, like Scots, is structurally similar to English. Therefore, as with Scots and Welsh (Anton Cwith, LoAR of August 2001, Ansteorra's acceptances), combining Anglicized Irish and Welsh in a name is registerable, though a weirdness. Mixed Gaelic/Welsh names remain unregisterable. [Ryan de Caergybi, 05/2003 LoAR, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2003.05 The submitter requested authenticity for 12th C Ireland and allowed minor changes. Deismireach meaning 'curious' was documented from Malcom MacLennan's A pronouncing and Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language. However, no documentation was submitted and none was found to support deismireach as a period word in Gaelic. Lacking evidence that Deismireach is plausible as a descriptive byname in Gaelic in period, it is not registerable. [Sorcha Deismireach inghean Mhurchudha, 05/2003 LoAR, R-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2003.05 Listed on the LoI as Aidan Mac Dowell, this name was submitted as Aidan MacDhughaill and changed at Kingdom to a fully Anglicized Irish form, as the submitter requested authenticity for Anglicized Irish or Gaelic. Further information provided by the submitter has clarified that he specifically wishes a form of MacDougal rather than Mac Dowell as he wants to indicate a specific family.

In modern family names, spellings have standardized so that a spelling used by one family is not used by another family, even though both family names derive from the same root name. Such seems to be the case with MacDougal and Mac Dowell. Both names derive from Mac Dubhghaill, which means 'son of Dubhghall'. While the use of a particular spelling of a name to indicate one family rather than another of the same name is common today, that was not the case in Anglicized Irish in period.

Regarding the submitted byname MacDhughaill, the Gaelic language went through changes around 1700 which often included dropping letters that were no longer pronounced. MacDhughaill is a Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. The Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name is Mac Dhubhghaill. Both of these forms have some of their consonants lenited (shown by the h following the lenited letters). Lenition causes a softening in pronunciation. As a result, both the Modern Gaelic MacDhughaill and the Early Modern Gaelic Mac Dhubhghaill are pronounced approximately "mak-OO-ahl".

For the most part, period Anglicized Irish forms of names use English spelling conventions of the time to represent the sound of Gaelic names. This trend can be seen in Woulfe (p. 353 s.n. Mac Dhubhghaill), which dates the Anglicized Irish forms M'Cowgall, M'Cougald, M'Cowyle, M'Cooel, M'Cual, M'Coole, M'Cole, and M'Coyle to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. These forms correspond to the pronunciation "mak-OO-ahl". On the same page, Woulfe lists a header for the name Mac Dubhghaill. Because the D is not lenited in the name Mac Dubhghaill, Anglicized Irish forms dated to temp. Elizabeth I-James I in this entry (M'Doole, M'Doell, and M'Doile) show the D sound in their forms.

As the submitter desires his name to indicate a particular family, we are only making the minimal changes necessary to register this name. In this case, that means changing the Modern Gaelic MacDhughaill (which is solely a post-period form and so is not registerable) to the closest period equivalent, which is the Early Modern Gaelic Mac Dhubhghaill. [Aidan Mac Dhubhghaill, 05/2003 LoAR, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2003.04 Submitted as Ruaidhri Lámgel, Gaelic names are registerable with accents used or omitted consistently. As the byname included the accent, we have added the missing accent to the given name as well.

This submission was documented using a client letter from the Academy of Saint Gabriel. In that letter, he indicated his desired time and culture was 15th C Ireland. As he did not mark his form as requesting authenticity, we have registered this name with only the change to the accent in the given name. [Ruaidhrí Lámgel, 04/2003 LoAR, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2003.04 The submitter requested authenticity for northern English. Brighid is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name. When this name was used in English, it took on other spellings. Aryanhwy merch Catmael found forms of this name in Lancashire (northern England) and Gloucestershire (southwestern England):

<Brichet> is recorded in 1581 and 1585 and <Brychet> 1589 in Ormskirk, which is in Lancashire, and thus fits the bill for northern English. (http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/ormskirk/). The following spellings are also found in Gloucestershire (http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/late16/): Bridgett 1573, 1590, 1596; Bridget 1593; Bridgret 1590. Any of these will differ in sound negligibly.

Based on this information, Brichet Ross and Brychet Ross would be forms of this name appropriate for Northern England. As the submitter only allows minor changes, and changing the language of the given name from a Gaelic form to an English form is a major change, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's desired culture. [Brighid Ross, 04/2003 LoAR, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2003.04 Submitted as Lorccán ua Conchobair, the submitter requested authenticity for late 10th C Irish and allowed minor changes. We have changed the particle ua to the older form hua to match the submitter's requested time period. [Lorccán hua Conchobair, 04/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.04 Submitted as Derbáil ingen Lonán, the byname element Lonán was in the nominative case. We have changed this element to the genitive case Lonáin, as required by Gaelic grammar, in order to register this name. [Derbáil ingen Lonáin, 04/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.04 Submitted as Wilo ingen Donnchada, Wilo was documented only as a masculine given name. The byname ingen Donnchada means 'daughter of Duncan'. Gaelic patronymic bynames were used literally in period. Therefore, this name was not registerable as submitted since a man could not be a daughter. Since the submitter marked "don't care" for gender on her form, we have changed the byname to the masculine form mac Donnchada in order to register this name. [Wilo mac Donnchada, 04/2003 LoAR, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2003.04 The elements in this name have a temporal disparity of more than 1000 years. Una is a Gaelic name dated to 1310 and later. Orcadiana is a locative byname referring to the Orkneys. The root of this byname is Orcades, dated to the mid-2nd C in section II.A.1 of Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "A Consideration of Pictish Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/pictnames). As these two elements are dated to more than a millennium apart, this name must be returned. [Una Orcadiana, 04/2003 LoAR, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.04 Submitted as Uaithne Ciaráin, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish. As submitted, this name was not grammatically correct. The name Uaithne was both a masculine and a feminine given name in Irish Gaelic in period. Uaithne ua Ciaráin would be a grammatically correct form of this name for a man. Uaithne inghean uí Chiaráin would be a grammatically correct form of this name for a woman. As the submitter's form indicated that she desired a feminine name, we have changed this name to the grammatically correct feminine form in order to register this name and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Uaithne inghean uí Chiaráin, 04/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.04 Submitted as Onóra inghean Bhriain Chonchobhair, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish. As submitted, this name claimed relationship with Brian O'Conor (registered in June 1995), and so violated RfS VI.3 Names Claiming Specific Relationships, which states in part, "Names that unmistakably imply identity with or close relationship to a protected person [...] will generally not be registered." The submitted name Onóra inghean Bhriain Chonchobhair means 'Onóra daughter [of] Brian Ó Conchobhair'. Brian Ó Conchobhair is the Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of the name Brian O'Conor, both of which have nearly identical pronunciations. Therefore, the submitted name claims to be the daughter of Brian O'Conor and so is not registerable without a letter of permission from Brian.

The LoI noted that this name was submitted with the meaning 'Onora, daughter of Brian the son of Conchobar'. In fact, the submitted form of this name means 'Onora, daughter of Brian the grandson (or male descendant) of Conchobar'. As the submitter allows any changes, we have changed inghean Chonchobhair 'daughter of a grandson (or male descendant) of Conchobhar' to inghean mhic Conchobhair 'daughter of a son of Conchobhar' in order to register this name. (Note: names beginning in C- do not lenite if the previous word ends in -c.) This change provides the submitter her intended meaning, meets her request for authenticity for Irish, and removes the claim of close relationship to the registered name Brian O'Conor. [Onóra inghean Bhriain mhic Conchobhair, 04/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.04 There was some question whether mac Amhalgaidh was grammatically correct, since mac Amhalghadha and mac Amhalghaidh are the more typical Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) forms of this byname. The "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 3, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100005C/), entry M1187.12, lists Aireactach Mac Amhalgaidh taoiseach Calraighe, which shows the submitted form of this byname. As this work was written in 1632-1636, this byname form is registerable. [Tomás mac Amhalgaidh, 04/2003 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2003.03 Submitted as Erníne inghean ui Fiannaidhe, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed minor changes. Gaelic names are registerable if accents are used or omitted consistently. Therefore, we have added the missing accent in . Additionally, the byname was not lenited as required by Gaelic grammar. We have made this correction.

As submitted, this name combines Erníne, which is a Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) form, with inghean ui Fiannaidhe, which is an Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form. We have changed this name to a completely Early Modern Irish form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. As Erníne, later Ernín, was only found as the name of a saint, we were unable to make this name completely authentic. [Ernín inghean uí Fhiannaidhe, 03/2003, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2003.03 The byname in Luch was submitted as a constructed descriptive byname meaning 'the Mouse'. It has only been registered once before (Cera in Luch, registered May 2000). Since the registration of this name, more information has become available about how descriptive bynames were constructed in period in Gaelic. As a result, we can better evaluate the plausibility of in Luch as a Gaelic descriptive byname in period.

While the Dictionary of the Irish Language Based Mainly on Old and Middle Irish Materials (s.n. Luch) shows that the word luch is period, this entry does not show any examples of luch used in a descriptive byname. Descriptive bynames based on animals are extremely rare in Gaelic. At this point, only a handful have been dated to period, specifically Cu 'wolf', Sinnach 'fox', Damán 'little stag, little ox', and Rón 'seal' (which may be unique to Áed Rón). It is important to note that none of these animals are rodents. The return of this submitter's previous name stated in part:

In a broader sense, no evidence was presented and none was found that any type of rodent would have been included as a root in [...] a descriptive byname. Lacking such evidence, this name is not registerable. [Eileen ingen Dubh-luchag, LoAR December 2001, R-An Tir]

No documentation was provided for the current submission and none was found to show that a descriptive byname formed from the name of a rodent is reasonable in Gaelic. Lacking such evidence, the byname in Luch is not registerable.

As the submitter noted that the meaning 'the Mouse' is most important to her, she may be interested in an English byname with this meaning. Bardsley (p. 544 s.n. Mouse) dates Roger Mus to 1273, John le Mous to 1302, Richard Mowse to 1550, and Richard Mouse to the first year of the reign of Queen Mary. [Eileen in Luch, 03/2003, R-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2003.03 Submitted as Aoibhinn ingen Artán, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish Gaelic. Artán is a nominative form. A byname uses the genitive form Artáin. We have made this correction. As submitted, this name combined an Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) given name with a Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) byname. We have changed this name to a completely Middle Irish form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Aíbinn ingen Artáin, 03/2003, A-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2003.03 Submitted as Gráinne inghean Chonaill uí hEachaidh, the submitter requested authenticity for 15th C Irish. This name means 'Gráinne daughter of Conall Ó hEachaidh'. In the submitter's desired time period, the genitive form of her father's byname would have been slightly different. It would have been Ó hEachadha rather than Ó hEachaidh. We have made this change to meet the submitter's request for authenticity.

There is one other change that we have made in order to follow the rules of Gaelic grammar. Bynames, such as Ó hEachadha, that are formed like Ó [name of eponymous ancestor] have an h prepended to the name of the eponymous ancestor if that name begins with a vowel. When this byname is used in a woman's byname, Ó (which is in the nominative case) becomes or (which are in the genitive case). Since the name of the eponymous ancestor now follows rather than Ó, the h is not prepended to it. Therefore, Ó hEachadha becomes Eachadha in this submission. We have made this correction. [Gráinne inghean Chonaill uí Eachadha, 03/2003, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Caoilfhionn ingen Chathassaich, the submitter requested authenticity for 11th to 12th C Irish. As submitted, this name combined the Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Caoilfhionn with the Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) ingen Chathassaich. Additionally, the byname ingen Chathassaich is not quite correct. In Middle Irish Gaelic, the genitive and lenited form of the masculine given name Cathassach is Chathassaig rather than Chathassaich. We have changed this name to the fully Middle Irish form Cáelfind ingen Chathassaig in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Cáelfind ingen Chathassaig, 02/2003 LoAR, A-West]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Eoin Mac Cionaoith ui Reannachain, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 14th C Irish. In Gaelic names of this form, the mac 'son' is literal. In other words, this name indicates that Eoin is the son of Cionaodh ua Reannachain. We have lowercased mac to follow documented examples of this type of construction. [Eoin mac Cionaoith ui Reannachain, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2003.02 The submitter requested authenticity for "Scottish" and allowed minor changes. As submitted, this name combines the Scots (a language closely related to English) James with the Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) Mac Murchadha. An authentic name combining these elements in period would have been written completely in Scots or completely in Gaelic depending upon the language of the document in which this name was recorded. Black (p. 546 s.n. MacMurchie) dates a number of Scots forms of this byname to the 15th and 16th C, including Makmurche to 1492, M'Murquhe to 1500, McMurthe to 1539, and McMurkka to 1541. A fully Scots form of this name would combine James with one of these forms, such as James McMurche. A fully Gaelic form of this name would be Seamus Mac Murchadha. As the submitter does not allow major changes, we were unable to change this name to a fully Scots or fully Gaelic form in order to make this name authentic. [James Mac Murchadha, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Muirenn ingen Donndubán, the byname was not in the genitive case as required by Gaelic grammar. We have made this correction. [Muirenn ingen Donndubáin, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Caoillain Rose Maddox, the submitter requested authenticity for an Irish given name and an English surname. Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 41 s.n. Cáelfind) lists Caoilinn, not Caoillain. Lacking evidence that Caoillain is a plausible period form of Caoilinn, it is not registerable. We have changed this name to the documented form Caoilinn in order to register this name.

Since two bynames sometimes occurred in a single name in late period England, we have left both Rose and Maddox in this name. However, lacking evidence that a Gaelic given name, rather than an Anglicized Irish given name, would be combined with English bynames in period, this name is not authentic for forms of names found in England or Ireland in period. [Caoilinn Rose Maddox, 02/2003 LoAR, A-West]

François la Flamme 2003.02 Note: in Gaelic, T does not lenite if the previous word ends in an n. Therefore, the byname ingen Trena is grammatically correct. [Anlaith ingen Trena, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Diarmuid McConnell, previous research has found no evidence that Diarmuid is a period form of Diarmaid:

Submitted as Diarmuid de Rosas, this name had two separate problems. First, there was no evidence that the spelling Diarmuid was period. ... Fortunately for the submitter, Ó Corráin and Maguire, Irish Names, list period forms of the given name. [Diarmaid de Rossa, 11/00, A-An Tir]

As no evidence was found this time to support Diarmuid as a form used in period, it remains unregisterable. We have changed the given name to the period form Diarmaid in order to register this name. [Diarmaid McConnell, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Fiachrae the Bonesetter, the submitter requested authenticity for 13th to 14th C Ireland. As submitted, this name combined the Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) masculine given name Fiachrae with an English byname. Additionally, the term bonesetter was dated to c. 1510 as an English word. In the spelling boone setter, it was dated to c. 1470. Therefore, the submitted form of this name had two weirdnesses: one for combining Gaelic and English in a name, and a second for elements whose forms are dated more than 300 years apart. To remove the weirdness for temporal disparity in order to register this name, and to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity, we have changed the given name to the Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Fiachra. Lacking evidence that the Bonesetter would have been used as occupational byname for a Gael in Ireland, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's requested time and culture. [Fiachra the Bonesetter, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Listed on the LoI as Medb ingen Mathghamhain, this name was submitted as Medbh inghean Mathghamhain and was changed at Kingdom to match documented forms.

The byname ingen Mathghamhain combined the Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) ingen with the Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) Mathghamhain, and so violated RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a name phrase. Additionally, Mathghamhain is a nominative form, not a genitive form as required by Gaelic grammar in a byname. The fully Middle Irish form of this name is Medb ingen Mathgamna. The fully Early Modern Irish form of this name is Meadhbh inghean Mhathghamhna. As the Early Modern Irish form is the closer of these to the originally submitted form of this name, we have changed this name to that form in order to register this name. [Meadbh inghean Mhathghamhna, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.02 Ó Fuathaigh was documented from MacLysaght (s.n. (O) Fuohy), which describes this name as "an east Cork name." Woulfe (p. 535 s.n. Ó Fuathaigh) lists no period examples of the name and gives the meaning of the name as 'des[cendant] of Fuathach'. There is some doubt whether this name would have been used in period. Metron Ariston explains:

MacLysaght in the place cited really does not give any evidence that this is a period byname nor does he indicate that it is derived from a given name. Indeed, based on the evidence of MacLennan's Gaelic Dictionary (s.n. fuathach), this byname would mean "descendant of a spectre" or "descendant of a monster" and leaves one to wonder if it is a claim to non-human descent.

Given the meaning of this name, and the lack of evidence of its use in period, Ó Fuathaigh is not registerable. [Tigernach Ó Fuathaigh, 02/2003 LoAR, R-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Daimhín le Milner, there was some question whether the name Daimhín appears only as a legendary name. Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 68 s.n. Daimíne) list only "Daimíne Damargait, king of Airgialla" as a legendary bearer of this name. Donnchadh Ó Corráin & Mavis Cournane, ed., "The Annals of Ulster" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100001/), entry U565.3, list the death of Daimin Daim Airgit, the same person as mentioned in the entry in Ó Corráin & Maguire. His death is also mentioned in Donnchadh Ó Corráin, ed., "Annals of Inisfallen" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100004/), entry I564.2, where he is called Daimín mc. Domongairt. Entries for early years in Irish annals are less likely to be historical the earlier the date. The general rule of thumb is to give entries after about A.D. 500, especially in older annals such as "The Annals of Ulster", the benefit of the doubt. However, this is the only person found with this name (both in Ó Corráin & Maguire and in the annals), implying that the name seems to be unique to this individual. Lacking evidence that this given name is not unique to this (possibly legendary) king, it is not registerable.

Aryanhwy merch Catmael found a similar name under a different header in Ó Corráin & Maguire:

[In Ó Corráin & Maguire], s.n. Damán, of virtually identical etymology, they list one saint by the name and an early king who died in 633. The later form there is <Damhán>; this may be a better choice than <Damán>, so that there aren't problems with temporal compatibility along with linguistic compatibility.

As the submitter allows any changes, we have changed the given name to Damhán, which is similar in both sound and appearance to the submitted Daimhín (both entries list Davin as an Anglicized form), in order to register this name. [Damhán le Milner, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Ailleann inghean Riobeirt Fhrancaigh, no documentation was presented and none was found that Riobeirt is a plausible variant of the documented Roibeirt. We have changed this name to use the documented form Roibeirt in order to register this name. [Ailleann inghean Roibeirt Fhrancaigh, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2003.02 [Alternate name Lonán Dubh] The LoI noted that "[i]f possible, [the submitter] would like Dubh to be spelled Du{b.}, where the b has a dot over it." The "dot" over a letter in Gaelic is called a punctum delens. When Gaelic is being represented using the Roman alphabet, letters with the punctum delens are rendered with an appended h; thus, b with a punctum delens becomes bh in standard transliteration. For registration purposes, we use this standard transliteration method and so have registered this name using the standard form Dubh, as submitted. The submitter is welcome to use the form Dub with the punctum delens over the b when writing his name, if he wishes. [Lonán ua Conaill, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Listed on the LoI as Genna inghean Braonain ui Amann, the name form shows Genna inghean Braonaín uí Ámann. Gaelic names are registerable with accents used or omitted consistently. Since the submission form uses the accents, we have placed them back in this name.

The accent was misplaced in the element Braonaín. The genitive form of the masculine given name Braonán is Braonáin, rather than Braonaín. We have made this correction.

No documentation was found to support Amann as a period form of this name rather than as a modern form. Additionally, Amann is in the nominative case. Gaelic grammar requires that it be put into the genitive case when used in a byname. Orle found a period example of Amann in a personal byname in the "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 2, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100005B/), which lists Pól mac Amaind in entry M1103.10. We have changed Amann to the form documented to period in order to register this name. [Genna inghean Braonáin uí Amaind, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Máiad inghean Thraolaigh, both Máiréad and Thraolaigh are Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) forms. Lacking evidence that these forms would have been used in period, they are not registerable. We have changed this name to its Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form in order to register this name. [Máirghréad inghean Toirdhealbhaigh, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Mairin Mac an Thilidh, the submitter requested authenticity for "Irish/Highland Scot" language/culture, allowed any changes, and indicated that sound was most important.

The LoI documented Mairin from Woulfe (p. 212). However, Woulfe (p. 212) lists Máirín, not Mairin. This entry cites Máirín as being a diminutive of Máire. Many of the names that Woulfe lists in his given name sections are modern. Maille, another diminutive of Máire, was returned in 1999:

The name is being returned for lack of a period given name. While it is true that it appears in Woulfe's Irish Names and Surnames, that is no guarantee that it is a period. Ó Corrain and Maguire (Gaelic Personal Names, p. 133) under Máire lists Maille (with no marking) among pet-forms of Máire with no date. However, given their previous note that the name Máire itself was extremely rare before the seventeenth century, it is quite unlikely that Máire formed a pet-form during our period. Barring documentation that it was used in period, it is not acceptable for use in the SCA. [Máille ingen Bhrain Cadal, LoAR March 1999, R-Atlantia]

The information in Ó Corráin & Maguire (s.n. Máire) similarly indicates that Máirín is unlikely to have occured in period. Lacking evidence that Máirín was used in period, it is not registerable.

There are also issues with the byname Mac an Thilidh. Aryanhwy merch Catmael summarized these issues:

Black s.n. MacNeillie gives the Gaelic as <mac an Fhileadh> or <mac an Fhilidh>, with an <F>, not a <T>. Given that <Mairin> is a feminine name, the byname must be in the appropriate gender: <inghean an Fhilidh>. However, if the client would really like something that is pronounced like <MacNielly>, perhaps she should go with an anglicized form of the name, e.g., <Mary Maknely>. <M'Nely> is dated to 1426 and <Macknely> to 1473.

A registerable Gaelic form of this name would be Máire inghean an Fhilidh. An Irish or Highland Scot woman with this name could have been recorded in Anglicized Irish, English, or Scots (a language closely related to English) records as Mary Maknely. As the latter form is closer in sound to the submitted name than the Gaelic form, we have changed this name to the form Mary Maknely in order to register this name. [Mary Maknely, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2003.02 Submitted as Caitríona M'Gilledoroughe, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed any changes. This name combines the Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) feminine given name Caitríona with the Anglicized Irish byname M'Gilledoroughe. An authentic name that combined these elements in period would have been written all in Gaelic or all in Anglicized Irish depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. A fully Gaelic form of this name would be Caitríona inghean mhic Ghiolla Dhorcha. Based on examples found in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "Names and Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond (Ireland 14th Century)" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/lateirish/ormond.html), a fully Anglicized Irish form of this name would be Katerina McGilledoroughe. As the Anglicized Irish form is closer than the Gaelic form to the submitted spelling, we have changed this name to the Anglicized Irish form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Katerina McGilledoroughe, 02/2003 LoAR, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2003.02 No documentation was found that Siridean was used as a given name in period.

Siridean was submitted based on the Gaelic surname form Ó Sirideáin found in MacLysaght's The Surnames of Ireland (s.n. (O) Sheridan). However, not all Mac and Ó surnames derive from given names. Some derive from descriptive bynames. For example, the surname Ó Balbháin (Woulfe, p. 433 s.n. Ó Balbháin) means 'descendant of the stammerer'. Metron Ariston describes the uncertainty regarding the origin of this name:

There has been a great deal of controversy over the etymology of Sheridan and its Irish antecedent over the years. Some people state that the putative Ó Sirideáin meant "son of the Searcher", i.e., is an attributive patronymic rather than a patronymic formed from a given name. Others insist it must have been derived from a rare given name (based largely on its use as a patronymic as far as I can tell). The Clan Sheridan web site itself (www.longfordtourism.com/genealogy/sheridan.html) notes "O' Shiridean literally translates as decendants of Sheridan the meaning of which is uncertain." I was not able to find a clear instance of its use as a given name (as opposed to a portion of a patronymic) in period [...].

Lacking evidence that Siridean is plausible as a given name in Gaelic in period, it is not registerable as a given name. [Siridean MacLachlan, 02/2003 LoAR, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Ragnailt Morgane, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th to 15th C Irish and allowed minor changes. Ragnailt is the Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name. We have changed it to the Early Modern Irish (c1200-c1600) form Raghnailt in order to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity. Morgane was documented as a Scots surname derived from Welsh. Lacking evidence that it was used in 14th to 15th C Irish Gaelic, we were unable to make this name fully authentic for the submitter's desired time and culture. [Raghnailt Morgane, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Cellach inghean ui Dubhthaigh, the byname was not lenited as required by Gaelic grammar. We have made this correction. [Cellach inghean ui Dhubhthaigh, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Álmhath  Blárnach, the submitter requested authenticity for a 16th C (or so) Irish woman married to a Scottish man and allowed minor changes. No documentation was presented and none was found that Álmhath was a plausible period form of the documented Álmath. Lacking such evidence, it is not registerable. We have changed the given name to the documented form Álmath in order to register this name.

Blárnach was submitted as a byname referring to the town of Blarney in Ireland. In Gaelic, adjectival forms of placenames are used as descriptive bynames when the place referred to is a large area, such as a region/county (Conallach 'Tirconnell[-ish]'), province (Connachtach 'Connacht[-ish]'), or country (Saxanach 'English'). When referring to a smaller area, such as a town, village, or barony, the name of the place (in the genitive case) is used as a descriptive byname. Room (s.n. Blarney) gives the Gaelic form of this name as An Bhlarna 'the small field'. For some reason, Room seems to have left the accent off the 'a' (Blárna) in this entry, though he includes it in other placenames on the same page that are formed from the same root. Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn provided examples from Hogan's Onomasticon Goedelicum showing na Blárnan as the feminine genitive form of this phrase. As the feminine genitive form is the form that this placename would take in a woman's descriptive byname, Álmath na Blárnan is the grammatically correct form of this name in Gaelic. We have changed the byname to na Blárnan in order to register this name. Lacking evidence that Álmath continued to be used as late as the 16th C, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's requested time and culture. [Álmath na Blárnan, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Eíbhlín inghean Fhearghuis, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th C Ireland and allowed minor changes. In Irish Gaelic at this time, the genitive form of Fearghus was Fearghusa rather than Fearghuis. The lenited form of Fearghusa is Fhearghusa. We have changed the byname to use this form in order to match the submitter's requested time period. [Eíbhlín inghean Fhearghusa, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Aifric ben mhic Fhearghuis, the submitter requested authenticity for the Scottish Highlands in 1575 and allowed minor changes. Aryanhwy merch Catmael provided information on the given name Aifric. Specifically, the article cited for this name "has been removed from the web and superceded by [Effrick neyn Kenneoch's article] 'Scottish Gaelic Given Names' (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/gaelicgiven/). While there is no Scottish Gaelic evidence for <Aifric> in Scotland, there is other linguistic evidence for the name. According to the sub-section on the name, (draft dated 06Nov01), the probable pre c1200 spelling is <Affraic>, and the probable post c1200 spelling is <Afraig>". We have changed the given name to the form Afraig in order to match the submitter's requested time period.

As submitted, the byname ben mhic Fhearghuis 'wife of [a man whose byname is] mac Fearghuis' combined the Middle Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) ben with the Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) mhic Fhearghuis and, so, violated RfS III.1.a which requires linguistic consistency in a name phrase. We have changed the byname to the completely Early Modern Gaelic form bean mhic Fhearghuis in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity and to register this name. [Afraig bean mhic Fhearghuis, 01/2003 LoAR, A-East]

François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Eibhlin Macewan of Kynblathmund, the submitter requested authenticity for a woman with an Irish Gaelic mother and a Scottish father. An authentic name combining these elements would have been written all in Gaelic or all in an Anglicized form depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. Since no evidence has yet been found of locative bynames used in Scottish Gaelic except as part of chiefly titles, the most likely completely Gaelic form of this name would be Eibhlin inghean mhic Eoghainn. Evelyn Macewan of Kynblathmund would be the completely Anglicized form of this name. As the Anglicized form is closer to the submitted form than the Gaelic form, we have changed this name to the completely Anglicized form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Evelyn Macewan of Kynblathmund, 01/2003 LoAR, A-East]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Ùna inghen ui Griffin, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed any changes. Her forms indicated that the meaning 'Una, daughter of Clan Griffin' was most important to her. The submitted byname inghen ui Griffin combined the Gaelic inghen ui with the English or Anglicized Irish Griffin, and so violated RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. Additionally, Gaelic names are registerable if accents are used or omitted consistently. We have changed this to the fully Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Ùna inghean uí Ghríobhtha in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity and to register this name. [Ùna inghean uí Ghríobhtha, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Brighid ingen Mac Tíre Ruadh, the submitter requested authenticity for 11th to 12th C Irish and allowed minor changes.

Brighid is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form. The corresponding Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name is Brigit. We have changed the name to this form to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity. While we have no evidence of any form of Brighid used as a given name in Gaelic except by saints, the name is registerable as a saint's name, though it is not authentic. (See the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR for more details regarding the registerability of saints' names.)

The submitter stated that she wished the meaning 'Brighid, daughter of Red Wolf'. Mac Tíre is a Gaelic masculine given name. It originally meant 'son of the land', a euphemism for a wolf. Used as a given name, in the submitter's time period, it did not mean 'wolf' any more than the modern given name Heather means a type of vegetation, or the modern given name Ashley means 'ash-tree wood or clearing'. In fact, the submitted name means ' Brighid, daughter of Mac Tíre the Red'. In this position, Ruadh is her father's descriptive byname and would normally indicate that he had red hair.

The submitted byname is not formed correctly, because it does not have her father's name (Mac Tíre Ruadh) in the genitive case as required by Gaelic grammar. The correct form of this byname for the submitter's desired time period is Meic Thíre Ruaidh. We have made this change in order to register her name. [Brigit ingen Meic Thíre Ruaidh, 01/2003 LoAR, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Leod Dubh, the submitter requested authenticity for Scottish Gaelic and allowed minor changes. We have added the accent to the given name to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Leòd Dubh, 01/2003 LoAR, A-East]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Ruarrc the Blind, the documentation shows the form Ruarcc, not Ruarrc. No evidence was found to support Ruarrc as a variant of the period Ruarcc. Lacking such evidence, it is not registerable. We have changed this name to the documented form in order to register this name. [Ruarcc the Blind, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.01 This name is being returned for improper construction of the byname. Port Lairge is the Gaelic form of the place known as Waterford in English or Anglicized Irish. In Irish Gaelic, locative bynames referring to towns are formed by putting the placename into the genitive case. As the submitter did not allow any changes, we were unable to correct the byname to Puirt Lairge in order to register this name. A fully Gaelic form of this name would be Aodh Puirt Lairge. [Y Port Lairge, 01/2003 LoAR, R-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Listed on the LoI as Máirgrég ingen Dubhghaill, this name was submitted as Máirgreg ingen Dubgall and changed at Kingdom to add the second accent to the given name to match documented forms and to correct the grammar in the byname. However, the modified form of the byname is in violation of RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a name phrase, because it combines ingen, which is a Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form, with Dubhghaill, which is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form. A fully Middle Irish form of this byname is ingen Dubgaill, which is only one character different from the originally submitted form. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. A fully Early Modern Irish form of this name would be Máirghréad inghean Dubhghaill. [Máirgrég ingen Dubgaill, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.01 [Alternate name Caitriona MacDuff] The submitter requested authenticity for the 16th C in the "Scots lowlands, Moray firth area" and will accept minor changes. Regarding changes, the LoI notes that "she will not accept the English or Scots equivalent given name ('no Catherine/Katherine, please')". Given her stated preference, we have left her given name in the submitted Gaelic form.

An authentic name combining these elements would have been written all in Gaelic or all in Scots depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. Aryanhwy merch Catmael found a number of Scots forms of Caitriona. We are including that information here as a courtesy to the submitter.

<Caitriona> is a Gaelic form, not appropriate for 16th C Scottish Lowlands. Talan's "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/scottishfem/) lists the following 16th C Scots forms of <Katherine>:

Katherine 1512, 1542, 1564; Katheryne 1509; Kathrine 1589; Katrina 1548; Katrine 1512; Katryne 1528; Catharine 1549, 1571; Catrina 1551

This last one corresponds the closest in sound and spelling to the submitted <Caitriona>.

Of the forms Aryanhwy found, both Katrina and Catrina have the same pronunciation as the period Gaelic pronunciation for Caitriona. [Catriona Mairghread nic Dhuibh of Moray, 01/2003 LoAR, A-East]

François la Flamme 2003.01 Seona is a modern Scottish Gaelic form of Joan. Lacking evidence that it was used in period, it is not registerable. Additionally, this name combined Gaelic and Welsh in the same name, which has previously been reason for return. [Seona ferch Angharad, 01/2003 LoAR, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Brighid Mhor inghean uí Fhlaithbertaig, the submitter requested authenticity for 10th C Ireland and allowed any changes. As submitted, this name mixes Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) and Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700). In particular, the byname inghean uí Fhlaithbertaig combines the Early Modern Irish inghean uí with the Middle Irish Fhlaithbertaig, and so violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a name phrase. The fully Middle Irish form of this name would be Brigit Mór ingen huí Fhlaithbertaig. We have changed the name to this form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Brigit Mór ingen huí Fhlaithbertaig, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2003.01 Bronwen is a modern Welsh name that is registerable as an SCA-compatible name.

The LoI stated that "an Druaidh is the registered last name of submitter's mundane husband (Conall Mac an Druaidh - 8/1994 Atlantia)". However, Conall's byname is not an Druaidh. The elements an Druaidh are simply part of his byname, which is Mac an Druaidh, 'son of the druid'. Only entire elements of name phrases may be used under the Grandfather Clause. Therefore, since Mac an Druaidh is the grandfathered element, it is not eligible to support a submitted byname inghean an Druaidh 'daughter of the druid'. Since patronymic bynames are literal in Gaelic in period, Mac an Druaidh may not be used as a woman's byname, because she is a daughter, not a son.

This name also combines Welsh and Gaelic in a single name, which has previously been reason for return. [Bronwen inghean an Druaidh, 01/2003 LoAR, R-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Aindrea Mac Pharlain, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 14th C Scottish and allowed any changes. On her form, the submitter indicated that she desired a female name. The LoI stated that "The client has been informed that 'Aindrea' is a man's name and so her request for the desired gender is not possible. She would prefer to keep the name spelled as it is".

The submitted byname Mac Pharlain is a Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. The example of Malcolm Mcpharlane that the LoI noted was dated to 1385 in Black (s.n. MacFarlan) is a Scots form, not a Gaelic form. (Scots is a language closely related to English.) The Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name is Mac Parthaláin. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Aindrea Mac Parthaláin, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2003.01 Listed on the LoI as Sadhbha ui Cearbhall, this name was submitted as Saidhbhin ui Cearbhaill and changed at Kingdom, as no documentation could be found for Saidhbhin. The submitter requested authenticity for 12th C Irish and allowed any changes. No documentation was presented and none was found that either Saidhbhin or Sadhbha were used in period. Lacking such evidence, they are not registerable.

Additionally, the byname was improperly constructed. The particle ui is the genitive of ua, which literally translates as 'grandson' and which later (most recognizably in the form Ó) came to mean 'male descendant of'. Bynames were used literally in Gaelic in period. Since a woman cannot be a grandson or a male descendant, her byname would take the form ingen uí [X], which means 'daughter of [a man whose byname is] ua [X]'. This form later came to have the meaning 'female descendant of'.

A fully Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name would be Sadb ingen uí Cherbaill. We have changed the name to this form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity and to register this name. [Sadb ingen uí Cherbaill, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Tassach mac Tearlaich, Tassach is the name of a saint and so is registerable under the guidelines for registerability of saint's names (see the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR for details).

Significant changes in spelling occured in Gaelic between Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) and Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present). Tearlach is the Modern Gaelic form of this masculine given name (Black s.n. Tearlach). The corresponding byname form shown by Black (s.n. MacTarlich) is MacThearlaich. The Early Modern Gaelic form of the given name is Toirdhealbhach. The corresponding byname forms would be mac Toirdhealbhaigh and Mac Toirdhealbhaigh. The Middle Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name is Tairdelbach (byname form: mac Tairdelbaig). Given this information, this name is registerable as Tassach mac Toirdhealbhaigh or as Tassach mac Tairdelbaig. As the earlier form is more visually similar to the submitted form, we have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [Tassach mac Tairdelbaig, 01/2003 LoAR, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2003.01 Submitted as Seán Ó Súilleabháin Beer, Ó Súilleabháin Beer is a single compound clan name that denotes a particular branch of the O'Sullivan family. The submitted form combines the Gaelic Ó Súilleabháin with the Anglicized Irish Beer, and so violates RfS III.1.a which requires linguistic consistency in a name phrase. We have changed this byname to the fully Gaelic form Ó Súilleabháin Beirre, found in entry M1580.19 of the "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 5, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005E/), in order to register this name and to meet the submitter's request that the byname be translated entirely into Gaelic. [Seán Ó Súilleabháin Beirre, 01/2003 LoAR, A-East]
François la Flamme 2003.01 This name is being returned because it contains no given name. Liath is a Gaelic descriptive byname meaning 'gray'. No evidence was presented and none was found that it was used as a given name in period. Lacking such evidence, Liath is not registerable as a given name. [Liath of Argyll, 01/2003 LoAR, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2003.01 The LoI stated that Brigid was documented "from Withycombe under 'Bridget' dated to 1480 in England p 54." However, Brigid is a Gaelic form. Metron Ariston provided information regarding the person mentioned in Withycombe who is dated to 1480:

All the genealogical and historical sources I could find for the daughter of Elizabeth Woodville and King Edward IV who was born in 1480 give her name as Bridget rather than the spelling used. Withycombe in the place cited does say that that daughter was the first documented case of Bridget as a given name in England, but does not in fact say that this is the spelling used. As a matter of fact, this spelling is given as a specifically Irish form which would not be allowed according to the table of permissible language combinations in the January, 2002, cover letter which says that Gaelic and Welsh cannot be combined.

Combining Gaelic and Welsh in a name has previously been ruled unregisterable. Aryanhwy merch Catmael found English forms of Brigid:

Withycombe does not give a date for the spelling <Brigid> in English; as far as I know this is a purely Gaelic form. Gaelic/Welsh combinations were ruled unregisterable on the 08/01 LoAR. While English/Welsh combinations are not even a weirdness (per the 08/99 cover letter), the combination of an English given name adopted from Irish Gaelic with a Welsh byname is certainly unlikely. Here are some English forms of the name:

From "16th C Ormskirk Names" (http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/ormskirk/):

Brichet 1581, 1585

Brychet 1589

From "16th C Gloucestershire Names" (http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/late16/):

Bridgett 1573, 1590, 1596

Bridget 1593

Bridgret 1590

Withycombe gives <Brigitte> 1563 as the earliest occurrence of the name in English contexts.

Changing Brigid to any of these forms would be a major change, since it changes the language of this element. The submitter allowed major and minor changes, but noted on her form that she requested she be called first. Given the number of submissions that are processed at the Laurel level each month, it is not feasible to individually contact submitters. Therefore, we are interpreting her form as "no major changes". As changing Brigid to an English form is a major change, this submission must be returned.

Bynames used in women's names in Welsh need to be lenited. The lenited form of the submitted bynames Gwyllt Glas would be Wyllt Las. [Brigid Gwyllt Glas, 01/2003 LoAR, R-East]

François la Flamme 2002.12 Submitted as Senán O'Faolan, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed minor changes. The form O'Faolan combines the Anglicized Irish O' with the Gaelic given name Faolan. This combination is not registerable because it violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a name phrase. The closest fully Irish Gaelic form of this byname to the submitted form is the Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Ó Faoláin.

Irish Gaelic has gone through several spelling and pronunciation shifts over the centuries. Senán is a Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form. An authentic name would have been written all in Middle Irish Gaelic or all in Early Modern Irish Gaelic depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. A fully Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name is Senán Ó Fáeláin. A fully Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name is Seanán Ó Faoláin. Since the earlier form does not change the given name at all, we have changed this name to the Middle Irish Gaelic form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity and to register this name. [Senán Ó Fáeláin, 12/2002, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.12 The submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed minor changes. As submitted, this name combines Gaelic and Anglicized Irish. An authentic name including these elements would have been written all in Gaelic or all in Anglicized Irish depending upon the language of the document in which this name was recorded.

Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 155 s.n. Ríán) lists Rian as an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) or a Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form of this name. This entry also lists a saint of this name. Therefore, while we have no evidence of any form of Ríán used as a given name except for this saint, the name is registerable as a saint's name (for more details, see the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR). A fully Gaelic form of this name would be Rian Ó Maolagáin. Since changing the language of the byname is a major change, which the submitter does not allow, we have registered this name in the submitted form. [Rian Mulligan, 12/2002, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2002.12 Submitted as Caoimhín Ó Draighneán, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed all changes. Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 41 s.n. Cáemgen) documents this as a saint's name and gives Caoimhín as the Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name. Therefore, while we have no evidence of any form of Caoimhín used as a given name except by saints, the name is registerable as a saint's name (for more details, see the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR), though it is not authentic.
[I]n medieval Ireland, the names of many saints were considered too holy to use by regular people. Instead of naming a child Míchél ("Michael"), parents would name their sons Máel Míchél ("devotee [of Saint] Michael") or Gilla Míchél ("servant [of Saint] Michael") if they wanted their child's name to refer to the saint. [Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR]

Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 111 s.n. Gilla Cáemgein) list the Early Modern Irish form of this name as Giolla Chaoimhín, showing an example of this pattern of naming a child in reference to the saint. As Giolla Chaoimhín is actually a different name than the submitted Caoimhín, we have left the given name in the submitted form.

The submitted byname Ó Draighneán was documented as a Gaelic form listed in MacLysaght (p. 90 s.n. Drennen). However, this seems to be a typo in MacLysaght, since Draighnn is not a genitive form, as is required by Gaelic grammar after Ó in this type of byname. Woulfe (p. 507 s.n. Ó Draghnáin) lists a secondary header of Ó Draighneáin, which shows the genitive form Draighneáin. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [Caoimhín Ó Draighneáin, 12/2002, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2002.12 The element Aonghus, which is a Gaelic form, is problematic in this position in the name. The August 2001 LoAR includes the explanation:
... in the name Aislinn Fiona of Rumm, Fiona can only be interpreted as a second given name or as an unmarked matronymic. Use of double given names and unmarked matronymics in Gaelic have both been cause for return in the past. [Aislinn Fiona of Rumm, 08/01, R-An Tir]

Similarly, in this name, Aonghus can only be interpreted as a second given name or an unmarked patronymic, neither of which were used in Gaelic in period. In a patronymic byname in Gaelic, the form mac Aonghusa would be used rather than simply Aonghus. Since Robert is a Scots form (Scots is a language closely related to English), rather than a Gaelic form, the submitter may be interested in one of the Scots forms of this byname. Black dates Duncan Makangus to 1492 (p. 453 s.n. MacAngus) and John Angus to 1555 (p. 24 s.n. Angus).

The second problem with this name is with the locative byname of Loch Mohr. The only documentation provided for Loch Mohr was the statement in the LoI that "Loch Mohr is a small Scottish lake, 2.5 miles from the more renown[sic] Loch Ness." This sentence gives no indication of where this information was gathered from. Additionally, it gives no information regarding whether Loch Mohr is a plausible Scottish placename in period. Lacking such evidence, this name element is not registerable.

In regards to the location specified in the LoI, Loch Mohr seems to be an error for Loch Mhor, which Siren found to be a modern lake described at the "Gazetteer for Scotland" Web site (http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz/features/featurefirst3870.html). This site (s.n. Mhor, Loch) describes Loch Mhor: "Located 2 miles (3 km) south east of Loch Ness, above Foyers, Loch Mhor was created by the British Aluminium Company in 1896 by joining two small lochs to provide a reservoir for their hydro-electric power plant at Foyers."

We would have modified Aonghus and dropped the byname of Loch Mohr in order to register this name. However, dropping the byname of Loch Mohr would be a major change, which the submitter does not allow. [Robert Aonghus of Loch Mohr, 12/2002, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.12 This name combines the Irish Gaelic Sláine with the Anglicized Irish O'Connor. An authentic form of this name would be written all in Gaelic or all in Anglicized Irish depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. Aryanhwy merch Catmael provided fully Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) and fully Anglicized Irish forms of this name in her commentary:
A fully Gaelic form would be <Sláine inghean uí Chonchobhair>; [Ó Corráin & Maguire] say that <Sláine> was "common ... in the later Middle Ages." A fully anglicized form would be something like <Slany Enyniconnor>, following the example of <Slany Enynimolan>, an anglicized form of <Sláine inghean uí Mhaoláin> found in Tangwystyl's "Names & Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/lateirish/ormond.html).

As the submitter only allows minor changes, we were unable to change this name to a fully Gaelic or a fully Anglicized Irish form in order to make this name authentic. [Sláine O'Connor, 12/2002, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.12 Listed on the LoI as Rs an Sadhbh inghean uí Dhubhshlaine, this name was submitted as Roísín an Sabhbh ingen ui Dubhsalinate and changed at Kingdom "to make it more authentic for 16th century Ireland, per the submitter's request". (Note: Sabhbh is a typo for Sadhbh in Ó Corráin & Maguire, s.n. Sadb.) Per the LoI, this name was intended to mean "Rose, the sweet female descendant of Delaney."

The accents on both Roísín and Roís are incorrect. The documentation shows the accent on the o, not the i. No documentation was provided and none was found that Róisín is a period diminutive of Róis. Lacking such documentation, it is not registerable.

No documentation was presented and none was found that Sadhbh, which was documented as a feminine given name, was ever used as a descriptive byname. Lacking evidence that an Sadhbh is a plausible descriptive byname in period, it is not registerable. As the submitter allows all changes, we have dropped this element in order to register this name.

Woulfe (p. 513) lists the header Ó Dubhshláine, Ó Dubhshláinge and dates O Dowlaney and O Dulany to temp. Elizabeth I-James I as Anglicized Irish forms of this name. In Gaelic names, accents must be included or omitted consistently. Therefore, we have changed the byname to inghean uí Dhubhshláine to match the accents included in the given name. [Róis inghean uí Dhubhshláine, 12/2002, R-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2002.12 Submitted as Elena inghean Ronáin, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th C Scottish and allowed any changes. This name combines the Latin Elena with the Irish Gaelic byname inghean Ronáin. An authentic name in 14th C Scotland would be recorded all in Latin, Scots (a language closely related to English), or in Scottish Gaelic depending upon the language of the document in which the name is recorded. Lacking evidence that any form of the masculine given name Rónán was ever used in Scotland (either as a given name or in a byname), we were unable to suggest authentic forms of this name for the submitter's desired time and culture.

In Gaelic names, accents should be included or omitted consistently. We have added the missing accent to the byname inghean Rónáin in order to register this name. [Elena inghean Rónáin, 12/2002, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2002.12 This name was submitted as Aíbinn ingen Senáin hui Néill with a punctum delens (it looks like a dot) over the S in Senáin. When Gaelic is being represented using the Roman alphabet, letters with the punctum delens are rendered with an appended h; thus, S with a punctum delens becomes Sh in standard transliteration. For registration purposes, we use this standard transliteration method and so have registered this name using the standard form Shenáin. The submitter is welcome to use the form Senáin with the punctum delens over the S when writing her name, if she wishes. [Aíbinn ingen Shenáin hui Néill, 12/2002, R-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2002.12 Submitted as Uilleam Farquharson, Uilleam was documented as a modern Scottish Gaelic form of William. No evidence was found that this is a period form. We have changed this name to the documented period Gaelic form Uilliam in order to register this name. [Uilliam Farquharson, 12/2002, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.11 Submitted as Conlan O'Morda, the submitter requested authenticity, but specified no language or culture and allowed any changes.

Conlan was submitted as a given name based on the Anglicized Irish byname form O Conlan listed in Woulfe (p. 475 s.n. Ó Conalláin), who dates the Anglicized Irish forms O Connellane and O Conlan to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. Not all Ó and Mac surnames in Gaelic derive from a given name, so this type of derivation can be problematic. In this case, the byname Ó Connalláin derives from the masculine given name Conallán, which was a diminutive of Conall that was used in the 9th to 10th C. An example of Conallán used as a given name is found in Donnchadh Ó Corráin & Mavis Cournane, ed., "The Annals of Ulster" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100001/), entry U882.4, which lists Conallan m. Maele Duin. Lacking any evidence that Conallán survived as a given name into the period when Anglicized Irish was used, Conlan is not plausible as an Anglicized Irish given name. We have changed the given name in this submission to the Gaelic form Conallán in order to register this name.

The submitted byname O'Morda is a combination of the Anglicized Irish O' and the Gaelic Morda and so violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase. As the submitter requested authenticity, we have changed this byname to the fully Gaelic form hua Mordha based on "The Annals of Ulster", entry U1026.6, which lists Aimhirgin H. Mordha, ri Loigsi (H. is a scribal abbreviation for hua, which later became Ua and finally Ó). [Conallán hua Mordha, 11/2002, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.11 Submitted as Seamus O'Dubhda, O'Dubhda mixes the Anglicized Irish O' with the Gaelic Dubhda and so violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name element. We have changed this element to the fully Gaelic form Ó Dubhda in order to register this name. Since accents must be used or omitted consistently within a Gaelic name, and no accent was included on the submitted form of the given name, we have left the accents out of this name. A fully Gaelic form that includes accents would be Séamus Ó Dubhda. [Seamus O Dubhda, 11/2002, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.11 Submitted as Conchobhar Clairseoir, the submitter requested an authentic name that means 'Conor the Harper' in 12th C Irish and allowed minor changes. [...]

Clairseoir was documented as a modern Gaelic word meaning 'harper' from Dineen's English-Irish Dictionary (p. 90). Black (p. 153 s.n. Clarsair) gives the Gaelic form as Clàrsair and dates Klerscharch, a Scots (a language closely related to English) form of this name, to 1434. So we have a Scots form of Clàrsair dated to 1434 as a byname, but we have no evidence that this name was used as a byname in Irish Gaelic in the 12th C.

Donnchadh Ó Corráin & Mavis Cournane, ed., "The Annals of Ulster" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100001/), entry U634.1, lists Ailill Cruidire, senathair Sil Dluthaigh (translation: "Ailill the Harper, ancestor of Síl Dlúthaig"). The "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 3, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005C/), entry M1369.13, describes two men as "da saor macaomh cruitealadnach Conmaicne" (translation: "two accomplished young harpers of Conmaicne"). The word cruitealadnach has the same root as Cruidire, shown as a byname in the entry from "The Annals of Ulster". From these entries, it is reasonable to assume that a harper would have been called Cruidire in 12th C Irish Gaelic.

The change from the submitted Clairseoir to Cruidire was felt to be a major change, which the submitter does not allow. Therefore, we have changed the byname to Clàrsair, the earlier Scottish Gaelic form of the submitted Clairseoir, to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity and to register this name. [Conchobar Clarsair, 11/2002, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2002.11 The elements contained in the name Tir Rioga, intended to mean 'Royal Land', were documented from a modern English-Irish/Irish-English dictionary. No evidence was presented and none was found that rioga would have been used in a Gaelic placename in period. Lacking such evidence, this name is not registerable.

The submitters indicated that if Tir Rioga was not registerable, their preferred alternate was Tir Rígh, meaning 'King's Land'. A number of period locations exist that included the element Rígh, including Inis na Rígh 'Island of the Kings', Ath na Rígh 'Ford of the Kings', Druim Rígh 'King's Ridge', and Loch Rígh 'King's Lake'. Given these examples, Tir Rígh is registerable.

There was a question raised regarding whether Tir Rígh should be considered a translation for the branch designator Crown Principality. Currently, there are very few translations for branch designators that have been registered and none of these are for groups larger than a shire. Given this historical lack of use of translations for large branch designators (to the point that no lists are available for translations of branch designators), we are unwilling to disallow registration of an otherwise acceptable name at this time. [Tir Rígh, Principality of, 11/2002, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2002.11 Submitted as Finn Kirkpatrick, the submitter requested authenticity for 11th to 12th C Irish. As submitted, this name combined a Gaelic given name with a Scottish placename in Scots (a language closely related to English). In period, a name would have been written all in Gaelic or all in Scots depending upon the language of the document in question. We have changed the byname to the form de Kirkpatrick dated to 1194-1211 in Black (p. 407 s.n. Kirkpatrick) for authenticity for the submitter's requested time period. Lacking examples of Kirkpatrick used in Ireland in period, we were unable to make this name completely authentic for the submitter's requested culture. [Finn de Kirkpatrick, 11/2002, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.11 Submitted as Lethann Find, the descriptive byname omitted lenition, which occurs in feminine bynames in Gaelic. We have made this correction. [Lethann Fhind, 11/2002, A-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2002.11 Listed on the LoI as Máirghréad ingen Fhaolain, this name was submitted as Máirghréad Muireann ingen Fhaolain. The second given name was dropped at Kingdom because double given names are not registerable in Gaelic.

The phrase ingen Fhaolain violates RfS III.1.a (which requires linguistic consistency in a name phrase) because it combines the particle ingen, which is an Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form, with Fhaolain, which is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form. We have changed the particle ingen to the Early Modern Irish Gaelic form inghean to resolve this issue.

Accents need to be used or omitted consistently in a Gaelic name. Therefore, we have added the accent to the byname. [Máirghréad inghean Fhaoláin, 11/2002, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2002.11 Listed on the LoI as Mairead ingen Aonguis, this name was submitted as Máiréad ingen ui Aonguis. The submitter requested authenticity for 13th to 16th C Irish and allowed any changes. Kingdom changed ingen ui to ingen because the submitter indicated that she wanted the patronymic corrected to mean daughter of. Kingdom dropped the accents "to match the indicated Romanization of Irish Ogham ([Woulfe], pp xlii-xliii)".

Oghamic Irish was used previous to c. 700. Forms of Irish Gaelic used after that time include accents on some letters. It is not unusual for period documents to omit those accents. For this reason, we register names that use or omit the accents consistently. Therefore, we have returned the accents to the submitted name.

Máiréad is a Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form of this name, and so is not registerable. The Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form is Máirghréad. [Máirghréad inghean Aonghusa, 11/2002, A-Artemisia]

François la Flamme 2002.10 Submitted as Esa inghean Talorcan mac Dubh, the submission form noted that the submitter desires the name Esa mac Dubh but "after researching it thought she may need to register the name as above. If the name elements can be dropped, that is preferable."

As submitted, this name combines Gaelic and Scots (a language closely related to English). Esa is Scots and mac Duibh, meaning 'son of Dubh', is Gaelic.

Bynames in Gaelic were literal in period. A woman who was the daughter of a man named Dubh would have the byname inghean Duibh, meaning 'daughter of Dubh'. Alternatively, a woman whose father had the byname mac Duibh could have the byname inghean mhic Dhuibh, meaning 'daughter of mac Duibh'.

Bynames in Scots were sometimes literal and sometimes inherited. In the case of inherited surnames, women sometimes had Mac- style surnames. For example, Black (p. 471 s.n. MacClumpha) dates Joneta Makgillumquha to 1406. In the case of the submitter's desired name, Black (p. 488 s.n. MacDuff) dates a number of Scots forms including Malisius mc Duf (1284), David M'Duif of Fandowie (1594), and James Makduf (1594).

Of both the Gaelic and Scots forms of this name, mac Duf (a reasonable variant of the Scots form mc Duf) gives the submitter the closest name to her desired form. Therefore, we have changed the byname to this form. [Esa mac Duf, 10/2002, A-East]

François la Flamme 2002.10 Listed on the LoI as Muireann O Reddan, this name was submitted as Muireann O'Reddan and changed at Kingdom to match submitted documentation.

Muireann is listed in Ó Corráin & Maguire (s.n. Muirenn) and in Woulfe (s.n. Muireann) and is a form consistent with Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) and Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) spelling conventions. However, the only dated examples of this name that have been found in period date to the 7th to 10th centuries. The Old Irish (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name is Muirenn.

O Reddan is a modern Anglicized Irish form of the Gaelic name Ó Rodáin. Woulfe (p. 633 s.n. Ó Rodáin) dates O Rodane, O Ruddane, and O Rudden to temp. Elizabeth I to James I. It is significant that none of the Anglicized forms dated to period are spelled with an e in the first syllable.

As submitted, this name had two weirdnesses: one for combining Gaelic and Anglicized Irish forms in a name, and another for a temporal disparity of greater than 300 years between the name elements. As the submitter allows any changes, we have changed the byname to an Early Modern Gaelic form in order to remove the lingual mix and register this name. An authentic form of this name would be Muirenn ingen hui Rodáin. It would be appropriate for approximately the 7th through 10th C. [Muireann inghean uí Rodáin, 10/2002, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2002.10 Submitted as Máire Asan T'Eilean Sgithenach, the submitter requested authenticity for "(Celtic) 600 Scott[sic]" and allowed any changes. Unfortunately, there is no way to make the submitted name authentic for the submitter's desired time period, given the name elements the submitter has requested and the relatively small amount of knowledge available about languages used in Scotland around 600.

Máire is a Gaelic form of Mary. It came into use in Ireland due to Anglo-Norman influences. The first example of Máire that has been found so far appears in 1396 in entry M1396.13 in the "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 4, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005D/).

T'Eilean Sgithenach was documented as the modern Gaelic name for the Isle of Skye. Asan was documented as a "Gaelic preposition meaning 'of' or 'from'". No evidence has been found of locative bynames in names in Scottish Gaelic except as part of chiefly titles. Locative bynames are extremely rare in Irish Gaelic. Those based on placenames of relatively small areas, such as a village, town, or barony, are unmarked and in the genitive case. Those based on large regions, including provinces and countries, are almost uniformly adjectival forms.

Locative bynames were used in Scots (a language closely related to English which was used in the 14th to 16th C). The spelling Skye is dated to circa 1610 (in Speed's The Counties of Britain, p. 266, map of Scotland, map drawn 1610). Johnston (p. 296 s.n. Skye) dates Skey to 1292. Scots locative bynames based on these forms would be of Skye, de Skey, et cetera.

Lacking the ability to properly construct a locative byname in Gaelic that refers to the Isle of Skye, we have changed the byname to the Scots form of Skye in order to register this name. [Máire of Skye, 10/2002, A-East]

François la Flamme 2002.10 Neassa is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1700-present) form of the name Ness listed in Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 145 s.n. Ness). This name is only given in legendary contexts and as the name of a mother and a sister of saints. Unlike the names of saints, the names of their relatives listed in their legends are not automatically registerable. An example is the return of Cassair:
Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 46 s.n. Cassair) gives this as the name of a holy virgin included in the legend of Saint Kevin. No evidence has been found that this name was used by humans in period. Names of saints are registerable, regardless of whether they are apocryphal or not. This policy is due to the practice in many cultures (though not in Gaelic) of naming children for saints. (For more details, see the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR.) As Cassair was not herself a saint and the name has not been documented as having been otherwise used in period, it falls into the category of a legendary name and is not registerable. [Cassair Warwick, R-Atlantia, 02/2002]

Lacking evidence that any form of Ness was used by humans in period, it is not registerable.

Since the submitter indicated that the meaning 'Neassa the young' was most important to her, she may wish to know that the byname de Siún doesn't actually carry this meaning in Gaelic. Woulfe (p. 278 s.n. de Siún) indicates that the name de Siún is a rendering of the Anglo-Norman surname Young. As such, it would not actually mean 'the young' in Gaelic, but would indicate that this person belonged to the Anglo-Norman Young family, whose surname originated from the French byname le Jeune, meaning 'the young' as in the younger member of a family. In Gaelic, the byname which has the meaning of 'the young' is Óc. [Neassa de Siún, 10/2002, R-Ansteorra]

François la Flamme 2002.10 O'Céileachair combines the Anglicized Irish O' with the Irish Gaelic Céileachair. (The forms definitely show an apostrophe rather than an accent on the O.) RfS III.1.a requires linguistic consistency within a name element. As the submitter allows no changes, we were unable to change this to the fully Gaelic Ó Céileachair in order to register this name. [Daniel O'Céileachair, 10/2002, R-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.10 This name was submitted as Kaoilinn Mirymuth and changed at Kingdom to Keelin Mirymuth as no documentation was found for the form Kaoilinn. The LoI explains:

No documentation at all was provided for Kaoilinn, therefore we changed the first name from Kaiolinn [a typo for Kaoiilinn] to Keelin at Kingdom. Keelin is found in Woulfe "Irish name and Surnames" on page 208 under the header form Caoilfionn as an aglicization[sic] of "the name of an Irish virgin saint who was venerated on 3 February."

However, undated Anglicized forms listed in the given names sections of Woulfe are modern forms, and so cannot immediately be assumed to have been used in period. Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 41 s.n. Cáelfind) lists Caoilinn, which is an Early Modern Irish (c. 1200-c. 1700) form, but lists no Anglicized forms of this name. Lacking evidence that Keelin is a plausible period form, it is not registerable.

The LoI summarized changes allowed by the submitter:

Submitter stated on form "I will accept changes, but I want my first name spelled with a 'K', not a 'C'. She also stated she wishes her name authentic for "English if possible, if Irish is easier, then go for Irish with 'K' in the first name."

The letter 'K' is not used in Gaelic, and the College was unable to find a period Anglicized Irish form of this name. Therefore, lacking a registerable form of this name that begins with 'K', we are unable to change this name within the changes allowed by the submitter in order to register this name. [Keelin Mirymuth, 10/2002, R-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2002.10 Submitted as Iuliana inghean Dhomhnaill, due to Gaelic grammar, D does not lenite after inghean because inghean ends in the letter n. We have made this correction. [Iuliana inghean Domhnaill, 10/2002, A-East]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Listed on the LoI as Domhnall Dubh O'Ruairc, this name was submitted as Dohmnall Dubh O'Ruairc and the misspelling in the given name was corrected at Kingdom. The submitter requested authenticity for 13th to 14th C Irish. The form O'Ruairc is a mix of Gaelic and Anglicized Irish and is not registerable. We have changed the byname to the fully Gaelic form Ó Ruairc. The documentation provided supported Domhnall and Dubh as masculine given names. Double given names were not used in Gaelic in period and have been reason for return in the past. In the case of this name, Dubh is also a descriptive byname meaning 'black'. Therfore, this name is registerable as a given name, followed by a descriptive byname, followed by a family or clan name. [Domhnall Dubh Ó Ruairc, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Siobhán inghean Donn Uí Néill, Donn is a nominative form of this masculine given name. As it follows inghean, it needs to be put into the genitive form, Duinn. Because Duinn starts with a D, it does not lenite after inghean. [Siobhán inghean Duinn Uí Néill, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Ríán MacFaoitigh. In period, Mac was not connected to the patronym in Gaelic. We have added a space to follow documented examples. [Ríán Mac Faoitigh, 09/2002 LoAR, A-East]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Terryl MacAodhagáin. Terryl is the submitter's legal given name. Since the submitter is female, Terryl is used here as a feminine given name. Bynames in Gaelic were used literally in period. Since a woman cannot be anyone's son, the particle Mac is incorrect in the submitted name. The Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this byname would be inghean Aodhagáin. The Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this byname would be ingen Áeducáin. As the Early Modern Irish Gaelic form is closer to the submitted form, we have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [Terryl inghean Aodhagáin, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Guaire Mac Aengus, the byname was not in the genitive case. We have made this correction. [Guaire Mac Aengusa, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Listed on the LoI as Ciannait Caimbeul, this name was submitted as Ciannait Caimbuel. The byname was changed at Kingdom to match documented forms. We have lenited the byname, as required by Gaelic grammar for feminine names. [Ciannait Chaimbeul, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Sadb inghean Constance, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish. The byname inghean Constance combined the Gaelic particle inghean with the English feminine given name Constance. Since RfS III.1.a requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase, such as inghean Constance, this byname is not registerable. We have dropped the particle inghean in order to register this name as an Irish feminine given name and an English matronymic byname. Lacking evidence that the name Constance was used in Ireland, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's desired culture. [Sadb Constance, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Duncan Faramach MacLeod, the submitter requested authenticity for 13th C Scots, though information included with the submission indicated that the the sound of the name was more important than the request for authenticity. In this name, Duncan and MacLeod are Scots (a language closely related to English) and Faramach is Modern Scottish Gaelic. In period, a name would have been written all in Scots or all in Gaelic depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. No documentation was found that Faramach, meaning 'noisy/loud', was used in period.

The submitter included several alternates for Faramach. Some of these had other meanings, but all were similar in pronunciation to the submitted Faramach. As the submitter allows any changes, we have changed the byname to the Irish Gaelic Fearmac as it is the documentable name element with the pronunciation closest to the submitted Faramach. Fearmac is a constructed descriptive byname indicating the family branch Ui Fearmaic, which is listed in Woulfe (p. 695) and which appears in several entries in the "Annals of the Four Masters" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005C/, http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005E/). An example of this type of descriptive byname appears in the "Annals of Connacht" (Mavis Cournane, Vibeke Dijkman, Ivonne Tummers, ed., "Annála Connacht" http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100011/), entry 1349.12, which lists the name Murcertach Riaganach Mag Aengusa. In this case, the descriptive byname Riaganach indicates the family branch Ui Riagain, which is also listed in Woulfe (p. 696). Fearmac is the form that a descriptive byname would take that refers to the family branch Ui Fearmaic. We have changed the descriptive byname to Fearmac to meet the submitter's desire for a byname whose pronounciation is similar to Faramach and to register this name. [Duncan Fearmac MacLeod, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Slaine Aschenane, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th C Irish and allowed any changes. As submitted, this name combines an Irish Gaelic feminine given name with a byname that is Scots (a language closely related to English). An authentic name would have been rendered all in one language depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. Black (p. 720 s.n. Shannan) dates Gilqwhongill Aschenane to 1376 and gives the origin of this name as the Irish O'Seanáin [sic]. Woulfe (p. 642) lists the header Ó Seanáin. The byname indicating a woman belonging to this family in the 14th C would be inghean Uí Sheanáin. As accents were often omitted in examples of names in Irish annals, Sláine inghean Uí Sheanáin and Slaine inghean Ui Sheanain are forms of this name authentic for the submitter's requested time and culture. Since the submitted form included no accents, we have registered the authentic form without accents in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Slaine inghean Ui Sheanain, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Cáelfind Ó Ruairc, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish Gaelic. Bynames were used literally in Gaelic in period. Ó is a later rendering of ua, which means 'grandson'. When inherited clan names came into use, Ó took on the meaning of 'male descendant of'. As a woman could neither be a grandson nor a male descendant, a byname such as Ó Ruairc is not registerable with a feminine given name. Appropriate forms of this byname appropriate to the early spelling Cáelfind are ingen Ruaircc and ingen hui Ruaircc (using Ruarcc, the earlier form of Ruarc). The first of these bynames indicates a daughter of Ruarcc. The second indicates a female descendant (literally the daughter of a grandson) of Ruarcc. As the latter form is closer to the submitted form of the byname, we have modified the name to use this form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Cáelfind ingen hui Ruaircc, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Ceara filia Drusti, the submitter requested the Latinized form of this name appropriate for 500-600 A.D. Ceara is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of a name which was Cera in Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900). Our best guess is that Cera would have retained that spelling in a Latin form. Therefore, we have changed the given name to this form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Cera filia Drusti, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Listed on the LoI as Aébfhinn úa Diarmada, this name was submitted as Aodhfionn ua Diarmuid and changed at Kingdom. The submitter requested authenticity for Irish Gaelic and allowed minor changes. Changing the submitted masculine given name Aodhfionn to the feminine given name Aébfhinn is a major change, which the submitter does not allow. Aodhfionn appears to be a rendering of the given name Aodh followed by the descriptive byname Fionn. The descriptive byname Fionn refers to a person's hair color or complexion and means 'fair' (as in light-colored). The submitted ua Diarmuid used the nominative form Diarmuid. As it follows the particle ua, this element needs to be in the genitive form. The Old Irish (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of this name would be Áed Finn h-ua Diarmata. The Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name would be Aodh Fionn ua Diarmada. As the Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of this name is closer to the submitted form, we have changed this name to that form in order to register the name and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Aodh Fionn ua Diarmada, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Listed on the LoI as Tamalnatch Mac Daimín, this name was submitted as Tomalnatch Mac Daimín and typoed on the LoI. The form documented the name Tomaltach and noted that the submitter preferred the form Tomalnatch but that no documentation could be found for that form. The College was also unable to find documentation for the form Tomalnatch. Lacking evidence that it is a plausible period form, it is not registerable. We have changed the given name to the documented Tomaltach in order to register this name. [Tomaltach Mac Daimín, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.09 The name Aoife, including the earlier form Aífe, has only been found as the names of legendary women. Lacking evidence that it was used by humans in period, we will stop registration of this name beginning with the April 2003 decision meeting (see the Cover Letter for more details). [Aoife inghean ui hEaluighthe, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Iain mac Caradoc, the submitter requested authenticity for 15th C Scots and allowed any changes. Iain is a Gaelic masculine given name, ruled SCA compatible in April 1997. However, no evidence has yet been found that it was used in period. The submitted byname mac Caradoc combined the Scots or Anglicized Irish particle mac with the Welsh name Caradoc. RfS III.1.a requires linguistic consistency in a single name phrase. Therefore, the phrase mac Caradoc is in violation of this rule and is not registerable. No examples were found of any form of Caradoc in either Gaelic or Scots (a language closely related to English). Therefore, we have changed the byname to the form Cradoc, which is a plausible form based on the examples of Philip Craddoc dated to 1205 and Robert Cradock dated to 1301, both in England, in Reaney & Wilson (p. 114 s.n. Craddock). Morgan & Morgan (p. 67 s.n. Caradog) explain that the change in this name from Caradoc to Cradoc forms is due to an accent shift in early Welsh. Use of an element that is only SCA compatible (Iain in this case) counts as a weirdness. Combining English and Gaelic in a single name is also a weirdness. To avoid having two weirdnesses in this name, which would cause the return of this name, we have changed the given name to the form Ian, which is also SCA compatible. Since Ian is Scots, and mixing Scots and English in a single name carries no weirdness for the lingual mix, Ian Cradoc is a registerable form of the submitted name. [Ian Cradoc, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Faolan MacFarland, the submitter requested authenticity for 15th C "Scottish/Irish" and allowed any changes. This name combines the Gaelic Faolan with MacFarland, which is Anglicized Irish or Scots (a language closely related to English). In period, this name would have been recorded completely in Gaelic or completely in Anglicized Irish or Scots depending upon the language used for the document in which the name is recorded. Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 92 s.n. Fáelán) gives Faolán as the Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name. Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "Names and Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond (Ireland 14th Century)" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/lateirish/ormond.html), lists ffolan and ffoulin as Anglicized Irish forms (or possibly Latinized) forms of Faolan. Woulfe (p. 399) lists the header Mac Parthaláin, which is a Gaelic form of MacFarland. So Faolán Mac Parthaláin is a completely Gaelic form of this name. Since accents in Gaelic need to be used or omitted consistently, Faolan Mac Parthalain is also a completely Gaelic form of this name. ffolan MacFarland and ffoulin MacFarland would be fully Anglicized Irish forms of this name. Since, of the options found, the form Faolan Mac Parthalain only changes the form of the byname, we have complied with the submitter's request for authenticity by changing this element. [Faolan Mac Parthalain, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Raghnall mac Amlaíb mhic Tuathail, the submitter requested authenticity for 11th to 14th C Irish. As the second byname is a second generation patronymic, the patronym included in this byname is lenited. We have, therefore, corrected the patronym to the form Thuathail. As submitted, this name combined Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) and Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) forms. The fully Middle Irish Gaelic form of this name would be Ragnall mac Amlaíb meic Thuathail. The fully Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of this name would be Raghnall mac Amhlaoibh mhic Thuathail. As the Middle Irish Gaelic form is closer to the submitted form, we have changed the name to this form in order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Ragnall mac Amlaíb meic Thuathail, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Faílenn ingen Tigernaig, the submitter requested an authentic 14th C 'Irish Celt' name. The submitted name is an Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) or Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form. Faoileann inghean Tighearnaigh would be the Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this name. The only dated examples we have of any form of Faílenn used as a feminine given name in period are for women who lived in the 7th C. Since there are saints of this name, Faoileann is registerable as an Early Modern Irish form of this saints name under the guidelines for the registerability of saints's names discussed in the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR.

Although most names lenite after inghean, names that begin with T, such as Tighearnaigh, do not. [Faoileann inghean Tighearnaigh, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Roan Mac Raith, Roan was documented from a translation of "a long geneology listed on pages 136-139 of The History of Ireland by Geoffrey Keating D.D. Volume II, The first book of the history from sect. XV to the end, edited with a translation and notes by Rev. Patrick S. Dinneen, M.A. London, published for the Irish texts society by David Nutt, 1908." The LoI noted that there were no dates in this genealogy and that the submitter noted that if Roan was not registerable, he would accept Rónán. The person mentioned in the cited genealogy appears in the "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 1, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005A/) in the byname on Rotheachtaigh, mic Roain in entry M4170.1. This entry number indicates that the date referenced in this entry is approximately 4170 B.C., putting this reference well into legend rather than history. As no other evidence was found for Roan, it is not registerable. We have change the given name to Rónán as the submitter allows in order to register this name.

Mac Raith is a Gaelic masculine given name. Irish Gaelic did not use either unmarked patronymics in period, or double given names. Therefore, the expected patronymic byname based on the given name Mac Raith would be mac Meic Raith in Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) and mac Mhic Raith in Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700). This is the normal patronymic construction formed from given names that begin in Mac. While these patronymic forms existed for Mac Raith, the byname mac Mhic Raith began to be rendered simply as Mac Raith well within period. Some examples of this trend are shown in the "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 3, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005C/) which list Petrus Mac Raith in entry M1243.1 and Niocól Macc Raith in entry M1344.3. [Rónán Mac Raith, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Brude mac Bruide, the submitter requested authenticity for 10th to 12th C "Scot or Pict". By this time period, the language spoken by the Scottish/Pictish culture was Scottish Gaelic. Very few Scottish Gaelic records remain from that time period. So, to determine Scottish Gaelic names appropriate for that time period, we often have to rely on Irish Gaelic records of the period. This is possible because the Scottish Gaelic and Irish Gaelic languages were very similar at that time.

In the case of this submission, Brude and Bruide are both nominative forms, documented from records written in the 11th C (in Irish Gaelic) and in the 14th C (in Latin in Scotland) that discussed people who lived earlier than the submitter's desired time period. The nominative form of this name is Bruide in Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900). It is listed in several annals entries, including entry U693.1 of Donnchadh Ó Corráin & Mavis Cournane, "The Annals of Ulster" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100001/), which mentions Bruide m. Bili, rex Fortrend. The genitive form of this name in Old Irish Gaelic is Bruidi, as is shown in entry I691.1 of Donnchadh Ó Corráin, ed., "Annals of Inisfallen" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100004/), which mentions (Bruidi m. Bili), rig Cruithnech. The latest use of Bruide that we have found dates to the 8th or early 9th C. If some form of this name was still in use among the Scottish/Pictish people in the submitter's desired time period, it would have taken a Gaelic form. So the name of a man named Bruide who was the son of a man named Bruide would be Bruide mac Bruidi. We have changed this name to this form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Bruide mac Bruidi, 09/2002 LoAR, A-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2002.09 Submitted as Ercc Mac Fítheal, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish. As submitted, this name combined a Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) given name with an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) byname. Earc is the Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of Ercc. Additionally, Fítheal is a nominative form. Gaelic grammar requires a genitive form in a byname. Woulfe (p. 186 s.n. Fítheal) gives the Early Modern Irish genitive ending of this name as -thil, which matches the example of Flaithrí mac Fithil Uí Mhaoilchonaire found in entry M1602.2 of "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 6, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005F/). We have changed this name to the consistently Early Modern Irish form Earc Mac Fíthil to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Earc Mac Fíthil, 09/2002 LoAR, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2002.09 This name is being returned for lack of documentation of Corthaid as a given name. Corthaid was documented via the surname Ó Corthaid, which is given as the Gaelic form in MacLysaght's The Surnames of Ireland (p. 71 s.n. Currid). Not all Mac and Ó surnames derive from given names. Some derive from descriptive bynames. For example, the surname Ó Balbháin (Woulfe, p. 433 s.n. Ó Balbháin) means 'descendant of the stammerer'. Woulfe (p. 482 s.n. Ó Corthaid) says specifically that he cannot trace the origin of the surname. Ó Corráin & Maguire list no given name similar to Corthaid. Lacking evidence that Corthaid is plausible as a given name in Gaelic in period, it is not registerable as a given name. [Corthaid Blodletere, 09/2002 LoAR, R-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2002.09 The element bràthadair was documented in the LoI only "as a word meaning 'knave' on p. 48 of Maclennan, Malcolm. (A Pronouncing and Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language. Aberdeen: ACAIR and Aberdeen University Press, 1984.)" No documentation was presented and none was found that the word bràthadair was used in period. Additionally, no evidence was found that a word meaning 'knave' follows the patterns for descriptive bynames in Gaelic. Descriptive bynames in Gaelic were rare. Of those that existed, the vast majority are straightforward physical descriptions. The few descriptive bynames that describe a personality trait are also straightforward: 'greedy', 'arrogant', et cetera. A descriptive byname meaning 'knave' is not similarly simple. Another issue with this byname, assuming support were found for it as a descriptive byname in period, is the question of whether such a description would have been used to describe a woman in period or whether it would have been limited to men. Lacking documentation regarding all of these issues, this name must be returned. [Caiterína an bràthadair, 09/2002 LoAR, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.09 From Pelican: Registerability of the Name Aífe/Aoife

An item this month raised discussion regarding registerability of the name Aoife. Aoife is listed in Ó Corráin and Maguire (p. 16 s.n. Aífe). However, this entry lists only legendary women with this name. Lacking evidence that this name was used by humans in period, this name would not normally be registerable. Nonetheless, it was registered (in the form Aífe) as recently as July of 2001. To date, there have been nine registrations of Aoife and two of Aífe. Of these registrations, only four date from after the previous rules change in November of 1995. Given these numbers, this name does not have the popularity of other SCA compatible names such as Fiona and Ian, and so does not warrant being declared SCA compatible. Therefore, we will stop registration of this name beginning with the April 2003 decision meeting. [Cover Letter for the 09/2002 LoAR]

François la Flamme 2002.08 The byname in Cridi Tréuin was submitted as a constructed Irish Gaelic byname intended to mean 'of the strong heart'. Descriptive bynames are rare in Irish Gaelic. Of those that exist, the vast majority refer to a physical trait like hair color, complexion, etc. The few that have been found that refer to a personality trait are straightforward, not abstract. These personality traits include 'pious', 'thrifty', 'rough', 'unquiet/restless', 'pure/genuine', 'deceitful/guileful/treacherous/crafty', 'greedy/ravenous', 'grim/surly/morose/gloomy', 'mad', and 'merry'. All of the bynames referring to these traits are found only after 1100. The submitter requested authenticity for 7th C Ireland. In the 7th C, the language used in Ireland was Oghamic Irish. Very few examples of Oghamic Irish inscriptions remain and it is not possible, with the information provided in the LoI and that found by the College, to postulate a name with the submitter's desired meaning in Oghamic Irish. Forms of the byname éccnaid, meaning 'wise', appear in a document written in the 17th C and were used to describe a saint who lived in the 7th C and five other men in the 8th C. A byname meaning 'of the strong heart' has a much more abstract meaning than documented descriptive bynames describing personality traits. Lacking evidence that a byname meaning 'of the strong heart' is a reasonable descriptive byname in period Irish Gaelic, it is not registerable. [Caera in Cridi Tréuin, 08/2002, R-East]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Donnchad mac Cathal, we have put the patronym into the genitive case as required by Gaelic grammar. [Donnchad mac Cathail, 08/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Listed on the LoI as Ailiono'ra inghean ui' Mhurchadha, the accents on these letters were incorrectly represented as apostrophes. We have made this correction. [Ailionóra inghean uí Mhurchadha, 08/2002, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Duncan MacAengus of Skye, MacAengus is neither a Gaelic nor a Scots spelling. The closest Gaelic form is Mac Áengusa. The closest Scots form is MacAngus, based on Duncan Makangus dated to 1492 in Black (s.n. Macangus). We have changed the byname to MacAngus in order to register this name. [Duncan MacAngus of Skye, 08/2002, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Ruaidrí MacAoidh, the particle was written as a separate word from the patronymic element in Gaelic bynames in period. We have made this correction. [Ruaidrí Mac Aoidh, 08/2002, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Traolach Wesley, Traolach is a Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. We have changed the given name to the Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Toirdhealbhach in order to register the name. [Toirdhealbhach Wesley, 08/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.08 There was some discussion of possible temporal incompatibility in this name as the submitted documentation dated Aidan to c608 and Cambel to 1296. Aidan is an Anglicized form of the Gaelic masculine given name Áedán. Ó Corráin & Maguire (pp. 13-14 s.n. Áedán) say that this was the name of some "twenty-one saints". Farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (pp. 8-9 s.n. Aidan), identifies one of these saints and gives his death date as 651. Therefore, Aidan is registerable as an Anglicized form of this saint's name under the guidelines for registerability of saints' names (see the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR for more details). An Anglicized form of this saint's name is reasonable for the time period of the byname. Therefore, as both elements are Anglicized and use of a saint's name carries no weirdness in and of itself, this name is registerable with no weirdnesses. [Aidan Cambel, 08/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Alpin mac Eochaid, the patronym was not in the genitive case. We have made this correction. [Alpin mac Eochada, 08/2002, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2002.08 This name was submitted as Raghnailt as Sord Colmcille. There are a few examples we have of locative bynames in Irish Gaelic that refer to the name of a location of the size of a village or town. These locative bynames use the genitive form of the placename as the locative byname and do not use a preposition. The byname was changed at Kingdom to a documented genitive form of this placename to follow these examples of locative bynames in Gaelic. [Raghnailt Suird Coluimcille, 08/2002, A-West]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Sibéal inghean mhic Gill'easpuig, the byname was documented from Black (p. 500 s.n. MacGillespie) which gives Mac Gill' easpuig as the Gaelic form of this name. However, no date is listed for the form Mac Gill' easpuig. When Black only notes a form as Gaelic (rather than "MG.", indicating "Middle Gaelic") and cites no dates, he is referring to a modern form. We have changed the byname to an Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form in order to register this name. [Sibéal inghean mhic Giolla Easpuig, 08/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Treasaigh Callan, Treasaigh is a genitive form which may not be used in a given name position. We have changed the given name to the nominative form Treasach in order to register the name. [Treasach Callan, 08/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Máel Mhuire mac Néill Cholmáin, the submitter requested authenticity for 7th to 9th C Irish. In the 7th C, the language used in Ireland was Oghamic Irish. Very few examples of Oghamic Irish inscriptions remain and it is not possible, with the information provided in the LoI and that found by the College, to postulate a name with the submitter's desired meaning in Oghamic Irish.

In the 8th and 9th C, the language used is Old Irish. The submitted form Máel Mhuire is a combination of Old Irish and Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700). Mixing these languages within a single element violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a single name phrase, and so is not registerable. We have changed the given name to the fully Old Irish form Máel Muire in order to register the name and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity.

The particle is in the nominative case. In a multi-generational byname, only the particle indicating the first relationship (here, mac) is in the nominative case. All subsequent generations are in the genitive case (and lenited when applicable). We have changed to the early genitive form hui in order to register this name and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity.

The LoI stated that, "The client cares most about having an early medieval Irish Gaelic name that means 'servant of St Mary, son of Neil, clan Coleman.'" Surnames indicating a clan began to come into use in Ireland in the 10th C. Previous to that time, this style of name would have been used literally. So the name Máel Muire mac Néill hui Cholmáin, in the submitter's desired time period, would have meant that Máel Muire was the son of Niall uá Colmáin, whose name was also literal and meant 'Niall grandson [of] Colmán'. [Máel Muire mac Néill hui Cholmáin, 08/2002, A-Middle]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Cellach MacFaoitigh, in period Mac was not connected to the patronym in Gaelic. We have added a space to follow documented examples. [Cellach Mac Faoitigh, 08/2002, A-East]
François la Flamme 2002.08 The submitter requested authenticity for 500 to 700 A.D. Ireland. In this time period, the language used in Ireland was Oghamic Irish. Very few examples of Oghamic Irish inscriptions remain and it is not possible, with the information provided in the LoI and that found by the College, to postulate a name with the submitter's desired meaning in Oghamic Irish. We have left the byname in an Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) form to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity. The College found evidence that the name Gráinne was used in the 14th C and later. Lacking evidence that the given name was used in the submitter's desired time period, we were unable to make it authentic for her desired time and culture. [Gráinne ingen Chormaic, 08/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Randal Gartnait, the submitter requested authenticity for the 13th C along the Scottish border. It is not completely clear what form the language spoken in the submitter's desired time and location took, because the vast majority of the surviving Scottish records from that time period are written in Latin. However, the form Gartnait is a Gaelic spelling of a Pictish masculine given name. As neither unmarked patronymics nor double given names were used in Gaelic, a standalone Gaelic given name cannot be registered in this position. The patronymic form in Gaelic would be mac Gartnait. Black (p. 290 s.n. Gartnait) dates the non-Gaelic byname forms Gartnet and Gartenethe to 1297. As the first of these non-Gaelic forms is closer to the submitted form (and because Randal is not a Gaelic form), we have changed the byname to this form in order to register the name and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Randal Gartnet, 08/2002, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Listed on the LoI as Dubh Easa inghean Dhugaill, this name was submitted as Dubheasa inghean Dhougaill and changed at Kingdom to match documented forms, particularly because "according to Black (s.n. Dougal); the Gaelic genitive form is <Dhughaill>". Unfortunately, there was a misreading of this entry. Black (p. 217 s.n. Dougal) lists Dùghall as the Gaelic (meaning Modern Gaelic) form. This form is in the nominative case. He lists Dowgall and Dubgaill as Middle Gaelic forms dating to 1467, the latter being a genitive form. It is this form which is appropriate to this name. Since inghean (the word preceeding Dubgaill) ends in the letter n, the D in Dubgaill does not lenite. We have corrected the byname to this form in order to register the name.

In the case of the given name, Ó Corráin & Maguire (pp. 78-79 s.n. Dub Essa) list Dubh Easa and Duibheasa, which are Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) forms of the submitted given name. The submitted form Dubheasa is a plausible form based on forms of this name found in various annals. Therefore, we have returned the given name to the submitted form. [Dubheasa inghean Dubgaill, 08/2002, A-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Caelainn McFers, this name combined a Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) given name with a Scots (a language closely related to English) surname, dated to 1539 in that form. Combining Gaelic and Scots in a single name is a weirdness. Black (pp. 493-4 s.n. MacFerries) only shows examples of this surname in the 16th C and later. Earlier forms are listed on p. 493 s.n. MacFergus, are all in Latin, and all retain the 'g' in the byname. So, the submitted form combines a given name which dates from before 1200 and a byname which is dated no earlier than 1527. As the temporal disparity is more than 300 years, this disparity carries a weirdness. Therefore, the submitted form had two weirdnesses, which is cause for return. We have changed the given name to the Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form in order to eliminate the temporal disparity and register this name. A fully Middle Irish Gaelic form of this name would be Cáelainn ingen meic Fhergusa. A fully Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of this name would be Caoilinn inghean mhic Fhearghusa. [Caoilinn McFers, 08/2002, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.08 This name combines an Irish Gaelic given name dated from the 8th to 11th C with an Old English byname. Olof von Feilitzen, The pre-Conquest Personal names of the Domesday Book [sic], p. 30, says of Irish names that appear in the Domesday book:

The Irish names, which were introduced in the 10th and 11th centuries by celticized Norwegians from Ireland and the Isle of Man, are with very few exceptions (Ch, L; Sa?) not found outside of Yorkshire.

Some of the given names in the Domesday Book that he identifies as referring to Irish names are: Fyach (p. 251 s.n. Fíacc), Gilemicel and Ghilemicel (p. 261 s.n. Gillemicel), Gilepatric and Ghilepatric (p. 261 Gillepatric), and Melmidoc (p. 323 s.n. Maelmaedhog). It is important to note that these forms are not Gaelic spellings, but Old English renderings of Gaelic names. Given these examples, mixing Gaelic and Old English in a name is registerable, though there is a weirdness for mixing the orthographies of Old English and Gaelic. [Eithne of Cantwaraburg, 08/2002, A-East]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Sáerlaith á Beare, locative bynames were rare in Irish Gaelic. In the cases where they refer to a specific location of the size of towns, baronies, islands, et cetera, the locative byname uses only the genitive form of the placename. Beare is a nominative form. The corresponding genitive form is Beirre. Donnchadh Ó Corráin & Mavis Cournane, ed., "The Annals of Ulster" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100001/), entry U799.7, show an example of this byname in a man's name: Breislen Beirre. As B does not show lenition in Old Irish, the spelling of the byname does not change when used in a woman's name. Therefore, a woman named Sáerlaith from Beare would have been Sáerlaith Beirre. [Sáerlaith Beirre, 08/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.08 Submitted as Morgan MacOwain of Staghold, MacOwain combined the Scots (a language closely related to English) or Gaelic Mac with Welsh Owain. This is in violation of RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a name phrase. As the submitter allows minor changes, we have dropped Mac in order to register this name. [Morgan Owain of Staghold, 08/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.08 This name was submitted as Caitriona Gordon, which combined an Irish Gaelic given name and a Scots byname. The submitter requested authenticity for 1500s Border Scots. In this period, Scots (a language closely related to English) was the language used on the Scottish/English border. Clarion found Scots forms of this given name:

The Scots forms of Catherine that I can find in 1600 are (from the article "Early 16th Century Scottish Lowland Names" and not including suspect spelling) Catte, Katherene, Katherin, Katherine, Katring, Katryne, Katty, Kitte, and Kytte and (from the article "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records") Katherine, Katheryne, Kathrine, Katrina, Katryne, and Catrina.

Therefore, a name using one of these forms (for example, Catrina Gordon) would be authentic for the submitter's requested culture. As the submitter does not allow major changes, we were not able to change the language of the given name from Gaelic to Scots to meet the submitter's request for authenticity.

However, Aryanhwy merch Catmael did find a Scottish Gaelic form of this given name:

[A documented] form of <Catherine> found in Scottish Gaelic before 1600 is <Caitrina>, according to Effrick neyn Kennyeoch's "Scottish Gaelic Given Names" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/gaelicgiven/) updated 11Feb02; this spelling is found in the 1467 manuscript.

We have changed the given name to this form to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Caitrina Gordon, 08/2002, A-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2002.08 Éirne was documented only as the name of a woman in Irish legend. Lacking evidence that it was used by humans in period, it is not registerable. [Éirne inghean Domhnaill, 08/2002, R-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2002.08 This name combines a Welsh name dated to the 5th to 9th C with a Scots byname dated to 1590. Therefore, this name has two weirdnesses (one for mixing Welsh and Scots, and one for a temporal disparity of more than 300 years), which is cause for return.

The LoI noted that the submitter originally wanted Ryon as a given name, but could not document that spelling. Given that information, the submitter may want to consider the Irish Gaelic given name Rian. Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 155 s.n. Ríán) which lists a saint of this name and notes that the modern surname Ó Riain (O Ryan) derives from this name. Rian is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form of this given name and would be registerable under the guidelines for the registerability of saints' names given in the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR. Therefore, Rian McHenrik would have a single weirdness for mixing Gaelic and Scots in a name, but would not have the temporal disparity that exists in the name Rhain McHenrik. As the submitter did not allow major changes, we were unable to make this change in order to register this name. [Rhain McHenrik, 08/2002, R-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2002.08 This submission generated some discussion, both in the College of Arms and in private e-mail to Laurel. This name arguably has a small potential of being mispronounced by less knowledgeable readers as "Damn Bastard". Therefore, the registerability of these two elements, whether combined or separate, must be examined. RfS IV.1 (Vulgar Names) states, "Pornographic or scatological terms will not be registered. Obscene terminology, sexually explicit material, bathroom or toilet humor, etc. are considered inherently offensive by a large segment of the Society and general population."

Daimhin (properly pronounced approximately "dahv-in") is an Irish Gaelic masculine given name that yielded the Anglicized form Davin. It has been registered without comment as recently as September of 2001 (Daimhín Sinna). No previous submissions of this element have generated any question of possible offensiveness. Since Daimhin when properly pronounced does not fall within names which should be considered "inherently offensive by a large segement of the Society," it continues to be registerable.

Bastard is a period descriptive byname documented in Scots and English and has been registered in various forms at least six times dating from 1983 to 1998. Most recently, it was registered without comment in March 1998 (Guy le Bastard) and April 1998 (Duftach Scott the Bastard). (In fact, in the form Lebatarde, and formerly le Batard, it is the registered byname of a former SCA Inc. Board member.) The registrations demonstrate that this element is not "considered inherently offensive by a large segment of the Society and general population" and so is registerable. Questions regarding public listing of a name containing this element have already been addressed by the kingdoms when printing lists of board members.

Given that both elements are registerable on their own, the only issue that could be a reason for return would be the combination of these two name elements. In this case, a fully Anglicized form Davin Bastard would certainly be no more of an issue than the registered Guy le Bastard and Duftach Scott the Bastard. Given that Daimhin has not generated so much as a murmur of a possible violation of RfS IV.1, it is demonstratedly not an issue on its own. Given this information, including previous registrations, this submission does not violate RfS IV.1 and is registerable. [Daimhin Bastard, 08/2002, A-Meridies]

François la Flamme 2002.08 This name is being returned for several reasons. As the submitter allowed no changes, we were unable to address these issues and register the name.

In the elements Ruairi' and MacDho'mhnuill, the apostrophes should be accents.

The first two elements of this name were documented from Coghlan & Joyce, which is not an acceptable source for documentation. Appendix F ("Names Sources to Be Avoided in Documentation") in the Administrative Handbook says of this source:

Coghlan, Ronan, Ida Grehan and P.W. Joyce, Book of Irish Names "The Book of Irish Names is an abysmal SCA source, particularly its discussion of first names, which is a description of modern (20th century) Irish naming practices." (Ensign [Cateline de la Mor la souriete] LoC, 17 February 1996).

Alternate documentation for these elements was provided by College commenters from Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 88 s.n. Eoin & p. 158 s.n. Ruaidrí). However, Ruairí is a Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form of this name and so is not registerable without evidence that it is a plausible period form. Earlier, this name had the form Ruaidrí in Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) and Ruaidhrí in Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700).

The form MacDhómhnuill is a modern form. Period Gaelic forms do not have the particle prepended to the patronym. The typical form of this name in Early Modern Irish Gaelic was Mac Dómhnaill, though Mac Dómhnuill occasionally appears. Given the forms that this name takes in Scots (a language closely related to English) as shown in Black (p. 486 s.n. MacDonald), lenited forms such as Mac Dhómhnuill are reasonable for Scottish Gaelic.

The most significant problem with this name is that it uses two given names in Gaelic, which has been disallowed for some time. This issue can be addressed by dropping one of the given names or by making the second given name into a patronymic byname. Therefore, forms of this name appropriate for Irish Gaelic in late period include Ruaidhrí mac Eoin mhic Dhómhnaill, Ruaidhrí mac Dómhnaill, and Eoin mac Dómhnaill. Forms of this name appropriate for Scottish Gaelic in late period include Ruaidhrí mac Eoin Mhic Dhómhnuill, Ruaidhrí Mac Dhómhnuill, and Eoin Mac Dhómhnuill. Ian has been ruled clear of Eoin (in the ruling for Eoin Mac Cainnigh in the LoAR of April 1996) and so, by extension, Iain is similarly clear of Eoin. Therefore, Eoin Mac Dhómhnuill would not conflict with Iain MacDhomhnuill (registered May 1983). [Ruairi' Eoin MacDho'mhnuill, 08/2002, R-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.07 Submitted as Ceara MacCárthaigh, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish. This name combined a feminine given name with a masculine form of a byname. As bynames were literal in Gaelic, this combination has not been registerable for some time. We have changed the byname to a feminine form in order to register this name. [Ceara inghean Chárthaigh, 07/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.07 Submitted as Ealusaid Rose, the submitter requested authenticity for "mid to late 15th century" and allowed any changes. The submitted form mixes Gaelic and Scots (a language closely related to English) in a single name. In period, this name would have been written all in Gaelic or all in Scots depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. Black (p. 773 s.n. Tod) dates Elizabeth Tode to 1467, and (p. 699 s.n. Rose) Andrew de Rose to 1440. We have changed the name to a completely Scots form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Elizabeth de Rose, 07/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.07 Listed on the LoI as Lassar Ingen Artúr, the form spelled the name as Lassar ingen Artúr. The submitter requested authenticity for 7th C "Irish/Celtic" language/culture. In the 7th century, the language used in Ireland was Oghamic Irish. Very few examples of Oghamic Irish inscriptions remain (including only one example of a feminine name). Lacking Oghamic Irish forms of the submitter's desired name elements, we have left this name in the submitted Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) form, correcting only the patronym to the genitive form Artúir as required by Gaelic grammar. We have returned the particle to the submitted lowercase form ingen. Lacking evidence that the particle would have been capitalized in period, it is not registerable in that form. [Lassar ingen Artúir, 07/2002, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.07 This name combines the Irish Gaelic Tiarnán with the Italian del Sarto. Mixing Anglicized Irish and Italian in a single name was ruled unregisterable in April 2000. As mixing Irish Gaelic and Italian in a single name is less likely than mixing Anglicized Irish and Italian, this combination is similarly unregisterable.

Additionally, Tiarnán is a Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form, and so is not registerable. Registerable forms include the Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) Tigernán and the Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200-c. 1700) Tighearnán found in Ó Corráin and Maguire (s.n. Tigernán). [Tiarnán del Sarto, 07/2002, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.07 We have added a space between the particle and the patronym to follow period practice. We have also put the patronym into the genitive form as required by Gaelic grammar. [Cáel mac Dagáin, 07/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.07 Submitted as James MacCuagh, the submitter requested authenticity (by checking the language/culture box), but did not specify a language or culture. Presumably his desired culture is Irish based on the submitted documentation. MacCuagh is a Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form. In period, the name took Mac Dh- forms such as Mac Dhabhóc. An authentic name in period would have been written all in Gaelic or all in Anglicized Irish depending upon the language of the document that the name appeared in. A fully Gaelic form of this name would be Séamus Mac Dhabhóc or Séamas Mac Dhabhóc. Woulfe (p. 347 s.n. Mac Dhabhóc) dates the Anglicized forms M'Cawque, M'Cavoke, M'Cavog, M'Coag, and M'Coke to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. Therefore, a fully Anglicized Irish form of this name would combine James with one of these forms. Of these forms, M'Coag is the closest to the submitted form. Examples have been found of Anglicized Irish bynames using Mac- and Mc-. Therefore, MacCoag and McCoag are logical variations of the documented M'Coag. Therefore, we have changed the byname to MacCoag to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [James MacCoag, 07/2002, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.07 This name was submitted as Cuil Cholum and changed at Kingdom to the current form to add a designator and correct the grammar. The LoI stated that:

A petition of support is enclosed. Submitted as <Cuil Cholum>, the clients did not provide any new documentation, and accept no MINOR changes. After correspondence between Dragon, Fause Lozenge, and the consulting herald for the group, the group has expressly said that the change to <Shire of Cúil Cholum> is acceptable to them.

Unfortunately, the group only allowed the name to be changed to the form Shire of Cúil Cholum. Cholum is a nominative, lenited form. Since it follows Cúil, Gaelic grammar requires that it take the genitive, lenited form Choluim. This effectively parallels the possessive in modern English, giving the submitted name the meaning 'Columb's nook' or 'Columb's retreat'. As the submitting group only allowed the name to be changed to Shire of Cúil Cholum, the change to Shire of Cúil Choluim is not within the changes allowed. Therefore, we are unable to correct the grammar in this submission in order to register the name. [Cúil Choluim, Shire of, 07/2002, R-Middle]

François la Flamme 2002.07 The byname ní Muireáin was submitted as a matronymic byname in Irish Gaelic.

The registerability of matronymic bynames in Gaelic has fluctuated over time. Currently, only a few rare examples of matronymics have been found in Irish Gaelic, only two of which include a reference to a mother's given name. In both of these examples, the mother's given name and the father's given name are included in the person's byname. Additionally, all of the examples known at this time date from after 1200. This date is important because of the changes in which given names were popular, partially due to the Anglo-Norman influence which was growing at that time.

Given the rarity of matronymics, and the narrow time and cultural frame in which they occur, they have been ruled registerable (though a weirdness), so long as they match the time and cultural frame in which the few known examples appear. Specifically, that results in two restrictions:

- The matronymic byname must be in Irish Gaelic.

- The mother's given name used in the matronymic byname must be documented as having been used after 1200.

Regarding the submitted byname, Muireann is listed in Ó Corráin & Maguire (s.n. Muirenn) and in Woulfe (s.n. Muireann), and is a form consistent with Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) and Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) spelling conventions. However, the only dated examples of this name that have been found in period date to the 7th to 10th centuries. Lacking evidence that any form of Muireann was used after 1200, it is not registerable in a matronymic byname.

Additionally, the particle was not used in Gaelic in period. The pre-1200 form was ingen uí and the post-1200 form was inghean uí. The few examples of matronymics in Gaelic are literal. No evidence has been found of clan names (including those using forms of ua/Ó) referring to a female ancestor. Therefore, the particle inghean is registerable in a matronymic construction, while inghean uí is not. If evidence were found of Muireann being used after 1200, then this byname would be registerable using inghean and with Muireann put into the genitive case and lenited. [Ana ní Muireáin, 07/2002, R-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.06 From Pelican: Capitalization of Gaelic Particles: mac versus Mac

A submission this month raised discussion regarding whether capitalization of particles in Gaelic bynames carried a particular meaning or not. Given the amount of discussion and varying opinions, a clarification is in order.

Capitalization of name elements in period Gaelic documents was less consistent than it is now, but it was not completely random. Most sources that reference Irish Gaelic names use standardized transliteration rules for rendering Gaelic text. For example, John O'Donovan, Annals of Ireland, by the Four Masters, is a facing page translation. Each left-hand page is a transcription which preserves capitalization as it appears in the original work. Each right-hand page is a 19th C translation of the corresponding left-hand page. The examples listed below (with 19th C translations) are taken from the year 1400 (vol. 4). A period after a letter indicates a punctum delens (which looks like a dot that appears above the preceding letter). A punctum delens is usually transliterated as an h following the letter in question. For example, {m.} is transliterated as mh. The notation e represents a "long e" character. In some cases, it is transliterated as e. In other cases, it is transliterated as ea.

  • hoiberd mac Emainn mic hoiberd a burc ("Hubert, the son of Edmond, son of Hubert Burke", pp. 768-769)

  • cathbarr {m.}ág aon{g.}usa ("Caffar Magennis", pp. 768-769)

  • Con{c.}o{b.}ar mac Do{m.}naill mic néill {g.}air{b.}, mic aoda, mic do{m.}naill óicc uí {d.}o{m.}naill ("Conor, the son of Donnell, son of Niall Garv, son of Hugh, son of Donnell Oge O'Donnell", p. 770)

Modern transliteration standards render literal bynames with non-capitalized particles and family names with capitalized particles. For example, mac Néill would indicate that this man's father was named Niall, while Mac Néill would indicate that Mac Néill was his family name. In a period document, mac Néill could indicate that either that his father was named Niall or that his family name was Mac Néill. [Cover Letter for the 06/2002 LoAR]

François la Flamme 2002.06 Submitted as Edana inghean an Druaidh, this submission is an appeal of the registered form Edan inghean an Druiadh, which was registered in December 2000.

Edana was submitted as a hypothetical Latinized form of the feminine given name Edan, which is dated to 1379 in Withycombe (s.n. Edith). However, the form Edan appears in a Latin context as seen in Bardsley (p. 265 s.n. Eden), which dates the entries "Robertus Busby, et Eden uxor ejus, smyth" and "Johannes Slipar, et Edan uxor ejus" to 1379. In these cases, Eden and Edan are used as nominative case Latin forms. The form Edine cited in the LoI may be found in the same entry in Bardsley in the name Nel fil. Edine which is dated to 1273. In this case, Edine is a genitive form, which would not have been used in the given name position in a name. Since Edan and Eden are the documented Latinized forms of this name, and their forms contradict the hypothetical construction Edana, Edana is not a plausible variant of this name based on the submitted documentation.

We have corrected the misspelling in the byname. [Edan inghean an Druaidh, 06/2002, A-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2002.06 This name is returned for lack of documentation of Dáirine as a given name used by humans in period. Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 69 s.n. Dáirine) says of this name that it was the name of a daughter of "the legendary king of Tara, Túathal Techtmar. The foster-mother of St Colmán of Daire Mór was also called Dáirine." The first example is legendary and so is not support for the registerability of this name. In the second example, Dáirine is the name of a foster-mother of a saint and is not noted as being a saint herself. Names of saints are registerable, regardless of whether they are apocryphal or not. This policy is due to the practice in many cultures (though not in Gaelic) of naming children for saints. (For more details, see the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR.) As Dáirine was not herself a saint and the name has not been documented as having been otherwise used in period, it falls into the category of a legendary name and is not registerable. [Dáirine ingen Chiaragain, 06/2002, R-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.06 Gaelic names are registerable with accents used or omitted consistently. Therefore, Caitriona is registerable as a form of Caitríona. The submitter may wish to know that Caitriona is is pronounced "ka-TREE-na" in period Gaelic. The pronunication "ka-tree-OH-na" is modern, and may be limited to English. [Caitriona of Whitemoor, 06/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.06 Submitted as Dubheasa ni Farquhar MacFane, the submitter is primarily interested in a female name authentic for the language and/or culture of the name but does not state a specific language or culture. As submitted, this name is a mixture of Irish Gaelic and Anglicized Irish. In period, a name would have been written all in Irish Gaelic or all in Anglicized Irish depending upon the language of the document in question. Dubh Easa and Duibheasa are Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) forms of the submitted given name. The submitted Dubheasa is a plausible form based on forms of this name found in various annals. Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 79 s.n. Dub Essa) gives Devasse as an undated Anglicized form of this name. Fane is listed as a modern Anglicized Irish form under two headers in Woulfe (p. 524), Ó Féichín and Ó Fiacháin. Under the header Ó Féichín, the Anglicized Irish forms O Feahine, O Fehin, and O Fein are dated to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. Under Ó Fiacháin, the Anglicized forms O Fighane, O Feehan, and O Pheane are dated to temp Elizabeth I-James I. C. L'Estrange Ewen, A History of Surnames of the British Isles (pp. 210-211), lists Anglicized Irish names dated to 1603-4. Among these is Honor nyn Donnell McSwiny of Mossanglassy. John O'Donovan, ed., Annals of Ireland, by the Four Masters (vol. 6, p. 2446), gives a transcription of a will dated August 14, 1629. Among the people listed is Juane Ny Teige O'Donovane, who is noted as being the daughter of Teige O'Donovane. Based on this information, the completely Anglicized Irish form of this name that would be closest to the submitted name would be Devasse ni Farquhar McFein. A fully Gaelic form of this name would be Duibheasa inghean Fhearchair Mhic Fhéichín. As the fully Anglicized form is the closer of these to the submitted name, we have changed the name to that form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Devasse ni Farquhar McFein, 06/2002, A-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2002.05 Submitted as Róisín ingen uí Fhlaithbertaig, Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 157 s.n. Róis) say "Róisín is a popular diminutive form." While Róis is dated to the 16th C, no dates are given for the form Róisín. Given that Róis only appears in Irish Gaelic in the 16th C, it is highly unlikely that it formed diminutives in period. In their statement, Ó Corráin & Maguire use the present tense, "is a popular diminutive form." This phrasing is significant because they use the past tense when discussing forms dated as late as the 19th C (s.n. Máire). Therefore, Róisín must be assumed to be a modern diminutive form. Barring evidence that Róisín was used in period, it is not registerable. We have changed the given name to the documented Róis in order to register the name. As the submitter requested authenticity for Irish, we have changed the byname to use Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) spellings in order to be consistent with the given name Róis. [Róis inghean uí Fhlaithbheartaigh, 05/2002, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.05 [Caisín ingen Annaidh] The submitted byname ingen Annaidh combines ingen, which is an Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form, with Annaidh, which is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form. This combination violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a single name phrase. A fully Old Irish/Middle Irish form would be ingen Annaid. A fully Early Modern Irish form would be inghean Annaidh. The LoI noted that the byname was originally submitted as Mac Annaidh and the only change allowed by the submitter was changing Mac to ingen. As the submitter allows no other changes, we were unable to modify the byname in order to register this name. [Fujiwara no Aoi, 05/2002, R-East]
François la Flamme 2002.05 Submitted as Ana ingen Chonchobhair, the submitter requested authenticity for 6th to 8th C Ireland. The submitted form of the patronym Chonchobhair is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form. The patronym was changed by Kingdom to the Old Irish (c. 700 to c. 900) form Chonchobair in accordance with the submitter's request for authenticity. [Ana ingen Chonchobair, 05/2002, A-Middle]
François la Flamme 2002.05 [Elizabeth M'Kiernane] Submitted as Eilis M'Kiernan the Weaver, Eilis was submitted as an Irish Gaelic form of Elizabeth. Woulfe (p. 210 s.n. Eilís) lists the header forms Eilís and Eilíse. Not all of the given names listed in Woulfe were used in period. Since no documentation was provided and none was found that Eilís was used in period, it is not registerable. This name, in the forms Eilís and Eilis, has only been registered a total of five times, too few to be considered SCA compatible. [Rhiannon of Berra, 05/2002, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.05 [Bear Clan] A question was raised during commentary regarding whether Bear Clan was registerable using the model of a Scottish clan as cited in the Rules for Submission (RfS III.2.b.iv). In this model, Clan precedes the clan name (Clan [Surname]) rather than follows it ([Surname] Clan). Also, clan is a Scots word derived from the Gaelic word clann, meaning 'children'. (Scots is a language closely related to English.) The name of the clan is a Scots surname. While some of these surnames are also found in English, not all English surnames are found in Scots. Therefore, to comply with RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phrase, the clan name must be documented as a Scots surname. Occasionally, a locative may be included in the clan name, taking the form Clan [Surname] of [Location].

There is also a clan name model found in Ireland. However, in Ireland, the model that includes the word Clann in Gaelic (Clan in Anglicized Irish) is based on a given name found in Gaelic. Examples are found that include both Gaelic given names and Anglo-Norman given names that migrated into Gaelic.

The Rules for Submission were most recently updated on July 20, 2001. Previous to that, the most recent update was November 1, 1995. All household names, except one, registered since that date that use some form of clan as a designator follow either the Scottish or Irish models described above. The single exception is Clann an Chullaich Bhain (registered February 1996) which was submitted as a "sign name" meaning 'the white boar'. As our knowledge of naming practices has expanded, doubt has been shed on the theory that Scottish or Irish clan names would be based on the English sign name model. Lacking evidence of such a construction, they are no longer registerable. Several registrations of clan names were specifically mentioned during commentary. Clan Baldwin (registered June 1996) follows the Scottish model since Baldwin is a plausible Scots surname. (Black, s.n. Baldwin, gives only dated examples of forms of Baldwin as a given name, but it could easily have followed the pattern of other Anglo-Norman given names that became surnames in Scotland.) Clan Hubert (registered February 1999) follows the Irish model since Hubert was among the Anglo-Norman given names that appear in Ireland. Clan Gara (registered September 1996) and Clan Gillemore (registered March 1998) also follow the Irish model as Gara and Gillemore are Anglicized forms of the Irish Gaelic masculine given names Gadra and Gilla Muire.

Since Bear Clan does not follow either the Scottish clan name model or the Irish clan name model, it is not registerable as either a Scottish or an Irish clan name. [Erik the Bear, 05/2002, R-Atlantia]

François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Rónnait ingen Fáeláin, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed any changes. Rónnait is documented from Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's article "Early Irish Feminine Names from the Index to O'Brien's Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/obrien/). Tangwystyl explains in the introduction of that article that "[t]he spellings in the index are 'normalized' to 'standard Old Irish' but for the most part correspond to those found in the actual text." In the case of Rónnait, the form actually found in the text of this work is Rónnat, which corresponds to the standard form given in Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 157 s.n. Rónnat). We have changed the given name to the documented form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Rónnat ingen Fáeláin, 04/2002, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Finnguala ingen uí Mheadhra, the submitter requested authenticity for pre-1200 Irish and allowed minor changes. Mheadhra is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form. The corresponding form in Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) is Medra. In Middle Irish Gaelic, 'M' lenites, causing a softening in the pronunciation of this letter. However, the lenition was not shown in the written language at that time, making ingen uí Medra a consistently Middle Irish form of this byname. [Finnguala ingen uí Medra, 04/2002, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Brighid Fleming, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed any changes. The name Brighid was considered too holy to use by Gaels in Ireland throughout period, though it is registerable as a Gaelic name under the clarification of the registerability of saints' names (see the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR for details). However, the name Bridget did come into use in England in various spellings. Fleming is an English surname that originally referred to a person from Flanders. It was introduced into Ireland by the Anglo-Normans. Woulfe (p. 659 s.n. Pléamonn, Pléimeann) dates the Anglicized form Flamang to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. The Annals of the Four Masters, vol. 3 (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005C/), lists the forms Flemeann and Flemenn under the entry M1176.10. The Annals of Connacht (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100011/) lists Sémas Plémend under entry 1492.2 and Cristoir Plemenn under 1517.5. The Annals of Connacht use conservative orthography and so their forms are not typical for the time period they are discussing. Typical forms for this time period would be the headers listed in Woulfe, though the form Flemeann also seems reasonable for this period as well.

Regarding an authentic form of the submitted name, an authentic name would be rendered all in Gaelic or all in Anglicized Irish/English depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. Bridget Fleming would be an authentic name for a woman in late period England. It is also a valid Anglicized Irish name. However, as we have found no evidence of the name Bridget used by Anglo-Norman families in Ireland, it is likely not authentic for that culture. A fully Gaelic form of this name would be Brighid Pléamonn, Brighid Pléimeann or Brighid Flemeann. Evidence shows that names which the Gaels considered holy, including Brighid, were not used as given names in period. Lacking evidence that Brighid was used by Gaels in period, it is registerable as a saint's name, but not authentic. We have changed this name to a single-language form in order to partially comply with the submitter's request for authenticity, choosing the form Bridget Fleming since it is the closest one of these options to the submitted form. [Bridget Fleming, 04/2002, A-Calontir]

François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Meadhbha inghean Bhrain an Muilleóir, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish and allowed any changes.

Bhrain was submitted as the lenited, genitive spelling of Brian. This is incorrect. Bhrain is the lenited, genitive spelling of Bran, while Bhriain is the lenited, genitive spelling of Brian. As the submitter noted on her form that her intended meaning was 'Maeve, daughter of Brian the Miller', we have changed the byname to indicate her father's name was Brian instead of Bran.

We have removed an since occupational bynames rarely, if ever, take the definite article. The entire byname in a feminine name is subject to lenition. In the case of the element Muilleóir, 'M' does show lenition in Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) except when it follows a word ending in 'm'. Since Bhriain ends in 'n', the occupational byname becomes Mhuilleóir. [Meadhbha inghean Bhriain Mhuilleóir, 04/2002, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2002.04 Listed on the LoI as Eoin Mac Neill Mac Lochlainn, the form listed Eoin mac Neill mac Lochlainn. We have put the particles into lowercase to follow the submitted form. The second mac was in the nominative case. We have corrected it to the genitive form mhic. [Eoin mac Neill mhic Lochlainn, 04/2002, A-East]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Colleen is the submitter's legal given name.

Submitted as Colleen inghean Phátraic, the submitter requested authenticity for "Celtic Irish/Scottish" and allowed minor changes. As the submitted byname inghean Phátraic combines the Early Modern Irish (c. 1200 to c. 1700) inghean with the Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) Phátraic, it violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency within a name phase. A standard Middle Irish form of this byname would be ingen Phátraic. A standard Early Modern Irish form would be inghean Phádraig. Another option for an Early Modern Irish form is found in the Annals of the Four Masters, vol. 5 (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005E/), which lists Tomas, mac Pattraicc, mic Oiliuéir Ploingcéd tighearna Luchcmaigh in entry M1578.15. This entry shows Pattraicc used as a given name in a family of Anglo-Norman descent. In a feminine byname, this form of Pattraicc would be lenited to become Phattraicc. We have changed the byname to this form to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity. As Colleen was not used as a given name in period, we were unable to make this name completely authentic. [Colleen inghean Phattraicc, 04/2002, A-Artemisia]

François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Siobhán inghean Camsroin, the submitter requested authenticity for 8th to 9th C Gaelic and allowed minor changes. As Siobhán derives from the French name Jehanne, which is a name that was introduced into Ireland by the Anglo-Normans, this name cannot be made authentic for her desired time period (since it pre-dates Anglo-Norman influence in Ireland by 300 to 400 years).

Camsroin, from which the Scots Cameron derives, is a descriptive byname meaning 'crooked-nose'. The Annals of the Four Masters, vol. 3, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005C/), entry M1360.1, gives an example of a patronymic byname that uses the descriptive byname Cammuinélach, which means 'crooked-neck': "Maol Ruanaidh mac an Chammuinélaigh Uí Baoighill toiseach na Tri Tuath". Given this example, the parallel inghean an Chamsroin is registerable. As no examples of this byname were found for the 8th to 9th C, we were unable to make this byname authentic for the submitter's desired time period. [Siobhán inghean an Chamsroin, 04/2002, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Cáel of Skye, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th C Scottish. As submitted, this name had two weirdnesses: one for mixing an Old Irish (c. 700 to c. 900) or Middle Irish (c. 900 to c. 1200) given name with a Scots byname, and one for temporal disparity because this form of the given name is dated no later than 1200 and the spelling Skye has only been found dated to circa 1610 (in Speed's The Counties of Britain, p. 266, map of Scotland, map drawn 1610). Johnston (p. 296 s.n. Skye) dates Skey to 1292. We have changed the byname to this form to remove the temporal disparity in order to register the name.

An authentic name would have been written all in Gaelic or all in Scots depending upon the language of the document in which the name was recorded. As we were able to find no evidence of Cáel used in Scotland, and no documentation has yet been found for locative bynames in Scottish Gaelic except as part of chiefly titles, we were unable to make this name authentic for the submitter's desired time and culture. [Cáel of Skey, 04/2002, A-Caid]

François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Ailionóra inghean Pilib Ó Corcráin, we have added lenition to the byname and changed Ó to its genitive form as required by Gaelic grammar. [Ailionóra inghean Philib uí Chorcráin, 04/2002, A-East]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as Tuathal maic Cathchern, no documentation was provided and none was found that maic is a plausible variant of mac. Also, we have put the byname into a genitive form as required by Gaelic grammar. [Tuathal mac Catcheirn, 04/2002, A-East]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Listed on the LoI as Cera ingen Taidhg, this name was submitted as Cera ingen Tadc and changed at kingdom to put Tadc into a documented genitive form. Tadc is an Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) and Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) form of the name that became Tadhg in Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700). Taidhg is the genitive form of Tadhg. The genitive form of Tadc is Taidc. As ingen, meaning 'daughter', is an Old Irish or Middle Irish form, the accompanying patronym must be an Old Irish or Middle Irish form in order to comply with RfS III.1.a, which requires lingual consistency in a name phrase. Therefore, we have changed the byname to ingen Taidc. Since 'T' does not lenite if the previous word ended in 'n', the byname form Taidc is the appropriate form following ingen. [Cera ingen Taidc, 04/2002, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Submitted as i Mór, Shire of, this name was intended to mean 'big mountain pass'. The branch requested authenticity for "Irish, any period" language and/or culture and stated "early preferred, but any time period will do."

The typical Irish Gaelic placename having this meaning is Bearnas Mór. Bearnas technically means 'gap'. It is used in placenames to refer to gaps in mountains, i.e. a pass. Beárnas Mór, meaning 'great/big gap (pass)', appears multiple times in the Annals of the Four Masters, including in 1592 (entry M1592.8, volume 6, http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005F/).

The element cái is Old Irish or Middle Irish and means 'way, road'. A placename combining this element with mór would have the meaning 'great way' or 'big road'. Harpy found the placenames Sliab Cae and cae bhéil átha na circe, which contain this element, listed as entries in Edmund Hogan, Onomasticon Goedelicum: Locorum et Tribuum Hiberniae et Scotiae (An Index, with Identifications, to the Gaelic Names of Places and Tribes) that contain forms of this element. We have changed the spelling cái to cáe to match these examples.

While the group allows major changes, it was generally felt that the change from the submitted Cái Mór to Beárnas Mór, which better matches the group's intended meaning, was so dramatic that it went beyond the changes that could reasonably be expected when members of a group sign a name petition. [Cáe Mór, Shire of, 04/2002, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2002.04 This name was originally submitted as Sorcha Brigit O'Roarke and changed to the submitter's preferred alternate form at kingdom because both Sorcha and Brigit were documented as Gaelic feminine given names and two given names in Gaelic has been reason for return in the past.

The LoI stated that "[t]he submitter added the second name to avoid conflict with: Sorcha inghean ui Ruairc (Mar.99, East)". If the LoI meant that the submitter originally wished to submit Sorcha O'Roarke and added Brigit to clear a conflict with Sorcha inghean ui Ruairc, then she may wish to know that Sorcha O'Roarke is clear of Sorcha inghean ui Ruairc according to the ruling regarding Gaelic particles in the cover letter for this LoAR.

There was some confusion about the element Fhionn in the name Sorcha Fhionn inghean uí Ruairc. In this name, Fhionn is used as a descriptive byname meaning 'fair' and is used to refer to hair color or complexion. [Sorcha Fhionn inghean uí Ruairc, 04/2002, A-West]

François la Flamme 2002.04 There was some question about the spelling of this byname. As submitted, this name is Old Irish Gaelic (c. 700 to c. 900) or Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200). In Gaelic, lenition can affect a name in two ways. It affects pronunciation by causing a softening of the pronunciation of the letter in question. In the written form of the name, lenition is shown by placing an 'h' after the letter that is lenited. (In some scripts, a punctum delens, which shows up as a dot over the letter, is used instead of an 'h' following the letter.) There are several letters ('b', 'd', 'g', and 'm') which lenited in Old and Middle Irish Gaelic, but did not show lenition in written forms until Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700). Therefore, ingen Briain is the correct form of the submitted byname. In Early Modern Gaelic, the same byname would become inghean Bhriain. [Conchenn ingen Briain, 04/2002, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Listed on the LoI as Branán de Maigh Tuireadh, the name was submitted as Branán of Moytura and changed at kingdom "per submitter's telephone request to translate it into Irish Gaelic. Consulting herald advised submitter that a patronymic byname would be much more authentic than a locative byname. However, submitter wasn't interested in naming his persona father yet."

Locative bynames referring to proper names of specific locations use the unmarked genitive of the placename for the locative byname. Maigh Tuireadh is the nominative form of the name of this location. Muighe Tuireadh is the genitive form. It is found in the Annals of the Four Masters, vol. 5, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005E/), entry M1536.12. Therefore, the correct Gaelic form of this name is Branán Muighe Tuireadh. [Branán Muighe Tuireadh, 04/2002, A-Artemisia]

François la Flamme 2002.04 [Clann Cléirigh] There was some question regarding whether the construction of this name was correct. This household name was submitted using the Irish Gaelic model, which is somewhat different than clan name models found in Scotland. In Ireland, clann was used literally and means 'children'. Cléirigh is the genitive form of the Gaelic name Cléirech. So Clann Cléirigh literally means 'children [of] Cléirech' or 'Cléirech's children'. A good example of how this type of name was used is found in the Annals of the Four Masters, vol. 3, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005C/), entry M1340.4, which begins: "Clann Ualgairg Uí Ruairc, Domhnall, Aedh, Giolla Criost & Ruaidhri". The corresponding entry in the 19th C translation reads: "The sons of Ualgarg O'Rourke, Donnell, Hugh, Gilchreest, and Rory". So, these four sons are members of the Ua Ruairc family, but together they are also clann Ualgairg. [Tiernan O'Shea, 04/2002, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.04 Note: the feminine form of this byname is inghean mhic rthaigh; the 'C' in Cárthaigh does not lenite in this case because the previous word (mhic) ends in a 'c'. [Cairistiona inghean mhic Cárthaigh, 04/2002, R-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.03 Submitted as Marion  Ruanadha, the byname Ruanadha is the genitive form of a given name without a patronymic marker. As Gaelic did not use unmarked patronymics, this name is not registerable as submitted. The submitter noted that if the name had to be changed, 1300s Irish language/culture was most important. Eóin Ua Ruanadha ollamh Mécc Aongusa is listed in entry M1376.8 in the Annals of the Four Masters, vol. 4, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005D/). The feminine form of this byname would be inghean uí Ruanadha. We have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [Marion inghean uí Ruanadha, 03/2002, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.03 The submitter requested authenticity for 10th to 12th C Irish and allowed minor changes. As submitted, this name combines a Middle Irish Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) given name and an Anglicized Irish locative byname. This construction is registerable, though it is not authentic.

Locative bynames are rare in Gaelic. When they are found, those that refer to the proper name of a specific location use an unmarked genitive construction. Such a construction used in this name would take the form Medb Glinne Da Locha and would mean 'Medb [of] Gleann Da Locha'.

However, in the 10th to 12th C, a name such as Medb Glinne Da Locha would have an implied meaning which may not be match the submitter's desires. As rare as locative bynames are in late period, they are even rarer in the years before Anglo-Norman influence affected Gaelic naming practices (which includes the submitter's desired time period). Previous to that point, nearly all of the locative bynames that are recorded refer to an office (usually religious) held by that person. For example, The Annals of Ulster (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100001/), entry U622.5, lists "Coemgin Glinne Da Locha" in the year 622. The Annals of the Four Masters, volume 1, (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005A/), entry M617.2, refers to the same person as "S. Caoimhghin, abb Glinde Da Locha". This comparison indicates that this 'Coemgin [of] Gleann Da Locha' held the office of abbot of Gleann Da Locha. In more general terms, the connection implied by a byname such as Glinne Da Locha is not that the person lives or was born at that location. Rather it implies that the person is somehow connected to the monastery at Gleann Da Locha, perhaps as a clerk, priest, nun, etc. A byname of this form is not, in and of itself, presumptuous since there are examples of clerks, priests, etc. having bynames of this construction that use of it does not automatically imply the head of the religious house at this location.

Since the submitter did not allow major changes, and changing the language of the byname from Anglicized Irish to Gaelic would be a major change, we have registered this name as submitted. [Medb of Glendalough, 03/2002, A-Drachenwald]

François la Flamme 2002.03 [Alternate name Risteárd Ruadh Macleod] Listed on the LoI as Risteárd Ruadh Macleod, this name was submitted as Risteard Ruadh Macleod. The accent was added to the given name at kingdom to meet the submitter's request for authenticity for 15th to 16th C Gaelic. The submitted Macleod is a Scots form, not a Gaelic form. (Scots is a language closely related to English.) A fully Scottish Gaelic form of this name would be Risteárd Ruadh Mac Leòid. Forms of this name appropriate for 16th C Irish Gaelic are Risteard Ruadh Mac Leoid and Risteárd Ruadh Mac Leóid. As the submitter does not allow major changes (and changing the language of an element is a major change), we were unable to change the byname to a Gaelic form to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Torcall mac Grigair, 03/2002, A-Drachenwald]
François la Flamme 2002.03 Submitted as Caisséne ingen Scandlach, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th C Irish Gaelic and allowed minor changes. Scandlach is a feminine given name in the nominative case. So the submitted name appears to be a matronymic with Scandlach as her mother's name. However, the submission form documents Scandlach as "Genitive case + lenited version of Scandal", which implies the submitter intended this name to be a patronymic byname with her father's name being Scandal. The submission form confirms this in the "If my name must be changed..." section. The submitter lists "meaning" as being most important to her, and gives the meaning as "Caisséne daughter of Scandal". This meaning is authentic for her desired time and culture, where a matronymic would not be. Additionally, her name is submitted in a Middle Gaelic form. Matronymics are not registerable in Middle Gaelic:

Upon further review, the few examples of matronymics in Gaelic that are currently known are in Irish Gaelic and date from after 1200. Therefore, barring examples that such constructions were used in Old Irish or Middle Irish, matronymics are only registerable for Early Modern Irish Gaelic (after 1200). A matronymic construction using name elements dated only to before 1200 would add a lingual disparity and make the name unregisterable. (Ceara ingen uí Líadnáin, Atlantia-A, LoAR 10/2001)

We have corrected the byname to match the submitter's desired meaning. [Caisséne ingen Scandail, 03/2002, A-Atenveldt]

François la Flamme 2002.03 Listed on the LoI as Seóan Ó Donndubáin, this name was submitted as Seóan O'Donndun and changed at kingdom, since the byname mixed Gaelic and Anglicized Irish and RfS III.1.a requires lingual consistency in a single name phrase. Also, the byname was not in the genitive. The submitter requested authenticity for Irish language/culture and allowed any changes. Ó is an Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) spelling. Donndubáin is a Middle Gaelic (c. 900 to c. 1200) spelling. Therefore, we have changed the byname to a consistently Early Modern Gaelic form to comply with RfS III.1.a and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Seóan Ó Donndubháin, 03/2002, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.03 Submitted as Eóghan Ó Cairealláin, no documentation was found for an accent on the 'o' in the given name. Therefore, we have removed it. [Eoghan Ó Cairealláin, 03/2002, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2002.03 Submitted as Cadhla Uá Cellacháin, no documentation was found for an accent on the 'a' in Ua. Therefore, we have removed it. [Cadhla Ua Cellacháin, 03/2002, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.03 Submitted as Iain macColmb, the submitter requested authenticity for 11th to 14th C Scottish and allowed any changes. No documentation has been found that the name Iain was used in period. However, it has been ruled SCA compatible. The Scottish Gaelic form of John used in the submitter's desired time period was Eoin. No documentation was provided and none could be found for macColmb. The byname mac Coluim would be the appropriate Scottish Gaelic form of this name for the submitter's desired time period. Given this information, Iain mac Coluim is a registerable form of this name. Eoin mac Coluim is an authentic form of this name for the submitter's desired time period. As he allows major changes, we have changed the name to the latter form to meet his request for authenticity. [Eoin mac Coluim, 03/2002, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.03 In the 5th to 7th centuries, the language used in Ireland was Oghamic Irish. Very few examples of Oghamic Irish inscriptions remain and it is not possible, with the information provided in the LoI and that found by the College, to postulate a name with the submitter's desired meaning in Oghamic Irish.

Old Irish would be the language appropriate for the 8th century. At this time, no descriptive byname has been found in Gaelic in period meaning 'the singer'. However, there are examples of several different words meaning 'singer' used in period documents, though none of them have yet been found as a formal part of a person's name. The word amrán (also ambrán) is listed in Royal Irish Academy, Dictionary of the Irish Language: based mainly on Old and Middle Irish materials ["DIL"], with the meaning 'song'. The LoI documented amhránaí as a word meaning 'singer' from a modern Irish-English dictionary. This word has as its root amrán 'song', found in the DIL. The word amhránaí is Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present). The Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form is amhránaidhe, and the Old Irish (c. 700 to c. 900) form would be ambránid. We have changed the byname to used this spelling to partially meet the submitter's request for authenticity. We have removed an since occupational bynames in Gaelic rarely, if ever, take the definite article. [Leith Ambránid, 03/2002, A-An Tir]

François la Flamme 2002.03 The submitter requested authenticity for 9th C Pict/Scot and allowed minor changes. Additional information provided on the LoI noted that the submitted form was more important to her than authenticity.

Rannach was documented as "a word meaning 'songster, bard, rhymer, story-teller'" from a modern Gaelic/English dictionary. No documentation was provided and none was found that Rannach is a period word. Lacking such evidence, it is not registerable.

The byname na an tEilan Dubh was intended to refer to a location an tEilan Dubh, meaning 'the Black Isle'. No evidence has been found of locative bynames in names in Scottish Gaelic except as part of chiefly titles. Locative bynames are extremely rare in Irish Gaelic. Those based on placenames of relatively small areas, such as a village, town, or barony, are unmarked and in the genitive case. Those based on large regions, including provinces and countries, are almost uniformly adjectival forms. Since an island is a relatively small area, Oiléin Duibh would be an Irish Gaelic locative byname referring to a location named 'Black Island'.

Additionally, this name contains a descriptive byname and a locative byname in Gaelic. No evidence has been found that such a construction is plausible in Gaelic. Lacking such evidence, this combination is not registerable.

Eithne Oiléin Duibh would be a registerable form of this name. However, since the submitter does not allow major changes, we were unable to drop the problematic element Rannach in order to register this name. [Eithne Rannach na an tEilan Dubh, 03/2002, R-Æthelmearc]

François la Flamme 2002.03 No documentation was presented and none could be found that the name Tea was used outside of legend. Lacking such evidence, this name is not registerable.

The correct form of the byname is inghean Chonuladh, not the submitted inghean Conuladh. [Tea inghean Conuladh, 03/2002, R-Outlands]

François la Flamme 2002.03 Submitted as Dónal the Scot, Dónal is a Modern Gaelic (post-1700) spelling. As such, it is not registerable. We have changed it to an Early Modern Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) spelling in order to register the name. [Domhnall the Scot, 03/2002, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.02 Listed on the LoI as Muirgen of Applecrosss, the forms and the documentation listed the spelling Applecross. Muirgen is a Middle Irish (pre-1200) form of a saint's name. The Early Modern Irish form of this name is Muirghein. The only feminine example of this name that has been found is a mermaid in a story regarding Saint Comgall. However, documentation has been found for this name as a masculine name and it is registerable as such. [Muirgen of Applecross, 02/02, R-Calontir] [Ed.: returned for problems with the locative]
François la Flamme 2002.02 The submitter requested authenticity for Irish-German and allowed any changes. Lacking documentation that these two cultures had significant contact, combining Irish and German elements in a single name is not registerable. Deirdre was documented from Withycombe (p. 81 s.n. Deirdre). However, this entry says that "its use as a christian name is quite recent, dating from the 'Celtic Revival' (Yeat's Deirdre 1907, Synge's Deirdre of the Sorrows 1910)." However, the spelling Deirdre has long been SCA compatible. As it is a Gaelic given name, it is not registerable in combination with German elements per the precedent:
[Hagen Seanaeiche] the combination of German forename and Gaelic byname needs justification, at the very least. None of the commenters noted any German/Gaelic interaction in period (see, e.g., RfS III.1., "As a rule of thumb, languages should be used together only if there was substantial contact between the cultures that spoke those languages." (Hagen Seanaeiche, Caid-R, LoAR 12/94)
Black (p. 204 s.n. Deirdre) dates Deredere to 1166. Given that the source Black cites for this reference, Deirdre is a Latinized form of a Gaelic given name. Barring documentation of significant contact between Scottish Gaelic and German cultures, a name mixing Gaelic (including Latinized Gaelic) and German in a name is not registerable. [Deirdre Mueller von Thurn, 02/02, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2002.02 Submitted as Sine of Cumbrae, Sine was documented from Withycombe (s.n. Jane) as a Gaelic form of Jane. When Withycombe is discussing names in languages other than English, she is usually referring to modern forms. No documentation was provided and the College found none that Sine is a period Gaelic name. Lacking such documentation, it is not registerable. As the submitter allowed any changes, we have changed the given name to a Scots form dated to 1596 in Black (p. 501 s.n. MacGillies) in order to register this name.

Additionally, the submitter requested that the Gaelic form of of Cumbrae be used. She also requested authenticity for Scottish/Irish Gaelic language/culture and allows any changes. While locatives (like of Cumbrae) appear in Scots and Anglicized Irish records, their use in Gaelic is quite different. Current research has found no examples of locatives in Scottish Gaelic that are not part of chiefly titles. In Irish Gaelic, locative bynames appear but are vanishingly rare. While a few refer to countries outside of Ireland, none have yet been found that refer to a region outside of Ireland that is smaller than a country. Given this information about locatives in Gaelic, as well as the College being unable to find a Gaelic form of of Cumbrae, we are unable to meet the submitter's request for authenticity for Gaelic. [Jeane of Cumbrae, 02/02, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.02 [...] no documentation was presented for the spelling Ulliam rather than the normal Gaelic spelling Uilliam. [Ulliam Ó Raghailligh, 02/02, R-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2002.02 [Connall O'Maccus] The submitter requested authenticity for 11th–12th C Irish and allowed minor changes. RfS III.1.a requires lingual consistency within a name phrase. The submitted O'Maccus combines Maccus, which is found exclusively in Latin citations, and the Anglicized Irish O'. So O'Maccus violates this requirement and is not registerable. Black (p. 484 s.n. Maccus) dates Robert filius Macchus to 1221. Therefore, this name would be authentic in Latin as Conall filius Macchus. Authentic Gaelic forms for his desired time period would be Conall mac Magnusa, Conall ua Magnusa, or Conall h-Ua Magnusa (this last form uses h-Ua, a variant of ua found in early orthographies in the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Tigernach).

The submitter allows minor changes, and the changing of the language of a particle (here O') is usually a minor change (while changing the language of the patronym, here Maccus, is a major change). It was generally felt at the decision meeting that the change from O' to filius so significantly affected the byname in both look and sound that it was a major change. As the submitter does not allow major changes, we are returning this name. [Conall O'Maccus, 02/02, R-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.02 Ealasaid is a modern Scottish Gaelic form of Elizabeth. No evidence has been found that it is a period form, though the similar Ealusaid has been dated to 1467 (for details, see Effrick neyn Kenneoch's article "Scottish Gaelic Given Names for Women" at http://www.MedievalScotland.org/scotnames/gaelicgiven/). Given that the name Séamus appears in Irish Gaelic documents (including in "Annals of the Four Masters, Volume 5", entries M1511.15 and M1512.17, http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005E/) in both -as and -us spellings, Ealasaid is plausible as a period variant of the documented Ealusaid. [Ealasaid ihghean uí Domhnaill, 02/02, R-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2002.02 Submitted as Keegan Muirgen, the submitter allowed any changes and noted that the meaning 'little and fiery born of the sea' was most important. The major problem with this name as submitted is that the first element, Keegan, is an Anglicized Gaelic byname being used as a given name and the second element, Muirgen, is a Middle Irish (pre-1200) Irish Gaelic given name being used as a byname.

Keegan is an Anglicized form of the Gaelic byname Mac Aodhagáin. The 'K' sound at the beginning derives from the 'c' in Mac. The entry in Woulfe (s.n. Mac Aodhagáin) cited in the LoI supports use of Keegan as a byname, not a given name. Lacking documentation of the use of Keegan in period as a given name, it is not registerable. The submitter also documented Keegan from a Web site entitled "Irish/Irish Gaelic Male Names" (http://www.crosswinds.net/~daire/names/irishmale.html). Unfortunately, this site is useless for our purposes. The names listed are modern and many are not Gaelic forms. Gaelic does not have the letters 'j', 'k', 'v', 'w', 'y', or 'z'. This site should definitely be avoided for name documentation.

Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 14 s.n. Áeducán) gives the Anglicized Irish form of this given name as Egan. We have changed the given name to this form in order to retain the desired meaning of his given name.

As neither double given names nor unmarked patronymics were used in Gaelic in period, Muirgen is not registerable on its own in this position. We have added the particle mac and put Muirgen into the genitive to make this a patronymic byname. [Egan mac Muirgein, 02/02, A-Merdies]
François la Flamme 2002.02 Submitted as Ailis ingen ui Donnubáin, accents need to be used or omitted consistently. Since Donnubáin includes the accent, we have added it to . 'D' does not show lenition in Middle Gaelic, so the submitted Donnubáin is appropriate for the form ingen. [Ailis ingen uí Donnubáin, 02/02, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2002.02 The particle mec is a variant of meic, the Middle Irish (c. 900–c. 1200) genitive form of mac. The form mec appears in the "Annals of Tigernach" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100002.html) and the "Annals of Ulster" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100001/). [Feradach mac Congail mec Ruaidri, 02/02, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2002.01 [Gráinne ingen Domnaill Ildanaig] The submitter requested authenticity for "Early Irish" and allowed minor changes. The element Ildanaig, meaning 'skilled', was intended as her father's descriptive byname and was documented in the nominative ildánach from the Dictionary of the Irish Language (under the heading <il< in the list of compounds). That ildánach appears in the DIL documents that it was an Irish Gaelic word used in period. Some words were used in descriptive bynames. Others weren't. Descriptive bynames are rare in Gaelic. Most of those found refer to a physical trait. Of the few descriptive bynames that have been found to refer to a person's skill, none refer to unspecific concepts like 'skilled'. Someone who was skilled in a particular area might have a descriptive byname referring to that skill. Some examples include Cearrbhach 'gamester, gambler', na Seoltadh 'the sails' (referring to sail manufacturing or perhaps sailing).

In the case of ildánach, we have no evidence that it would have been used in a descriptive byname. The "Annals of the Four Masters" (vol. 5, http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005E/) list this word twice. Entry M1561.3 reads, "O Beirn Tadhcc, mac Cairpre, mic Maoileachlainn, fer ergna, ioldanach i l-laidin, & i n-gaoidheilcc, & isan dá dlighedh .i. ciuil & cánóin", which the online translation renders as "O'Beirne (Teige, the son of Carbry, son of Melaghlin), a learned man, well skilled in Latin and Irish, and in the two laws, namely, civil and canon". Entry M1534.7 reads, "Maol Muire Mac Eochadha adhbhar ollamhan Laighean lé dán, fer eccna iolldánach bá maith tegh n-aoidhedh", which the online translation renders as, "Mulmurry Mac Keogh, intended Ollav of Leinster in poetry, a learned man, skilled in various arts, who kept a good house of hospitality". In both of these instances, ioldanach/iolldánach (later forms of ildánach) does not stand alone. It is used in conjuction with other words which specify what the person is skilled at (even if it is something as vague as 'various arts'). Additionally, in both examples, the phrase which includes a form of ildánach is not actually part of the name. Lacking evidence that ildánach would be used on its own to describe someone, it is not registerable. If it were used in a descriptive phrase, as is the case with the cited "ioldanach i l-laidin" 'skilled in Latin', it would be registerable.

We have found a single instance of a form of ildánach used as what appears to be a given name. "Genealogies from Rawlinson B 502" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G105003/), entry 492 give a genealogy as "Suibne m. Caíróc m. Maíl Chroí m. Mugróin m. Domnaill m. Conaill m. Rechtada m. Rechtáin m. Maíle Anfaid m. Dímmae m. Illdánaich m. Sáráin mc Senaig". Given this example, this name would be registerable using Ildanaig as her grandfather's name: Gráinne ingen Domnaill meic Ildanaig. However, it was felt that adding the particle meic, and so changing Ildanaig from her father's descriptive byname to her grandfather's given name, was more than a minor change. As she does not allow major changes, we were unable to make this change or to drop the problematic element. [Gráinne ingen Domnaill Ildanaig, 01/02, R-West]
François la Flamme 2002.01 Lassarfina was documented from the Annals of Connacht. This source uses conservative orthography, meaning that most of the spellings in this source follow the rules of Middle Irish (pre-1200). [Lassarfina inghean uí Cheallaigh, 01/02, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.01 As Black's notation of the Gaelic form of the byname as one word is a modern convention, we have registered this byname as two words. [Jamie Mac Fionnlaigh, 01/02, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.01 Submitted as Jamie Finnloech, Finnloech is a Gaelic given name, not a descriptive byname. As Gaelic did not use unmarked patronymics, Finnloech is not registerable in this position in the name. [Jamie Mac Fionnlaigh, 01/02, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.01 The second problem is with the construction of the byname inghean Fhrancaigh. This byname is a hypothetical patronymic byname meaning 'daughter [of] French', where 'French' describes her father. No evidence has been found to support a Gaelic patronymic byname that is based only on a father's descriptive byname when that byname refers to a location. Lacking such evidence, this construction is not registerable. Were such evidence found, the byname would likely take the form mac an [location adjective] in a man's patronymic byname and inghean an [location adjective] in a woman's patronymic byname.

Descriptive bynames are rare in Gaelic. Bynames referring to locations are a tiny subset of descriptive bynames and are, therefore, vanishingly rare. It is important to note that, in most examples of descriptive bynames formed from country references, the descriptive bynames refer to a person's manner and behavior, not his birthplace.

A patronymic byname formed from both the father's given name and his descriptive byname that refers to a location has been documented. The "Annals of Connacht" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100011/), entry 1401.3, lists "Tomas mac Emainn Albanaig .i. Mac Uilliam Burc, tigerna Gall Connacht" which translates as 'Thomas son of Edmund Albanach, Macwilliam Burke, lord of the Galls of Connacht'. (Albanach is an adjective that means 'Scottish' and Mac Uilliam Burc is a chiefly title. So mac Emainn Albanaig translates literally as 'son [of] Edmund Scottish', though 'son [of the] Scottish Edmund' makes more sense in modern English.) Given this example, if the submitter chooses a given name for her father and includes that in her patronymic byname, this name would be registerable. As an example, if she chose Domhnall as her father's given name, her name would be registerable as Ailleann inghean Domhnaill Fhrancaigh, meaning 'Ailleann daughter [of the] French Donald', where 'French' is an adjective that describes 'Donald'. If the submitter decides to go with this route, whatever given name she chooses as her father's given name will need to be put in the genitive and lenited (if applicable).

There was some question about whether Francach 'French' was a descriptive term that is plausible in a descriptive byname in period Gaelic. (Francach is the nominative form, which becomes Fhrancaigh when it is put in the genitive case and lenited.) The "Annals of the Four Masters", vol. 5, entry M1516.7 (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005E/), includes "ridire Francach" (meaning 'French knight') as part of the text. This documents the use of an adjective meaning 'French' in period. Vol. 3, entry M1246.9 (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005C/), lists "Albert almaineach airdespuc Ardamacha", which documents a descriptive byname meaning 'German'. Vol. 6, entry M1599.28 (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005F/), lists "Domhnall Spainneach mac Donnchaidh, mic Cathaoir Charraigh Chaomhánaigh", which documents a descriptive byname meaning 'Spanish'. Given the examples of descriptive bynames meaning 'German' and 'Spanish', and the documentation of an adjective in Gaelic meaning 'French', a descriptive byname with this meaning is reasonable. [Aileann inghean Fhrancaigh, 01/02, R-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2002.01 As she requested authenticity for "Early Irish", the submitter may wish to know that we have not been able to document the name Gráinne earlier than the 14th C. [Gráinne ingen Domnaill Ildanaig, 01/02, R-West]
François la Flamme 2002.01 [Andrew MacGregor Toberlivet] The submitted element Toberlivet was submitted as an Anglicized form of a constructed Scottish Gaelic place name. While Tober- is well documented, -livet is only found in one location, Glenlivet. Additionally, this element is particularly problematic since different sources cannot agree on its origin. Darton, Dictionary of Scottish Place Names, (p. 174) describes it as the "elided form of liobhaite: 'of the slippery place'." Johnston (p.193 s.n. Glenlívet) lists the Gaelic as Gleann Liòmhaid, says that MacBain and Watson think that it comes from the same root as Glenlyon. Under the header Glenlyon on the same page, Johnston says of this name's meaning and origin "Doubtful. Perh. G. lì omhuinn, 'coloured river'; perh. fr. lighe, 'a flood'." Lacking solid evidence of the meaning of this element and having only the single example of its use in a placename, no pattern has been established that supports its use in other Gaelic placenames, including Scots forms of those placenames. [Andrei Grigorievich Topolev, 01/02, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.01 Regarding a form of this name authentic for 12th C Scottish, the problematic element is Maut. The first known example of the name Matilda (of which Maut is a diminutive) used in Scotland is a daughter of Malcolm III, king of Scotland, and his Anglo-Saxon wife Margaret. All of Malcolm and Margaret's children were given non-Gaelic names. As a result, their names cannot be taken as use of these names by normal Scottish Gaels. Examples of forms of Matilda begin showing up in the 13th C and it is possible to determine an authentic form of this name for the late 13th C. At that time, most official documents in Scotland were recorded in Latin. Maut filia Alpini would be an authentic Latin form of this name for late 13th C. As we have yet to find an example of the name Matilda (in any form) in Gaelic, it is impossible to determine what an authentic Gaelic form of this name would be. [Maut MacAlpin, 01/02, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2002.01 The particle mhic is the genitive form of mac in Early Modern Gaelic that is appropriate after 1200. The Middle Gaelic form is meic, which is appropriate for use with the spelling ingen. Also, 'M' does not lenite in Middle Gaelic. [Muirenn ingen meic Martain, 01/02, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2002.01 [inghen] We have changed the patronymic to a form consistent with examples in the Annals of Connacht. This source also includes examples of the spelling inghen which seems to be a conservative spelling of the standard inghean. [Temair Brecc inghen Choluim, 01/02, A-West]
François la Flamme 2002.01 Submitted as Temair Brecc inghen Cholm, Cholm is the lenited form of the nominative form of the masculine name Colm. Colm is listed as the last form under the header Columb (p. 55) in Ó Corráin & Maguire. When multiple forms are listed after the colon in headers in OCM, the first form after the colon is usually a period form and the latter forms are usually modern. No evidence was presented and none was found that the form Colm was used in period. Lacking such evidence, this form is not registerable. We have changed the patronymic to a form consistent with examples in the Annals of Connacht. [Temair Brecc inghen Choluim, 01/02, A-West]
François la Flamme 2001.12 She also notes that if her name must be changed, then the meaning "Eileen Shadow Mouse" is most important. The submitted name does not have this meaning. It means "Eileen daughter of Dubh-luchag" where Dubh-luchag is a hypothetical masculine given name. No evidence was provided and none was found that luchag is a period Gaelic word and that any word meaning 'mouse' would have been included as a root in a period Gaelic masculine given name or descriptive byname. In a broader sense, no evidence was presented and none was found that any type of rodent would have been included as a root in either a Gaelic masculine given name or in a descriptive byname. Lacking such evidence, this name is not registerable. [Eileen ingen Dubh-luchag, 12/01, R-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Submitted as Alasdair an Feusag Bhahlach allowed any changes. The byname an Feusag Bhahlach was intended to mean 'of the curly beard'. The word for curly is baclach. Descriptive bynames are rare in Gaelic. Compound descriptive bynames are vanishingly rare. Therefore, lacking evidence that a compound byname meaning 'of the curly beard' existed in period, we have dropped the element meaning 'curly'. The byname na Fésóicce, meaning 'of the beard' is found in entry M1592.5 of The Annals of the Four Masters, volume 6 (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005F/). [Alasdair na Fésóicce, 12/01, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2001.12 This name mixes the Gaelic Colum with the English or Scots Maxwell, which is registerable though it counts as a weirdness. [Colum Maxwell, 12/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.12 [RfS III.1.a] Submitted as Síthmaith nic Aoidh, the byname combined the Scots particle nic with the Gaelic Aoidh. This combination violates RfS III.1.a, which requires lingual consistency within a single name phrase. The LoI noted that, "She specifically desires the very late 'nic' form to match her persona from late Elizabethan Ireland," though she did not have a request for authenticity. Unfortunately, we have no evidence that nic was used in the names of Irish women in Ireland, though there is plently of evidence for use of the particle in the Scots language in Scotland. Therefore, we have changed the byname to the all Gaelic form inghean mhic Aoidh in order to register this name. [Síthmaith inghean mhic Aoidh, 12/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Mixing Gaelic and Scots is a weirdness. [Coilín de Kirkpatrick, 12/01, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2001.12 The name has a weirdness for mixing Gaelic and Anglicized forms. [Fionnghuala O Murrigane, 12/01, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2001.12 Submitted as Fionnualla Murrigan... Fionnualla is a Modern Irish Gaelic (post-1700) form of the name Fionnghuala. Barring evidence that it was used in period, it is not registerable. [Fionnghuala O Murrigane, 12/01, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2001.11 ... Luaithren was documented from The Book of Irish Saints by Eoin Neeson. On examination, this doesn't appear to be a trustworthy source. Of the twelve saints listed in the photocopies we received, at least three (including Luaithren) aren't corroborated in Farmer's The Oxford Dictionary of Saints or Ó Corráin & Maguire. Seven of the remaining names don't have the Gaelic forms of the saints' names correctly spelled. Additionally, Neeson is not consistent in his headers. Some have Gaelic forms as the first listed header form; others use Anglicized forms, with no indication of which is which. In at least one case (Saint Brioch), Neeson incorrectly describes the saint as being from Ireland. All of these factors combine to render Neeson's book unsuitable for our purposes. Barring documentation of Luaithren from another source, we can't register it at this time.

The submitted byname bean Seabhcir was intended to mean 'wife of the fowler or falconer'. Seabhcir was documented from a Gaelic dictionary. No documentation was presented and none was found that this word was known in Gaelic in period. Barring such documentation, it is not registerable in a name. [Luaithren bean Seabhcir, 11/01, R-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Listed on the LoI as Fiodnach Eoghan, Shire of, the petition that accompanied this submission listed the name as Fiach Ogan. The word fiach means 'raven'. It is completely different from Fiodh, which means 'wood'. Additionally, Ogan is a completely different name from Eoghan. Both of these changes are major changes, which are not permitted according to the submission form. The submitters requested authenticity for Irish Gaelic. Fiach Ogan, listed on the petition, does not follow documented examples of place names in Irish Gaelic. As the name listed on the petition is not registerable and it would take more than minor changes to make this name registerable, it must be returned. [Fiodnach Eoghan, Shire of, 11/01, R-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Listed on the LoI as Ciaran O'Neill, the name was submitted as Ciaran ONeill. While the standard Gaelic form is Ciarán Ó Néill, forms without accents are seen in period annals. Therefore, we have registered a form without accents to more closely match the submitted spelling. [Ciaran O Neill, 11/01, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2001.11 The LoI documented the name Shena from Withycombe (s.n. Jane). However, while Withycombe dates the name Jane to the 15th C, regarding Shena, she says, The Gaelic form of the name is Sìne (phonetically rendered as Sheena or Shena); Irish is Séadna. When discussing non-English names, Withycombe is usually referring to modern forms. No documentation was provided and none could be found that any form of Shena, Sìne, etc. was used in period. Without such documentation, the name is not registerable. [Shena the Red of Ravenhurst, 11/01, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Chromán was submitted as a variant spelling of the Gaelic Cromán. The "h" in the given name would not have appeared in the nominative in Gaelic. As a name used in a given name position is in the nominative, the spelling Chromán is not registerable in this position. [Chromán Thein, 11/01, R-Trimaris] [Ed.: returned for using a form of Thain]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Submitted as Úna ingen Ranald, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 13th C Scottish Gaelic and allowed any changes. Ranald is a Scots language form. (Scots is a language similar to English.) The corresponding name in Gaelic is Ragnall. [Úna ingen Ragnaill, 11/01, A-East]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Submitted as Broinnfhionn inghean ui Chatha'in, the submitter allowed minor changes. Broinnfhionn was submitted as a hypothetical form based on Broinnfind and Broinninn found in Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 38 s.n. Broinnfind). Given the early -find and the late -inn, some sort of transitional forms seems reasonable. To determine if the submitted form is a reasonable spelling of this name, we looked at the forms listed under the headers Barrfind and Bébinn in Ó Corráin & Maguire. Since the listed form Broinninn does not include an "o" in the second syllable, this name seems to follow the spellings of the name Bébinn rather than those of Barrfind. If there had been a transitional form spelled -fhionn, the "o" would have been retained in a -ionn spelling. Therefore, based on the examples listed under Bébinn, we have changed the given name in this submission to Broinnfinn, which is a plausible transitional form to have existed between Broinnfind and Broinninn. We have changed the submitted Chatha'in to the documented Chatháin. [Broinnfinn inghean uí Chatháin, 11/01, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2001.11 The language used in 6th C Ireland was Oghamic Irish, the precursor to Old Irish. [Lorcán mac Loinsigh, 11/01, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Submitted as Doireann ingen Chearbhaill, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th to 14th C (no culture specified) and allowed any changes. The particle ingen is a Middle Irish (pre-1200) spelling. Chearbhaill is an Early Modern Irish (post-1200) spelling. There is enough difference between Middle Irish and Early Modern Irish that they count as different languages for our purposes. So ingen Chearbhaill violates RfS III.1.a since it combines elements from two different languages. Therefore, we have changed ingen to the post-1200 spelling inghean, which resolves the violation of RfS III.1.a and complies with the submitter's request for authenticity. Since we have no evidence that any form of the name Doireann was used after the 10th C, we were unable to make this name completely authentic for her desired time period. [Doireann inghean Chearbhaill, 11/01, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2001.11 The submitter intended Amadan Mor to be a descriptive byname meaning 'the great fool'. Amadan was documented from a 19th C story and two dictionaries. None of these sources give any indication that the word amadan was used in Gaelic in period. Barring such evidence, it is not registerable as a name element. [Mungo Mor, 11/01, A-West]
François la Flamme 2001.11 All evidence provided with the submission and found by the College indicates that Niall is a spelling unique to Gaelic in period. It is included in the headers in Withycombe (p. 228 s.n. Nigel), but the text makes it clear that Niall is the usual modern Irish form. Given that the Anglo-Normans who settled in Ireland spoke French, and many were descended from families from Normandy, this Gaelic and French mix is registerable, though it is a weirdness. [Niall de Marseilles, 11/01, A-Lochac]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Submitted as Ainfean inghean Dubhghaill, the submitter allowed any changes. The spelling Ainfean is the last form listed in the header for Ainbthen in Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 19). The spelling shift from "bh" to "f" is typical of the shift from Early Modern Gaelic to Modern Gaelic around 1700. Therefore, as we have no evidence that Ainfean is a period spelling, we have changed the given name to a period form. [Ainbthen inghean Dubhghaill, 11/01, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Note: in Gaelic, "D" does not lenite if the previous word ends in an "n". [Ainbthen inghean Dubhghaill, 11/01, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Submitted as Ean Echbán MacCináeda, the submitter requested authenticity for "1200-1600 Scotland or Ireland (Gaelic)" and allowed any changes. The form Ean is documented only as part of the byname M'Ean in Scots. As such, it is not evidence for the use of Ean as a given name in either Scots or Gaelic, since Scots bynames are derived from phonetic renderings of Gaelic patronymic bynames, which use genitive forms that can differ significantly in spelling and pronounciation from nominative forms. Since the submitter gave his intended meaning as 'John, owner of a white horse, son of Cinaed', we have changed the given name to the standard Early Modern Gaelic (post-1200) form Eoin. Echbán was documented as a hypothetical descriptive byname meaning 'of the white horse', based on the early period descriptive byname Echluath which meant 'fast horse'. Echbán uses pre-1200 orthography which is not appropriate for the submitter's desired time period. There is actually a byname that means 'of the white horse/steed'. The Annals of the Four Masters, vol. 2 (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005B/) list Tadhg an Eich Ghil mac Cathail mic Concobhair in entry M1014.21 (for the year 1014). The translation of this article gives the meaning of this name as 'Tadhg of the White Steed, son of Cathal, son of Conchobhar'. Since The Annals of the Four Masters were written in 1632-1636, much of their orthography dates from that time period. Given this information and since the form an Eich Ghil seems to follow post-1200 orthography rules, this form of the byname is appropriate for his desired time period. We were not able to find an example of a byname meaning 'of the white horse' later than 1097, when Tadhg is last mentioned (he was killed in 1030). Cináeda is a pre-1200 genitive spelling of the name Cináed. In post-1200 orthography, the nominative form of this name became Cionaodh and the genitive spelling became Cionaodha or Cionaoith. As he wanted this name to be a literal byname meaning 'son of Cinaed' rather than 'a member of the MacCináeda family', we have separated the particle mac from the patronym and made the "m" lowercase-to follow conventions used to indicate a literal byname. [Eoin an Eich Ghil mac Cionaodha, 11/01, A-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2001.11 The submitter requested authenticity for 16th C Irish, allowed minor changes, and noted that she wanted a female name. No examples have been found of the name Muirghein being used as a feminine given name for real women in period. As such, the submitted name is must be a masculine name. This name mixes the Irish Gaelic Muirghein with the Anglicized MacKiernan which is a weirdness. A person living in 16th C Ireland would have had their name recorded completely in Gaelic or completely in English depending upon the language that the record was written in. Therefore, such a lingual mix is not authentic. As changing the language of either element is a major change, which the submitter does not allow, we were unable to make this name authentic. [Muirghein MacKiernan, 11/01, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Submitted as Michael MacCalluim of Edinburgh... The submitted MacCalluim is neither a Scottish Gaelic spelling nor a Scots spelling. We have changed it to a completely Scots spelling in order to register the name. [Michael MacCallum of Edinburgh, 11/01, A-East]
François la Flamme 2001.11 The LoI documented the name Shena from Withycombe (s.n. Jane). However, while Withycombe dates the name Jane to the 15th C, regarding Shena, she says, The Gaelic form of the name is Sìne (phonetically rendered as Sheena or Shena); Irish is Séadna. When discussing non-English names, Withycombe is usually referring to modern forms. No documentation was provided and none could be found that any form of Shena, Sìne, etc. was used in period. Without such documentation, the name is not registerable. [Shena the Red of Ravenhurst, 11/01, R-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2001.11 A submission this month included a given name documented from The Book of Irish Saints by Eoin Neeson. On examination, this doesn't appear to be a trustworthy source. Of the twelve saints listed in the photocopies we received, at least three aren't corroborated in Farmer's The Oxford Dictionary of Saints or in Ó Corráin & Maguire. Seven of the remaining names don't have the Gaelic forms of the saints' names spelled correctly. Additionally, Neeson is not consistent in his headers. Some entries have Gaelic forms as the first listed header form; other entries use Anglicized forms, with no indication of which is which. In at least one case (Saint Brioch), Neeson incorrectly describes the saint as being from Ireland. All of these factors combine to render Neeson's book unsuitable for our purposes.[11/01, CL]
François la Flamme 2001.11 This name has a weirdness for mixing pre-1200 and post-1200 Gaelic orthographies. [Tigernach Ó Catháin, 11/01, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Although this name combines a Gaelic given name with an English byname, which is a weirdness, it is registerable. [Caitlin Watkyns, 11/01, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2001.11 Dechtire is only found as the name of mother of Cú Chulainn. Barring evidence that Dechtire was used by humans in period, it is not registerable. [Dechtire ingen Ruairc, 11/01, R-Caid]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Allasan bán inghean Fhaoláin, the submitter requested authenticity for Scottish Gaelic. The name Allasan was documented as a Scottish Gaelic feminine name using the article "Some Scottish Gaelic Feminine Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/scotgaelfem/). This article has been updated and the name Allasan removed with the comment:
We had previously listed Allasan here; after further research, we have concluded that it was a mistake to include it. We have found no convincing evidence that this name was used in Scottish Gaelic before modern times.
As stated in the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR, we will discontinue registering Allasan beginning at the decision meeting in April 2002.

As we were unable to find documentation for Allasan in Scottish Gaelic in period, we were unable to make this name authentic.

Women's descriptive bynames are lenited in Gaelic. We have corrected the byname accordingly. [Allasan bhán inghean Fhaoláin, 10/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Caitriona of Lochaber, the submitter requested authenticity for Scottish language/culture. In period, a name would have been written completely in Scottish Gaelic or completely in Scots. As Caitriona is Gaelic and of Lochaber is Scots, the name is not authentic as submitted. Since locative bynames are vanishingly rare in Gaelic, we have put the name entirely in Scots to meet the submitter's request for authenticity. [Catrina of Lochaber, 10/01, A-Lochac]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Black (p. 492 s.n. MacFarlan) gives Mac Pharlain as a Gaelic form and dates Malcolm Mcpharlane to 1385. Precedent requires that when a Gaelic byname is used, it agree in gender with the given name since bynames were used literally in Gaelic. Since Mac Pharlain is a masculine form, it cannot be registered with a feminine given name, since a woman cannot be anyone's son. As the client allows changes and has stated a preference for a "Ph" spelling, MacPharlane, as suggested on the LoI, is a Scots spelling that would meet her wishes. [Maura MacPharlane, 10/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Móirne inghean uíChoinghellaigh, no documentation was provided, nor could any be found, that Móirne was used as a feminine name in period. While Ó Corráin and Maguire describe Móirne as "probably a diminutive of Mór", they give no indication that Móirne is period. Barring such documentation, Móirne is not registerable. We have substituted the period Mór.

We have also added a space after the particle and corrected the spelling of the byname. [Mór inghean uí Chonghalaigh, 10/01, A-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Derdriu de Dubhglas, the byname combined the Gaelic Dubhglas with the non-Gaelic de in a single name phrase. This violates RfS III.1.a, which requires linguistic consistency in a single name phrase. We have changed the byname to a completely Scots form to resolve this issue. [Derdriu de Duglas, 10/01, A-Trimaris]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Catriona of Whitemoor, the LoI stated that the submitter preferred the spelling Catriona which she believed to be "the English version of the period Irish Name". However, documented English spellings do not contain an "o". The spelling Catriona is neither Gaelic nor English. The closest Gaelic spelling is Caitríona. The closest English spelling is Catrina. As no documentation has been provided and none could be found for the spelling Catriona, it is not registerable. [Catrina of Whitemoor, 10/01, A-Meridies]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Séamus O' Tadhgáin, O' is an Anglicized form while Ó is a Gaelic form. Per RfS III.1.a, mixing languages is prohibited in a single name phrase. We have therefore changed O' to the Gaelic Ó. [Séamus Ó Tadhgáin, 10/01, A-Artemisia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 No documentation was provided, and none could be found, that the feminine given name Eórann was used outside of legend. The only documentation found for this name was in Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 88 s.n. Eórann), which says:
In Irish story Eórann is the wife of Suibne, king of Dál nAriaide and hero of Buile Shuibhne, which tells how Suibne was cursed by a saint, went mad of terror at the battle of Moira, and spent the rest of his life as a wild birdman wandering through the woods of Ireland.
... barring documentation that Eórann was used by non-legendary humans in period, it is not registerable under our current rules. [Eórann inghean Fhaoláin, 10/01, R-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Listed on the LoI as Ceara Líadnáin, the name was originally submitted as Ceara Líadain. Because the submitted byname was a matronymic using the feminine given name Líadan, it was changed at kingdom to use the masculine given name Líadnán. The ban on matronymics in Gaelic was overturned in the July 2001 LoAR and instead ruled a weirdness. Any additional weirdness would make a name using a matronymic construction unregisterable.

Upon further review, the few examples of matronymics in Gaelic that are currently known are in Irish Gaelic and date from after 1200. Therefore, barring examples that such constructions were used in Old Irish or Middle Irish, matronymics are only registerable for Early Modern Irish Gaelic (after 1200). A matronymic construction using name elements dated only to before 1200 would add a lingual disparity and make the name unregisterable.

Since the only dated examples that have been found for any forms of the names Ceara and Líadan date from before 1200, the originally submitted name had two weirdnesses and is not registerable. Therefore, we have retained the change from matronymic to patronymic as made at kingdom.

The particle was not used in Gaelic in period. The pre-1200 form is ingen uí and the post-1200 form is inghean uí. We have changed the particle to be linguistically consistent (as required by RfS III.1.a) with Líadnáin which is a pre-1200 spelling.

This name has one weirdness for mixing the post-1200 spelling Ceara with the pre-1200 ingen uí Líadnáin. [Ceara ingen uí Líadnáin, 10/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 [Tigh Leoghann Ban] The name was submitted with the justification that Tieg Lion Ban means 'House White Lion' and follows the patterns of inn-sign names. Such patterns are well documented in English, and an inn known as The White Lion would be completely typical for that language. However, no documentation has been presented that such a pattern existed in Gaelic. Barring such documentation, this household name is not registerable. [Rowan the Shiftless, 10/01, R-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Eíbhlin inghean uí Raghailligh, we have changed the given name to a documented form.

There was a question of whether this name conflicts with Eibhlín níc Raghailligh (reg. 09/96). Current precedent states:
[Siobhán inghean uí Dhomnaill] The question was raised in commentary whether this name conflicts with Siobhan MacDonald, registered in 1985. However, in September 1999 Elsbeth Anne Roth made a ruling which is relevant here: "Mac 'son of' and O 'descendant (grandson) of'/'of clan' refer to significantly different relationships and are therefore clear." It seems natural to apply this ruling to the corresponding feminine forms inghean and inghean uí as well. [Siobhán inghean uí Dhomnaill, 04/01, A-Ansteorra]
As nic is the Anglicized form of the Gaelic inghean mhic 'daughter of a son of'/'daughter of the Mac- family', it is clear of inghean uí 'daughter of a grandson of'/'daughter of the Ó- family' according to this precedent. [Eibhlín inghean uí Raghailligh, 10/01, A-Outlands]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Upon further review, the few examples of matronymics in Gaelic that are currently known are in Irish Gaelic and date from after 1200. Therefore, barring examples that such constructions were used in Old Irish or Middle Irish, matronymics are only registerable for Early Modern Irish Gaelic (after 1200). A matronymic construction using name elements dated only to before 1200 would add a lingual disparity and make the name unregisterable. [Ceara ingen uí Líadnáin, 10/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 The particle was not used in Gaelic in period. The pre-1200 form is ingen uí and the post-1200 form is inghean uí. We have changed the particle to be linguistically consistent (as required by RfS III.1.a) with Líadnáin which is a pre-1200 spelling. [Ceara ingen uí Líadnáin, 10/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.10 Submitted as Dùnchadh mac Gabhann, no evidence was found that the particle an was dropped from the byname in period Gaelic. As such, we have added it to this byname. [Dùnchadh mac an Gabhann, 10/01-Middle]
François la Flamme 2001.09 The given name ... is Gaelic and the byname ... is Scots. While this lingual mix is registerable, it is a weirdness. [Ailill Lockhart, 09/01, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2001.09 The submitter requested authenticity for Irish language/culture. As we have no evidence of the name Alana in Ireland, we were unable to make this name authentic. [Alana MacLeland, 09/01, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2001.09 The name Allasan has been documented as a Scottish Gaelic feminine name using the article "Some Scottish Gaelic Feminine Names" at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/scotgaelfem/. This article has been updated and the name Allasan removed with the comment:
We had previously listed Allasan here; after further research, we have concluded that it was a mistake to include it. We have found no convincing evidence that this name was used in Scottish Gaelic before modern times.
The problem here is that Allasan is a modern Gaelic name. Evidence for Scottish Gaelic names in period is very hard to find, as most documents were written in Scots or Latin. The Academy of Saint Gabriel article in question is a compilation of information from many sources, to try to determine what feminine given names were in use in Scottish Gaelic in period by examining Gaels whose names were recorded in Latin, Scots, et cetera. Recently, the Academy re-reviewed the evidence that led to the inclusion of Allasan in that article and came to the conclusion that there is no convincing evidence that a form of Alison was used by Scottish Gaels in any spelling during our period.

Given this new information, barring other documentation of the spelling Allasan as a period name, we will discontinue registering this name beginning at the decision meeting in April of 2002. This does not affect the registerability of the Scots form Alesone or other documented forms of Alison in other languages. [09/01, CL]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Submitted as Allasan Woulfe, the submitter requested authenticity for Irish Gaelic language/culture and allows minor changes. Unfortunately, neither Allasan nor Woulfe is Irish Gaelic. She states that, if the name must be changed, the meaning/sound Wolf is most important to her.

The name Allasan was documented as a Scottish Gaelic feminine name using the article "Some Scottish Gaelic Feminine Names" at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/scotgaelfem/. This article has been updated and the name Allasan removed with the comment:
We had previously listed Allasan here; after further research, we have concluded that it was a mistake to include it. We have found no convincing evidence that this name was used in Scottish Gaelic before modern times.
The problem here is that Allasan is a modern Gaelic name. Evidence for Scottish Gaelic names in period is very hard to find as most documents were written in Scots or Latin. The Academy of Saint Gabriel article in question is a compilation of information from many sources to try and determine what feminine given names were in use in Scottish Gaelic in period by examining Gaels whose names were recorded in Latin, Scots, etc. Recently, the Academy re-reviewed the evidence that led to the inclusion of Allasan in that article and came to the conclusion that there is no convincing evidence that a form of Alison was used by Scottish Gaels in any spelling during our period. Given this new information, barring other documentation of the spelling Allasan being used as a period name, we will discontinue registering this name beginning at the decision meeting in April of 2002. This does not affect the registerability of the Scots form Alesone or other documented forms of Alison in other languages.

Regarding this submission, no evidence has been found that the name Alison migrated into Ireland in any form. The Annals of Connacht list two isolated instances of the name Alis in 1267 and 1285. We would have made this change, but felt that the change from Allasan to Alis was a major change.

Woulfe (p. 862 s.n. Ulf) dates the Anglicized forms Ulfe and Wulf to the time of Elizabeth I - James I. We have changed the byname to a dated Anglicized Irish form to partially comply with the submitter's request. [Allasan Wulf, 09/01, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2001.09/TD> Submitted as Iosobail de Lockford, the submitter requested a name authentic for the 15th C. The Gaelic form Iosobail and the Scots form de Lockford would not have been mixed in period. As such, we have changed the given name to a Scots form to comply with the submitter's request. [Issobell de Lockford, 09/01, A-Atenveldt]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Listed on the LoI as Muriel ingen Ghiolla Chomhgaill, the name was submitted as Muriel inghean Giolla Comgaill. The submitter requested authenticity for Irish language/culture. The gramatically correct Gaelic form of this name is Muirgel ingen Gilla Comgaill before 1200 and Muirgheal inghean Ghiolla Chomhghaill after 1200. As the pre-1200 spelling is closer to the originally submitted form, we have changed the name to that spelling. [Muirgel ingen Gilla Comgaill, 09/01, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Submitted as Áengus Ó Dubhghaill Grey Wolf, this name had several problems.

The greatest problem was regarding the construction of Ó Dubhghaill Grey Wolf. No documentation was provided that this was a reasonable construction. Ó Dubhghaill Grey Wolf may seem to be two name phrases, Ó Dubhghaill and Grey Wolf, but it is actually a compound byname. Irish Gaelic uses the structure Ó byname + another byname to refer to a particular family, usually as part of a chiefly title. For example, the names Ó Conchobhair Donn, Ó Conchobhair Ruadh, and Ó Conchobhair Sligeach are all designations for heads of branches of the O'Connors (Woulfe, p. 477 s.n. Ó Conchobhair Donn).

As a compound byname, Ó Dubhghaill Grey Wolf falls under RfS III.1.a and must consist of a single language. As submitted, this name phrase mixes Irish Gaelic and English. As we have no evidence that 'color + animal' is a reasonable byname in Irish Gaelic, we cannot translate Grey Wolf into Gaelic. The simplest fix is to put Grey Wolf before the patronymic, making it a descriptive byname referring to Áengus.

The second problem is that the documentation provided indicates that an English byname meaning 'Grey + animal' would be one word. As such, we have changed this byname to Greywolf.

Therefore, Áengus Greywolf Ó Dubhghaill includes the smallest number of changes needed to register the name.

It was noted in the LoI that the original submission of Áengus Ó Dubhghaill was returned in October 2000 for conflict with Angus MacDougall. It was also noted that a ruling in September 1999 determined that Coinneach mac Dhomhnuill was ruled to be clear of Coinneach Ó Domhnail since "Mac 'son of' and Ó 'descendent (grandson) of / clan of' refer to significantly different relationships and are therefore clear." The addition of Greywolf removes any potential conflict.

The reasoning behind the 'same relationship' portion of RfS V.1.a.ii.(a) is that such bynames were used interchangeably depending upon the records and so are in conflict. It is important to note that through all my research in various Irish annals, I have not yet found an instance where the particles mac and Ó (in any of their forms) are used interchangeably. If the particles in question are (1) not used interchangeably, and (2) are clear of auditory conflict, then they should be counted as clear of each other. Note though, that a byname with no particle is still a conflict with both mac and Ó forms as it was a valid variant in English records referring to Gaelic people. For example, mac Dubhghaill is clear of Ó Dubhghaill. But the Scots or Anglicized Irish byname Dougall conflicts with both mac Dubhghaill and Ó Dubhghaill.

For more information about conflicts involving Gaelic particles, see the cover letter.

There was no indication on the forms that the submitter would prefer to drop the epithet if his name was ruled to be clear without it. As such, we have left it in the name. [Áengus Greywolf Ó Dubhghaill, 09/01, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Submitted as Roise ni Ruaidhri, the particle ni is an Anglicized form of inghean uí. As RfS III.1.a requires all elements of a name phrase (the byname ni Ruaidhri in this case) to be in a single language, we have changed the particle to the Gaelic form. [Roise inghean ui Ruaidhri, 09/01, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2001.09 ... as with Norse names, the accents should be used or not used throughout the name. [Roise inghean ui Ruaidhri, 09/01, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Submitted as Banba MacDermot, Banba was documented from Ó Corráin and Maguire (p. 28 s.n. Banba) which states that "Banba was the wife of Mac Cuill, one of the gods of the Tuatha Dé Danann". Since no documentation was presented and none was found that Banba was used by humans in period, it is not registerable. [Banbnat MacDermot, 09/01, A-Calontir]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Listed on the LoI as Sibán inghean Ragnall, the name was originally submitted as Sibán ingen Ragnall. The form ingen is the early form of the particle and more appropriate to the submitted form of Ragnall, so we have returned it to that spelling. We have also put the byname into the genitive form, Ragnaill, as required in a patronymic byname. [Sibán ingen Ragnaill, 09/01, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2001.09 Submitted as Aíbell Sùil-uaine, the submitter did not have a request for authenticity, allows minor changes, and notes that if her name must be changed, the meaning 'green-eyed' is most important. Aíbell is listed in Ó Corráin and Maguire (p. 15 s.n. Aíbell). The main person discussed under this entry is an Irish goddess. Two others are a daughter of an Ulster warrior and a daughter of a king of Munster mentioned in stories. The entry is not clear whether these last two women are only legendary or not, so we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt at this time.

The main problem with this name was with the submitted byname Sùil-uaine. Sufficient evidence was found by the College that a descriptive byname meaning 'green-eyed' would be reasonable in Irish Gaelic in period. Though we are not completely certain what form a period byname with this meaning would take, we are certain it would not be the submitted Sùil-uaine since the word used to refer to green eye-color is glas not uaine. The Dictionary of the Irish Language (s.v. súil) lists the compound súilglas which combines súil 'eye' with glas 'green', but give no dates for this word. The Annals of the Four Masters, in the year 624, have suile glasa as part of the text of the entry (as opposed to being included in a name), which gives evidence that glas was used in conjunction with sùil in period.

Bynames meaning '-eyed' using the element -súileach were discussed by the College. All of these date from the 11th C or later and so were not necessarily used earlier. Aíbell is an early name (assuming its use was not strictly legendary). The early form of a byname combining súil and glas would be súlglas (using súl, the early form of súil). Shúlglas is the lenited form which would be used in a woman's byname. [Aíbell Shúlglas, 09/01, A-Æthelmearc]
François la Flamme 2001.08 In our period, the particle nic was not used in Gaelic. The period Gaelic equivalent was inghean mhic. RfS III.1.a requires that all elements in a name phrase be in one language. We have made the change in the particle to comply with this rule.

Note: As the patronym (Criomhthainn) begins with a "C" and the preceeding particle (mhic) ends with a "c", the patronym does not lenite. [Muirenn inghean mhic Criomhthainn, 08/01, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2001.08 Listed on the LoI as Méabh inghean Thaidg ua Domnaill, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th to 15th C Irish. The submitter documented Méabh from Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 135 s. n. Medb). When multiple forms are listed after the colon in headers in OCM, the first form after the colon is usually a period form and the latter forms are usually modern. In this case, Méabh is almost certainly modern as it does not follow period spelling conventions. [Meadhbh inghean Thaidhg uí Domhnaill, 08/01, A-Atlantia]
François la Flamme 2001.08 ... in the name Aislinn Fiona of Rumm, Fiona can only be interpreted as a second given name or as an unmarked matronymic. Use of double given names and unmarked matronymics in Gaelic have both been cause for return in the past. [Aislinn Fiona of Rumm, 08/01, R-An Tir]
François la Flamme 2001.08 The combination of Scots and Welsh is registerable, though it is considered a weirdness. As such, Anton Cwith is registerable as a mix of Scots and Welsh. Note: this ruling does not alter previous rulings prohibiting mixed Gaelic/Welsh names, as Scots is a different language than Scottish Gaelic. [Anton Cwith, 08/01, A-Ansteorra]
François la Flamme 2001.08 Conflict with Siobhan MacDonald, reg. March 1985 via the West. The precedent that is applicable here is:

... one of the considerations that went into the present version of RfS V (Name Conflict) was that names that were interchangeable in period probably ought to conflict. (For an example see RfS 1.a.ii(b) (Locative Bynames).) Since Bridget Killeen and Brighid Ní Chillín could indeed have signified the same person very late in our period, it is at least consistent with other parts of the rules to say that they conflict (Talan Gwynek, LoAR March 1996, p. 10)

As Sibán ingen Dhomnaill could have been referred to in Anglicized documents with the byname MacDonald, these two names conflict. [Sibán ingen Dhomnaill, 08/01, R-Atlantia] (overturned in the 04/2002 Cover Letter)

François la Flamme 2001.08 The name was submitted as Aidan and changed at kingdom to Aedan due to lack of documentation for the form Aidan. Precedent from the September 2000 LoAR supports registration of Aidan, as an Anglicized form of the Irish given name Áedán. [Aidan Macpherson, 08/01, A-Caid]
François la Flamme 2001.08 Submitted as Dùghall Bàn, the form Dùghall was cited from Black (p. 217 s. n. Dougal). While Black cites this as a Gaelic form, he gives no date for it. The standard pre-1200 form of this name is Dubgall, and the standard post-1200 form is Dubhghall. The submitted form seems to be a modern form. We have therefore changed this to a period form. [Dubhghall Bàn, 08/01, A-Atlantia]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.07 Submitted as Caiterína ingen Máirgréc, the question was raised whether Irish metronymic bynames are registerable. They have been ruled unregisterable as recently as February 2000, for the reason that There are no known examples of metronymics in Gaelic names outside of two examples both involving royalty whose claim to the throne was through the female line.

However, recent evidence provided by Orle suggests that the situation is not quite that simple. People other than royalty were occasionally identified by their female ancestors: the Annals of Connacht have, for example, clann ingine Eogain the sons of Eogan's daughter and Sida Occ mac ingini h. Dubidir Sida Oc, the son of O Duibidir's daughter; the Annals of the Four Masters have, for instance, Mac Con Mara .i. mac inghene Uí Dálaigh Mac Namara (i.e. the son of O'Daly's daughter) and Brian mac an Chalbhaigh Uí Chonchobhair & Mairgrege Brian, the son of Calvagh O'Conor, by Margaret.

Based on this new evidence we feel that a properly constructed Irish metronymic should be considered a weirdness instead of reason for a return by itself. An unmarked metronymic is still unregisterable. She asked for an authentic 10th century Irish name, but we were not able to comply with this request without changing the byname entirely. Instead, we have changed the metronymic to the grammatically correct form. We have also changed the spelling of the metronymic particle to make the name temporally consistent, since using an early form of the particle (as submitted) with a name that is only dated to late period would make the name unregisterable. [Caiterína inghean Mháirgrége, 07/01, A-Calontir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.07 Submitted as Donnchad na Atholl, the byname had a Gaelic locative particle with an Anglicized place name. Since each name element must be consistent with a single language, we have dropped the particle. [Donnchad Atholl, 07/01, A-Calontir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.07 Submitted as Sorcha Mhaoláin, the byname had a particle that was only used in an Anglicized context with a Gaelic-form name. We have changed the byname to an entirely Gaelic form. [Sorcha inghean uí Mhaoláin, 07/01, A-Calontir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.07 While the given name appears in Ó Corráin and Maguire's Irish Names, they say that The only bearer of this name was Caireen Chasdubh ('of the dark curly hair'), daughter of the king of the Britons, and mother of Niall of the Nine Hostages, legendary ancestress of the high-kings of Ireland. Because of this, the name has already been ruled unregisterable in August 1991. [Cairenn inghean Dubhthaigh, 07/01, R-Calontir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.07 While the given name appears in Ó Corráin and Maguire's Irish Names, they say it comes from mythology, the wife of the sea-god Manannán mac Lir. Barring evidence that the name was used by humans in period we have to return this. In addition to this, the byname is in a masculine form, inappropriate with a feminine given name. [Fand Mac Cailin, 07/01, R-Calontir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.07 Submitted as Finé Eilidh Macrennie, no evidence has been found for double given names in Gaelic. We have therefore dropped the second given name. [Finé Macrennie, 07/01, A-Calontir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.07 Gearasdan garrison appears to be a loan word from English. The College found only one instance of this word in 1598, but there is no evidence that it was used in period place names and some doubt as to whether the word itself was used at that time to refer to a physical structure. The most typical way to say what the submitters want would be Dun an Óir, but unfortunately there is already a Barony of Dun Or.

The submitters might consider either caiseal or ráth, both meaning ring fort; either Caiseal na Óir or Ráth na Óir would be reasonable place names with a meaning very close to that desired. [An Gearasdan Òir, Stronghold of, 07/01, R-An Tir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.07 The submitter requested an authentic 16th century Gaelic name. We were not able to comply with this request: in fact, the College did not find evidence that the given name was used later than 8th century. While we consider a temporal disparity of eight centuries a weirdness we do not consider it sufficient reason to return the name. [Rónán mac an Stalcair, 07/01, A-Atlantia]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.01 The documentation implies that the epithet refers uniquely to Ogma, champion to the Tuatha and, in some sense, the Irish analogue of Hercules. As such, it is not appropriate as a byname, so barring new evidence to the contrary we have to return it. [Ciarán Grianánach, 01/01, R-Caid]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.12 Submitted as Flannait Sibéal Ni hIighnigh, we have no evidence that double given names were used in Gaelic names in period. We have therefore dropped the second given name, as well as changed the post-period to a period patronymic construct. [Flannait inghean uí hEighnigh, 12/00, A-Meridies]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.12 Submitted as Siobán Ó Fidhne, the name had a feminine given name and a masculine form of the patronymic. We have changed the name to be entirely feminine. [Siobán inghean uí Fhidhne, 12/00, A-An Tir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.11 Submitted as Isabele nic Giolla Bhríde, the byname mixed Anglicized and Gaelic spellings. As mixed-language name elements are not allowed we have changed the patronymic to an entirely Anglicized spelling. [Isabele nic Gilvride, 11/00, A-Meridies]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.11 Submitted as Diarmuid de Rosas, this name had two separate problems. First, there was no evidence that the spelling Diarmuid was period. Second, and more importantly, mixed Irish / Spanish names are not allowed (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR of July 1997). [Diarmaid de Rossa, 11/00, A-An Tir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.08 Submitted as Onóra nic Catháin, nic only appears in Anglicised spellings. As we do not allow mixed-spelling name elements we have changed the patronymic (and thus the entire name) to be consistently Gaelic. [Onóra inghean mhic Catháin, 08/00, A-Meridies]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.08 Submitted as Muirenn ingen Darragh, the byname mixed Anglicized and Gaelic spelling. As Bordure put it,

Woulfe (p. 494 s.n. Ó Dara) lists Darragh as a modern Anglicized form of the name. As such, using it with ingen violates RfS III.1.a, "Each phrase must be grammatically correct according to the usage of a single language." [Muirenn ingen Dara, 08/00, A-Atlantia]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.07 ... the combination of Manx with Anglicized Irish, while registerable, is not generally found as a period practice. [Egan Taitnyssagh Smilebringer, 07/00, R-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.07 While there is no evidence that Niamh was actually used in period, it appears in period sagas, in some cases as the name of a human being. [Niamh ingen Maolán, 07/00, A-Meridies]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.06 Bynames of the type of Clan X, not found in period, have been disallowed since late 1998. [Dùghall Bàn of Clann Mhuirich, 06/00, R-Atlantia]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.05 Submitted as Derdriu ingen Murcada , it was noted in commentary that Ó Corrain and Maguire indicate that Derdriu is mythological. However, Black, sub Deirdre , has Derdere, wife of Cospatric Earl in 1166; this leads us to believe that the name is registerable. We have lenited the patronymic, though, to match documentation and to make it grammatically correct. [Derdriu ingen Mhurchadha, 05/00, A-Middle]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.05 [Dún na Laoich Ór] The name, meaning 'Fortress of the Golden Warriors,' isn't very plausible as a period Scots or Irish place name. Metron Ariston notes that the vast majority of place names beginning in Dun seem to be descriptive in nature, referring to a salient feature of the fort (e.g., its color or location). In a lesser number of cases, the Dun is combined with the name of an individual associated with the fort in history or legend. Relatively rare are names like Dumbarton deriving from groups of people (in this case from Dun Breatuin or Fort of the Britains) and even there we could not find any that do not use a proper noun. [Dún na Laoich Ór, Stronghold of, 05/00, R-An Tir]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.04 Submitted as Cassandra Annabell O Seanacain, the name has two weirdnesses: the mixture of Gaelic and English spelling conventions and the use of two given names, particularly in an Irish context, where it is not allowed. It also used a masculine form of the patronymic with a feminine name. By Anglicizing the surname, we make this an English name for someone of Irish decent, making it registerable. [Cassandra Annabelle O Shannahan, 04/00, A-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.04 Submitted as Fína ingen Áeda, the given name is only documented as Fíne. The example cited from the Academy of Saint Gabriel letter was a misreading of the listing for this name in Ó Corráin and Maguire, Irish Names. [Fíne ingen Áeda, 04/00, A-Middle]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.04 Submitted as Anu of Shelmerdine, this name has two weirdnesses: it combines English and Irish orthography, and the form Anu was only found before 1300 and Selmerdine is dated to the 16th century, therefore the name is temporally incompatible. We have, therefore, changed the given name to a late period form. [Ana of Shelmerdine, 04/00, A-Middle]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.04 There are several problems with the name. Brenna is not Gaelic, but is justfiable as possibly Italian. This makes the name acceptable by itself, but not with the rest of the name. The mixture of English and Gaelic spellings in the name is a weirdness. Furthermore, there is no evidence of Scottish or Irish names with two given names, much less three. Also, there is no evidence of the use of Clan <X> in names. Lastly, the Macghie of MacKay implied that the submitter is the clan chief or the clan chief's daughter, which is presumptuous. The submitter should also be informed that Michaela is not Irish. [Brenna Michaela Sine Macghie of Clan MacKay, 04/00, R-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.04 This name has the weirdness of mixing English and Gaelic spelling plus the problem of two given names in Irish. Both problems could be solved by dropping Caitlin, but the submitter allowed no major changes. [Honor Caitlin nic Curtin, 04/00, R-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.03 There are no known examples of metronymics in Gaelic names outside of two examples both involving royalty whose claim to the throne was through the female line. [Móirne inghean Étaín, 03/00, R-Caid]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.03 Submitted as Kára MacLeod, the submitter requested an authentic 10th century Scottish name. The name itself is a mix of a Norse name and a Scots spelling of a Gaelic patronymic derived from a Norse name. Scots did not appear as a separate language after the 10th century. Furthermore, the mixture of two spelling systems is not plausible for 10th century Scotland. While elements from Gaelic and Norse may have been used in a single name, the name itself would be written either entirely in Gaelic or Norse, although the same name could have been written in either language depending on the context. For registration we chose to make the name entirely Gaelic both because it is more "Scottish" and because the resulting name is closer in sound to the original. A fully Norse form would be Kára Ljótsdottír. [Cera ingen Leoid, 03/00, A-Meridies]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.03 In Gaelic, the patronymic marker mac can only be used with a masculine name; this needs the feminine patronymic marker inghean instead. Additionally, Mairead is a 20th century form of the given name; the late period Máirghréad would be acceptable. [Mairead MacLabhrain, 03/00, R-Caid]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.03 [Griffin of Lochlan] The submitter documented Lochlan as Scots Gaelic for Norway and thus requested the byname as a lingua anglica form. The problem is that Gaelic did not use bynames of the form "of <placename>." In Gaelic, nationality was shown by using an adjectival form, e.g., instead of "of Norway" they used "Norse". Thus, there is not a Gaelic version of the byname that can be translated. As the submitter allows no changes, we must return the name. Given that Griffin is English and Scots, we recommend two possibilities. If the submitter wants to be from Norway, a Scots form of the locative is of Norroway. If the submitter wants Lochlan, then Lachlann is a period Scots byname derived from the Gaelic given name Lachlan. Thus Griffin Lachlann would be registerable, but the name would mean either that Griffin was the son of Lachlann or, depending on the time, that Lachlann was an inherited surname. [Griffin of Lochlan, 03/00, R-Atlantia]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.02 Submitted as Ailesh nic Rose ni Malone, the submitter requested and authentic 11th century Irish name meaning "Ailesh, daughter of Rose of the clan Malone." ... there is no evidence that metronymics were used in Ireland; the only examples found involved genealogies of royalty whose claim to royalty involved descent through the female line. [Alis ni Malone, 02/00, A-Ansteorra]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.02 ... the mixture of Scots and Gaelic spelling is a weirdness and not returnable... [Elspeth O'Shea, 02/00, A-Middle]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.02 Submitted as Elspeth O'Seaghdha, while the mixture of Scots and Gaelic spelling is a weirdness and not returnable, if the byname is in Gaelic it must follow the rules of Gaelic grammar. Ó Seaghdha (or O'Seaghdha) cannot follow a feminine name. We have therefore Anglicized the byname. If she wants an entirely Irish name she could have Sibéal inghean uí Sheaghdha, where Sibéal is a Gaelic form of Elizabeth/Isabel. [Elspeth O'Shea, 02/00, A-Middle]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2000.02 Ailionora and Caointiarn are both Irish feminine given names. We know of no examples of Irish names consisting of two given names. Nor can we make the second name a metronymic. There is no evidence that metronymics were used in Ireland; the only examples found involved genealogies of royalty whose claim to royalty involved descent through the female line. [Ailionora Caointiarn, 02/00, R-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 2001.01 Briana is SCA compatible. Submitted as Briana MacConmara, the surname is Gaelic, and, as such the gender of the patronymic is incorrect. If we corrected the gender of the patronymic, then the name would have two weirdnesses: mixed English and Gaelic orthographies and the use of an SCA compatible name. [Briana MacNamara, 01/00, A-Atlantia]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.12 [Culloch MacUalraig] The documentation for Culloch did not show that it was a given name. Not all names used after mac in Irish or Scottish Gaelic are given names. In this case Culloch appears to be a descriptive byname. [Culloch MacUalraig, 12/99, R-Caid]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.12 No evidence was given, nor could any be found, to justify a byname meaning "wolf phantom". Bynames in Irish Gaelic were generally literal, as in F.ind, "fair", or Gabulfota, "long-legged." [Siobhán Faolscatha, 12/99, R-Caid]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.11 ... no documentation was given, nor was any found, showing that Cait is a period diminutive. [Cait inghean ui Flannagain 11/99, R-Artemisia, returned for conflict]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.11 The dated documentation for Baildrin only lists it in the genitive form; however, no one could determine the nominative form and it is possible that the name was a foreign borrowing and has the same nominative as genitive form. Therefore, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt. [Baildrin MacEinri, 11/99, A-East]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.11 Submitted as Ceara ingen Conaill, lenition was always explictily written for voiceless letters. [Ceara ingen Chonaill, 11/99, A-Caid]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.11 Submitted as Eliza O Coileain, while mixed Gaelic/English spellings are allowed, we still require that the grammar of the Gaelic patronymic be correct. We have therefore substituted an appropriate Anglicized form of the byname. [Eliza O'Culane, 11/99, R-Atenveldt]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.11 Submitted as Sciath ingen Cuain, lenition was always explicitly written for voiceless letters. Therefore we have corrected the patronymic. [Sciath ingen Chuain, 11/99, A-Caid]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.10 Submitted as Maura MacLeod, no documentation was given showing that Maura was a period given name. The Irish Gaelic form Maire appeared so late in Irish as a solitary given name that we are doubtful that English diminutives appeared within our period. We therefore replaced the given name with a documented form. [Mary MacLeod, 10/99, A-Æthelmearc]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.10 ... the documentation for Banba indicates that it was used only as a place name or as the wife of a god. [Banba McGowen, 10/99, R-Calontir, returned for lack of paperwork]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.08 The submitter should be informed that the use of is modern...[Muirenn ní Ailbe, 08/99, A-Artemisia]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.08 Submitted as Étain inghean uí Braonáin, the submitter requested an authentic form for 6th-12th century Ireland. Clan names of this type were not used in Ireland before the tenth century, but Harpy believes that Étain ingen uí B(h)róenáin is reasonable for the 10th through 12th century. The 'h' is optional in Old Irish names - the name is still pronounced as lenited but not spelled that way. [Étain ingen uí Bróenáin, 08/99, A-East]
Elsbeth Anne Roth 1999.07 [Clan Caer Lonn] The name mixes two languages, Welsh (Caer) and Gaelic (Lonn) in one phrase, violating rule III.1.a, "Linguistic Consistency." Brian should also be informed that Clans were named after personal names and nicknames, not places. Lastly we would prefer to see some evidence that "Strong" is a reasonable adjective to apply to keeps. [Brian Brock, 07/99, R-Atenveldt]
Jaelle of Armida 1999.04 [Aislinn Chaomhanach] Submitted as Aislinn Aine Caomhanach, Gaelic doesn't have double given names. Therefore, we have removed the second middle name Aine. We have put the byname into the proper genitive form. Note: Caomhanach is not a patronymic surname. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1999, p. 7)
Jaelle of Armida 1999.03 [Geaspar O'Murchadha] This is being returned for lack of documentation for the given name. The only documentation presented was from The Book of Irish Names, which is not a reliable source. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1999, pp. 10, 14)
Jaelle of Armida 1999.03 [Máille ingen Bhrain Cadal] The name is being returned for lack of a period given name. While it is true that it appears in Woulfe's Irish Names and Surnames, that is no guarantee that it is a period. Ó Corrain and Maguire (Gaelic Personal Names, p. 133) under Máire lists Maille (with no marking) among pet-forms of Máire with no date. However, given their previous note that the name Máire itself was extremely rare before the seventeenth century, it is quite unlikely that Máire formed a pet-form during our period. Barring documentation that it was used in period, it is not acceptable for use in the SCA. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1999, p. 12)
Jaelle of Armida 1999.03 [Medbh Gillacon] The name is being returned for lack of documentation for the given name. The documentation for the given name was taken from The Book of Irish Names, which is not a reliable source. Furthermore, the form there was not Medbh, but Meadhbh. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1999, p. 10)
Jaelle of Armida 1999.03 While it is true that [Máille] appears in Woulfe's Irish Names and Surnames, that is no guarantee that it is a period. Ó Corrain and Maguire (Gaelic Personal Names, p. 133) under Máire lists Maille (with no marking) among pet-forms of Máire with no date. However, given their previous note that the name Máire itself was extremely rare before the seventeenth century, it is quite unlikely that Máire formed a pet-form during our period. Barring documentation that it was used in period, it is not acceptable for use in the SCA. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1999, p. 11)
Jaelle of Armida 1999.02 After a great deal of thought we have decided to overturn the precedent on mixed Gaelic/English orthography. There are many reasons for doing this, the most important of which are mentioned below.

First, and most importantly, while they were not common, there are period examples of mixed Gaelic/English orthography. These include: William Liath de Burgo, Cormac Óg Mac Carthy, Ulick na gceann de Burgo, Shane Donnghaileach, Con Bacagh O'Neill, and William Odhar O'Carroll. Therefore, this is a period practice, and there is no reason why we should not permit it.

Secondly, the original ban was stated to be because the some sound values in Gaelic and English are not represented by the same letter. This is, of course, correct. However, the same can be said of many other mixed language names. For instance, we readily register mixed English and Welsh names, yet the sound values for some letters in Welsh is not the same as those in English. We see no reason that the standards for Gaelic/English names should be any stricter than for other mixed language names.

Finally, the policy as it exists is just not fair to submitters. For ten years our rules have been set up to be explainable and to derive from the first principles established in the rules. This does not. Even now, nearly four years after the ban, most submitters and a substantial portion of the College of Arms cannot derive the regulation from our heraldic first principles and view it as merely heraldic arbitrariness. This does not help the submitter, the college, or the Society as a whole.

This does not affect the ruling on mixing Gaelic female given names with masculine patronymics. This precedent only affects the mixing of Gaelic and English orthography in the same name. (Jaelle of Armida, CL with the February 1999 LoAR, p. 3)

Jaelle of Armida 1998.10 [Ceara ingen an Fear-fearainn] According to the LoI the byname was intended to be Irish meaning "daughter of the landholder/landed farmer. However, while there are some Gaelic bynames formed from occupations, there are very few, and none are of this type. Barring documentation that occupational bynames were formed from occupations of this type, this must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR October 1998, p. 13)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.09 [Aoibheall an Sionnach] Note this is one of the few documented occasions where the Gaelic byname incorporates the definite article. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.09 [Fionnbharr Seabhac] Found on the LoI as Fionbharr an Seabhac, the given name was typoed on LOI; the proper spelling of the given name has two n's. We have corrected this. Additionally we have removed the article an in the byname, as it is rarely used in Gaelic. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.09 [Labhran mac Iain Ghlinne na Guineach] Submitted as Labhriumm Mac Iain Gleann na Guineach, based on evidence from Black's Surnames of Scotland, p. 534, the submitted given name is an out-of-period form backformed from the English and/or Latin form of Laurence. Black indicates very clearly that the Middle Gaelic form of the given name is Labhran. …

Thus the name as a whole should be Labhran mac Iain Ghlinne na Guineach. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1998)

Jaelle of Armida 1998.09 [Labhran mac Iain Ghlinne na Guineach] Submitted as Labhriumm Mac Iain Gleann na Guineach, … The place name means "Glen of the Gunn folk". Na Guineach is a feminine genitive with the usual feminine genitive article. However, Gleann is a nomina with locatives included in Calder (Gaelic Grammar, p141), it should be placed in the genitive (genitive of origin) and lenited: Ghlinne na Guineach. Thus the name as a whole should be Labhran mac Iain Ghlinne na Guineach. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.09 [Tadhg Garrick de Hardwyk] This submission was accidentally left out the LoAR, it should have been returned for the following reasons:

The first is that Tadhg is indeed an Irish name in a characteristically Irish spelling; as such it is incompatible with the rest of this name. He needs to come up with an Irish byname, or an English replacement for Tadhg. The usual English form seems to have been Thad(d)eus, presumably on the basis of the vague resemblance between the two names. For instance, Woulfe s.n. Tadhg gives Thaddaeus as a Latinization. Better yet, in Volume III of the Index to Administrations in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, covering the years 1581-1595, we find mention of one Thadeus Mac Cartye, of the city of Westminster. There's no way to be sure from the available information, but this looks very much like an Englished Tadhg Mac Cárthaig. [Errata Letter, 9/98]

Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Brigit inghean ui Dhomhnaill] Submitted as Brigit inghean ui Domhnaill, the patronymic needed to be aspirated. We have done so. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Cassair ní Dheoráin] Submitted as Cassair ní Deorain, the patronymic needed to be aspirated. We have done so. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Conchobar mac Eoin] Submitted as Conchobhar mac Eoin, the LoI misspelled Concobar. We have corrected this. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Dougal MacPherson] This conflicts with the registered name of Dugald MacPherson. The differences in the given name are directly parallel to those between Mary and Marie, which are held to be equivalent and not significantly different. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Eilís ní Bhraonáin] Submitted as Eilis ní Bhraonain, fadas were needed in the given name and in the patronymic. We have added them.
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Fearghus Slànaighear] Submitted as Fearghus an Slànaigher, use of the definite article is extremely rare in Gaelic names. Therefore, barring documentation of its use with Slànaigher we have dropped it. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1998, p. 1)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Goffraid ÓFloinn] Submitted as Goffraid O'Floinn, we have put the byname into the proper Gaelic form, using a fada instead of an apostrophe
Jaelle of Armida 1998.08 [Óengus mac Conchobhair] Submitted as Óenghus mac Conchobhair, the documented form of the given name is Óengus. We have corrected this. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.07 [Dilan mac in tsaeir. Household name for Ballaí Bána.] The name is being returned for nonperiod style. Possible models for household names include Scottish clans (Clan Stewart), ruling dynasties (House of Anjou), professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers), military units (The White Company), and inns (House of the White Hart). This does not follow any period exemplars, and barring documentation must be returned. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, July 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.07 [Eoghan MacFhearguis] Submitted as Eoghan MacFhearguis of Dunfallandy, this combines the name of the clan with the clan seat which is presumptuous. We have removed the placename in order to register the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1998, p. 2)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.07 [Fionnghuala inghean Ghriogair] Submitted as Fionnghuala MacGriogair, the byname has been modified to match the gender of the given name and put into the genitive. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.07 [Iain Dubhghall MacGriogair] This is being returned for using double given names in Gaelic. To date no documentation has been presented for its use in Gaelic, and barring such documentation we cannot register such names. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1998, p. 13)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.07 [Maire nic Ardhghail] Note: while the use of Maire is rare in period Gaelic names, there are a few dated examples. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1998, p. 8)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.07 [Rhael Anedd] Submitted as Rhael Anedd Dal Riata, this combines Welsh and Gaelic in the same name. Since Gaelic wasn't combined with other Welsh in period, we have dropped the Gaelic elements in order to register the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1998, p. 4)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.07 [Ruadhan ÓFaoláin] Submitted as Ruadhan O'Faoláin, the LoI misspelled O'Faoláin by using a O' instead of Ó. We have corrected this. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.07 [Téarlach MacDonnachaidh] Submitted as Téarlach Donnachaidh, Gaelic does not use unmarked patronymics. Therefore we have put the byname into the patronymic form. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1998, p. 8)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Brigid ingen Loingsigh] Submitted as Brigid Ó Loingsigh, the patronymic needs to be changed to match the gender of the given name. We have done so. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR June 1998, p. 9)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Caínnear an Ruad] The name is being returned for incorrect construction. Gaelic doesn't use an in names. The correct construction should be Caínnear Ruadh or Caínnear Ruad. Since the submitter does not accept changes, the name must be returned (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998, p. 17)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Cellach ni Thighearnaigh] Submitted as Cellach ni Tighearnaigh, the patronymic needs to be lenited. We have done so. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Conchobhar Ó Loingsigh] Submitted as Conchobar O'Loingsigh, the correct Gaelic form of the patronymic is Ó Loingsigh. We have made this correction and we have corrected the spelling of the given name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Cúán mac Seanáin] Submitted as Cúán mac Seanán, the patronymic was not correctly put into the genitive. We have corrected this. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Erc Ó Cathain] Submitted as Eirc O Cathain, the form Eirc is in the genitive form. We have corrected this. The byname was also incorrectly formed; the correct form should be Ó Cathain. We have made this correction. His former name Normon Wyrmwood is hereby released. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Lóchán mac Alsandair] Submitted as Lóchán Alsandair, Gaelic does not use unmarked patronymics or double given names. We have put the byname into the proper patronymic form. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Máire inghean Dhúncháin mhic Oisdealbhaigh] Submitted as Máire ní Dúncháin mhic Oisdealbhaigh, it was incorrectly put into the genitive. We have corrected this. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Medb Ceitinn] It would be more temporally consistent to use the spelling Maeve for the given name. [Name was registered.] (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Muireann Chianach] Submitted as Muireann Cianacht, the byname was not properly put into the genitive. We have corrected this. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Oengus Ó Flannagáin] Submitted as Oengus Cineal Aonghusa Cineal Aonghusa is the name of a clan (named after someone named Aonghus). A number of different words roughly equivalent to "clan" were used in Medieval Irish. The available evidence indicates that the way membership in such a clan (no matter what "clan" word was used for the group) was indicated in a personal name was by the use of ó (or older ua) plus the clan eponym in the genitive (i.e., ó Aonghusa) not by using a construction equivalent to "of Clan X". Therefore we have changed this to an alternative form which the submitter allows. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR June 1998, p. 5)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Sibón nic Ghiolla Phádraig] Submitted as Sibón nic Ghiolla Phadraig, the byname was missing an accent. We have corrected this. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.06 [Taliesin Flynn] Submitted as Taliesin Fhloinn, this combines a Welsh given name with a Gaelic byname. Therefore we have substituted the Anglicized form of the byname. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR, June 1998)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Cáemgen Ó Tuathail] Submitted as Coemgen Ó Tuathail, Coemgen as documented from Withycombe. However, while she is an excellent source for names in English, she is not as reliable when it comes to names that are not English. The correct Gaelic form is Cáemgen which we have substituted. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 2)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Fiona ní Dhraighneán] Submitted as Fiona O Draighneán, for Gaelic names the entire name has to be internally consistent as to gender. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 2)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Ian Griffen the Archer] Submitted as Iain Griffen the Archer, Iain is a Gaelic spelling of which cannot be combined with an English name. We have substituted the Anglicized spelling, Ian. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 2)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Tiernan Diego de las Aguas] This name has several serious problems, either of which would be grounds for return... Tiernan is a 20th century post-spelling-reform spelling of the earlier Tighearnán. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 16)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.02 [Tiernan Diego de las Aguas] This name has several serious problems, either of which would be grounds for return... This would mix a Gaelic given name with Spanish, which, barring documentation, does not seem likely. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1998, p. 16)
Jaelle of Armida 1998.01 [Esugenas maqqas Moridaci avvi Cremutanni] Some questions were raised about the suitability of registering this name, since it is a proto-Irish name. However, this name is contemporaneous with Romano-British names which we register. Furthermore, proto-Irish bears the same relationship to medieval Irish as late Latin does to the Romance languages. Both are only one step removed from their medieval counterparts, as opposed to, Pharaonic Egyptian, which we do not register. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1998, p. 2)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.12 Fáid means seer or prophet. Some doubts were raised in commentary about the appropriateness of such a byname. However, The Dictionary of the Irish Language glosses it in the same fashion as Druid. Since we would register [Name] the Druid, [Name] the seer or prophet is also acceptable. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR December 1997, p. 1)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.11 To the best of our knowledge, Gaelic did not use metronymics, so an all Gaelic form of the name as a metronomic would not be registrable. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR November 1997, p. 12)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.08 [Caíntigern of Ainsley] This combines Gaelic and English orthography in the same name. An argument was made that the lingua angelica rule should apply to topographic bynames. If "Ainsley" is a reasonable place name in English, the result is as registerable as, say "Caítigern of Dublin", would be. Unfortunately, the lingua angelica rule does not work that way. The relevant passage in the rules comes at the end of RfS III.1.a (Linguistic Consistency): `In the case of place names and other name elements frequently used in English in their original form, an English article or preposition may be used. For example, of Aachen might be used instead of the purely German von Aachen.' This submission does not meet that standard. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1997, p. 16)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.08 Rígán is a masculine name, so a Rígán cannot be anyone's daughter. A consistent early name would be Rígán mac Grigóir (or possibly Grigóra, if we extrapolate from the genitive given by Woulfe for the modern Greagóir), but since this transparently changes the lady's sex, we would rather return this name as to make sure that the submitter really wants a name of a gender that is not hers. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1997, p. 23)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.08 Submitted as Catriona Ravenbourne, this mixes English and Gaelic orthography in the same name. We have changed the given name into an attested English form [Catrina] that differs by one letter from the submitted form. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1997, p. 8)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.08 To the best of our knowledge, the Gaelic-speaking cultures do not seem to have used double given names. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR August 1997, p. 5)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.07 [Connor Michael Maoll Donas] There are several problems with this name.[...] We have not seen any evidence that would lead us to think that a construction such as Mac Donas or Maoll Donas would have been used as a byname in period. The Maoll X names are confined to use with given names (presumably of saints) or words for other positive religious figures (e.g., God). And while there is a subset of given names formed from Mac+<abstract concept> the construction of these is not well enough understood to project hypothetical additions. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1997, p. 16)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.07 [Connor Michael Maoll Donas] There are several problems with this name. The first is the fact that the Gaelic-speaking cultures do not seem to have used double given names. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1997, p. 16)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.07 [Connor Michael Maoll Donas] There are several problems with this name. The first is the fact that the Gaelic-speaking cultures do not seem to have used double given names. Another is the mixture of Gaelic and non-Gaelic orthographic systems: Connor is an English form of Conchobhar, and Ó Corráin & Maguire give the Irish borrowing of Michael as Míchél (early) and Mícheál (late), while the byname is clearly intended to be Gaelic. A less obvious problem is that the byname is improperly constructed. We have not seen any evidence that would lead us to think that a construction such as Mac Donas or Maoll Donas would have been used as a byname in period. The Maoll X names are confined to use with given names (presumably of saints) or words for other positive religious figures (e.g., God). And while there is a subset of given names formed from Mac+<abstract concept> the construction of these is not well enough understood to project hypothetical additions. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1997, p. 16)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.07 [William MacAndro] Submitted as Liam MhicAindru, our best evidence suggests that Liam, is a post­period diminutive. Since Liam cannot be registered, we have substituted William, per the submitter's wishes. That makes the name a mixture of Gaelic and English orthography, so we have Anglicized the byname.. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1997, p. 7)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.06 While normally household names require a designator such as house, clan, brotherhood, company, etc., the rules state "if the authorized form was used that way in period, like the English word shire, which appears as a part of the one-word name Worcestershire". Since Dùncreige contains a designator, we have registered it without it. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR June 1997, p. 4)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.05 [returining Geoffrey Glassceld] A compound of Gaelic and Welsh glas with OE sceld is unlikely to say the least. It's also against the rules unless evidence for period use of such bilingual compound bynames can be produced. Modern blue is borrowed from French bleu, but it was apparently borrowed by the 13th c.; Blewsheld is a reasonable 13th c. spelling. (If he really wants glas, Welsh ysgwyd las is `blue shield' and is analogous to the ysgwyd hir `long shield' mentioned by Harpy in her Compleat Anachronist pamphlet.) (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR May 1997, p. 9)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.04 registering the given name Iain] [Iain Kyle the Red] It is not clear as to whether this spelling of Iain is a period form. While we would like to see some conclusive research on this subject, we also feel that this is a name that is popular in the SCA. Since it has been registered over 40 times, we are declaring it SCA compatible, and hope that further research will prove that this was unnecessary. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1997, p. 8)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.04 Submitted as Thomass Niallagan, there are several problems with the name. First this name combines Gaelic and English orthographies in the same name. ... Moreover, Irish doesn't use unmodified given names as bynames: he may be a descendant of Niallagán, but that fact has to be indicated in the usual way, with mac or Ó. We have substituted the closest Gaelic name to what was submitted. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1997, p. 10)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.04 This name was meant to mean in Gaelic, Síle the Unseen or Invisible. There are two problems with this, each of which is grounds for return. First, the Gaelic for unseen/invisible was incorrectly constructed. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR April 1997, p. 25)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.03 The assertion in the LoI that Conor is given by Woulfe as a Gaelic form is incorrect: throughout the book the forms listed in Roman type after a headword are Anglicizations. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR March 1997, p. 1)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.02 [Brenna Goldherte] Submitted as Brenna Cridhe Or, Brenna is not a Gaelic name, and cannot be combined with a Gaelic byname. We have substituted the English form of the name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR February 1997, p. 8)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.01 Gaelic adjectival bynames do not take the definite article so we have removed the article an. Additionally, the patronymic was incorrectly put into the genitive; we have corrected this. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1997, p. 12)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.01 Submitted as Cáelán MacGraith, this name mixes Gaelic and non-Gaelic orthographies in the same name. Therefore, a Gaelic form is needed to match the Gaelic forename. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR January 1997, p. 3)
Jaelle of Armida 1997.01 The household name was supposed to be Gaelic for "Clan of the Mountain Hall"... this follows none of the period models for household names. (Aislinne of Alainmor, 1/97 p. 18)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.12 [returning the byname MacLiam] (Connor MacLiam) This is being returned for not being a period form. There is no real evidence for Liam as a period name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR December 1996, p. 16)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.11 Submitted as [N], it combined fully Gaelic and Anglicized Gaelic together. We have made the name entirely Anglicized. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR November 1996, p. 3)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.11 This is being returned for lack of a given name. SCA given names must be documented to having been used as the name of a human being in period. According to Ó Corráin & Maguire, the name Banba (now Banbha) was originally applied to the plain of Meath and later became another name for Ireland. They note that it was also used as a feminine name in mythology, Banba having been the wife of one of the gods of the Tuatha Dé Danann. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR November 1996, p. 13)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.07 Shane is a late-period phonetic Englishing Irish Seán, so needs to be combined with an English form of the surname. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1996, p. 8)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.07 Submitted as Rowena Caer Linne, we have put the name in the proper Welsh, since Caer is Welsh and the spelling Linne is Gaelic. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1996, p. 7)
Jaelle of Armida 1996.07 We have changed the name to be entirely Gaelic and made the gender of the patronymic match the gender of the given name. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR July 1996, p. 5)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.06 The only available documentation for Riona is Peadar Morgan's statement in Ainmean Chloinne: Scottish Gaelic Names for Children that it is an occasional diminutive of Scots Gaelic Catrìona. Morgan gives no indication that it is a period diminutive, and it is completely unlike any of the corresponding documented period English diminutives, e.g., Kit. Lacking evidence either for a pattern of similar period Gaelic diminutives or for a period English form of which it could be a Gaelic spelling, we are unwilling to assume that it is a legitimate period form. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR June 1996, p. 13)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.04 In particular, there was general agreement that English bynames taken from ordinary day and feast names do not justify an Irish byname taken from an extraordinary, mythical event. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR April 1996, p. 17)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.04 On Clan Names ... In the... the registration of Clan MacKenzie of Ben Duff to Eoin Mac Cainnigh (An Tir), we had to consider what a Gaelic form of the name would look like (though we ended up registering the English form). It very quickly became apparent that an English Clan MacKenzie would be a Gaelic Clann Chainnigh, literally the 'clan of Cainnech'; the mac is dropped. More generally, a Gaelic clan name takes the form Clann <aspirated genitive case of personal name>; household names of this type should therefore omit the mac in Gaelic, though it appears to be perfectly acceptable in the English equivalents of such names. (CL 4/96)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.04 Plain given names do not seem to have been used as bynames in Gaelic. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR April 1996, p. 17)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.04 The other matter came up in the registration of the name Óengus mac Domnaill Glinne Chomair (Atlantia), a Gaelic name that could be translated 'Angus son of Donald of Glencoe'. As it happens, there is a clan known in English as MacDonald of Glencoe, and it was suggested that the combination of patronymic and locative was for that reason a claim to chieftainship of the clan. However, Gaelic usage in such matters can be surprising: it turns out that the chief is in Gaelic simply MacIain (after the clan's progenitor). Thus, the submitted bynames are in Gaelic simply descriptive, meaning only what they seem to say. It appears that this example is not unique, so there may be a number of superficially disallowed combinations that in Gaelic are not at all presumptuous; the facts will have to be ascertained on a case-by-case basis. (CL 4/96)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.04 The submitter documented Edana from The Book of Irish Names by Coghlan, Grehan, and Joyce, which glosses it as a feminine form of Aidan, an English spelling of Aodhan. This is a good example of why this book is not considered acceptable documentation. The feminine of Áedán (later Aodhán) is Áednat (later Aodhnait), which has been Anglicized as Enat, Ena, and Eny and Latinized as Aidnata. The Anglicizations are essentially attempts to represent Áednat phonetically in English; they are not based on the masculine form. And although it does add -a, the Latinization is based on the feminine Irish form; a superficial Latin feminization of the masculine name would have yielded Aidana instead. Indeed, we have no period example of such a superficial Latinate feminization of a masculine Irish name, and it is therefore very likely that Coghlan's Edana is a modern formation. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR April 1996, p. 4)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.03 The name was submitted as Genevieve ní Thaithligh, which uses different orthographic systems for the given name and the patronymic in a manner inconsistent with documented period practice. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR March 1996, p. 7)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.02 [registering Clann an Chullaich Bhain] The name was justified as an inn name in the LoI, but this is impossible: the root meaning of clann is 'plant', whence 'off-shoot; children, family, offspring; descendants, race'. Thus, the name must be justified as a clan name. Extant examples of these take the form Clann <genitive case of personal name>; strict adherence to these examples would obviously rule out the present submission. However, the Dictionary of the Irish Language cites mediæval use of an Cullach 'the Boar' as an epithet. This opens the possibility that the descendants of a warrior called an Cullach Bán 'the White Boar' might have taken his epithet as their clan name. In view of the loose standard of authenticity to which the College has traditionally held household names, we are willing to give the name the benefit of the doubt on this point. (Somhairle O Laidhigh, 2/96 p. 15)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.02 [returning Aoife ingen Gharbain] Aoife is a late spelling of the given name, while ingen is an early spelling, and the use of gh in the patronym but not in ingen is inconsistent. The name would be fine as Aífe ingen Garbáin, which is early, or as Aoife inghean Gharbháin, which uses a later orthography. It seems very likely that mixtures of early and late orthographic features can be found at some point; conceivably a combination like this one can be justified. But it is an exception to the patterns found in the available data; lacking both specific justification and detailed information on the sequencing of Irish orthographic changes, we are unwilling to depart from documented practice. (Aoife ingen Gharbain, 2/96 p. 21)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.02 It does not appear that double given names or unmarked metronymics were part of period Irish naming practice. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR February 1996, p. 18)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.02 So far no evidence has been presented for period Gaelic use of double given names. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR February 1996, p. 18)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1996.01 [Catriona of Downpatrick] Catriona is not a reasonable period Anglicization of Gaelic Caitriona and its variants, as may be seen from the recorded Anglo-Scottish forms Catrina and Katrina. However, the lingua anglica allowance permits it to be combined with the English version of the locative. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR January 1996, p. 15)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1996.01 [Gaelic feminine given] The masculine patronymic in Mac- is incompatible with the feminine given name, and we have therefore substituted the feminine equivalent. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR January 1996, p. 16)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1996.01 According to Harpy, Boadicea is based on a post-period misunderstanding of the name that is attested in inscriptions in the forms Bodic(c)a and Boudic(c)a; as such it cannot be registered. For various phonological reasons, however, the name could not appear in these forms past approximately the 6th century, and any later form would involve more of a change than we care to make. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR January 1996, p. 2)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1996.01 Cerdic is probably a reasonable Gaelic spelling of the given name. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR January 1996, p. 1)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1996.01 There are two problems here: first, Irish doesn't seem to have used double given names or unmarked patronymics; and secondly, Irish adjectival bynames don't seem to use the definite article (here an) when the given name is present. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR January 1996, p. 26)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1995.12 Latinized forms of Continental Germanic masculine names were not uncommonly feminized by change of ending (e.g., Amalrada from Amalradus), but the process does not appear to have operated on Irish masculine names; despite early Latinization of Brian to Brianus, the feminine Brian(n)a is modern. The name has been registered so often, however, that we are unwillingly obliged to declare it `SCA-compatible'; please see the Cover Letter for more details. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR December 1995, pp. 4-5)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.12 The given name was submitted as Catriona, which cannot be justified as an English spelling, while the surname can only be English. Since the two spelling systems do not seem to have been combined in period, we have substituted the English spelling Catrina (pronounced almost identically). (Catrina MacKinnon, 12/95 p. 4)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.12 The name mixes Anglo-French and Irish Gaelic spelling codes in a manner not found in period. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR December 1995, p. 20)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.11 Gaelic naming practice seems not to use unmarked patronymics. (Black's article on Lachlan in The Surnames of Scotland has a couple of apparent examples of such surnames, but they occur with English given names and can safely be ascribed to English usage. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR November 1995, p. 2)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.11 There is ... still no persuasive evidence for Liam as a period diminutive of Uilliam, so we are following the suggestion in the LoI and substituting the full form of the name. (Uilliam Óg Ó Manacháin, 11/95 p. 2)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.10 [Chrétienne Aingeal nic Chaoindealbháin] There is no more evidence for mixing French and Gaelic spelling conventions than there is for mixing those of English and Gaelic, so one convention or the other must be used throughout. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR October 1995, p. 19)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.10 The name was submitted as Cáelán ap Llwyd, in which Cáelán is Irish, and the rest, Welsh. There is a reasonable amount of evidence for Welsh/Irish combinations in names, but they should still follow one spelling convention or the other, so we have removed the distinctively Irish accents to produce what Harpy calls a `plausible Welsh borrowing of an Irish given name'. (Caelan ap Llwyd, 10/95 p. 8)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.10 The name was submitted as Muireann Ingen Eoghain uí Maoilmheana. The early spelling of ingen (which should not be capitalized) is inconsistent with the late-period or modern Irish spellings of the rest of the name, so we have substituted the later spelling inghean. (Muireann inghean Eoghain uí Maoilmheana, 10/95 p. 10)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.09 The name was submitted as [N] MacGregor of Glenorchy, but Glenorchy was the original clan seat of the MacGregors (Bain, The Clans and Tartans of Scotland, p. 180), and in the 1/93 return of Sine Guinne of Kilernan Laurel reaffirmed the precedent that `the use of a clan name ... with the seat of the clan ... [is] presumptuous [because] the only examples we've found of such usage are by clan chiefs and their immediate families'. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR September 1995, p. 17)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.08 Liam does not seem to have been a period diminutive of Irish Uilliam. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR August 1995, p. 18)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.08 The name ... in Harpy's words `manages to hit the two most common SCA Irish name errors: a double given name and a masculine patronym with a feminine given name'. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR August 1995, p. 5)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.08 The name ... in Harpy's words `manages to hit the two most common SCA Irish name errors: a double given name and a masculine patronym with a feminine given name'. (Talan Gwynek, LoAR August 1995, p. 5)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.06 Sineidin is apparently late-period, and Toran, if it was actually used as a personal name, seems to be early. But the discontinuity is not arresting, and this seems the least problematical way to give the submitter a surname that can be interpreted as 'wife of Thorin', that being her husband's registered name. (Sinéidín Bean Thoráin, 6/95 p. 1)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.05 Coghlan, Grehans and Joyce's The Book of Irish Names, ... is not a very good source, mixing as it does fully Gaelic and Anglicized forms, most without dates, "willy nilly" [uillie nillie? J].) (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1995, p. 5)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.05 Irish appears never to have used double given names; in all the apparent examples of such, the "second" given has been shown to be an epithetical byname of some sort. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1995, p. 4)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.05 Submitted as Gytha Yale O' Comhraidhe, Irish family names did not use identical forms of the patronym for all members. In period, the form of the patronym in Irish depended on the gender of the bearer. In other words, in Irish Ní Chomhraidhe is exactly the same surname as Ó Comhraidhe; it's just that women and men use that surname in slightly different forms (as, for example, in Russian). The fact that the client's mother has registered O' Comhraidhe does not help here, since the given names registered to her are masculine, making O' Comhraidhe the correct form of the patronym. (Appeal to other members of the extended family who have also registered O' Comhraidhe does not help here, since the grandfather clause applies only to immediate family members, as has been noted in several prior Laurel precedents.) (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1995, p. 2)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.05 The appeal does not appear to provide any new evidence and fails to address the original reason for return, as required by the Administrative Handbook. (See Right of Appeal: "All appeals must be supported by new documentation or other proof that the original submission was returned in error or by compelling evidence that the submission was not properly considered at the time of return.") Additionally, it is very unclear on what basis this is being appealed. "Curstaidh could be a possible variant" is not the sort of evidence an appeal needs. The essence of the original return was that the best evidence for Curstaidh is as a modern "Gaelicization" of Kirstie (or some variant thereof). The only date in the documentation provided was that Christine (not Kirstie or some similar variant) was "not much used in Britain until the end of the 19th century". Even on appeal, Curstaidh still appears to be a modern backformation, not a period name. In the context of an Anglicized surname (Magorlick) there appears to be no justification for using a Gaelic-spelling given name (on which subject see more in the Cover Letter accompanying this LoAR), much less a spelling for which there is no period evidence whatsoever. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR May 1995, p. 11)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.05 The question of mixed Gaelic/English names appears to have been widely misunderstood. The legitimacy of combining names of Gaelic origin with names of English (or for that matter French or Norse) origin has never been in question; but it should be done in a reasonable way. What distinguishes this particular combination from most others is that Gaelic orthographic conventions are startlingly different from those of English; the English and Gaelic "codes" for representing sounds are very dissimilar. For example, English doesn't use bh or mh for the sound of v; Gaelic does not use the letter v. Writing Gaelic names in an English setting is therefore akin to transliterating Chinese, Russian, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic names: although the alphabet is largely familiar, many of the phonetic values of its letters and letter combinations are not. For example, the symbols Ainmire Ó Catháin are in English a very poor representation of the name; the Anglicization Anvirre O Kaane, on the other hand, is an excellent representation according to the conventions of sixteenth century English. Note that differences in spelling conventions between such languages as French and German are small by comparison and were even smaller in period. We regularly require that Chinese names use a single transliteration system throughout, whether Pinyin or Wade-Giles. Similarly, we have required reasonable consistency of transliteration of Russian and Arabic names, modifying submitted forms to avoid glaring inconsistencies. Are we then to ignore the documentary evidence and allow widely divergent transliteration systems in this instance? All of the evidence found to date demonstrates that mixed Gaelic and English names were written according to a single set of spelling conventions, either Gaelic or English. (This is not to claim that either of these systems was itself entirely uniform, of course.) After all the discussion on this issue, no one yet has presented any evidence that supports anything but consistency of transliteration in either Gaelic or Anglicized Gaelic (well, okay, or Latin) for Gaelic/English names; consistency which we already require for names in a number of other languages. As a consequence, it is my belief that we should require consistent transliterations of Gaelic/English names: such names should be spelled according to Gaelic conventions or according to English conventions, but should not drastically switch spelling conventions from Gaelic to English or vice versa in mid-name. (CL 5/95)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.05 There is apparently some confusion about the difference between ní and nic. The article in Tournaments Illuminated notwithstanding, it isn't primarily the difference between Irish and Scottish (as the submitter believes). Ní X simply means "the daughter of a man named X" while nic X means "the daughter of a man surnamed Mac X"; though ní is primarily an Irish form, nic was used in both varieties of Gaelic. (Caitlin nic Aindreis of Dumbarton, 5/95 p. 2)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1995.01 There is no evidence whatsoever that Irish ever used double given names. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR January 1995, p. 10)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.12 No evidence has yet been presented for the use of double given names in Irish. We have been able to register some where the second name was also meaningful as a byname, but that is not the case with Seán, the Irish borrowing of the French Jehan. [The name was returned.] (Cormac Seán MacCárthaigh, 12/94 p. 12)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.12 The combination of German forename and Gaelic byname needs justification, at the very least. None of the commenters noted any German/Gaelic interaction in period (see, e.g., RfS III.1., "As a rule of thumb, languages should be used together only if there was substantial contact between the cultures that spoke those languages." (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR December 1994, p. 10)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.12 There is no documentation whatsoever for double given names in Gaelic. [The name element was deleted for this and other problems.] (Eithne Cameron, 12/94 p. 5)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1994.12 There is no evidence for either two given names in Gaelic names or for mixing purely Gaelic name elements in an otherwise English name. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR December 1994, p. 4)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.11 The name is a mix of an Old Irish given, an Anglicized spelling of an Irish "o" patronym, an incorrect Gaelic feminine patronymic prefix combined with an Anglicized name, and an English locative referencing an early Irish kingdom. Such a combination is simply impossible. We recommend the commentary of especially Harpy and Palimpsest for a more detailed discussion of the specific problems with the various elements and their combination here. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR November 1994, p. 12)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.10 Brenna is only marginally justifiable for the Classical Mediterranean area. It's use in an Anglo-Irish name as one of two given names becomes two steps beyond period practice, as Anglo-Irish names did not use double given names in period. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR October 1994, p. 17)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.10 Glen is English; the Gaelic word is gleann. The English form should not be used with a fully Gaelic descriptor. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR October 1994, p. 15)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.10 Margaret is far, far too late to be combined with the name of an early Irish tribe (they arrived in Ireland between 500 and 100 B.C.) with a temporal difference of a millennium or more. [The name was returned.] (Margaret of the Érainn, 10/94 p. 16)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.10 No one has found any evidence that Gaelic names were ever combined with non-Gaelic (in this case, English) bynames. As the submitter allowed corrections, we have fully Englished the name. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR October 1994, p. 8)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.10 The patronymic was Gaelic with the remainder of the name was Englished. As no examples have yet been adduced for combining fully Gaelic forms with Englished forms, we have made the smallest change possible and Englished the patronymic. (Ian MacIneirie of Inverary, 10/94 p. 7)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.10 There is so far no evidence for double given names in Irish; every apparent example found so far has proven to be of the form <name> <byname>, though many of these bynames are also used as given names. As the submitter allowed changes, we have modified the name into a more standard three-generation patronymic form. (Lorccan mac Cinaetha meic Dara, 10/94 p. 10)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.09 A mixture of ON and Gaelic isn't in itself out of the question, and both in ON and in Gaelic a two-generation patronymic is possible, but none of the commenters could find support for a mixed-language, two-generation patronymic. [The name was returned.] (Eirik Gunnolfsson Mac an Ghabhann, 9/94 15)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.09 Double surnames are not rare in Gaelic; they do not appear to exist at all! (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR September 1994, p. 19)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.09 Irish usage doesn't seem to allow either double given names or unmarked patronymics. In some cases we have been able to get around the problem by interpreting the second element as a nickname, but it is not possible to do so here: as a nickname Rígán could only be `sub-king, chief', which would fall afoul of RfS VI.1. ("Names Claiming Rank - Names containing titles, territorial claims, or allusions to rank are considered presumptuous"). There was also a ríga(i)n `queen or noble lady', which would go better with Mór but which is equally problematical. However, Rígán definitely was a personal name, so there seems to be no bar to her being Mór ingen Rígáin, `Mór daughter of Rígán'. However, the addition of patronymic particle and resultant change to the genitive seemed to us to be larger changes than she allowed on the submission form. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR September 1994, p. 16)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.09 Period names even in Britain did not mix Gaelic and Anglicized form. We have therefore substituted the Gaelic form of the patronymic to match the given. (Coinneach Ó Domhnaill, 9/94 p. 5)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year)ONT> 1994.08 [Eibhilín Nic Thighearnáin] Submitted as Eighilin Mac Thighearnàin, no examples have yet been found of a woman using a masculine patronymic when the name is written in Irish. We have therefore substituted the feminine patronymic form. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR August 1994, p. 3)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.08 [returning Caitlyn] The given is documented only as Caitlin (even in the submitter's own documentation -- photocopies from Today's Best Baby Names by Alfred J. Kolatch!), and Irish does not use the English "i/y" switch. (Caitlyn of Dolwyddelan, 8/94 p. 19)
Da'ud ibn Auda 1994.08 All of the documentation that any of the commenters could find indicates that Rona is a 19th Century name, well out of our period. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR August 1994, p. 19)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.08 Submitted as Curnán MacDowell, we have been unable to find fully Gaelic given names combined with Anglicized Gaelic patronymics. As the submitter allowed minor changes, and since Curnan (without the accent) is a reasonable englishing, we have substituted it as the closest form to that submitted. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR August 1994, p. 13)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 2nd year) 1994.08 Submitted as Eira ní Dhaniél, Eira as a name is a modern invention. However, Harpy noted that Éire, though primarily known as that of the goddess after whom Ireland is named, has been used as a name by humans. As the submitter allowed changes, we have therefore substituted it as the closest documentable name to Eira. (Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR August 1994, p. 6)
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.05 [Registering Gwenhwyvar Ainsley.] Submitted as Gwenhwyvar Ainsley a'Ghio, ... an additional problem is the dearth of evidence that a Welsh forename, an English locative surname, and a Gaelic locative surname could have come together in the name of a single individual. Gaelic, in particular, seems to resist mixed language combinations. As a consequence, we have dropped the most unlikely element in order to register the name. [5/94, p.5]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.05 [Returning David Mícheál Mac Laisre.] The name consists of three given names: Mac Laisre is a given name, not a patronymic (and since it means 'son of flame', it can't well be re-interpreted as a patronymic). No evidence has been found for the use of two given names in Irish, let alone three with no surname. That, combined with the fact that Mícheál is a modern spelling of older Míchél, while Dauíd (rather than David) is an older spelling of modern Daibhead, is sufficient cause for return. [5/94, p.15]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.05 [Returning Eibhlin Niccluir.] The "patronymic" is unattested in the documentation. The only variant discussed in the documentation (dated to 1637) is Makcluir. Further, as an anglicized variant it is unlikely to have been combined with a Gaelic borrowing of the Norman Avelina and Emeline. The combination of two unlikely components is sufficient to cause return for rework and/or better documentation. [5/94, p.18]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.05 As noted by the submitter, Irish has indeed undergone great changes. But the language still has a real grammatical structure; it isn't chaotic. Joyce's statement to the effect that Irish 'degenerated' after the Anglo-Norman invasion is more a matter of taste than historical fact; it would be safer to say simply that it changed. The loss of 'pure grammatical forms' to which he refers need be nothing more than the difference between Middle Irish and Early Modern Irish. Certainly there is no reason to suppose that he is describing a complete breakdown of the underlying grammatical system. The Norman invasion caused a breakdown only in the strongly and artificially conservative tradition of written Irish. [5/94, p.16]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.04 [Returning Elspeth nic Léighinn.] The byname does not appear to be properly constructed. Léighinn is the genitive singular of léigheann, and is defined as 'reading, learning; a lesson, a branch of studies'. While mac léighinn is defined as 'a scholar, a student', it isn't a patronymic name and one may not then simply substitute the feminine nic for mac. [4/94, p.17]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.03 [Registering Aodh Marland.] Submitted as Aodh Adendra Marland, the very lengthy appeal made interesting reading. However, it was not shown that Greek bynames were used in the Gaelic countries (although the point was made for Latin bynames). Nor was it shown that "tree-less" falls into any existing pattern of classical bynames used in the Middle Ages. As a consequence we have dropped the problematic element in order to register the name. [3/94, p.3]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.03 [Returning Iain Anndra Ánraidh a'Ghleanna Sìodhaich.] The name is a confused mixture of Irish and Scottish Gaelic. While the submitter allowed minor changes, she allows minor changes only. All of the changes suggested by the onomastics experts involved greater modifications than we felt we were permitted to make under these conditions. [3/94, p.14]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.03 [Returning Kaleigh Hayes.] Kaleigh is not at all a reasonable English respelling of the Irish Ceallach. As Palimpsest noted, "Ceallach is and was pronounced with a final hard ch as in German ach or Gaelic loch; when this sound occurs in English, it is generally rendered ch, so it's unlikely that any Englishing would differ much from the Irish spellings." [3/94, p.20]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.03 Though it was noted by a couple of commenters that clan names are generally generated from given names or occasionally from nicknames, Bain's The Clans and Tartans of Scotland notes a number of clan name derived from surnames. [3/94, p.1]

Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year)

1994.01 [Registering ferch Rhys.] Submitted as ... ni Rhys ...; we have modified the patronymic particle to match the language of the patronym. [1/94, p.7]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.01 [Registering Meadhbh ní Ruadháin.] Submitted as Medb ni Ruadhan, we have modified the spelling and grammar as the submitter's forms allowed to match the given and patronymic in period and to place the patronymic in the genitive. (The other good alternative would have been Medb ingen Ruadáin, but the registered form is closer in pronunciation to the submitted form.) [1/94, p.7]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.01 [Returning Tara ni Connmhaigh.] The prior registration of Tara as a given name hinged on the statement "If the given name and the place name [Temair] are identical in Irish, and Tara is a valid anglicization of the latter, then it should be acceptable as an anglicization of the former." The problem is that Tara is not an acceptable Anglicization of Temair; only of the genitive case of the name: Temra (pronounced approximately 'tev-ra). Tara is not an Anglicization of Temair but rather an English name for the place derived specifically from the context in which it appears as a place name (e.g., "hill of Tara"). (A similar case occurs with Erin, as a poetic English name for Ireland is based on the genitive case (Éireann) of the Irish name Éire.) Since the given name Temair would not normally be found in the genitive, it is unlikely that it would be taken into English in the genitive form. [1/94, p.18]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.01 Baron Bruce covered the issue of pretention in the form of "X of Y" in Scottish names. "We will continue to prohibit the use of a Scots clan name with the seat or territory of that clan (e.g. Cameron of Lochiel), or a surname with the phrase of that Ilk (or its functional equivalent, e.g. Macintosh of Macintosh). That usage, with or without the given name, is the title of the actual chief of the clan or his immediate kin; its use in the SCA represents a direct infringement on actual nobility, and also appears to be a claim to rank, either of which is grounds for return. But by and large, the use of a Scots surname with a Scots placename is acceptable for SCA use." (LoAR March 1993, p. 8) Based on that precedent, [MacLeod of Duirinish] is registrable. [1/94, p.8]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1994.01 Siobhan is out of place in anything but an all-Gaelic name, being usually anglicized as "John". [1/94, p.14]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1993.12a [Returning Caitriona a Gaoth.] The byname, meaning "the Wind", makes little more sense than her original submission. [12a/93, p.16]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1993.12a [Returning Curstaidh.] While the submitter allowed minor changes to the name, and while Lord Palimpsest could document the form Kirsty ..., we felt that such a change exceeded the permissible "minor changes to grammar/spelling only". [12a/93, p.15]
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1993.12a [returning Darragh an Liath] Additionally the byname should not use the definite article "an"; Gaelic grammar did not use the definite article in bynames in this manner. [12a/93, p.20]
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.10 There was some question of Gaelic-Italian interaction in period, but note that St. Columbanus of Ireland (b. Leinster, 543 AD) founded his last monastery in Bobbio, in the foothills of the Apennine mountains of Italy, bringing Christianity to the heathens living there. (Gabriella Allegra Palumbo O'Loingsigh, October, 1993, pg. 19)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.05 Fionnula, in Irish legend, was one of the children of Lir who was transformed into a swan. However, as the name was much used by humans in late period, the combination of Fionnula with a swan is not an excessive reference to the legend; see the LoAR of Aug 92, p.17. (Deirdre ni Fhionnula, May, 1993, pg. 4) Logan seems acceptable as an anglicization of the Irish Locân, Leogán (Logan Hawkwood, May, 1993, pg. 12)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.03 [The name] was submitted as Caer Daibhidh, combining Welsh and Scots Gaelic in a single phrase. This isn't normally permitted, per Rule III.2.a, and has been the reason for the last three returns of their name. The submitters provided evidence (augmented by Lady Harpy) that the element caer- is found in many Scots placenames: e.g. Caerlaverock, Caerlanrig, Caer Ruther. However, in those cases caer- doesn't seem to be from Welsh; the prefix derives either from the Gaelic cathair or from the extinct Cumbric cair, and is only spelled Caer in its modern form, due to the Welsh influence.

 

It could be argued that, even if Caer were derived from the Gaelic cathair, the submitted name would still seem acceptable, given the cited examples. Most of those examples, though, are anglicized forms; and while an anglicized Caerdavid would be perfectly acceptable, the submitted Gaelic spelling of Daibhidh requires a plausible construction for that language. Not only must Daibhidh be put into the genitive case, but an unanglicized form of Caer must be used. The submission forms do not forbid grammatical corrections, so we've substituted the correct Gaelic spelling; the pronunciation is nearly unchanged from their submitted form. If they prefer the spelling Caer, they may resubmit Caerdavid or the fully Welsh Caer Ddafydd. (College of Cathair Dhaibhaidh, March, 1993, pg. 3)

Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.03 It could be argued that, even if Caer were derived from the Gaelic cathair, the submitted name would still seem acceptable, given the cited examples. Most of those examples, though, are anglicized forms; and while an anglicized Caerdavid would be perfectly acceptable, the submitted Gaelic spelling of Daibhidh requires a plausible construction for that language. Not only must Daibhidh be put into the genitive case, but an unanglicized form of Caer must be used. The submission forms do not forbid grammatical corrections, so we've substituted the correct Gaelic spelling; the pronunciation is nearly unchanged from their submitted form. If they prefer the spelling Caer, they may resubmit Caerdavid or the fully Welsh Caer Ddafydd. (College of Cathair Dhaibhaidh, March, 1993, pg. 3)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.01 In asking commenters to present documentation on Gaelic patronymics (LoAR cover letter of 3 Aug 92), I'd hoped to reach a final synthesis based on research. Results of that research to date have supported our current policy: that, for purely Gaelic patronymics, masculine constructions should not be used in female names. (A handful of examples were offered of female names in masculine constructions --- but they all seem to be anglicized forms, not pure Gaelic forms.) I'd be delighted if counter-evidence were presented --- I all but got down on my knees and begged for such counter-evidence to be presented --- but none has been received to date. As our current policy is based on evidence, so must any change in policy be based on evidence. (Katherine ni Cheallaigh of Skye, January, 1993, pg. 19)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1993.01 The patronymic was submitted as Ó Ceallaigh, with the LOI stating that the submitter "strongly prefers the Gaelic spelling." Her forms, however, also request us to amend the grammar and spelling to be correct for that language. The use of the patronymic particle Ó with a Gaelic name is a purely masculine construction, so far as we can tell from any evidence presented. We've substituted a feminine construction [ní Cheallaigh], with the patronymic aspirated accordingly.

 

The change described above is our current policy on Irish patronymics; this submission was presented, in part, as an appeal of that policy. The appeal was supposed to have been based on period usage, but little evidence was presented in support: The LOI refers the reader to the client's previous submission (West LOI of 4 April 92). That LOI, in turn, refers to an LOC by Lord Habicht, 10 Nov 88. That LOC, in its turn, refers to a biography of Grania O'Malley (Anne Chambers' Granuaile) which "gives a listing of the many ways that Grania Ui Mhaille's name was rendered in both Gaelic and English records" --- without citing names or dates. At this point, the appeal has gone beyond the bounds of "evidence" into the realm of "folklore".

 

In asking commenters to present documentation on Gaelic patronymics (LoAR cover letter of 3 Aug 92), I'd hoped to reach a final synthesis based on research. Results of that research to date have supported our current policy: that, for purely Gaelic patronymics, masculine constructions should not be used in female names. (A handful of examples were offered of female names in masculine constructions --- but they all seem to be anglicized forms, not pure Gaelic forms.) I'd be delighted if counter-evidence were presented --- I all but got down on my knees and begged for such counter-evidence to be presented --- but none has been received to date. As our current policy is based on evidence, so must any change in policy be based on evidence.

 

The submitter may be ní Cheallaigh (purely Irish) or O'Kelly (anglicized Irish), but without real documentation to support the construction, she may not be ...Ó Ceallaigh. (Katherine ní Cheallaigh of Skye, January, 1993, pg. 19)

Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.10 The use of the Russian given name with the Irish patronymic violates our requirements for cultural contact, as outlined in Rule III.2. We need some evidence of period interaction between Russia and Ireland. (Akilina O'Cinndeargain, October, 1992, pg. 22)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 [Sgórrlámh] The byname ...was intended to mean "scar-hand" in Scots Gaelic. Sgórr means "scar" in the sense of "scar on the land; peak, cliff, notch". The word for the mark of a wound is éarradh, so we've followed Lord Habicht's suggestion and changed the byname [to Lamhearradh]. (Duncan Lamhearradh Campbell, September, 1992, pg. 19)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 According to Lord Palimpsest, [in Irish Gaelic] while the particle Ó prefixes an h to the following vowel, ni does not. (Caitriona Keavy ni Ainle, September, 1992, pg. 4)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 Kairenn (Cairenn) appears to be a unique name, that of the mother of Njall of the Nine Hostages of Irish legend. It has been returned before now (Cairenn of CuaRuadh Keep, Aug 91). (Kairenn Suile Gairitecha, September, 1992, pg. 53)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.09 Particularly for the old Irish form used here, Mag is a masculine particle, and cannot be used with the feminine name Eórann. (Eórann MagUidir, September, 1992, pg. 45)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.08 The byname was submitted as Reidleac, but that form combines English and Scots Gaelic into a single word. Such practice is disallowed per Rule III.2.a. We have substituted a completely English spelling [Reidleck]; he could also have the Gaelic Ruadhleac, if he wishes. (Odinel Reidleck, August, 1992, pg. 7)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.08 The submitter's documentation gives the surname as Ó Ceallaigh, not O'Cellaigh; the construction O'[name], with an apostrophe, is used with anglicized forms [name retured as submittor permitted no changes]. (Rolan O'Cellaigh the Gentle, August, 1992, pg. 25)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.07 Evidently, the Irish were often found on the Continent during the first millenium A.D., as clerks, missionaries, and scholars. Alcuin brought Irish scribes to the university at Aachen, sponsored by Charlemagne; and St. Gall, the founder of the model monastery in Switzerland, was himself Irish, a disciple of St. Columba. An Irish/German name is thus not beyond the bounds of reason. (Dallan O Fearchaidhe vom Kirschwald, July, 1992, pg. 9)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.07 Liam doesn't appear to have been a period diminutive of Uilleam. All the sources that cite Liam do so as a modern diminutive; the period diminutive was Uillec. Without evidence of period use, we can't register Liam. (Liam O Dubhghaill, July, 1992, pg. 20)
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme 1992.07 Two of July's name submissions sparked a debate on acceptable style for Irish patronymics --- as opposed to grammatically correct style, not quite the same thing --- with Lord Dragon taking one position in the debate and Lord Habicht the other. As far as I can follow the debate, the first position holds that Irish patronymics have a correct grammar which must be used; and, in particular, this means:

>LI>O'[given name], with an apostrophe, is an anglicized form, and should use the anglicization of the given name. If the Irish spelling of the given name is desired, the correct form is Ó [given name], with a fada. The two forms should not be mixed: O'Connor and Ó Conchobhair are correct, but not Ó Connor or O'Conchobhair.

 

1.Ó [given name] and Mac [given name] are pure patronymics, used by male descendants of [given name]; they should not be used by female descendants, who have their own particles (Ui, ni). Females wishing to use O or Mac should employ the anglicized forms, which were used during and after the transition from pure patronymics to family surname: either, say, Mor ni Chonchobhair or Mor O'Connor, but not Mor Ó Conchobhair.

 

The second position holds that, while the above statements are grammatically correct, they were not as strictly followed as grammarians might like; there were, in fact, so many grammatical violations in period that it makes no sense to adhere to the above rules. Combinations of Irish particles with anglicized names (and vice versa), or feminine given names with "male-form" patronymics, were commonly used in period; and we should permit them in Society names as well.

 

I'm undoubtedly over-simplifying both positions enormously --- and perhaps gotten some details wrong, too --- but I hope I've correctly portrayed the essence of each argument. My forte isn't onomastics, so I must rely on the advice of the onomasticists in the College. Cases that require changing (or even returning) an Irish name will depend on which of these arguments I follow. I don't want to make unnecessary changes to submitted names; but I don't want to condone incorrect practice, either.

 

This sort of debate is best settled by period evidence. Lord Habicht tells me he's compiled evidence that women did use "male-form" patronymics; Lord Dragon tells me he has documentation for his side as well. Other knowledgeable parties in the College may likewise have evidence to present. I urge everyone, therefore, to publish their findings and viewpoints within the next few months. It would be nice if we could end the year with this matter discussed and settled, once and for all [Policy adopted while waiting follows Lord Dragon's view]. (3 August, 1992 Cover Letter (July, 1992 LoAR), pp. 3-4)

Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1992.03 [<given name> bena Cato, bena meant to be Irish for "wife of"] "The byname is improperly constructed. It contains mixed languages that do not appear to have combined this way in period. (Also, according to Lord Dragon the particle should be 'ben' rather than 'bena'.)" (LoAR 3/92 p.12).
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1991.12 [Bres] "Though O'Corráine and Maguire note that Bres 'is always borne by mythological or legendary characters in Irish literature', Dauzat cites it as a popular form of St. Brictius." (LoAR 12/91 p.12).
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1991.11 "No evidence was presented that Scots Gaelic feminized masculine names by adding 'a'." (LoAR 11/91 p.16).
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1991.10 "No evidence whatsoever was presented to demonstrate that Stoirm (meaning 'storm') is a reasonable epithet. We need evidence that Stoirm is similar to other Gaelic epithets before we can register this." (LoAR 10/91 p.18).
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd year, 1st tenure) 1991.08 Cairenn as spelled here appears to be a unique name, that of the mother of Niall of the Nine Hostages." (LoAR 8/91 p.17).
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1991.05 "Technically the first 'E' in Eire should have the fada. However, it is commonly written in English without it so we are registering Eire without change." (LoAR 5/91 p.6).
Da'ud ibn Auda (2nd tenure, 1st year) 1991.01 [Registering Meadhbh ní Ruadháin.] Submitted as Medb ni Ruadhan, we have modified the spelling and grammar as the submitter's forms allowed to match the given and patronymic in period and to place the patronymic in the genitive. (The other good alternative would have been Medb ingen Ruadáin, but the registered form is closer in pronunciation to the submitted form.) [1/94, p.7]
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1990.12 "The use of the Gaelic patronymic is inappropriate with an anglicization of the patronymic name." [the name was returned: note that this is may be anomalous as it is contrary to later acceptances in LsoAR of 1/91, 2/91, which allowed combinations such as nic Lowry, nic Andrew and nic Bryan] (LoAR 12/90 p.14).
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1990.12 [an Brionna] "One cannot be 'the Dream', even in Irish Gaelic. This is not an epithet that would have been given one in period." (LoAR 12/90 p.16).
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1990.11 "Submitted as <given names> an Bheac in Bh in, 'of the White Mushroom' is simply not a reasonable epithet in any language. We have therefore dropped it." (LoAR 11/90 p.7).
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1990.11 [Samhioldanach] There was a question as to whether the byname is unique to the god Lugh, but given the lack of documentation for this objection, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt. (LoAR 11/90 p.9).
Da'ud ibn Auda (1st year of 1st tenure) 1990.10 Submitted as Cairistrena <surname>, the given did not appear to be a reasonable variant of the documented Caristiona, so we have substituted the form documented by the submitter. (LoAR 10/90 p.2).
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.10.30 As [Name] is the name of an Irish lake and there is no evidence that geographic names were used as personal names in period, we have modified this to the almost identically pronounced Irish given name [Name].... Though there are a number of geographic entities in Ireland that bear names which were used in period as given names, either for humans or non-human figures of legend, in every case that we have been able to find, the geographic name is derived from the individual, not the reverse. (LoAR 30 Oct 88, p. 3)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.11.27 [Registering Brian mac Cael] The name was submitted as Brian mac Cael ui Cenneidigh, appealing from a previous return for conflict with Brian mac Cennedigh (otherwise known as Brian Boru). The submittor argued that the submitted name indicated that the individual was the son of one Cael "of the descendents of" Cennedi while Brian Boru was the son of Cennedi of the clan Dalcais and therefore no confusion could occur. This argument met with some support in the College of Arms, while others felt that a majority of the members of the Society would not recognize the actual name of Brian Boru. Even if the latter argument were true, it would not necessarily remove the problem. As commentary has indicated, the concept of the use name is a valuable one, but one which it is sometimes difficult to apply. Many who would like to discard the idea of use names would be horrified if we registered Richard Jones Plantagenet or Finn Peterson MacCool. Given the fame of Brian mac Cennedigh in Irish history (he is arguably the most famous individual in period Ireland), the case seems similar to those. We have therefore dropped the final portion of the name, as the submittor allowed, in order to register the remainder of the name (LoAR 27 Nov 88, p. 2)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.04.23 As the remainder of the name is Anglicized, the Gaelic preposition na seemed decidedly out of place so the lingua franca preposition [of] has been substituted. (LoAR of 23 Apr 88, p. 1)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.01.24 The normal position for adjectives in Irish is following the nouns they modify. (LoAR 24 Jan 88, p. 4)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.02.21 To use the Gaelic particle "ni" a properly modified Gaelic form of the [Anglicized] name would be required. (LoAR 21 Feb 88, p. 1)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1988.08 [Shannon] This Anglicized form seems to be associated virtually exclusively with the river Shannon (or the Airport!). Therefore, we have substituted the similarly pronounced period form [Seanan] suggested ... on the letter of intent. LoAR Aug 88, p. 11)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.03.29 The genitive of the masculine personal name, which shows possession or descent, usually aspirates in Scots Gaelic where this is possible. This phenomenon is obscured in some modern sources ... but is regular in older texts.... (An irreverent sociological theory from one of the Laurel staff: the exceptions to the aspiration of the genitive of the proper name after a patronymic particle are more frequent when the individual is male suggesting that, while daughters were always property, sons only sometimes were!) (LoAR 29 Mar 87, pp. 9-10)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.05.24 If [a name] can be prefixed by the patronymic particle Mac, it can be prefixed by the more generalized particle "O". (LoAR 24 May 87, p. 9)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1987.08 O Corrain and Maguire (Gaelic Personal Names, p. 162) ... notes two usages of the given name, both apparently for non-humans.... Evidence for the name's use by humans is required. (LoAR Aug 87, p. 13)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1986.09.27 [T]he name Maire was hardly ever used in the period before the seventeenth century, there being a general feeling in Irish circles that the name was too sacred for everyday use. (In fact, the name Mary only really became popular in Ireland in the nineteenth century when it was the usual anglicising of the old Irish name "Mor".) In period circumlocutions like "Gilla Mhuire" (servant of Mary) were commoner so that a patronymic like "mac Giolla Mhuire" would actually be more accurate [than macMhuire] for period Ireland. (LoAR 27 Sep 86, p. 7)
Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane 1986.09.27 The original submission of the name change [to "Thorin [patronymic]"] was returned because the name Thorin was held by Laurel to be an exclusively dwarven name both in Tolkien and in Norse myth and therefore not eligible for use in the Society. The submittor has presented an impressive array of arguments in support of his position that the name is in fact compatible with the period ambience which we are trying to create and that the bulk of the populace would not (and in fact do not) feel that he was claiming dwarven descent by using the name. Taken by themselves, they add only plausibility to the argument that the name could have been used in period for a human. The existence of the Irish patronymic form "O Torain" cited by MacLysaght (Surnames of Ireland, p. 288), which would derive from a nominative form of "Torin" argues that it was actually used. Therefore, acceptance of this name should not be taken as a general precedent for non-human names in the Society. (LoAR 27 Sep 86, p. 2)
Baldwin of Erebor 1986.03.09 We have just discovered, to our considerable chagrin, that roane is the Gaelic name for a seal; and more specifically, a skin-changer akin to the silkie. (Briggs, An Encyclopedia of Fairies, pp.340-341) Unless it can also be shown that Roane was used as a given name (in period), "ni Roane" is a claim to non-human ancestry. [BoE, 9 Mar 86, p.9]
Baldwin of Erebor 1984.11.24 Mac takes the genitive form of the given name. [BoE, 24 Nov 84, p.5]
Baldwin of Erebor 1984.11.24 Nic becomes ni before a consonant, and the name following is in the genitive case and aspirated. [BoE, 24 Nov 84, p.7] ["Nic" is the Gaelic patronymic particle, meaning "daughter of".]
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1981.07.29 You cannot be the son of Brian Boru. WVS [48] [LoAR 29 Jul 81], p. 10
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1981.02.23 Erin (Erinn) ("from Ireland") could be used as a surname, but its use as a given name is out of period. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 7
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1981.02.23 While O'Neill was the surname of many Irish kings, like Stuart it is also an extremely large clan name, and it has already been registered to N.'s mother. WVS [36] [LoAR 23 Feb 81], p. 2
Wilhelm von Schlüssel 1981.04.20 Although the name Fiona is out of period, we have three uses of it already registered. Unless the College objects, I will let three previous registrations of a name in the SCA constitute period usage in the SCA, so long as the name does not violate any of the other rules. WVS [40] [LoAR 20 Apr 81], p. 5
Karina of the Far West 1979.06.30 Setanta, who became Cuchulain, was a Celtic god. This is the only known use of the name Setanta. (KFW, 30 Jun 79 [25], p. 65)
Karina of the Far West 1978.08.17 Llyr is a Celtic god; you cannot claim to be his son. (KFW, 17 Aug 78 [21], p. 7)
Karina of the Far West 1977.11.11 "De Danann" implies immediate descent from the Goddess we are all human beings in the Society. (KFW, 11 Nov 77 [16], p. 9)
Harold Breakstone 1972.05.14 N. has an acceptable device but we wonder about the name; it is the name of a character in Howard's Bran mac Morn. It is the name of a very minor character, it could also be a common Celtic name; and he may not even know about it. We suggest he can modify it if he likes. (KFW, 14 May 72 [29], p. 1) [The name was approved.]